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Plagiarism is a specific means of unfair practice and is defined as using, without

acknowledgement, another persons work and submitting it for assessment, as
though it were your own work, for instance, through copying or
unacknowledged paraphrasing.
Examples of plagiarism include (but are not restricted to):
Use of any quotation(s) from the published or unpublished work of other
persons which have not been clearly identified as such by being placed in
quotation marks and acknowledged;
Summarising another person's ideas, judgments, figures, software or
diagrams without reference to that person in the text and the source in the
Submission of another students work as your own;
Submission of the same essay written by you to two different supervisors
(self plagiarism);
The use of essay writing agencies/internet sites in the preparation of
assessed work.
You can avoid plagiarism by observing the following guidelines:
Anything that is copied or quoted from another source must be in
quotation marks and attributed to the original author. References taken
from Internet sources must be fully cited e.g. www. including the date the site was visited.
If you paraphrase the work of other (put their ideas into your words), you
must acknowledge the source. This can be done by using phrases such as
Ehrhart maintains that .., Ehrhart provides evidence for .., It is
argued by Ehrhart that . And so on.
Where you are generally indebted for your ideas to one or two main
sources, make this clear in a general statement early on (you can use a
footnote or endnote for this). Similarly, where you draw extensively on
lecture notes, say so.
These conventions may seem archaic in the contexts of free availability, freeflow, and free exchange of information. In the culture of the academy [...] the
free exchange of information is a long-standing ideal. Under certain
circumstances, this ideal is described as academic freedom. But nothing about
academic freedom or the free exchange of information implies ignoring
authorship. Academic standards require all writers to acknowledge the authors

who work they use [...] [MLA Handbook, 2009: 54] The MLA Handbook then
goes on to describe how the internet has made it easier to plagiarise, to buy and
download completed research papers. [54] As with books and journal articles
in print format internet sources need to be cited because you do not own the
ideas simply by buying an essay off the internet.
[There are some instances where citations are not required. For example, the
basic biography of an author or dates of a historical event can be used without
citation. However, if you are dealing with facts where there are disputes
amongst scholars, you do need to provide documentation. For instance, if you
said India attained independence from British colonial rule in 1947 that would
not require a footnote as it is generally accepted as a fact. However, if you were
making arguments about the beginning of US involvement in the Vietnam War
you would need citations as there is no single date that is universally accepted.]