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# Introduction

1. A quantity that has magnitude as well as direction is called a vector. E.g. Force, acceleration,
displacement, momentum etc.
2. Let l be a straight line in plane or 3-deimnisional
3 deimnisional space. This line can be given two directions by means
wheads. A line with one of these directions prescribed is called a directed line.
Now observe that if we restrict the line l to the line segment AB then a magnitude is prescribed on line (i)
with one of the two directions, so that we obtain a directed line
line segment. Thus, a directed line segment
has magnitude as well as direction.

## So, a directed line segment is a vector denoted as 

AB or simply as a an read as vector 
AB or vector a.

Point A from where AB starts is called its initial point, and point B where it ends is called its terminal
point. The distance between the initial and terminal points of a vector is called the magnitude (or length)
 or |a| or a. The arrow indicates the direction of the vector.
of the vector, denoted as AB
To Conclude,
onclude, a directed line segment 
AB (or Vector 
AB) is characterized by its length(magnitude),
Support and Sense (Directions)

3. Types of vectors:
a. Null or Zero vectors: A vector with zero magnitude.
b. Unit Vector: A vector of unit magnitude is called a unit
unit vector. Unit vectors are denotes by small
letters with a cap on them
Thus, a is the unit vector of a,, where |a| =1.
The unit vector in the direction of  is given by | | and
and is represented by 


## c. Equal vectors: Vectors having same magnitude and same direction

d. Parallel vectors: Two or more vectors with same or parallel support. They may have equal or
unequal magnitudes and direction may be same
sa or opposite.

e. Collinear vectors: Vectors which are parallel to the same vector and have either initial or terminal
point in common.
f. Like and unlike vectors: Two parallel vectors having the same direction are called like vectors. Two
parallel vectors
ctors having opposite directions are called unlike vectors.
g. Co-initial vectors: Vectors having same initial point
h. Free Vectors: Vectors whose initial point is not specified.
i. Localized Vectors: a vector drawn parallel to a given vector, but through a specified
speci
point as initial
point.
j. Equal Vectors: Two Vectors are said to be equal, if they have the same magnitude and same
direction. Their lines of direction may be parallel or coincident.

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The triangle law of vector addition states that If two vectors are represented by two sides of a triangle
taken in order, then their sum or resultant is given by the third sides taken in opposite order.
BC  AC
c  a b .
AB

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

 =
 + 
 + 
  =   
  + 
 
 = 
 
 + (- ) = 
Inequality Law:
  | | + 

a.   
  | | - 

b.    

(Commutative Property)
(Associative Property)

initial vectors is given by the diagonal of the parallelogram whose adjacent
The vector sum of two co-initial
sides are the given vectors.


OA OB
OC a b  c .

## Subtraction Of Vectors (Difference OF Two Vectors)

 and is
Let a and 
b be any two vectors, then the difference of a and 
b is defined as the sum of a and b
. (b
 is a vector having magnitude same as that of 
denotes by a  b
b and direction opposite to that of 
b).


Thus a b = a b
Geometrical Representation of Subtraction
 = a and 
We take any point O in space. Let 
OA
OB = 
b.


Then a - b
= a b
 BO

= OA
 OA

= BO

= BA

Scalar multiplication
If a is a given vector and a scalar, then a is a vector whose magnitude is |a| = |||a|. The direction of
a is same as that of a if is positive and opposite to that of a, if is negative.
Properties:
(Distributive Law)
a. (  +   )  = k1  + k2 
 ) = k  + k

b. (  + 
(Distributive Law)
c. k1(k2 ) + k2(k1 ) = (k1k2) 
(Associative Law)
Position vector of a point
 = 'x ) + y ) + z )
Position vector of a point P(x, y, z) is given as 
OP = x + y + zk& its magnitude as OP
where O is the origin.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Note:
 OA
 = PV of B PV of A
Vectors in terms of position vectors of end points: 
AB = OB
The scalar components of a vector are its direction ratios, and it represent its projections along the
respective axes.
The magnitude r, direction ratios (a, b, c) and direction cosines (l, m, n) of any vectors are related as:
+
.
l= ,m= n= .
,
,
,
The sum of the vectors representing the three sides of a triangle taken in order is 
0.

Section formula:
The position vector of a point R dividing the line segment joining the points P and Q whose position

vectors are  and 
In the ratio m : n internally, is given by

## In the ratio m : n externally, is given by

Note:


120+

210
30+

2230

 ) and C() is
1. Position vectors of centroid of triangle formed by the points A( ) and B(

 1
1
4

## ) and C(7

), B (6
) is
2. Position vectors of the in-centre of the triangle formed by the points A(5
17
16

5
11

##  be two collinear or parallel vectors. Then their supports are parallel.

Let a and b
Let a be the unit vector in the direction a.
As a and 
b may be either like parallel or unlike parallel vectors.

Collinearity of Vectors:
Vectors:

## So, the unit vectors in the direction of 

b is either a or a.
 = b
a.
a = |a|a and b
Now, a = |a|a

a =

|+
|


-

a
b

## , where = |+| .

a = b

a
Also, 
b = b


b = > |+|? |a|a

-

-


b = a, where = |+| .

-

 are two collinear or parallel vectors, then there exists a scalar such that a = b
, or b
 =
Thus, if a and b
a.
 are collinear iff there exists scalars x, y not both zero such
Theorem 1: Two non-zero vectors  and 
 =
.
that A  + B
Proof:
First, let a and 
b be two collinear vectors.
 1. a + ()b
 = 
0
Then, there exists a scalar , such that a = b

 = 
xa + y b
0, where x =1 and y = .
 = 0 for some scalars x, y not both zero.
Conversely, let a and 
b be two non-zero vectors such that Da + yb
b are collinear vectors.
Then, we have to prove that a and 
 = 
We have, Da + yb
0. Let x 0.

 = 
Then, Da + yb
0

D a = yb

G
 a = b
, where = G .
a = F HI b
H

##  are collinear vectors.

a and b

 are any two non-zero non-collinear vectors and x, y are scalars, then Da + yb
 = 0
Theorem 2: If a, b
x = y = 0.
Proof: If possible, let x 0.
 = 0
Then, Da + yb

Da = yb
G

a = F HI b
 are collinear vectors.
a and b
 are non-collinear vectors.
This is a contradiction to the hypothesis that a and b
 = 0 x = y = 0.
Therefore, x = 0. Similarly, y = 0. Hence, Da + yb
Collinearity of Points:
Points:
 and 
 is a pair of
Let A, B, C be three collinear points. Then, each pair of the vectors 
AB, 
BC; 
AB, AC
BC, AC
collinear vectors.
Thus, to check the collinearity of three points, we can check the Collinearity of any two vectors obtained
with the help of three points.
The following theorem provides the general criterion for the Collinearity of three points.
 and c are collinear if and only if there exists three scalars
Theorem: Three points with position vectors a, b
 + zc = 
0, together with x + y + z = 0.
x, y, z not all zero simultaneous such that Da + yb
Proof:
 and c respectively be collinear.
First, let three points A, B, C with position vectors a, b
Then, vectors 
AB and 
BC are collinear.

## Therefore, there exist scalar such that 

AB = 
BC

b a = (c a)

( 1) a + 1. 
b + ()c = 
0
 + z c = 
D a + y b
0, where x = 1, y = 1 and z =
 + z c = 
x a + y b
0,

x + y + z = 1 + 1 + ( ) = 0.

Conversely,
, c be the position vectors of points A, B and C respectively such that x a + y b
 + z c = 
let a, b
0, where x +

 = z c
x a + y b
 = (x + y)c
x a + y b
y+z=0

[ x + y + z = 0 z = x + y]

c =

 1 G -
H+
H 1 G

## Point C divides AB in the ratio y : x. A, B, C are collinear points.

CoCo-planarity of Vectors

A system of vectors is said to be coplanar, if their supports are parallel to the same plane.
Theorem 1: (Test of co planarity of three vectors) Let a and 
b be two given non zero non collinear vectors.

, for some scalars x and y.
Then any vector r coplanar with a and b can be uniquely expressed as r = xa +yb
Proof :
b be two non-collinear non--zero vectors and let r be a vector coplanar with a and 
b.
Let a and 

 and OP
 = a, OB
 = b
 = r.
Let OA
Complete the
he parallelogram OLPM with OP as diagonal.
 respectively.
Since vectors 
OL and 
OM are collinear with 
OA = a and 
OB = b
 for some scalars x, y.
Therefore, 
OL = x a and 
OM = y b
 + LP
 [By triangle law of add.]
Now, 
OP = OL
 + OM
 [LP
]
 = OM

OP = OL
.
r = x a + y b
 for some scalars x and y.
Thus, r = x a + y b

##  for some scalars xR and yR .

To prove the uniqueness of this representation, let r = xR a + yR b
 = xR a + yR b

Then, x a + y b
 = 
(D DR )a + (y yR )b
0
x xR = 0 and y yR = 0 [ a and 
b are non-collinear]
x = xR and y = yR .
Hence, the representation is unique. The above theorem can also be expressed as under: Three vectors are
coplanar if one of them is expressible as a linear combination
com
of the other two.
 and c to be coplanar is that there exist
Theorem 2: A necessary and sufficient condition for the vectors a, b
 +nc = 
scalars l, m, n not all zero simultaneously such that la
l + mb
0

Necessary condition:
 . c be three coplanar vectors.
First let a . b
Then, one of them is expressible as a linear combination of the other two.
 for some scalars x, y
Let c = x a + y b
 for some scalars x, y
c = x a + y b
 + nc = 0, where l = x, n = y and n = 1.
Ya + mb
, c are coplanar vectors, then there exist scalars l, m, n
Thus, if a, b
 + nc = 
Ya + mb
0 such that, where l, m, n are not all zero simultaneously.

Sufficient condition:
, c be three vectors such that there exist scalars l, m, n not all zero simultaneously satisfying Ya +
Let a, b
 + nc = 
0.
mb
, c are coplanar vectors.
Then, we have to prove that a, b
 + nc = 0
We have, Ya + mb

Zc = la mb
R
2

c = F I a F I b
0

## c is a linear combination of a and 

b c lies in the plane of a and 
b.
, c are coplanar vectors.
Hence, a, b
, c are three non-zero coplanar vectors and x, y, z are three scalars, then
Theorem 3: If a, b
+zc = 0 x = y = z = 0
xa + yb
Proof : If possible, let x 0.
 + zc = 0
Then, Da + yb
 zc
xa = yb
y
z
 + F I c
a = F I b
x
x

, c are non-coplanar.
a is coplanar with b and c. This is contradiction to the fact that a, b
Therefore, x = 0.
 + zc = 0
Similarly, y = z = 0. Hence, Da + yb
x = y = z = 0.

, c, 
Theorem 4: (Test of co planarity of four points) Four points with position vectors a, b
d are coplanar iff
 + zc + ud
 = 0 where x + y+ z + u = 0
three exist scalars x, y, z, u not all zero such that xa + yb
Bisectors of the Angles between Two Lines:
 and r  a + c are given
The equations of the bisectors of the angle between the straight lines r  a + b
by

-

## r  a + t ]  |.|^, where t R.

-

.

 and r  a + c pass through a point A(a). Let P(r) be any point on the
Proof: Let the lines r  a + b
internal bisector of the angle between the given lines.
Drawn PN parallel to AM.
Therefore,
APN = PAM = PAN
AN = NP
 = tb& and NP
 = t c [ AN = NP].
AN
 + NP

Now, 
AP = AN

AP = t(b& + c)


-

r a = t ]  + |.|^
.

-
-

r  a + t ]  + |.|^
.

-

 and r  c is
Thus, the equation of the internal bisector of the angle between r  a + b

-

r  a + t ]  + |.|^.
.

-

Similarly,
 and r  a c is
Equation of the external bisector of the angle between the lines r  a b

-

r  a + t ]  |.|^.
.

-


l

  j
 k ]  = |m|^.
Hence, the two bisectors are given by i
l


m

## Bisector of the Angle between Two vectors:

vectors
The vector parallel to the bisector of the angle between two non-collinear
non collinear vectors a and 
b is given by


+
b(a + b&) or b > ?.
|+
|


-

## Proof: Let a and 

b be two given vectors represented
represented by OA and OB respectively as shown in figure

## Take points P and Q on OA and OB respectively such that OP = OQ = 1unit.

Then, 
OP  a and 
OQ  b&. Let R be the mid point of PQ.
Since, OPQ
OPQ is an isosceles triangle, therefore OR is the bisector of AOB.
The position vector of R is F

OR 

e
+ 1 -


OC 


+
]|+|

e
+ 1 )

I.


OC  
OR for some scalars .


OC  F ) I
h

OC  a + b&), where = is a scalar.
e
+ 1 -

-
^.

-

## Hence, a vector along the bisector

ector of the angles between two vectors a and 
b is given by


+
(a b&) or b >|+|


?.

-

## Perpendicular Distance of a Point from a Line:

Line
 c is given by
The length of the perpendicular from a point P(a
P() on the line r  b
)

  oa  b
. cp = qa  
b  ]+ 3 - . .^ .
na  b

.
)



.
Proof: The line r  
b c passes through point A(b
A() and is parallel to b
Let PM be perpendicular from P on the given line.
) . c.
 . c) = (a  b
Clearly, AM = Projection of 
AP on c = (AP
In right angled triangle AMP,

We have AP )  AM ) PM )
PM = AP )  AM )

  oa  b
. cp = qa  b
  ]+ 3 - . .^ .
PM = na  b
.
)



##  having an angle s between them is defined as a. b


The scalar or dott product of two given vectors a and b
cos s
= |a|b
Properties:
i.
. = . =k&.k& = 1
ii.
. = .k& =k&. = 0
. b
 is not defined
iii.
a. b

Dot Product

iv.

v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.

 = a2 + b2 =2a.b

a = b
 = |a| b
 a || b

a b
b
)

 = |a|) b
 a

a b
 b
  =    
   

  
)

a. a = a2

  b
. a
Dot product is commutative that is a. b
 = xa. b
 = a. xb

Dot product is Associative that is xa. b

 c = a. b
 = a. c
Dot
ot product is Distributive that is a. b
  bR b) bv k& then a. b
 = a1b1 + a2b2+ a3b3
If a  aR a) av k& and
and b

xiii.
xiv.

## For any Vector, r = r.  r.  r. k&k&

 = '|a|) |b|) = 2ab
a = b
ab cos

## Projection vector and component vector

 is
Scalar Projection of a along b

-
.+


-

 is x
Projection vector of a along b
x


.+


-


 = y+.Length of Projection of a on b
y



-


b.

.+
Vector component of a perpendicular
perpendicula to 
b = a  x  
b.



-

 = |a|b
sin s n
The cross product of two vectors a and 
b having angle s between them is given as ab
 and a,
, n form a right handed
Where n is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane containing a and b
b

Cross product
i.

system and n  =


+

+
-

 are parallel ab
  0

ii. If a
, b

##   bR b) bv k&, then a b

 = aR
iii. Let a
  aR a) av k& and b
bR
iv. a
a  0
  b
a
v. a
b
[Not Commutative]
c) = ab
c
vi. a
(b
[Associative]
 + c) = ab
 + ac
vii. a
(b
[Distributive]
&
&
&
viii. = k ; k= ; k=
& k&  0
ix.   k
)
)
 a. b
 = a2b2
x. a
 | b
[Lagranges Identity]

k&
av
bv


+
|
|-|

AC

xii. Area of triangle = AB
xi. CL =

a)
b)

  
   
, ,  are position vectors of vertices of ABC, then Area =  
xiii. If
R
 | AC
.
Area of ABC = ) AB
  a, and 
Now, 
AB  b
AC  c  a



AB | AC  b  a | c  a
 | c  b
 | a  a | c a | a
  b

AB | AC
[By distributivity]
 | c a | b
  c | a 
  b
]

AB | AC
0 [a | a  0
 b
 | c c | a
  a | b

AB | AC
R
 b
 | c c | a.
 | AC
  R a | b
Area of ABC = AB
)

## If the points A, B, C are collinear, then Area of ABC = 0

R
 b
 | c c | a = 0
) a | b

 b
 | c c | a = 0
a | b
 b
 | c c | a = 0.
a | b
 
 |   |  = 0 is the required condition of Collinearity of three points , 
 , .
Thus,  | 
 are two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then area = ab

a. If a and b
 are two diagonals of a parallelogram, then area = a b

b. If a and b

## Proof: Let ABCD be a parallelogram.

With A as the origin, let the position vectors of B and D be p and q
 respectively.




Then, AB  p and AD = q

Therefore, BC  q
.



AB 
BC  AC
  AC


 (i).
p q
  AC

##  be the diagonals of the parallelogram ABCD.

Let 
AC  a and 
BD  b
  a (ii) and
Then, from (i) , we have p q


BD = Position vector of D Position vector of B 
bq
  p (iii).
 a b
.
Adding (i) and (ii), we obtain 2q
  a b
)
R


Subtracting (iii) from (ii), we obtain 2p
  a  b

R
.
a  b
)
Now,

R
 | R a b

p | q
  ) a  b
)
R
 | a b

p | q
  a  b

R
  b
 | a  b
 | b
]
p | q
  [a | a a | b
R
 a | b
]
p | q
  [a | b

.
p | q
  ) a b

Important Result :
R
 | BD
, where AC and BD are its diagonals.
The area of a plane quadrilateral ABCD is ) AC

## Proof: Let the diagonals AC and

nd BD intersect at O.
Then, Vector area of quadrilateral ABCD = (Vector area of triangle ABC) + (Vector area of triangle ADC)
R
 | AC
 R AC

= AB
)
)
R
R
 | 

=  AC
AB AC
)

  
= ) [AC
AB]
R
 | BA

= AC
R
)
R

 | BD
]
= [AC
)

  BA
]
[AB
  BD
].
[BA

R
 | BD
.
So, area of quadrilateral ABCD = AC
)

Tetrahedron
A tetrahedron is a three dimensional figure
fi
formed by four triangles.

## In figure OABC is a tetrahedron

ahedron with ABC
ABC as the base and OAB, OBC, OCA as other three faces.
OA, OB, BC and CA are known as the edges of the tetrahedron OABC.
OA, BC; OB, CA and OC, AB are known as the pairs of opposite edges of the tetrahedron OABC.
Regular Tetrahedron: A tetrahedron
etrahedron in which all edges are equal is called a regular tetrahedron.
Theorems:
(i) If two pairs of opposite edges of a tetrahedron are perpendicular, the opposite edges of the third pair are
also perpendicular to each other.
res of two opposite edges is the same for each pair of opposite edges.
(ii) The sum of the squares
(iii) Any two opposite edges in a regular tetrahedron are perpendicular.
Proof:
(i) Let OABC be a tetrahedron with OA, BC; OB, CA and OC, AB as the pairs of opposite edges (See
Fig.).
Let OA BC and OB CA. Then we have to prove that OC AB

 and c respectively.
Let O be the origin and let the position vectors of A, B, C be a, b
 
 CA

Then, OA
BC and OB
 . 
 . CA
 = 0
OA
BC = 0 and OB
 = 0 and 
a . c  b
b . a  c = 0

 . c = 0
a . c  a . b  0 and 
b . a  b
 . c 
a . c  b
b . c  a . c = 0

b  a. c = 0 
AB . 
OC = 0

OC 
AB.
(ii) We have, OA) BC)
)
)
 BC

= OA

##  = |a|) |c|) b

  2b
 . c
= |a|) c  b
)
  2b
 . c.
 |a|) |c|) b
)

OB) CA)
)
)
 CA

= OB

##  |a  c|) = b

 |a|) |c|
= b
|)  2a . c
)
 |c|)  2b
 . c.
= |a|) b
and,
OC) AB)
)
)
 AB

= OC
)

  b
 . c  c . a]
[ a . b

  a
= |c|) b
)
 |a|)  2a . b

= |c|) b
)

##  |c|)  2b

 . c.
= |a|) b

  b
 . c  c . a].
[ a . b
)
 |c|)  2b
 . c.
Hence, OA) BC)  OB) CA)  OC) AB) = |a|) b
)

## (iii) In this case, we have OA = OB = OC = AB = BC = CA.

Now, AB = BC = CA
  BC
  CA

AB
  BC
  CA

AB
)

  a  c  b
  |a  c|)
b
)

  2a . b
 = b
 |c|)  2b
 . c = |a|) |c|)  2a . c
|a|) b
  b
 . c  c . a [ |a|  b
  |c|].
a . b
)

  b
 . c
Now, a . b

 . c  c . a [a . b
  b
 . a]
b

b . c  a = 0

 . AC
 = 0
OB
. Similarly, 

OB AC
OC 
AB and 
OA 
BC. Hence, any two opposite edges are perpendicular.

Centroid of a Tetrahedron:
In a tetrahedron OABC, let GR , G) , Gv and G be the centroids of faces OBC, OCA, OAB and ABC
respectively.
Then AGR , BG) , CGv and OG are concurrent.
, c, 
The point of their concurrence is the centroid or centre of tetrahedron OABC. If a, b
d are the position
vectors of the vertices of a tetrahedron, then the position vector of its centroid is
The position vectors of the centroids of four faces are

 1 .
 1 
+
v

 1

 1 +
v


 1- 1 . 1
+


 1 .
 1
+
v

and

 1 .

 1
v

## Theorem: The volume V of a tetrahedron whose three coterminous

coterminous edges in the right-handed
right
system are
R


a, b, c is given by V = [a b c].


Proof: Let ABC be a tetrahedron. Taking O as the origin, let the position vectors of vertices A, B, C be a, b
and c respectively.
 and 
Then, 
OA  a, 
OB  b
OC  c. Let n be the unit vector perpendicular to the plane ABC to ABC.
 |



|

Then, n  

n 

n 

 3 +
 | . 3 +

 |



 1  | . 1 .
 |  | +

+


 | 

We have, length of the perpendicular from the vertex O on the plane ABC
 on n
= Projection of OA

= a . n
R
 b
 | c c | ap
= 
oa . a | b


=

|
R
 | c
a . b
 |


 .
+
 

|

= 

## Now, Volume of tetrahedron = (Area

(Area of the base | height)
v
R
= (Area of ABC) | (Projection of 
OA on n
)
v

R R
 | AC
 |
= AB
v
R

 c.
= a b

 .
 ]
[+


 | 

## In a regular tetrahedron, the angle between any two faces is  3 F I.

4
Proof: Let OABC be a regular tetrahedron.
Then, OAB, OBC, OAC and ABC are equilateral triangles of equal size. Thus, the angle between any two
concurrent edges is equal to 60 .

, c respectively.
Taking O as the origin, let the position vectors of A, B, C be a, b

## Since, OABC is a regular tetrahedron.

Therefore, OA = OB = OC = AB = BC = CA

  |c|  b
  a  c  b
  |a  c| = (say).
|a|  b

We know that the angle between two planes is the angle between their normals.
The vectors 
b | c and c | a are respectively normals to the planes OBC and OCA.
So, the angle between faces OAB and OBC is the angle between their normals.

## Therefore, angle between these faces is given by

cos = y

 | . . . | +

y.


|
- | . |. | +

##  | c) . (c | a)

(b

 . c)(c . a) (b
 . a)(c . c)
= (b

## |c| cos 60  |c||a| cos 60   b

|a| cos 60 |c|)
= b

 |.| |+
|

 |+
| |.|

R

=  and,
R

##  | c |c | a| = (b

|c| sin 60 ) (|c| |a| sin 60 )
b

##  |c|) |a| = .

= b

cos = v/ = v .
3R/

Hence, the acute angle between any two faces is cos3R FvI.
R

 ,
  ,
  
  , is given by
The circum-centre of the tetrahedron OABC where
 | m

|j| l
 1 |l| m
 | j
 1 |m
| j
 | l


 l m

j

## Proof: Let P be circum-centre of the tetrahedron OABC.

Let the position vectors of P be r.
Then, OP = PA = PB = PC
  PA
  PB

  PC
OP
  r  |c  r|)
|r|)  |a  r|)  b
)

  2b
 . r  |c|)  2c . r = 0
|a|)  2a . r  b
)

 . r) = b
 , 2(c . r) = |c|) (i).
2(a . r) = |a|), 2(b
)

## , c are non-coplanar vectors. So, a | b

, b
 | c and c | a are also non-coplanar vectors.
Clearly, a, b

We know that any vector in space can be written on the linear combination of three non-coplanar vectors.
 | c yc | a za | b
 (ii).
So, let r  xb

## Taking dot products with a, 

b and c successively, we get
 c a], r . b
  y[c a b
], r . c  z[a b
 c]
r . a  x[b

x=
x=


, . +
 .
+
 

,y=

|+
|
 .
 ]
)[+


, .  .
+
 

,y=

,z=


 .
 ]
)[+

, . .

 .
+
 

,z=

|.|
 .
 ]
)[+

[Using (i)].

##  | . 1  . | +


|+
|  1 |.
| +
 |  .
 ]
) [+

To find the volume of the tetrahedron OABC whose one vertex O is at the origin and the coordinates of the remaining three vertices A, B and C are (A  , B ,  ), (A  , B ,  ) and (A 4 , B4 , A 4 )
respectively.
Let a, b, c be the position vectors of the vertices A, B, C respectively w.r.t. O as origin.
Since the co-ordinates of A are (xR , yR , zR ), therefore, the position vectors a of the point A is given by
 = xR i yR j zR k.
a = OA
OB = x) i y) j z) k and c = 
OC = xv i yv j zv k.
Similarly, b = 

## Now the volume V of the tetrahedron OABC is given by V = [a, b, c] or

xR yR zR
R
V = x) y) z)
xv yv zv
This is the required formula.
R

## To find the volume of the tetrahedron whose vertices have (A  , B ,  ), (A  , B ,  ), (A 4 , B4 , 4 ) and

(A , B , ) as co-ordinates.
Let A, B, C, D be the vertices of the tetrahedron DABC.
Let (xR , yR , zR ), (x) , y) , z) ), (xv , yv , zv ), (x , y , z ) be the co-ordinates of the points A, B, C, D
respectively.
Then the position vectors of A, B, C, D are
xR i yR j zR k, x) i y) j z) k, xv i yv j zv k, x i y j z k respectively.

We have

DA  xR i yR j zR k  x i y j z k = (xR  x )i + (yR  y )j + (zR  z )k,

DB = (x)  x )i + (y)  y )j + (z)  z )k and

DC = (xv  x )i + (yv  y )j + (zv  z )k.

R
, DB
]
, DC
The volume V of the tetrahedron DABC is given by V = [DA

xR  x yR  y zR  z
R
= x)  x yR  y zR  z

xv  x yv  y zv  z

xR  x yR  y zR  z 0
x)  x y)  y) z)  z 0
= x  x y  y
.
zv  z 0
v

x
y
z
1
th
st nd
rd
Adding 4 row to 1 , 2 and 3 rows, we get
xR yR zR 1

z) 1
R x) y)

V = x y
zv 1
v
v
x y z 1
This is the required formula.

## Corollary: Condition for four points to be coplanar:

The four points A, B, C, D will be coplanar if the volume of the tetrahedron formed by them is zero, i.e.,
xR yR zR 1
x) y) z) 1
x y
= 0.
zv 1
v
v
x y z 1
To find the volume V of a tetrahedron, in terms of the lengths of three concurrent edges and their
mutual inclination.
Let OABC be the tetrahedron. Take the lengths of the three edges OA, OB, OC be a, b, c and the angles
BOC, COA, AOB be , , respectively. Let any three perpendicular lines through the origin O be taken

Again let the direction cosines of the lines OA, OB and OC be lR , mR , nR , l) , m) , n) and lv , mv , nv
as co-ordinate axes.

## (lR a, mR a, nR a); (l) b m) b n) b) and (lv c mv c nv c) respectively. We have


OA  a  lR ai mR aj nR ak, 
OB  b  l) bi m) bj n) bk and 
OC  c  lv ci mv cj nv ck.
Again

a . b  ablR l) mR m) nR n)   ab cos
b . c  bcl) lv m) mv n) nv   bc cos or
c . a  calv lR mv mR nv nR   ca cos
lR l) mR m) nR n)  cos
l) lv m) mv n) nv  cos . ..(1).
lv lR mv mR nv nR  cos

R
V = [a, b, c]

lR a mR a nR a
 l) b m) b n) b
lv c mv c nv c
lR mR nR
R
l
= abc ) m) n) .

lv mv nv
R

lR
V  a b c l)
v
lv
R

) ) )

mR
m)
mv

nR
lR
n) | l)
nv
lv

## lR) mR) nR)

= v a) b) c ) l) lR m) mR n) nR
lv lR mv mR nv nR
R

1
cos
) ) ) cos
1
a
b
c

v
cos cos
R

1
cos
R
1
V = = abc cos
cos cos

mR
m)
mv

nR
n)
nv

lR l) mR m) nR n)
l)) m)) n))
lv l) mv m) nv n)

cos
cos [using the relations (1)].
1

lR lv mR mv nR nv
l) lv m) mv n) nv
l)v m)v n)v

cos 
cos .
1

The negative sign will be neglected in calculating the magnitude of the volume V.

To find the volume V of the tetrahedron when equations of its four faces are given
Let the equations of the planes representing the four faces of the tetrahedron be
aR x bR y cR z dR = 0 (1),
a) x b) y c) z d) = 0 (2),
av x bv y cv z dv = 0 (3),
a x b y c z d = 0 (4).

Now a set of any three planes out of the four planes given above, will intersect in a point, a vertex of the
tetrahedron.
Hence the four planes, taking three at a time, will intersect in .Cv i.e. 4 points, the four vertices of the
tetrahedron. Now, solving (2), (3) and (4) by the method of determinants, we get
H
3 G

3 R
 + .  + -  + - .
(5).
.

-
-

.
.

+
+

.
.

+
+

-
-

+
+

-
-

.
.

aR bR cR dR
a) b) c) d)
Suppose = a c . Let the capital letters represents the co-factors of the corresponding small
v bv
v dv
a b c d
letters in the determinants , i.e. AR , BR , CR , DR , A) , B) , etc, represents the co-factors of
aR , bR , cR , dR , a) , b) , etc, respectively in .
H
3G

3R
The result (5) may be written as = 3 = = 3 .

The point of intersection of the planes (2), (3), and (4) is (AR /DR , BR /DR , CR /DR ).
Similarly solving the other three sets of three planes, the points of intersection i.e. the other three vertices

of the tetrahedron are F  ,  ,  I ; F , , I ; F , , I.

The required volume V of the tetrahedron is given by


V=




AR
A)

Av
A

1
.
1
.
1
.
1
BR
B)
Bv
B

CR
C)
Cv
C

DR
D)

Dv
D

## [Since if be the determinant of nth order formed by the co-factors

co factors of the elements of the determinant ,

then = 0 3 R]
V =

##  ,  are any three vectors then the STP of  | 

 with  is called triple product of , 
 and .
If , 
 .  is called the STP of , 
 .
Thus,   | 
 .
It is denoted by , 

## Geometrical Interpretation of a Scalar Triple Product:

Product
 and c
If three co-terminus
minus edges OA, OB and OC of a parallelopiped are represented by the vectors a, b
 represents the vector area of the base of the parallelopiped and the height of the
respectively, then a | b
.
parallelopiped is the projection of c along the normal
rmal to the plane containing Vectors 
b and a, i.e., a | b


 | . . +

+
 | -

## Volume of the parallelopiped = (Area of base) | (Height) =

.or a | b
 . c
c . a | b

 .

+
 |  . +
 | 

+
 | -

##  and c is therefore defined as: a | 

b . c  |a|b
|c| sin . cos
The scalar triple product of three vectors a, b
 (i.e. a 
 and c
, where is the angle between a, b
b = ) and is the angle between a | b
) c  ).
(i.e. (a | b
Scalar Triple Product in terms of Rectangular Components:
Components
  bR b) bv k& and c  cR c) cv k&, then
a  aR a) av k&, b

i
j
k

b | c = bR b) bv = (b) cv bv c)) (bR cv bv cR ) (bR c) b) cR ) k&.
cR c) cv
 | c  aR b) cv bv c)  a) bR cv bv cR  av bR c) b) cR 
a . b
aR a ) a v
= bR b) bv .
cR c) cv

  bRl b) m
 av n, b
 bv n, c  cRl c) m
 cv n then
In general, if a  aRl a) m
aR a ) a v
 c] = bR b) bv [l m
[a b
 n], where l, m
 and n are non-coplanar vectors.
cR c) cv

##  and c, [a b

 c] = 0, then the volume of the parallelopiped with the
Remarks: If for any three vectors a, b
 and c, is zero, which is possible only if a, b
 and c, are co-planar vectors.
three co-terminus edges a, b
 c] = 0 a, b
 and c are co-planar.
Thus, [a b
Properties of Scalar Triple Product:
 and  are any three vectors, then [  
 ] = [
  ] = [  
 ].
(1) If , 

##   bR b) bv k&, c  cR c) cv k&, then

Proof: Let a  aR a) av k&, b
aR a ) a v
bR b) bv
bR b) bv
 c] = bR b) bv = aR a) av = 1) cR c) cv = [b
 c a]
[a b
cR c) cv
cR c) cv
aR a ) a v


[a b c] = [b c a] (i).
 c] = [c a b
] (ii).
Similarly, it can be verified that [a b
 c] = [b
 c a] = [c a b
]
From (i) and (ii), we see that [a b
 and c are cyclically permuted, the value of the scalar triple product remains unaltered.
If a, b

(2) In scalar triple product, the position of dot and cross can be interchanged, provided the cyclic
order of vectors remain the same.
 c] = [c a 
 | c = c . a | b
 or a . b
 | c  c . a | b
  a | b
. c.
Proof: Since, [a b
b] a . b

(3) The value of the scalar triple product remains the same in magnitude, but changes the sign, if the
 and  is changed.
cyclic order of , 

 c] = a . b
 | c  a . c | b
  ac | b
  [a c b
].
Proof: [a b

(4) The scalar triple product of three vectors is zero if any two of the given vectors are equal.
 [a b
 c] = [a a c] = a | a) . c = 0. Similarly, if 
 c] = 0
Proof: Let a  b
b  c or c  a, [a b

##  and  and scalar , we have [

 ] = [  
 ].
(5) For any three vectors , 
 

 c] = ba | b
. c = (a | b
) . c = [a b
 c].
Proof: [ a b

(6) The scalar triple product of three vectors is zero, if any two of them are parallel or collinear.

##  for some scalar . [a b

 c] = [b
 b
 c] = [b
 b
 c] =
Proof: Let a be parallel (or collinear) to 
b a  b
.0 = 0.

##  and c are said to form a right handed system iff a b

 c > 0
(i) Three Vectors a, b

##  and c are said to form a left handed system iff a b

 c < 0
(ii) Three Vectors a, b

## SCALAR PRODUCT OF FOUR VECTORS

 , c , 
. c | 
If a, b
d are any four vectors, then the product of the form a | b
d is called the scalar product

, c, 
d be any four vectors, then
Lagranges Identity: If a, b
. c
. c | 
. 
. c = y a. c b
a | b
d = a. cb
d a. 
db
y
d 
b. 
d
a. 
of four vectors.

 | c: If a, b
, c are any three vectors, then
Formula for vector triple product: a | b
 | c  a . c b
 a . b
 c.
a | b

## Vector triple product

 | c (1).
  a | b
Proof: Let P
 | c
Then P b
P is perpendicular to the vector perpendicular to plane of 
b and c.



Hence, P lies in the plane of b and c.
Since, P lies in the plane of 
b and c, hence P can be expressed as a linear combination of 
b and c.

  xb yc ...(2).
Let P
Taking dot product of both sides of (1) with a, we get
 . a yc . a.
P . a  xb
 a P
 . a = 0
But, P
 . a) + y(c . a) = 0
x(b
H
G
. .+ 
 (say.

3- . +

 . a  ba . b
.
x = (c . a), y = (a . c) and y = bb
Putting these values of x and y in (2), we get

 a . b
c or a | b
 | c  (a . cb
 a . b
c ..(3)
P  (a . cb
 and c.
(3) is true for all vectors a, b
  , c   in (3), we get
Putting a  , b
 |  |   [( .   . ]
  (0 
 | k
  
= 1.
Putting the value of in (3),
 | c  a . cb
 a . b
c
we get a | b

NOTE 1:
 | c | a  b
 . ac c . ab
,
b
 | c | a  a | b
 | c  [a . cb
 a . b
c] = a . b
c a . cb
 = b
 . ac c . ab
.
b

NOTE 2:
 | c  a . cb
 a . 
 b
 . ca.
We have, a | b
bc and a | 
b | c  a . cb
 | c a | b
 | c.
Thus, a | b
For any three non-coplanar vectors , , ;
 b
 | c c | a
Use: ;  a | b

 | c | 
If a, 
b , c , 
d are any four vectors, then the product of the form a | b
d is called the vector
product of four vectors.
, c, 
If a, b
d be any four vectors, then

 
 cd

a | b | c | 
d = a b
dc a b
 b
 c 
= a c 
db
da
st
Way to remember: For 1 half exchange b, c and then lift a and put it at the end

## Vector Product of four Vectors

Geometrical Interpretation:

 | c | 
 and P c | 
Let P = a | b
d. Then P a | b
d.

##  and P is coplanar with c and 

d
So, P is coplanar with a and b

Hence P represents a vector parallel to the line of intersection of two planes one of which is parallel to the

##  and the other is parallel to the plane containing c and 

plane containing a and b
d.

## Reciprocal System of Vectors:

Vectors:

Let a, b, c be the non-coplanar vectors, then we define
p 

 | .
-


 | +

,q
  , r  .
, c] 0.
where V = [a, b
, c and p, q
Then the two systems a, b
, r are said to be reciprocal systems of each other, because they satisfy
the following properties (which are reciprocal in nature).
 .
  
   . ; = 1.
(1)  .

. | +

## a . p  a .

 | .


R
, c] = 1, etc etc.
 [a, b

 .
 . ;   .
   . ;  
  
   .
 = 0.
(2)  .

. | +
R
, c] = 0 etc etc.
a . q
  a .
 [a, b

 , ] = 1. If [
,
, ;].[ , 
,
, ;] = , then . = 1 or  .
(3) [

[p
, q
, r] = p . q
 | r =

- | .


. | +


 | +

R
 | c. {c | a . b
a c | a . ab
}]
= [b
R
 | c. {V a 0 . b
}]
= [b

 | c . a]
= [Vb

= . V . V  .
R

(4)  

 | ;

,  


; |

,  

 |



R

R

 | ,


R . | +


 | +

]
[c | a . b
]
[Va 0 . b

Consider