1. A quantity that has magnitude as well as direction is called a vector. E.g. Force, acceleration,
displacement, momentum etc.
2. Let l be a straight line in plane or 3deimnisional
3 deimnisional space. This line can be given two directions by means
of arrowheads.
wheads. A line with one of these directions prescribed is called a directed line.
Now observe that if we restrict the line l to the line segment AB then a magnitude is prescribed on line (i)
with one of the two directions, so that we obtain a directed line
line segment. Thus, a directed line segment
has magnitude as well as direction.
3. Types of vectors:
a. Null or Zero vectors: A vector with zero magnitude.
b. Unit Vector: A vector of unit magnitude is called a unit
unit vector. Unit vectors are denotes by small
letters with a cap on them
Thus, a is the unit vector of a,, where a =1.
The unit vector in the direction of is given by   and
and is represented by
e. Collinear vectors: Vectors which are parallel to the same vector and have either initial or terminal
point in common.
f. Like and unlike vectors: Two parallel vectors having the same direction are called like vectors. Two
parallel vectors
ctors having opposite directions are called unlike vectors.
g. Coinitial vectors: Vectors having same initial point
h. Free Vectors: Vectors whose initial point is not specified.
i. Localized Vectors: a vector drawn parallel to a given vector, but through a specified
speci
point as initial
point.
j. Equal Vectors: Two Vectors are said to be equal, if they have the same magnitude and same
direction. Their lines of direction may be parallel or coincident.
1Page
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(Commutative Property)
(Associative Property)
(Additive Identity)
(Additive Inverse)
Scalar multiplication
If a is a given vector and a scalar, then a is a vector whose magnitude is a = a. The direction of
a is same as that of a if is positive and opposite to that of a, if is negative.
Properties:
(Distributive Law)
a. ( + ) = k1 + k2
) = k + k
b. ( +
(Distributive Law)
c. k1(k2 ) + k2(k1 ) = (k1k2)
(Associative Law)
Position vector of a point
= 'x ) + y ) + z )
Position vector of a point P(x, y, z) is given as
OP = x + y + zk& its magnitude as OP
where O is the origin.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Note:
OA
= PV of B PV of A
Vectors in terms of position vectors of end points:
AB = OB
The scalar components of a vector are its direction ratios, and it represent its projections along the
respective axes.
The magnitude r, direction ratios (a, b, c) and direction cosines (l, m, n) of any vectors are related as:
+
.
l= ,m= n= .
,
,
,
The sum of the vectors representing the three sides of a triangle taken in order is
0.
Section formula:
The position vector of a point R dividing the line segment joining the points P and Q whose position
vectors are and
In the ratio m : n internally, is given by
120+
210
30+
2230
) and C() is
1. Position vectors of centroid of triangle formed by the points A( ) and B(
1
1
4
Collinearity of Vectors:
Vectors:
a =
+


a
b
b = > +? aa


b = a, where = + .

are two collinear or parallel vectors, then there exists a scalar such that a = b
, or b
=
Thus, if a and b
a.
are collinear iff there exists scalars x, y not both zero such
Theorem 1: Two nonzero vectors and
=
.
that A + B
Proof:
First, let a and
b be two collinear vectors.
1. a + ()b
=
0
Then, there exists a scalar , such that a = b
=
xa + y b
0, where x =1 and y = .
= 0 for some scalars x, y not both zero.
Conversely, let a and
b be two nonzero vectors such that Da + yb
b are collinear vectors.
Then, we have to prove that a and
=
We have, Da + yb
0. Let x 0.
=
Then, Da + yb
0
D a = yb
G
a = b
, where = G .
a = F HI b
H
are any two nonzero noncollinear vectors and x, y are scalars, then Da + yb
= 0
Theorem 2: If a, b
x = y = 0.
Proof: If possible, let x 0.
= 0
Then, Da + yb
Da = yb
G
a = F HI b
are collinear vectors.
a and b
are noncollinear vectors.
This is a contradiction to the hypothesis that a and b
= 0 x = y = 0.
Therefore, x = 0. Similarly, y = 0. Hence, Da + yb
Collinearity of Points:
Points:
and
is a pair of
Let A, B, C be three collinear points. Then, each pair of the vectors
AB,
BC;
AB, AC
BC, AC
collinear vectors.
Thus, to check the collinearity of three points, we can check the Collinearity of any two vectors obtained
with the help of three points.
The following theorem provides the general criterion for the Collinearity of three points.
and c are collinear if and only if there exists three scalars
Theorem: Three points with position vectors a, b
+ zc =
0, together with x + y + z = 0.
x, y, z not all zero simultaneous such that Da + yb
Proof:
and c respectively be collinear.
First, let three points A, B, C with position vectors a, b
Then, vectors
AB and
BC are collinear.
( 1) a + 1.
b + ()c =
0
+ z c =
D a + y b
0, where x = 1, y = 1 and z =
+ z c =
x a + y b
0,
x + y + z = 1 + 1 + ( ) = 0.
Conversely,
, c be the position vectors of points A, B and C respectively such that x a + y b
+ z c =
let a, b
0, where x +
= z c
x a + y b
= (x + y)c
x a + y b
y+z=0
[ x + y + z = 0 z = x + y]
c =
1 G 
H+
H 1 G
CoCoplanarity of Vectors
A system of vectors is said to be coplanar, if their supports are parallel to the same plane.
Theorem 1: (Test of co planarity of three vectors) Let a and
b be two given non zero non collinear vectors.
, for some scalars x and y.
Then any vector r coplanar with a and b can be uniquely expressed as r = xa +yb
Proof :
b be two noncollinear nonzero vectors and let r be a vector coplanar with a and
b.
Let a and
and OP
= a, OB
= b
= r.
Let OA
Complete the
he parallelogram OLPM with OP as diagonal.
respectively.
Since vectors
OL and
OM are collinear with
OA = a and
OB = b
for some scalars x, y.
Therefore,
OL = x a and
OM = y b
+ LP
[By triangle law of add.]
Now,
OP = OL
+ OM
[LP
]
= OM
OP = OL
.
r = x a + y b
for some scalars x and y.
Thus, r = x a + y b
Necessary condition:
. c be three coplanar vectors.
First let a . b
Then, one of them is expressible as a linear combination of the other two.
for some scalars x, y
Let c = x a + y b
for some scalars x, y
c = x a + y b
+ nc = 0, where l = x, n = y and n = 1.
Ya + mb
, c are coplanar vectors, then there exist scalars l, m, n
Thus, if a, b
+ nc =
Ya + mb
0 such that, where l, m, n are not all zero simultaneously.
Sufficient condition:
, c be three vectors such that there exist scalars l, m, n not all zero simultaneously satisfying Ya +
Let a, b
+ nc =
0.
mb
, c are coplanar vectors.
Then, we have to prove that a, b
+ nc = 0
We have, Ya + mb
Zc = la mb
R
2
c = F I a F I b
0
, c,
Theorem 4: (Test of co planarity of four points) Four points with position vectors a, b
d are coplanar iff
+ zc + ud
= 0 where x + y+ z + u = 0
three exist scalars x, y, z, u not all zero such that xa + yb
Bisectors of the Angles between Two Lines:
and r a + c are given
The equations of the bisectors of the angle between the straight lines r a + b
by

.
and r a + c pass through a point A(a). Let P(r) be any point on the
Proof: Let the lines r a + b
internal bisector of the angle between the given lines.
Drawn PN parallel to AM.
Therefore,
APN = PAM = PAN
AN = NP
= tb& and NP
= t c [ AN = NP].
AN
+ NP
Now,
AP = AN
AP = t(b& + c)

r a = t ] + .^
.


r a + t ] + .^
.

and r c is
Thus, the equation of the internal bisector of the angle between r a + b

r a + t ] + .^.
.

Similarly,
and r a c is
Equation of the external bisector of the angle between the lines r a b

r a + t ] .^.
.

l
j
k ] = m^.
Hence, the two bisectors are given by i
l
m

e
+ 1 
OC
+
]+
e
+ 1 )
I.
OC
OR for some scalars .
OC F ) I
h
OC a + b&), where = is a scalar.
e
+ 1 

^.

+
(a b&) or b >+
?.

oa b
. cp = qa
b ]+ 3  . .^ .
na b
.
)
.
Proof: The line r
b c passes through point A(b
A() and is parallel to b
Let PM be perpendicular from P on the given line.
) . c.
. c) = (a b
Clearly, AM = Projection of
AP on c = (AP
In right angled triangle AMP,
We have AP ) AM ) PM )
PM = AP ) AM )
oa b
. cp = qa b
]+ 3  . .^ .
PM = na b
.
)
Dot Product
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
= a2 + b2 =2a.b
a = b
= a b
a  b
a b
b
)
= a) b
a
a b
b
=
)
a. a = a2
b
. a
Dot product is commutative that is a. b
= xa. b
= a. xb
Dot product is Associative that is xa. b
c = a. b
= a. c
Dot
ot product is Distributive that is a. b
bR b) bv k& then a. b
= a1b1 + a2b2+ a3b3
If a aR a) av k& and
and b
xiii.
xiv.
is
Scalar Projection of a along b

.+

is x
Projection vector of a along b
x
.+

= y+.Length of Projection of a on b
y

b.
.+
Vector component of a perpendicular
perpendicula to
b = a x
b.

= ab
sin s n
The cross product of two vectors a and
b having angle s between them is given as ab
and a,
, n form a right handed
Where n is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane containing a and b
b
Cross product
i.
system and n =
+
+

are parallel ab
0
ii. If a
, b
k&
av
bv
+


AC
xii. Area of triangle = AB
xi. CL =
a)
b)
, , are position vectors of vertices of ABC, then Area =
xiii. If
R
 AC
.
Area of ABC = ) AB
a, and
Now,
AB b
AC c a
AB  AC b a  c a
 c b
 a a  c a  a
b
AB  AC
[By distributivity]
 c a  b
c  a
b
]
AB  AC
0 [a  a 0
b
 c c  a
a  b
AB  AC
R
b
 c c  a.
 AC
R a  b
Area of ABC = AB
)
b
 c c  a = 0
a  b
b
 c c  a = 0.
a  b
  = 0 is the required condition of Collinearity of three points ,
, .
Thus, 
are two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then area = ab
a. If a and b
are two diagonals of a parallelogram, then area = a b
b. If a and b
BD = Position vector of D Position vector of B
bq
p (iii).
a b
.
Adding (i) and (ii), we obtain 2q
a b
)
R
Subtracting (iii) from (ii), we obtain 2p
a b
R
.
a b
)
Now,
R
 R a b
p  q
) a b
)
R
 a b
p  q
a b
R
b
 a b
 b
]
p  q
[a  a a  b
R
a  b
]
p  q
[a  b
.
p  q
) a b
Important Result :
R
 BD
, where AC and BD are its diagonals.
The area of a plane quadrilateral ABCD is ) AC
 AD
= ) [AC
AB]
R
 BA
AD
= AC
R
)
R
 BD
]
= [AC
)
BA
]
[AB
AD
BD
].
[BA
R
 BD
.
So, area of quadrilateral ABCD = AC
)
Tetrahedron
A tetrahedron is a three dimensional figure
fi
formed by four triangles.
and c respectively.
Let O be the origin and let the position vectors of A, B, C be a, b
CA
Then, OA
BC and OB
.
. CA
= 0
OA
BC = 0 and OB
= 0 and
a . c b
b . a c = 0
. c = 0
a . c a . b 0 and
b . a b
. c
a . c b
b . c a . c = 0
b a. c = 0
AB .
OC = 0
OC
AB.
(ii) We have, OA) BC)
)
)
BC
= OA
OB) CA)
)
)
CA
= OB
b
. c c . a]
[ a . b
a
= c) b
)
a) 2a . b
= c) b
)
b
. c c . a].
[ a . b
)
c) 2b
. c.
Hence, OA) BC) OB) CA) OC) AB) = a) b
)
a c b
a c)
b
)
2a . b
= b
c) 2b
. c = a) c) 2a . c
a) b
b
. c c . a [ a b
c].
a . b
)
b
. c
Now, a . b
. c c . a [a . b
b
. a]
b
b . c a = 0
. AC
= 0
OB
. Similarly,
OB AC
OC
AB and
OA
BC. Hence, any two opposite edges are perpendicular.
Centroid of a Tetrahedron:
In a tetrahedron OABC, let GR , G) , Gv and G be the centroids of faces OBC, OCA, OAB and ABC
respectively.
Then AGR , BG) , CGv and OG are concurrent.
, c,
The point of their concurrence is the centroid or centre of tetrahedron OABC. If a, b
d are the position
vectors of the vertices of a tetrahedron, then the position vector of its centroid is
The position vectors of the centroids of four faces are
1 .
1
+
v
1
1 +
v
1 1 . 1
+
1 .
1
+
v
and
1 .
1
v
Proof: Let ABC be a tetrahedron. Taking O as the origin, let the position vectors of vertices A, B, C be a, b
and c respectively.
and
Then,
OA a,
OB b
OC c. Let n be the unit vector perpendicular to the plane ABC to ABC.


Then, n
n
n
3 +
 . 3 +

1  . 1 .
  +
+

We have, length of the perpendicular from the vertex O on the plane ABC
on n
= Projection of OA
= a . n
R
b
 c c  ap
=
oa . a  b
=

R
 c
a . b

.
+

=
R R
 AC

= AB
v
R
c.
= a b
.
]
[+

, c respectively.
Taking O as the origin, let the position vectors of A, B, C be a, b
Therefore, OA = OB = OC = AB = BC = CA
c b
a c b
a c = (say).
a b
We know that the angle between two planes is the angle between their normals.
The vectors
b  c and c  a are respectively normals to the planes OBC and OCA.
So, the angle between faces OAB and OBC is the angle between their normals.
cos = y
 . . .  +
y.

  . .  +
. c)(c . a) (b
. a)(c . c)
= (b
. +

+
 .
= and,
R
cos = v/ = v .
3R/
Hence, the acute angle between any two faces is cos3R FvI.
R
,
,
, is given by
The circumcentre of the tetrahedron OABC where
 m
j l
1 l m
 j
1 m
 j
 l
l m
j
2b
. r c) 2c . r = 0
a) 2a . r b
)
. r) = b
, 2(c . r) = c) (i).
2(a . r) = a), 2(b
)
We know that any vector in space can be written on the linear combination of three noncoplanar vectors.
 c yc  a za  b
(ii).
So, let r xb
x=
x=
, . +
.
+
,y=
+

.
]
)[+
, . .
+
,y=
,z=
.
]
)[+
, . .
.
+
,z=
.
.
]
)[+
[Using (i)].
To find the volume of the tetrahedron OABC whose one vertex O is at the origin and the coordinates of the remaining three vertices A, B and C are (A , B , ), (A , B , ) and (A 4 , B4 , A 4 )
respectively.
Let a, b, c be the position vectors of the vertices A, B, C respectively w.r.t. O as origin.
Since the coordinates of A are (xR , yR , zR ), therefore, the position vectors a of the point A is given by
= xR i yR j zR k.
a = OA
OB = x) i y) j z) k and c =
OC = xv i yv j zv k.
Similarly, b =
We have
DA xR i yR j zR k x i y j z k = (xR x )i + (yR y )j + (zR z )k,
DB = (x) x )i + (y) y )j + (z) z )k and
DC = (xv x )i + (yv y )j + (zv z )k.
R
, DB
]
, DC
The volume V of the tetrahedron DABC is given by V = [DA
xR x yR y zR z
R
= x) x yR y zR z
xv x yv y zv z
xR x yR y zR z 0
x) x y) y) z) z 0
= x x y y
.
zv z 0
v
x
y
z
1
th
st nd
rd
Adding 4 row to 1 , 2 and 3 rows, we get
xR yR zR 1
z) 1
R x) y)
V = x y
zv 1
v
v
x y z 1
This is the required formula.
Again let the direction cosines of the lines OA, OB and OC be lR , mR , nR , l) , m) , n) and lv , mv , nv
as coordinate axes.
OA a lR ai mR aj nR ak,
OB b l) bi m) bj n) bk and
OC c lv ci mv cj nv ck.
Again
a . b ablR l) mR m) nR n) ab cos
b . c bcl) lv m) mv n) nv bc cos or
c . a calv lR mv mR nv nR ca cos
lR l) mR m) nR n) cos
l) lv m) mv n) nv cos . ..(1).
lv lR mv mR nv nR cos
lR a mR a nR a
l) b m) b n) b
lv c mv c nv c
lR mR nR
R
l
= abc ) m) n) .
lv mv nv
R
lR
V a b c l)
v
lv
R
) ) )
mR
m)
mv
nR
lR
n)  l)
nv
lv
1
cos
) ) ) cos
1
a
b
c
v
cos cos
R
1
cos
R
1
V = = abc cos
cos cos
mR
m)
mv
nR
n)
nv
lR l) mR m) nR n)
l)) m)) n))
lv l) mv m) nv n)
cos
cos [using the relations (1)].
1
lR lv mR mv nR nv
l) lv m) mv n) nv
l)v m)v n)v
cos
cos .
1
The negative sign will be neglected in calculating the magnitude of the volume V.
To find the volume V of the tetrahedron when equations of its four faces are given
Let the equations of the planes representing the four faces of the tetrahedron be
aR x bR y cR z dR = 0 (1),
a) x b) y c) z d) = 0 (2),
av x bv y cv z dv = 0 (3),
a x b y c z d = 0 (4).
Now a set of any three planes out of the four planes given above, will intersect in a point, a vertex of the
tetrahedron.
Hence the four planes, taking three at a time, will intersect in .Cv i.e. 4 points, the four vertices of the
tetrahedron. Now, solving (2), (3) and (4) by the method of determinants, we get
H
3 G
3 R
+ . +  +  .
(5).
.


.
.
+
+
.
.
+
+


+
+


.
.
aR bR cR dR
a) b) c) d)
Suppose = a c . Let the capital letters represents the cofactors of the corresponding small
v bv
v dv
a b c d
letters in the determinants , i.e. AR , BR , CR , DR , A) , B) , etc, represents the cofactors of
aR , bR , cR , dR , a) , b) , etc, respectively in .
H
3G
3R
The result (5) may be written as = 3 = = 3 .
The point of intersection of the planes (2), (3), and (4) is (AR /DR , BR /DR , CR /DR ).
Similarly solving the other three sets of three planes, the points of intersection i.e. the other three vertices
of the tetrahedron are F , , I ; F , , I ; F , , I.
The required volume V of the tetrahedron is given by
V=
AR
A)
Av
A
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
BR
B)
Bv
B
CR
C)
Cv
C
DR
D)
Dv
D
then = 0 3 R]
V =
 . . +
+
 
.
+
 . +

+
 
i
j
k
b  c = bR b) bv = (b) cv bv c)) (bR cv bv cR ) (bR c) b) cR ) k&.
cR c) cv
 c aR b) cv bv c) a) bR cv bv cR av bR c) b) cR
a . b
aR a ) a v
= bR b) bv .
cR c) cv
bRl b) m
av n, b
bv n, c cRl c) m
cv n then
In general, if a aRl a) m
aR a ) a v
c] = bR b) bv [l m
[a b
n], where l, m
and n are noncoplanar vectors.
cR c) cv
(2) In scalar triple product, the position of dot and cross can be interchanged, provided the cyclic
order of vectors remain the same.
c] = [c a
 c = c . a  b
or a . b
 c c . a  b
a  b
. c.
Proof: Since, [a b
b] a . b
(3) The value of the scalar triple product remains the same in magnitude, but changes the sign, if the
and is changed.
cyclic order of ,
c] = a . b
 c a . c  b
ac  b
[a c b
].
Proof: [a b
(4) The scalar triple product of three vectors is zero if any two of the given vectors are equal.
[a b
c] = [a a c] = a  a) . c = 0. Similarly, if
c] = 0
Proof: Let a b
b c or c a, [a b
c] = ba  b
. c = (a  b
) . c = [a b
c].
Proof: [ a b
(6) The scalar triple product of three vectors is zero, if any two of them are parallel or collinear.
, c,
d be any four vectors, then
Lagranges Identity: If a, b
. c
. c 
.
. c = y a. c b
a  b
d = a. cb
d a.
db
y
d
b.
d
a.
of four vectors.
 c: If a, b
, c are any three vectors, then
Formula for vector triple product: a  b
 c a . c b
a . b
c.
a  b
 c (1).
a  b
Proof: Let P
 c
Then P b
P is perpendicular to the vector perpendicular to plane of
b and c.
Hence, P lies in the plane of b and c.
Since, P lies in the plane of
b and c, hence P can be expressed as a linear combination of
b and c.
xb yc ...(2).
Let P
Taking dot product of both sides of (1) with a, we get
. a yc . a.
P . a xb
a P
. a = 0
But, P
. a) + y(c . a) = 0
x(b
H
G
. .+
(say.
3 . +
. a ba . b
.
x = (c . a), y = (a . c) and y = bb
Putting these values of x and y in (2), we get
a . b
c or a  b
 c (a . cb
a . b
c ..(3)
P (a . cb
and c.
(3) is true for all vectors a, b
, c in (3), we get
Putting a , b
  [( . . ]
(0
 k
= 1.
Putting the value of in (3),
 c a . cb
a . b
c
we get a  b
NOTE 1:
 c  a b
. ac c . ab
,
b
 c  a a  b
 c [a . cb
a . b
c] = a . b
c a . cb
= b
. ac c . ab
.
b
NOTE 2:
 c a . cb
a .
b
. ca.
We have, a  b
bc and a 
b  c a . cb
 c a  b
 c.
Thus, a  b
For any three noncoplanar vectors , , ;
b
 c c  a
Use: ; a  b
 c 
If a,
b , c ,
d are any four vectors, then the product of the form a  b
d is called the vector
product of four vectors.
, c,
If a, b
d be any four vectors, then
cd
a  b  c 
d = a b
dc a b
b
c
= a c
db
da
st
Way to remember: For 1 half exchange b, c and then lift a and put it at the end
Geometrical Interpretation:
 c 
and P c 
Let P = a  b
d. Then P a  b
d.
Hence P represents a vector parallel to the line of intersection of two planes one of which is parallel to the
 .

 +
,q
, r .
, c] 0.
where V = [a, b
, c and p, q
Then the two systems a, b
, r are said to be reciprocal systems of each other, because they satisfy
the following properties (which are reciprocal in nature).
.
. ; = 1.
(1) .
.  +
 .
R
, c] = 1, etc etc.
[a, b
.
. ; .
. ;
.
= 0.
(2) .
.  +
R
, c] = 0 etc etc.
a . q
a .
[a, b
, ] = 1. If [
,
, ;].[ ,
,
, ;] = , then . = 1 or .
(3) [
[p
, q
, r] = p . q
 r =
  .
.  +
 +
R
 c. {c  a . b
a c  a . ab
}]
= [b
R
 c. {V a 0 . b
}]
= [b
 c . a]
= [Vb
= . V . V .
R
(4)
 ;
,
; 
,

R
R
 ,
R .  +
 +
Consider