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Engineering Studies
Preliminary Course
Stage 6

Bio-engineering

ES/S6 Prelim 41083

P0021885

Gill
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Acknowledgments
This publication is copyright Learning Materials Production, Open Training and
Education Network Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training,
however it may contain material from other sources which is not owned by Learning
Materials Production. Learning Materials Production would like to acknowledge the
following people and organisations whose material has been used.

All reasonable efforts have been made to obtain copyright permissions. All claims will be settled in
good faith.
Materials development:John Shirm
Coordination:

Jeff Appleby

Content review:

Stephen Russell

Illustrations:

Tom Brown

DTP:

Carolina Barbieri

Copyright in this material is reserved to the Crown in the right of the State of New South Wales.
Reproduction or transmittal in whole, or in part, other than in accordance with provisions of the
Copyright Act, is prohibited without the written authority of Learning Materials Production.
Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network Distance Education,
NSW Department of Education and Training, 1999. 51 Wentworth Rd. Strathfield NSW 2135.
Revised 2003

Module contents

Subject overview ................................................................................iii


Module overview................................................................................vii
Module components ................................................................. vii
Module outcomes .................................................................... viii
Indicative time ........................................................................... ix
Resource requirements...............................................................x

Icons

............................................................................................... xi

Glossary.............................................................................................xiii
Directive terms.................................................................................xvii
Part 1: Bio-engineering
scope of the profession................................................ 127
Part 2: Bio-engineering
materials ......................................................................... 139
Part 3: Bio-engineering
mechanical ..................................................................... 135
Part 4: Bio-engineering
communication .............................................................. 127
Part 5: Bio-engineering
engineering report......................................................... 119
Bibliography.......................................................................................21
Module evaluation ............................................................................23

ii

Subject overview

Engineering Studies Preliminary Course


Household appliances examines common appliances
found in the home. Simple appliances are analysed
to identify materials and their applications.
Electrical principles, researching methods and
techniques to communicate technical information are
introduced. The first student engineering report is
completed undertaking an investigation of materials
used in a household appliance.
Landscape products investigates engineering
principles by focusing on common products, such as
lawnmowers and clothes hoists. The historical
development of these types of products demonstrates
the effect materials development and technological
advancements have on the design of products.
Engineering techniques of force analysis are
described. Orthogonal drawing methods are
explained. An engineering report is completed that
analyses lawnmower components.
Braking systems uses braking components and
systems to describe engineering principles. The
historical changes in materials and design are
investigated. The relationship between internal
structure of iron and steel and the resulting
engineering properties of those materials is detailed.
Hydraulic principles are described and examples
provided in braking systems. Orthogonal drawing
techniques are further developed. An engineering
report is completed that requires an analysis of a
braking system component.

iii

Bio-engineering examines both engineering


principles and also the scope of the bio-engineering
profession. Careers and current issues in this field
are explored. Engineers as managers and ethical
issues confronted by the bio engineer are considered.
An engineering report is completed that investigates
a current bio- engineered product and describes the
related issues that the bio-engineer would need to
consider before, during and after this product
development.
Irrigation systems is the elective topic for the
preliminary modules. The historical development of
irrigation systems is described and the impact of
these systems on society discussed. Hydraulic
analysis of irrigation systems is explained. The
effect on irrigation product range that has occurred
with the introduction of is detailed. An engineering
report on an irrigation system is completed.

iv

HSC Engineering Studies modules


Civil structures examines engineering principles as
they relate to civil structures, such as bridges and
buildings. The historical influences of engineering,
the impact of engineering innovation, and
environmental implications are discussed with
reference to bridges. Mechanical analysis of bridges
is used to introduce concepts of truss analysis and
stress/strain. Material properties and application are
explained with reference to a variety of civil
structures. Technical communication skills
described in this module include assembly drawing.
The engineering report requires a comparison of two
engineering solutions to solve the same engineering
situation.
Personal and public transport uses bicycles, motor
vehicles and trains as examples to explain
engineering concepts. The historical development of
cars is used to demonstrate the developing material
list available for the engineer. The impact on
society of these developments is discussed. The
mechanical analysis of mechanisms involves the
effect of friction. Energy and power relationships are
explained. Methods of testing materials, and
modifying material properties are examined. A
series of industrial manufacturing processes is
described. Electrical concepts, such as power
distribution, are detailed are introduced. The use of
freehand technical sketches.
Lifting devices investigates the social impact that
devices raging from complex cranes to simple car
jacks, have had on our society. The mechanical
concepts are explained, including the hydraulic
concepts often used in lifting apparatus. The
industrial processes used to form metals and the
methods used to control physical properties are
explained. Electrical requirements for many devices
are detailed. The technical rules for sectioned
orthogonal drawings are demonstrated. The
engineering report is based on a comparison of two
lifting devices.

Aeronautical engineering explores the scope of the


aeronautical engineering profession. Career
opportunities are considered, as well as ethical
issues related to the profession. Technologies
unique to this engineering field are described.
Mechanical analysis includes aeronautical flight
principles and fluid mechanics. Materials and
material processes concentrate on their application
to aeronautics. The corrosion process is explained
and preventative techniques listed. Communicating
technical information using both freehand and
computer-aided drawing is required. The
engineering report is based on the aeronautical
profession, current projects and issues.
Telecommunications engineering examines the
history and impact on society of this field. Ethical
issues and current technologies are described.
The materials section concentrates on specialised
testing, copper and its alloys, semiconductors and
fibre optics. Electronic systems such as analogue
and digital are explained and an overview of a
variety of other technologies in this field is
presented. Analysis, related to telecommunication
products, is used to reinforce mechanical concepts.
Communicating technical information using both
freehand and computer-aided drawing is required.
The engineering report is based on the
telecommunication profession, current projects and
issues.
Figure 0.1 Modules

vi

Module overview

Bio-engineering explores a new and developing field of human


endeavour. This field combines engineering and medical research to
produce artificial biological components to take the place of human
organs that are defective. Examples include artificial joints, artificial
limbs, bionic ears, artificial hearts and dental replacements.
In addition to designing human organs that are effective substitutes,
engineers have the added challenge of using materials that are compatible
with living tissue. The task of a bio-engineer is to develop replacement
human organs that will be effective substitutes yet not be rejected by the
body or promote dangerous side effects. In this way bio-engineering
promotes a better quality of life for those who suffer from loss of a limb
or a defective organ.
In this module you will investigate products of bio-engineering; the
materials used by bio-engineers; the mechanics of bio-engineered
component as well as use conventional drawing techniques to draw
bio-engineered equipment.

Module components
Each module contains three components, the preliminary pages, the
teaching/learning section and additional resources.

The preliminary pages include:

module contents

subject overview

module overview

icons

glossary

directive terms.

Figure 0.2 Preliminary pages

vii

The teaching/learning parts may


include:

part contents

introduction

teaching/learning text and tasks

exercises

check list.

Figure 0.3 Teaching/learning section

The additional information may


include:

module appendix

bibliography

module evaluation.

Additionalr

esources

Figure 0.4 Additional materials

Support materials such as audiotapes, video cassettes and computer disks


will sometimes accompany a module.

Module outcomes
At the end of this module, you should be working towards being able to:
identify the scope of engineering and recognises current innovations
(P1.1)
describe the types of materials, components and processes and
explains their implications for engineering development (P1.2)
describe the nature of engineering in specific fields and its
importance to society (P2.2)
use mathematical, scientific and graphical methods to solve
problems of engineering practice (P3.1)
develop written, oral and presentation skills and applies these to
engineering reports (P3.2)
apply graphics as a communication tool (P3.3)

viii

describe developments in technology and their impact on engineering


products (P4.1)
identify the social, environmental and cultural implications of
technological change in engineering (P4.3)
apply management and planning skills related to engineering (P5.2)
apply knowledge and skills in research and problem-solving related
to engineering (P6.1)

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

Indicative time
The Preliminary course is 120 hours (indicative time) and the HSC
course is 120 hours (indicative time).
The following table shows the approximate amount of time you should
spend on this module.
Preliminary modules

Percentage of time

Approximate
number of hours

Household appliances

20%

24 hr

Landscape products

20%

24 hr

Braking systems

20%

24 hr

Bio-engineering

20%

24 hr

Elective: Irrigation systems

20%

24 hr

HSC modules

Percentage of time

Approximate
number of hours

Civil structures

20%

24 hr

Personal and public transport

20%

24 hr

Lifting devices

20%

24 hr

Aeronautical engineering

20%

24 hr

Telecommunications engineering

20%

24 hr

ix

There are five parts in Bio-engineering. Each part will require about four
to five hours of work. You should aim to complete the module within 20
to 25 hours.

Resource requirements
To complete this module you will need access to the following material
and equipment:

technical drawing equipment

rule, 0.5 mm B grade pencil, protractor, set of compasses, drawing


board, tee-square, 6030 and 45 set squares, eraser

NSW Board of Studies approved calculator.

Icons

As you work through this module you will see symbols known as icons.
The purpose of these icons is to gain your attention and to indicate
particular types of tasks you need to complete in this module.
The list below shows the icons and outlines the types of tasks for Stage 6
Engineering studies.
Computer
This icon indicates tasks such as researching using an
electronic database or calculating using a spreadsheet.
Danger
This icon indicates tasks which may present a danger and
to proceed with care.
Discuss
This icon indicates tasks such as discussing a point or
debating an issue.
Examine
This icon indicates tasks such as reading an article or
watching a video.
Hands on
This icon indicates tasks such as collecting data or
conducting experiments.
Respond
This icon indicates the need to write a response or draw
an object.
Think
This icon indicates tasks such, as reflecting on your
experience or picturing yourself in a situation.

xi

Return
This icon indicates exercises for you to return to your
teacher when you have completed the part. (OTEN OLP
students will need to refer to their Learner's Guide for
instructions on which exercises to return).

xii

Glossary

As you work through the module you will encounter a range of terms that
have specific meanings. The first time a term occurs in the text it will
appear in bold.
The list below explains the terms you will encounter in this module.
abridged

condensed form of a larger document, extracts from


a larger body of text

amorphous

having no formal arrangement or structure

amputee

a person who has lost a limb

artificial
biological
components

bio-engineered replacement parts for the human


body

artificial heart

a broad term that covers all of the replacement


pumps and assisting mechanisms that aid a diseased
heart to function properly

baby boomer

the group of babies who are now adults who were


born immediately after the Second World War.
This group has a major impact on resources as they
have past through each stage of life. For example
schools and medical resources

bionic ear

a hearing device that is inserted into the inner ear


that synthesises sound and makes it clearer rather
than magnifying it

bio-reactor

a vessel used to maintain a sterile environment for


growing skin tissue

brazing

joining two metals by using brass as the adhesive


metal

cadaver skin

the skin of a deceased person

CD-ROM

compact disc that is inserted into a computer drive


in a similar way to a floppy disc but allowing for
much more memory to be stored

xiii

Cochlear implant

a hearing device that is inserted into the inner ear


that synthesises sound and makes it clearer rather
than magnifying it

cryopreserved

a technique for storing living matter at temperatures


well below freezing point

effort
electrocardiogram a unit for monitoring heart rates. usually consists of
a screen with a moving point that flashes as it
moves between acceptable levels
ethics

a system of moral principles, by which human


actions and proposals may be judged good or bad or
right or wrong

focus engineering
report

a report written to analyse an engineering situation,


need or product based on a selected engineering
field

flux

a powder or liquid used to clean metal when


soldering or brazing

fulcrum
hermetic seal

a seal which creates an environment that is


completely isolated from outside influence

intra-aortic
balloon pump

a form of artificial heart that is inserted into the


aorta

inter-library loan

an arrangement between libraries that allows for


books to be loaned from other libraries across the
state and nationally

Internet

an international connection of computers that


allows for the storage and communication of
information

load

xiv

laser beam

a high intensity beam of radiation

myoelectric
impulses

tiny electric currents that allow muscles to be


operated

neonatal tissue

the tissue of an infant human

ophthalmology

study of the anatomy, functions, and diseases of the


eye

optometry

a profession relating to eyes and the development of


lenses to correct faults in vision

pathogens

disease causing organisms

presbyopia

the loss of strength in the muscles that alter the


shape of the lens in the eye thus causing a loss in
the ability to read

prosthesis

artificial body part

scaffold

a framework on which something can be built

search engine

a component of the Internet that allows the used to


search the web of computers across the world for
key words or phrases

strain

the ratio of extension to original length for a


material under a tension load

stress

load per unit area, measured in pascals as load


divided by area

soldering

joining two metals by using an alloy of lead and tin


as the adhesive metal

welding

joining of two similar metals by fusing or melting


them together

X-rays

high powered rays that pass through matter and


leave an image on film

Youngs Modulus a measure of stress as to strain that is an indication


of elasticity of a material

xv

xvi

Directive terms

The list below explains key words you will encounter in assessment tasks
and examination questions.
account

account for: state reasons for, report on;


give an account of: narrate a series of events or
transactions

analyse

identify components and the relationship between


them, draw out and relate implications

apply

use, utilise, employ in a particular situation

appreciate

make a judgement about the value of

assess

make a judgement of value, quality, outcomes,


results or size

calculate

ascertain/determine from given facts, figures or


information

clarify

make clear or plain

classify

arrange or include in classes/categories

compare

show how things are similar or different

construct

make, build, put together items or arguments

contrast

show how things are different or opposite

critically
(analyse/evaluate)

add a degree or level of accuracy depth, knowledge


and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection
and quality to (analysis/evaluation)

deduce

draw conclusions

define

state meaning and identify essential qualities

demonstrate

show by example

xvii

describe

provide characteristics and features

discuss

identify issues and provide points for and/or against

distinguish

recognise or note/indicate as being distinct or


different from; to note differences between

evaluate

make a judgement based on criteria; determine the


value of

examine

inquire into

explain

relate cause and effect; make the relationships


between things evident; provide why and/or how

extract

choose relevant and/or appropriate details

extrapolate

infer from what is known

identify

recognise and name

interpret

draw meaning from

investigate

plan, inquire into and draw conclusions about

justify

support an argument or conclusion

outline

sketch in general terms; indicate the main


features of

predict

suggest what may happen based on available


information

propose

put forward (for example a point of view, idea,


argument, suggestion) for consideration or action

recall

present remembered ideas, facts or experiences

recommend

provide reasons in favour

recount

retell a series of events

summarise

express, concisely, the relevant details

synthesise

putting together various elements to make a whole

Extract from The New Higher School Certificate Assessment Support


Document, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

xviii

Bio-engineering

Part 1: Bio-engineering
scope and history of the profession

Part 1 contents

Introduction ......................................................................................... 2
What will you learn? ...................................................................2

The scope of Bio-engineering .......................................................... 3


Nature and range of work done ...................................................4
Current projects, technologies and innovations ............................4
Health and safety matters ......................................................... 10
Training for the profession ........................................................ 12
Relations with the community.................................................... 12
Ethics in engineering ................................................................ 13
Engineers as managers............................................................ 14

The impact of bio-engineering........................................................ 15


Exercises........................................................................................... 19
Progress check................................................................................. 25
Exercise cover sheet ....................................................................... 27

Bio-engineering

Introduction

In this part you will explore the development of the field of bioengineering and the associated issues including training, career pathways
as well as ethical and safety considerations.

What will you learn?


Students will learn about:

scope of the profession

nature and range of work and careers, current projects and


innovations, health and safety matters, training for the
profession, relations with the community, technologies unique
to the profession, ethics and engineering and engineers as
managers

historical and societal influences

historical background to bio-engineering, historical


developments of products, the effect of bio-engineering on
peoples lives.

Students will learn to:

conduct research on the nature and range of work done by bio-engineers

identify the health and safety issues relevant to bio-engineering

appraise the training requirements and career prospects

debate social and ethical issues relating to bio-engineering

discuss the impact of bio-engineering on peoples lives.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

The scope of bio-engineering

Bio-engineering applies the basic principles of engineering to the


development of innovative methods for the diagnosis and treatment of
diseases and injuries as well as playing a crucial role in the advancement
of medical devices and technologies. It is an interdisciplinary subject,
which combines wide-ranging scientific knowledge with technological
processes and engineering skills to provide systems for many
applications.
Bio-engineers can be involved in a diverse array of fields including
bio-materials and biomechanics, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
computing and image processing, nuclear medicine, ultrasonics,
nanotechnology and can include the application of mechanics to
musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. Bioengineers can be
involved in developing systems for the rejuvenation and maintenance of
sustainable environments.
Bio-engineering can involve designing and developing new instruments
for monitoring the performance of human organs, such as the heart,
developing information structures, such as computer generated models of
joints, like the hip or knee, as well as creating new materials for bioengineered articles, such as artificial hearts and cochlear implants. Bioengineering involves any area of human exercise where an article or
system is developed that will replace or enhance a body organ or
function.
These powerful technologies allow vast new possibilities for increasing
our understanding of complex living organisms and, ultimately, for
preventing disease, maintaining health, and improving the quality of life.

Bio-engineering

Nature and range of work done


Established areas in bio-engineering include:

Bio-mechanics deals with the mechanical functioning of parts of


the body, such as joints and limbs

Bio-materials deals with the study of materials that are compatible


with living tissue

Bio-instrumentation relates to the design and development of


instruments that can be used to monitor and measure bio-engineered
devices

Bio-computing relates to the development and application of


computer programs that will simulate biophysics

Rehabilitation engineering relates to the design and development


of rehabilitation equipment, such as wheelchairs and crutches

Systems physiology involves the observation and measurement of


physiological events, for example the electronic impulses between
muscles and hands.

Specialists often work together to solve specific problems. The development


of the artificial heart relied on computer simulation programs of fluid and
the hearts action, bio-materials experts to identify bio-compatible materials,
bio-instrumentation engineers to develop suitable heart monitoring
equipment as well as rehabilitation engineers.
Bio-engineers are involved in an extensive array of projects that cover so
many areas it is almost impossible to define what they do. It perhaps is
easier to say that they are not involved in civil, aeronautical and transport
engineering yet!

Current projects, technologies and


innovations
There are many projects currently being developed in the field of bioengineering, ranging from the development of mechanical artificial human
body parts, computer modeling and simulation for training surgeons, genetic
technologies including stem cell research and the growth of artificial organs.
Biomedical devices and bio-materials may be used to assist the human body
in many ways. Such devices can be used to assist or replace damaged or
diseased body parts either externally or internally.

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

Not only do bio-engineers have to develop suitable mechanisms to


imitate the function of a human organ, they are also faced with the
challenge of finding materials that are compatible with living tissue.
Developing a suitable mechanism is often relatively easy compared to
finding and developing bio-compatible materials with which to construct it.
List three bio-medical devices commonly used by many of the
population.
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Did you answer?
Contact Lenses
Eye Glasses
Dentures

The development of bio-engineered articles has been characterised by the


search to find suitable materials to use in the construction of devices.
If you have access to the internet further information on the range of bioengineered products able to be used in place of body parts can be found at
the following website:
<http://www.fda.gov/oc/opacom/kids/html/yorick_no.1.htm> (accessed
8.7.03)

Development of eye glasses


Many problems with vision are due to refractive errors where the optics
of the eye are out of focus, like a camera that has not been properly
focused. This may be due to diseases of the eye or due to a condition
known as presbyopia. The word presbyopia comes from the Greek for
elderly vision.
Presbyopia patients have trouble seeing clearly when reading or doing
other near work tasks. This is because the focusing mechanism of the eye
does not work as well as it gets older. Presbyopia is usually experienced
at 40 to 50 years of age and the first sign is that a book or newspaper is
held away from the eyes.

Bio-engineering

Glasses are a bio-engineered article that have been and are being
developed to overcome problems related to vision. Initially, there was a
single eyepiece called a monocle, which was little more than a
magnifying glass in a metal frame.
The development of glasses has occurred at two levels, the frames and
the lenses.
The frames were initially made from metal and were very heavy.
The development of lightweight, strong polymers and metal alloys have
reduced considerably the weight and increased their toughness.

Figure 1.1 Eye glasses

Optical lenses have also seen improvement in design and construction.


There are two fields of bio-engineering relating to vision and its
improvement. Optometry is a profession related to the eyes and the
development of lenses to correct faults in vision. The other is
Ophthalmology, the study of the anatomy, functions, and diseases of the
eye.
Lenses can have a specific purpose, such as reading or for distance
vision. Combination lenses, such as bifocals, allow for reading in the
bottom section and normal vision in the top section. This allows a user
to alternate between normal vision and reading without removing their
glasses. Lenses are available now that are light sensitive, becoming
darker in sunlight so that they can be used to reduce ultraviolet light in
the same way as sunglasses.

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

Contact lenses that float on the tear fluid covering the cornea of the eye
can be used to correct refractive errors. This allows a user to be
independent of glasses as well as change the colour of his/her eyes with a
tinted lens.
Laser surgery is being used to alter the shape of the cornea as a way of
correcting refractive errors thereby eliminating the need for glasses and
contact lenses completely.
The design and development of glasses has expanded considerably since
the use of monocles. Research is being undertaken in the development of
silicon chip implants inside the eye that are connected to the optic nerve
and the brain to restore vision to blind people.

Development of artificial limbs


The use of artificial limbs is not new, evidence has been found that as
early as 2500 BC splints were being used in Egypt while Herodotus in
500 BC wrote about a slave who escaped by cutting off his foot and
replacing it with a wooden substitute. A copper and wooden leg was
unearthed at Capri, Italy in 1858, which dated from 300 BC.
The American Civil War raised the awareness of the need for the
development of replacement body parts. After the War the government
promised replacement limbs for all of the 30 000 solders that became
amputees.
Modern artificial limbs, known as prosthetics, include legs, feet, arms,
hands and eyes.

The artificial hand


You may have seen characters such as Captain Hook whose hand was
bitten off by a crocodile in the movie Peter Pan or other pirates like him
who lost a hand during a sword fight and had it replaced by a steel hook.
This was a practical alternative which allowed people to get on with their
job and daily life.
The next phase in the development of an artificial hand was a metal hand
with joints on two fingers and the remaining three rigid. This looked
acceptable under a glove and could be used for simple tasks.
Teams of bio-engineers, computer programmers and medical experts,
such as physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons, have combined their
skills to develop artificial limbs and joints. Computers can now simulate
the movement of a bone or joint under different loads and conditions.
Bio-engineers have used these results to refine and improve the motion
and flexibility the artificial hands.

Bio-engineering

Modern artificial hands work with a pincer movement between two or


three fingers and a thumb. It is often covered with a skin like plastic
glove to give it a realistic appearance. The major change in the modern
artificial hands has been in the development of electric sensing apparatus
that allows the hand to be controlled by muscle movements. Muscles
operate by extremely small electric currents known as myoelectricity.
Metal discs situated inside the socket of the stump touch tissue and pick
up these myoelectric impulses. These impulses are then amplified and
used to activate and control an electric motor in the prosthesis.
The actions of the artificial hand are similar to a natural hand in that
muscles are used to send impulses, which can open and close the fingers.
After the fitting of an artificial hand the recipient will have to relearn
how to grasp and hold objects, as the muscles sending the signals to the
prosthesis are different to the ones that worked the origional hand.
Modern technology, improved design and the development of new
materials have seen artificial limbs develop to the point where they are
assisting people to return to something approaching a normal life and
make a big improvement on the quality of life of an amputee.

Biomedical implants
Internal implants need to be surgically placed and can include metal pins,
screws and plates inserted into bones to act as supports. Artificial joints,
such as hip and knee joints are common. The cardiovascular system can
be aided with pacemakers, artificial heart valves and even an artificial
heart.

Cochlear implants
The cochlear implant, also known as the bionic ear, can improve the
ability of a severely impaired person to hear.
An electrode is surgically implanted into the nerve endings of the spiral
cochlear, inside the ear. The electrode is then attached to a receiver
implant, lying just below the skin and behind the ear. Outside the skin,
above the implant, sits a transmitting coil that receives electrical signals
from a speech processor that is connected to a microphone placed behind
the ear.
The microphone collects sounds, which are processed into electrical
signals and sent to the transmitting coil for conversion into radio (FM)
signals. These radio waves then carry a coded signal to the receiver
implant under the skin. The implant sends this signal to the electrode
inside the cochlear, stimulating the nerve endings, which are hopefully

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

converted into sounds by the brain. Figure 1.2 shows the internal implant
and the external attachments associated with the cochlear implant.
microphone
hook over ear
implant receives radio
waves (and sends signals
through electrode)
electrode stimulates nerve
endings inside cochlear

speech
processor

ear drum

transmitting coil (sends FM radio


waves through skin to implant)
Figure 1.2 Cochlear implant with external attachments

This device is not an amplifier that simply makes noise signals louder,
like many current hearing aids. It relies on the neurological structure of
the hearing nerve.
Dr Graeme Clark pioneered the development of the cochlear implant. He
has subsequently established the Bionic Ear Institute in Melbourne,
which continues development and research into the cochlear implants
and hearing aid innovations.
If you have access to the internet further information on the cochlear
implant can be found at the following websites:
<www.medoto.unimelb.edu.au/info/implant1.htm> (accessed 8.7.03)
<www.medoto.unimelb.edu.au/crc/> (accessed 8.7.03)
<www.phm.gov.au/hsc/cochlear/research.htm> (accessed 8.7.03)

Pacemakers and cardiac defibrillators


The pacemaker and the defibrillator are small devices that are implanted
into the body to assist people with a dysfunctional heart. A pacemaker
can be used to send tiny electrical shocks to the heart ensuring a regular
heart rhythm.
Pacemakers are designed to treat bradycardia, a heart rate that is too
slow. They are programmed to send electrical pulses at fixed rates and at

Bio-engineering

increased rates during periods of exercise or should there be a pause in


the heart rhythm.
Defibrillators continuously monitor the heart rhythm in order to detect
overly rapid arrhythmias, or abnormal heart beats. These arrhythmias
can impair the efficiency of the heart to pump blood and can greatly
enhance the risk of fainting and sudden cardiac arrest. Such a condition
is life threatening and can result from coronary artery disease or heart
muscle diseases, cardiomyopathies. A defibrillator can correct the heart
rhythm by using precisely calibrated electrical shocks, as needed to
restore a normal heartbeat.
If you have access to the internet further information on the cochlear
implant can be found at the following websites:
<http://www.heartfoundation.com.au/heart/index_fr.html> (accessed 9.7.0
<http://eng.serv.edu/~cd/EE5340/lec15/sid005.htm> (accessed 9.7.03)
Alternatively, use a key word search to develop the history of the
pacemaker.
Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 1.1.

Health and safety matters


Due to the diversity of the field of bio-engineering, health and safety
issues can have significant impact on the welfare of the individual and
the community both in the short and long-term.
The recognition of such risks to humans and the wider community has
resulted in the trialling of all developments in controlled environments so
as to minimize negative results. These environments can include
computer generated simulations, controlled isolated laboratory
experiments and testing on non-human species before trials are
considered on restricted members of the population.
This rigid testing schema still does not guarantee the safety of the bioengineered product.
Biocompatibility of materials with the body is an essential requirement if
materials are to be placed into, onto or react with human tissue. Whilst
trials attempt to predict future outcomes, they are not in all cases
foolproof and the presence of a risk will always be present.
A recent example of problems with biocompatibility has been with the
use of silicon breast implants. These cosmetic implants were designed to

10

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

alter the shape of the body and involved inserting a sealed silicon bag
into the breast by a seemingly simple operation. Over time it has been
found these bags have, in some instances, leaked resulting in dangerous
medical complications.
All implant procedures carry biocompatibility risks but there are further
concerns with the hygiene aspects related to:

the construction of the implant

the surgical procedure

and surgical environment.

The work environment can also cause health problems. This can be
exemplified in the areas where X-rays are used, such as hospitals, dentist
surgery and chiropractic centers. The radiation generated from X-ray
machines has the power to damage body tissue and kill cells.
The effects of short term exposure to high dose radiation can include
nausea, vomiting, fever, haemorrhage, anaemia and in extreme cases
death can result. Long term exposure to radiation can cause bone
degeneration severe burns, sterility, marrow damage, genetic mutation,
malformation of foetuses, leukemia and other forms of cancer.
People working with radiation equipment, such as medical staff in
hospital and dentist surgeries, need to protect themselves where
fluoroscopy, nuclear materials like uranium, radium and radioactive
isotopes are used.
Basic protection that must be observed includes, minimal exposure time,
maximum distance from source and shielding with protective clothing.
There must also be thorough and approved methods of dealing with the
contaminated radioactive waste products that are produced from these
machines.
Another concern is the long-term effect of genetic modification of plants
which is still yet to be determined. This is of particular concern with the
current introduction of genetically modified (GM) foods into the
domestic and commercial food markets.
Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 1.2.

Bio-engineering

11

Training for the profession


Students interested in studying bio-engineering may not start a specific
course on bio-engineering but may begin a basic course in an unrelated
area and then specialise as their training continues.
As the average age of the Western worlds population increases, bioengineering and medical needs will increase. This has meant that most
major universities in large cities in countries like USA, England and
Germany have a Faculty of Biomedical Engineering. A search on the
Internet under this topic will reveal these Universities, the courses they
offer and the research work they are undertaking.
Biomedical engineering at University of New South Wales is offered
through the Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering. The courses
build upon a solid professional engineering base in Chemical, Computer,
Electrical or Mechanical Engineering, integrating these engineering
sciences with the biomedical sciences.
The Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering is internationally recognised
for its contribution to biomedical engineering education and research. The
postgraduate programs reflect the strength of biomedical engineering at
University of New South Wales. Graduates may enrol in Masters degrees by
coursework or undertake a program of research that leads to a Master of
Engineering, Master of Science or Doctor of Philosophy degree.
Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 1.3.

Relations with the community


Bio-engineers are in a unique position, due to their skills as designers and
engineers, to improve the life prospects of people.
A wide variety of community projects are being implemented throughout
the world, including:

the distribution and fitting of leg prothesis to the many victims of


land mine incidents in numerous parts of the world, including
Middle East, Afghanistan, Africa and parts of Europe

opthalmic surgery in Africa and parts of Asia

environmental regeneration in South America including Panana.

Further research has been focusing on:

12

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

developing of protein-based pharmaceuticals that target the disease


process

manipulating nanotechnology using light-driven chemistry to


connect electrical systems with chemical systems, thus merging
electronics with biology

understanding the neural implant/brain interface and practical


application of direct thought control of assistive devices. Such
projects will integrate nano/micro technology, advanced materials,
neuroscience, information and system sciences to provide effective
brain/machine interfaces that will control devices in complex
situations

developing plants as low cost, highly-efficient vaccine production


systems, especially suitable for development and distribution in
developing countries. Significant research is being conducted in
Africa and India using naturally occurring plants as inhibitors or
repellants for the malaria carrying mosquitoes

studying the gene interaction networks responsible for transforming


a single fertilised egg cell into complex adult animals

improving the quality of life of individuals with disabilities by


designing and developing technology to counteract the effects of
neurological disorders.

The effects on the community are wide ranging but concentrate on the
development and the enhancement of the individual and the wider
environment.

Ethnics in engineering
Ethics can be described as a system of moral principles, by which human
actions and proposals may be judged.
By its nature ethnics is a particularly difficult area to address and is
emphasised by the absence of ethics units in many of the engineering
courses offered by universities today.
Other professions have established formal guidelines that direct the
practitioner as to their ethical responsibilities. Such examples exist in the
field of medicine (Hippocratic oath) and in the fields of legal ethics and
business ethics. The engineering profession has as yet to formalise their
ethics practices.
To date the engineer has been guided by the legal requirements of the
country within they are working. Australian bio-engineers conduct their
research on animals in accordance with the guideline set down by

Bio-engineering

13

Animal Welfare Acts within each State and Territory. Other aspects of
their research will be guided by community expectations as to the
ethicacy of their work.
Would a bio-engineer working in a highly populated, relatively poor
country face the same ethical considerations as a colleague in Australia?
Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 1.4.

Engineers as managers
It can be the task of an engineer, to initiate a design and then coordinate a
team of experts, such as materials analysts, welders, fabricators,
accountants and advertising agents to see a project through from initial
design concept to a commercially successful venture.
This may involve:

designing the article

analysing, testing and selecting suitable materials

exploring different methods of fabrication

testing prototypes

managing a budget

marketing the final article.

Many engineers train and begin their career in a specific engineering


discipline but as the engineer gains experience in an industry they will
find that they will be drawn away from the basics of the profession
towards a management role.
Engineers will begin to realise that the technical aspects are only part of
any problem, therefore only part of a solution. The problem will be seen
as an integrated task involving the coordination of the technical design
elements along with the aesthetic and human requirements of the client.
Marketing and business specialists traditionally played a significant role
in promoting a product or project. However, they will play an everdecreasing role, particularly as the complexity of projects become more
technical. The engineer manager will be required to become involved in
promotion because of their ability to understand and interpret the needs
of the client.

14

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

The impact of bio-engineering

Many bio-engineering products that have a direct effect on the lifespan of


the individual, such as the artificial heart, pacemaker and defibrillator.
Each of these products work at maintaining the rhythm of the heart,
therefore protecting the life of the user.

Pacemakers and defibrillators


The pacemaker and the defibrillator are devices that regulate the heart
beat. They work by using an electrical signal to stimulate the heart to
beat.
The pacemaker is typically used when a patients has an irregular heart
beat, thus the flow of blood about the body is inconsistent and unreliable.
The pacemaker stimulates the heart into a regular beat pattern producing
a consistent and reliable flow of blood.
Defibrillators are used when the heart has a tendency to spasm and cease
to function. The defibrillator sends an electric shock to the heart to break
it out of a spasm and is used with monitoring devices that automatically
activate the defibrillator when needed.
As mentioned previously the biocompatibility of materials is a critical
determiner of the success of the implant. Early pacemakers and
defibrillator were made by building electrical circuits containing
transistors and resistors powered by zinc mercury oxide batteries. The
unit for these devices was sealed in a polymer capsule and implanted into
the body. Early polymers were somewhat unstable in this environment
and began to break down. This allowed fluids to penetrate the capsule
and cause the electrics to short circuit.
The plastic capsule was replaced with one made from titanium a strong
and lightweight material that resists all forms of chemical attack.
Titanium can be pressed into the desired shape without too much
difficulty. However, titanium is extremely difficult to join and somewhat
unstable at higher temperatures. If it is heated to above 600C it will
ignite and can be only put out with the use of inert gas extinguishers.
Whilst this may not be a problem once implanted into the body it creates

Bio-engineering

15

a hazardous manufacturing environment. An example of a pacemaker is


shown in, figure 1.3. The body is made from titanium and is welded
together using laser welding techniques. This welding is completed in a
vacuum vessel to prevent the materials from igniting.

Figure 1.3 Pacemaker

The wires that run from the pacemaker to the heart delivering the
electrical shock are made from platinum or a similar material. They are
mounted in a ceramic block attached to the top of the pacemaker and are
further sealed by the use of a silicon preparation applied to all seams.

Artificial hearts
Human artificial hearts have been developed to act as auxillary devices to
the heart whilst a transplant organ is being sourced.
There are a variety of types but one successful example is the Intra-aortic
balloon pump (IABP). This system uses a process of counterpulsation
whereby the blood flow to the heart is increased and the hearts workload
is decreased. A devise containing a small balloon is inserted into the
aorta and it is inflated when the heart muscle relaxes, this increases aortic
pressure, pushing the blood from the aorta to the body and minimizes
back flow of the blood. The balloon is deflated just before the next heart
muscle pump, this reduces the pressure against which the heart needs to
pump and results in an improved blood flow and reduced workload on
the heart. The gas used to inflate the balloon is helium, an inert gas that
has a low viscosity, meaning that it will quickly flow into and from the
balloon.

16

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

Aorta

Balloon catheter

Inserted here

Figure 1.4

A balloon catheter

This procedure has been used in over 100 000 patients per year in the US
and is used before, during and after open heart surgery, during acute
attacks of angina, in emergency situations (heart attack, congestive heart
failure or very low blood pressure due to cardiogenic shock, that is,
inadequate circulation) and through waiting periods as patients are
prepared for a heart transplant. In most instances this process is only
used for a few days or weeks.
There has been further research into mechanical hearts but to date they
have all been used as temporary bridging mechanisms until a suitable
human heart becomes available.
The availability of donor hearts is becoming less and less able to meet
the needs of patients. In the US some 105 000 cardiac patients require
heart transplants but there are only 3 000 hearts becoming available
annually.
Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 1.5.

Bio-engineering

17

18

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

Exercises

Exercise 1.1
a

Trace the historical development of eye glasses and answer the


following questions.
i

Describe how has the material used in eye glasses frames


construction has changed.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

ii

Outline how the function of eye glasses has evolved.


___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

iii Explain how the development of eye glasses has improved the
quality of the life of the people who use them.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

Bio-engineering

19

20

Trace the development of pacemakers and illustrate on a time line


below.

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

Exercise 1.2
a

Identify one health and safety issue in the field of bioengineering.


___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

ii

Outline the procedure in place to reduce the risk.


___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

Bio-engineers use their skills to address specific body defects and


improve the quality of life and life prospects of those they assist.
Discuss this statement with reference to one example of the impact
of bio-engineering on peoples lives.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

Bio-engineering

21

Exercise 1.3
a

Outline a training path that would lead to a career in bio-engineering.


You may need to talk to a career adviser.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

To be effective in their profession a bio-engineer needs to have


skills in addition to those gained from their initial training.
Explain this statement in relation to the nature and range of work
done by engineers.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

Exercise 1.4
a

Animals, such as pigs, should be farmed to provide an adequate


supply of organs for human transplants.
Discuss the ethics of this statement.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

22

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
Exercise 1.5
a

Source an article on a bio-engineered product:


i

attach a copy or a summary of the article

ii

provide the bibliographic reference (authors name, date of


publication, title of article, publisher, place of publication).

Name of the product you have selected.


___________________________________________________

ii

State the purpose the product serves.


___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

iii List material/s used to manufacture early versions of the


product.
___________________________________________________

Bio-engineering

23

___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
iv

Outline the materials used to manufacture current versions of


the product.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

Explain the role of the engineering profession in the design and


production of the product.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

24

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

Progress check

In this part you were introduced in the field of bio-engineering.

Disagree revise your work

Uncertain contact your teacher

Uncertain

Agree well done


Disagree

Agree

Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box that best
represents your level of understanding.

I have learnt about

scope of the profession


the nature and range of work done, the current
projects and innovations, health and safety matters,
training for the profession, career prospects, relations
with the community, technologies unique to the
profession, ethics and engineering, engineers as
managers,
historical and societal influences
the historical background to bio-engineering, the
historical developments of products, the effect of bioengineering on peoples lives.

I have learnt to

conduct research on the nature and range of work done


by bio-engineers
identify the health and safety issues relevant to bioengineering
appraise the training requirements and career prospects
debate social and ethical issues relating to bioengineering
discuss the impact of bio-engineering on peoples lives.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http//www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

In the next part you will examine the materials, components and
processes involved in the field of bio-engineering.

Bio-engineering

25

26

Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

Exercise cover sheet

Exercises 1.1 to 1.5

Name: _____________________________

Check!
Have you have completed the following exercises?
Exercise 1.1
Exercise 1.2
Exercise 1.3
Exercise 1.4
Exercise 1.5
If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education
Centre / School (DECs) you will need to return the exercise sheets with
your responses as you complete each part of the module. Do not return
all the notes. They should be kept for future reference.
If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open
Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learners Guide to determine which
exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record
Slip.

Bio-engineering

27

Bio-engineering

Part 2: Bio-engineering
materials

Part 2 contents
Introduction ..........................................................................................2
What will you learn?................................................................... 2

Engineering materials ........................................................................3


Forming methods....................................................................... 3
Appropriate materials ............................................................... 21

Technologies in bio-engineering ....................................................24


Laser beams ........................................................................... 24
X-rays ..................................................................................... 24
Burn injury technology.............................................................. 25

Research process.............................................................................27
Exercises ...........................................................................................29
Progress check .................................................................................35
Exercise cover sheet........................................................................37

Bio-engineering

Introduction
In this part you will examined materials used in bio-engineering, their
structure and properties and methods of forming.

What will you learn?


You will learn about:

forming methods

casting

forging

fabrication

structure and properties of appropriate materials.

You will learn to:

describe forming processes for materials used in bio-engineering

compare the microstructure and properties of materials used in


bio-engineering.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Engineering materials
A range of materials is used in bio-engineering. Each material has its
own unique structure and properties, and forming characteristics.

Forming methods
Like all manufactured products bio-engineered products are constructed
using industrial forming processes which include:

casting

forging

fabrication.

Casting
Casting is the pouring of a molten metal into a mould to form a specific
shape. Generally the shape is as close to the finished product as possible
except when forming ingots. Ingots are usually changed in shape at a
later time by other methods.
Generally casting is a cheaper method of making products when
compared with other methods of forming.
There are a number of physical properties that need to be considered
when producing products by casting. The structure and the physical
properties of the cast product can vary considerably depending on the
material that the mould is made from as the mould materials will affect
the cooling rate of the molten metal.
If heat is extracted quickly a finer grain structure results whereas slowly
cooled metals have a much larger grain structure. The direction that the
heat is removed can also result in the grains having directional properties.
If a molten metal is poured into a mould that is made of sand the initial
crystallisation occurs on the surface of the mould. This is a quick
process and results in the formation of very small grains, known as chill
grains. Once the chill grains have formed the cooling process can slow,
this allows for the formation of larger thin grains, known as columnar

Bio-engineering

grains. These grains grow in the direction that the heat is being drawn
out. This can be seen in figure 2.1 where there is a thin layer of chill
grains on the outside and columnar grains forming on the inside.

Columnar grains

Chill grains

Figure 2.1 Chill and columnar grains

If a different mould material were to be used then it would be possible to


impart directional properties into the cast material. For example a mould
with sand sides and a metal base and top would exhibit long columnar
grains flowing from the base with little grain growth from the sides.
The heat would be more readily drawn out through the metal surface.
The resulting structure is shown in figure 2.2.

Sand

Sand

Metal

Metal
Figure 2.2 Directional grain growth

In both of the previous examples the columnar grains will present as a


weakness and will allow the product to shear along the grain boundaries.
This can be seen in figure 2.3.

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Shear planes

Figure 2.3 Shear planes and columnar grains

In order to strengthen the cast sample it would be best if the central core
of the sample is able to cool at a slower, even rate thus allowing
equi-axed grains to grow. The term equi-axed refers to metallic grains
that have similar axis lengths in all directions and therefore exhibit
similar physical properties in all directions, as shown in figure 2.4.
equal length axes

equi-axed grain

non equi-axed grain

Figure 2.4 Equi-axed and non equi-axed grains

When casting the formation of equi-axed grains can be managed by


carefully monitoring and controlling the casting temperature. This will
eliminate the shear plane seen in figure 2.3.
If the casting temperature is too high then a structure similar to that
shown in figure 2.1 develops. Whereas the correct temperature will
result in an equi-axed core as shown in figure 2.5.
Chill grains

Columnar grains

Large equi-axed grains

Figure 2.5 Grain structure with correct casting temperature

Bio-engineering

Another important feature that needs to be considered when casting


ingots is the shrinkage of the metal in the cooling phase. The volume of
the metal decreases during the solidification phase and cavities tends to
form in the top of the ingot. This is called piping and the cavity is known
as an open or primary pipe as seen in figure 2.6.
Primary pipe

Columnar grains
Equiaxed grains
Chill grains

Figure 2.6 An open or primary pipe

When designing closed moulds piping needs to be taken into


consideration as a void can form in the center of the ingot, known as a
closed or secondary pipe, as shown in figure 2.7. .

Secondary pipe

Figure 2.7 Closed or secondary pipe

The effect of piping can be minimised by the addition of a hot top, as


shown in figure 2.8. A hot top is an addition to the mould, which can be
removed after the ingot solidifies. Any wasted material can be remelted
and used in the next casting.

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Pipe minimised
or removed after
solidification

Hot top

Figure 2.8 Ingot mould with a hot top in position

Types of casting
Sand casting
Sand is combined with clay and small amounts of linseed oil to form a
mix that can be used for casting. The sand needs be fine textured so that
it will accurately reproduce the article that is to be cast and provide an
acceptable level of finish. The finer the sand the better the finish on the
end product.
The first step in making a sand mould is to make a pattern that will be the
shape of the item that is to be moulded. The pattern can be made from
any material and is often made from timber. The pattern becomes the
positive from which a mould or negative is made.
When complex shapes are being made the pattern can be split in half and
then reassembled when it is placed in the casting boxes. This process can
be seen in figure 2.9.
The pattern, is positioned in the
bottom of the casting box.

Casting box

Pattern
Pattern placed on bottom
of casting box

Bio-engineering

The sand mix is then pressed into


the box covering the pattern.

Casting box rammed with sand

The pattern box is turned over and


the other half of the pattern is
positioned and a riser and a gate
plug are positioned.

Riser plug

Gate plug

Casting box turned over


and placed on top with riser
and gate plugs

The sand mix is then compacted


onto the top half of the pattern box.

Casting box rammed


with sand

The pattern box is split open and


the mould pattern and the riser plug
and the gate plugs are removed.

Riser

Gate

Patterns and plugs are


removed and riser and
gates are formed

The two halves of the pattern are


then rejoined together and ready
for casting. Molten metal is poured
into the gate and flows into the
mould cavity. The riser allows any
air to escape and the excess metal
will flow up the riser.

Moulten metal poured in


Figure 2.9 Sand casting

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

After the metal has been poured into the mould and then solidified the
sand mould is broken apart to reveal the casting.
Shell moulding
Shell moulding is a specific type of sand casting that uses exceptionally
fine sand bonded with a thermosetting resin to produce a thin walled
shell mould.
Shell moulding is a precision casting process that can create castings
with a superior surface finish and better dimensional accuracy than sand
castings.
The steps used to make a shell mould are described in figure 2.10.
A hot pattern is placed over a
dump box containing a sand
resin mix.

Hot Sand with


pattern
resin

Dump
box

Sand with resin is put in


the dump box

The dump box in turned upside


down and the sand/resin mix
coats the pattern. As the
pattern is hot the resin will
begin to cure and result in the
sand resin mix binding
together on the outer face of
the pattern.

Pattern and dump box inverted

The dump box is then upturned


leaving a thin coating of resinimpregnated sand of the outer
face of the pattern.

Pattern and dump box


rotated again

Bio-engineering

The pattern may then be


reheated to completely cure the
resin. The shell mould is
allowed to cool and is then
removed from the pattern.

Shell

Ejector pins

Shell removed using ejector pins

Two of the pattern halves are


then joined together.
Occasionally this is done with
the further application of resin
or with clamps. The mould
can then be supported in an
enclosed box of sand, gravel or
metal shot, prior to the pouring
of the casting metal. Molten
metal is then poured into the
mould.

Molten metal

Flask
Shells
Metal shot
Clamp
The shells are clamped
together and molten
metal is poured in
Figure 2.10 Shell moulding

The cost of producing the shell moulds is greater than sand moulds. Shell
mouldings are used in the production of many engine parts including
crankshafts, camshafts and rocker assemblies.
The moulds that are used in both sand and shell moulding are nonpermanent in nature and are generally destroyed when removing the cast
product.
It is essential that the patterns for the moulds are kept in excellent
condition as any fault in the pattern will be reflected in the
casting.
Investment casting
Investment casting is a very old method of casting metals, and dates
back to Egyptian times. This method requires that a positive, or
model, is made from a material such as wax. Other mould making
materials can include frozen mercury, low melting point metals and
some polymers including foaming resins.

10

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Once an exact model is made it is encased in a material that is capable


of withstanding the high temperatures used in casting. Plaster of Paris
is commonly used, as are aluminium silicates. The mould material is
then melted out, leaving a mould cavity and the casting metal is then
forced into the mould. Once solidified, the mould is broken open and
the solidified casting is removed. This process is shown in figure 2.11.
Wax patterns
mounted onto
a wax runner

Flask is filled
with investment
mould slurry

After mould material has


set and dried the patterns
are melted out of mould

Bottom plate

Molten metal poured into


mould by vacuum, gravity
or centrifugal force

Mould material
is broken away
from castings

Casting is trimmed
and polished

Figure 2.11 Investment casting

This style of casting usually produces articles that are of high


accuracy with excellent surface finishes. This casting technique is
used in the manufacture of jewellery and in the bio-engineering field
for customised prosthesis, for example crowns.
The term lost wax casting may be used when the original model was
made from wax.

Bio-engineering

11

Centrifugal casting
Centrifugal casting relies on centrifugal force to push the casting
material into the mould cavity. It is used to create hollow objects,
such as pipes, as shown in figure 2.12, or it can force the metal to
flow rapidly into mould cavities.
1
Sand or metal lining
Direct drive
or rollers
spin centrifugal
casting machine
Molten metal
is poured in
from basin
2

Casting

Figure 2.12 Cross section of a centrifugal casting machine used for casting
large diameter pipes

In addition to large diameter pipes, centrifugal casting can be used with


moulds made by investment casting techniques to produce complex
jewellery and precision bio-medical castings using gold or other precious
metals or their alloys. Figure 2.13 shows a variety of centrifugal cast
products.

Figure 2.13 Examples of centrifugal castings

12

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Die casting
Die casting uses metal dies that are used over and over again. It is
important that the metal that is being cast has a lower melting
temperature than the melting point of the die material, otherwise the die
would be damaged. It is for this reason that aliminium is often used as a
die casting material with the moulds being made from tool steel.
In die casting the metal is forced into the die cavity under significant
pressures. There are two methods of injecting the molten material into
the die:

Cold chamber molten metal is ladled into a chamber, and an


injection piston forces the metal into the casting cavity, as shown in
figure 2.14.
Molten
metal

Fixed
platten

Moving
platten

Fixed
block

Die

Casting
cavity

Ejector
pins

Finished casting

Injection
piston
Casting solidified with
mould ready to open

Figure 2.14 Cold chamber moulding

Gooseneck method the molten metal is forced, by compressed air


into the mould through a gooseneck, as shown in figure 2.15.

Molten metal is
forced into the die
by air-injection or
a piston

Gooseneck

Molten metal

Figure 2.15 Gooseneck moulding

Die casting, because of the permanent nature of the mould, is particularly


suited to large production runs where many articles are to be
manufactured. This process can be automated to further increase the
production efficiency.
Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 2.1.

Bio-engineering

13

Forging
Forging is the process of shaping metal by the use of localised
compressive forces. The example that might come to mind is that of a
blacksmith shaping a piece of metal with a bellows to heat the metal and
a hammer and anvil to shape it. Articles such as horseshoes are still
fashioned in this way.
An example of a bio-engineering part that is drop forged is the hub on the
wheel of a wheel chair. This is the part on the wheel that has the spokes
connected to it.

Figure 2.16 Typical wheel chair

Forging can be either a hot or cold working process. The definition of


hot working is when the metal is being deformed or worked at a
temperature that is above its recrystallisation temperature. The following
table below shows typical recrystallisation temperatures for some metals.

14

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Recrystallisation temperatures and melting points of some metals


Metal

Recrystallisation
Temperature oC

Melting points o C

Aluminium (Al)

150

660

Copper (Cu)

160

1085

Iron (Fe)

400

1535

Lead (Pb)

Below 20

327

Nickel (Ni)

600

1455

Tungsten (W)

1200

3410

Indicate the temperatures required to hot work the following materials:


1

iron

_______________________________________________

tungsten _______________________________________________

lead

_______________________________________________

Did you answer?


1

400 oC

1200 oC

< 20 o C

To hot work iron, the material has to be heated above 400oC, and for
tungsten it is necessary to work the metal above 1200oC, where as lead
can be hot worked at room temperature. Conversely, if tungsten is
deformed by working at a temperature of less than 1200oC it is said to be
cold worked.
The notion of hot and cold working can be confusing unless you know
the recrystallisation temperature of the material.
Why is recrystallisation important?

Whilst the process of recrystallisation is covered in greater detail in the


HSC module Personal and public transport the basics will be outlined in
order to understand the reasons why forged products are in many ways
superior to machined and cast products.

Bio-engineering

15

Before a piece of metal is forged its grain structure is usually uniform


and consists of equi-axed grains. As the forging process begins the grains
are physically altered in shape. The metallic grains will be transformed
from equi-axed to elongated grains by being compressed, when rolled, as
in figure 2.17.

Rolling direction
Cold worked structure

Original cast structure

Figure 2.17 Deformation of equi-axed grains by rolling

The compressed grains are stressed and can provide specific directional
properties. The resultant structure will exhibit high strength. If further
working or deformation occurs the material may fail or break.
When cold working, the grains in the material remain in this stressed
condition. However, if the material is heated to a temperature that is
above its recrystallisation temperature then the stressed grains will
reform into new stress free grains given time. The size of the new stress
free grains will depend on the degree of deformation. If there was a
significant degree of deformation then there will be more grains formed,
therefore a finer grain structure would result. These fine grains can be
enlarged if the metal is held at a temperature above its recrystallisation
temperature. This subsequent growth is known as secondary
recrystallisation.

16

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Rolling direction

Original equi-axed
grains

Physical
deformation

Recrystallisation
Primary

Secondary

Figure 2.18 Hot rolling recrystallisation of deformed grains

Types of forging
There are a number of different types of forging techniques. These
include:

blacksmithing

drop forging

press forging

upsetting

swaging.

Blacksmithing
Blacksmithing is accepted as the oldest form of forging and involves
heating the metal to a temperature where it can easily be deformed and
hitting it with a hand hammer. The art of blacksmithing was widely
applied in the past but currently it is generally limited to craft based
industries.
Drop forging
Drop forging is a technique that uses hydraulic pressure to operate a
hammer that shapes the metal. The hammer may operate directly onto
the metal or a press and die may be used to force metal into shape.
Dimensional accuracy is not as good for a drop forged article as it is for a
machined part, however there are other advantages in relation to grain
flow.

Bio-engineering

17

If a machine part was manufactured on a lathe the grain flow in the metal
will not follow the profile of the finished article. This can create localised
weaknesses that can cause the machine part to break under an applied
load. If the same part was hot drop forged with a hammer or a press and
die it will have a grain flow that follows the profile of the part
eliminating the plane of weakness seen in the machined part, as shown in
figure 2.19.

Plane of
weakness

Machined

Forged

Figure 2.19 Grain flow in a machined part and dropped forged

The machined component shows a weak plane at the shoulder because


the grain flow does not follow the profile. Alternatively, the grain flow
on the drop forged component shows that the grain follows the profile
and no planes of weakness exist. The forged component is more robust
than the machined component.
Press forging
Press forging differs from drop forging only in the manner in which the
load is applied to the material in the dies. In drop forging the metal is hit
rapidly with a hammer forcing it into the die. Press forging involves the
squeezing of the metal between two dies. This is a slow process where
the load is applied by hydraulic pressure rather than a series of rapid
blows.
Upsetting
Upsetting is a forging process that is often used in the manufacture of the
heads of bolts and is similar in nature to press forging but is often
completed cold. Upsetting is a general term that is applied to the forging
processes that involve the increasing of the cross sectional size of the
original material. An example of the upsetting process can be seen in
figure 2.20 showing the production of the head of a bolt.

18

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Force
Punch

Force

Grainflow or fibre in
the upset bolt head

Figure 2.20 Upsetting process

Swaging
Swaging is the specialised forging of cylindrical bars, rods or tubes so as
to increase or decrease their diameter. This can be achieved by forcing
the rod or tube inside a die, thus reducing the cross section of the
material or inserting a mandrel, that is a forming tool, inside a tube. This
will allow an increase in the effective diameter of the tube but will
decrease the wall thickness. Additionally, different shaped mandrels can
be inserted that will allow the inner surface to be a different shape to the
outer surface, for example the outer surface can remain circular with a
hexangular inner profile.

Before

After

Figure 2.21 Swaging

Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 2.2.

Bio-engineering

19

Fabrication
Fabrications involves the construction of an article by assembling a
number of other parts. These individual parts are fixed together by
joining methods such as:

welding

brazing

soldering

bolting.

Welding
Welding involves melting or fusing together to pieces of metal. Welding
is usually carried out on steel or aluminium, but brass and copper can
also be welded.
Brazing
Brazing normally describes the joining together of two pieces of steel
with a brass alloy. The steel, the parent metal is heated to above the
melting point of the brass, it then flows around the pieces of steel to be
joined. When the brass alloy solidifies the steel sections are bonded
together. The steel does not melt or flow.
A wheelchair is an example of a fabricated bio-engineered product. It
consists of a number of parts that are joined together to form the finished
product. The frame is made of tube sections, similar to those on a
bicycle, and are joined together by brazing.
Larger tube
Braze

Smaller tube
Figure 2.22 Tubing brazed into the joins of a wheelchair

20

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Soldering
Soldering is a similar process to brazing but the melting point of the
solder is at a lower temperature than brass. Solder is an alloy of lead and
tin.
When soldering it is necessary to ensure that the surfaces to be joined are
physically and chemically clean. Flux is applied to the surfaces of the
metal to complete this cleaning prior to the application of the solder.
Soldered joints are generally not as strong as brazed joints but are
extensively used in electrical circuits.
Bolting
Bolts can be obtained in a range of diameters from about 1 mm to very
large sizes, 300 mm. They consist of a bolt with a threaded shank and a
nut, which is screwed onto the thread.
Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 2.3.

Appropriate materials
Many materials are used in bio-engineered products. These include
many types of metals including stainless steels, aluminium alloys and
alloys of tungsten. Polymers and ceramics also play an important part in
bio-engineering products, particularly in products that are to be placed
internally into the body.
When inserting prosthesis into the body it is important that they do not
react with the body and remain in an inert state. This ensures the
integrity of the product and the health of the body.
A variety of synthetic material are being used to simulate the action of
the human body in a number of situations. This is particularly apparent
in the use of crash test dummies that have been designed to simulate the
reactions of humans in the testing of cars and other transport vehicles.
Originally crash test dummies were mannequins used by the US Air
Force to evaluate ejection seats for aircraft. They have evolved into
highly sophisticated robotic devices that are able to simulate the human
body in a variety of situations. Specifically they have played an
important role in the development of safety devices and the structural
designs for modern vehicles.

Bio-engineering

21

Stainless steels
Stainless steel is an alloy of steel, which was discovered by a metallurgist
named Brearley in 1913. Its advantage as a bio-compatible material is
that it forms a thin oxide layer on its surface when exposed to the
atmosphere or body fluids. This layer is stable and resists corrosion,
which protects the underlying parent material. Conventional steel, such
as a mild steel or a tool steel, are prone to attack and corrosion by body
fluids. This has the effect of weakening the material and causing
microscopic particles to dislodge from the parent material promoting
infection and rejection by the body.
Stainless steel is used in a range of bio-engineering situations including
surgical pins to join broken bones, artificial hearts and bionic ears.

Titanium
Titanium exists as the ore minerals rutile and ilmenite. Titanium is a
metal that is plentiful on the earths crust (fourth most common)
however, it has been extremely difficult to extract. It was first isolated as
an element in 1887, but was never really considered as a useful material
until the 1950s. Recent technological developments in the extraction
process have lead to a greater availability of titanium.
The material has an excellent strength to weight ratio, high fatigue
strength and forms surface oxide layers that give it resistance to
corrosion. Most importantly, it is not rejected by body fluids and tissue.
It is used as a bio-engineering material in hip joints, bone screws, knee
joints, bone plates, dental implants and pacemaker cases. Titanium is
compatible with medical processes such as magnetic resonance imaging
(RMI) scans and computer tomography (CT) scans.
Titanium is also comparable in machining properties to stainless steel.

Polymers
The use of polymers has developed rapidly with the greater understanding
of the nature of the polymer itself and the interactions that it can have with
the human body.
Polymers, because of their stable and generally inert nature can be used
in bio-engineering. Apart from the application of polymers to physical
devices such as prosthesis, especially artificial limbs and their
accessories, there have been significant advances in implant technologies
that use polymers. Simple applications involve the use of PVC to house
the componentry for the synthetic speech processor in the cochlear

22

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

implant. Other applications of polymers to bio-engineering have been in


the development of biodegradable polymers for applications associated
with the controlled delivery of drugs, vascular grafts or stints, wound
closures, othopaedic joints and tissue engineering. Further research is
focusing on using biodegradable polymers as scaffolds for bone
regeneration and nerve regeneration.
The use of polymers as building blocks in nanotechnology is a growing
area of research aimed at such diverse areas as microsurgical techniques
and virus control.

Ceramics
Ceramics are far less ductile than metals or polymers and can fracture
when any mechanical force is applied. The application of ceramic
materials through bio-engineering has partly been through the
development of ceramic coatings on metal prosthesis and for dense and
porous bone fillers for orthopaedics, neurosurgery and dentistry.
The use of the ceramic coatings on prosthesis was intended to promote
bone-bonding to the prosthesis. The mechanism by which this occurs is
not clearly understood but there are is evidence that with specific
preparation of the ceramic surface the growth of bone to the prosthesis
can be achieved.

Bio-engineering

23

Technologies in bio-engineering
Bio-engineering is a new and developing area that progresses as
discoveries are made in medicine, materials and computers.

Laser beams
Laser beams work by producing a narrow beam of light energy. Unlike
ordinary light, all the rays in a laser beam are of the same wavelength
and produce a beam of high intensity light. Lasers have been used in a
range of areas including, navigating missiles, writing and reading
information on Compact Discs and reading bar codes at supermarket
checkouts.
As a bio-engineering tool the development of lasers has seen them used
as bloodless scalpels where the intense beam of the laser can be used to
cut tissue and cauterise that is heat seal, the blood vessels as it cuts.
This is useful in delicate operations such as brain surgery where cuts
finer than a human hair need to be made.
Other applications for lasers as a bio-engineering tool are to break up
hard, painful stones that grow in the kidneys, to remove cancer tumors
cleanly without damaging surrounding tissue and to reattach the retina in
an eye by welding it back into position. Dental work is also an area
where lasers are used. Using a beam of ultraviolet light, lasers can be
used to painlessly remove decayed areas of a tooth.

X- rays
A machine that produces X-rays is basically a camera that relies on the
X-rays as opposed to sunlight to expose film. X-rays are electromagnetic
waves of high energy that can penetrate material in vary degrees. When
an X-ray passes through fat, bone, tumors or muscle it is reflected as an
image on film in differing intensities, organs absorb the rays in varying
degrees. By examining these images doctors are able to diagnose healthy
tissue, organs and bones and identify areas of concern. The identification

24

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

of areas of concern, for example, tumors, allow doctors to develop


remedial strategies.
If you have access to the internet further information on the cochlear
implant can be found at the following websites:
<http://www.qldxray.com.au/patientinfo/ultrasound.html> (accessed
8.7.03)

Burn injury technology


Burns are a particularly painful wound that can cause disfigurement and
loss of life. According to the American Burn Association about 5 000
people die annually from burns.
Skin is largest organ in the human body occupying about 1.6 m2 to
1.9 m2 for an adult. Its main functions are to maintain body temperature,
defend the body against disease and to prevent dehydration. It also
houses the nerves that determine temperature, touch, pressure and pain.
The skin also accommodates vitamin D synthesis, which assists in the
development of bones and teeth.
In most situations when the skin is damaged it can regenerate itself.
However, with deep second-degree (partial thickness) or third-degree
(full thickness) burns the skins ability to regenerate is limited and in most
cases it is destroyed.
Recent developments in treating burns involve growing artificial skin
under laboratory conditions from human cells on a chemical base called a
scaffold. This process involves the combination of many areas such as,
cell biology, bio-chemistry and bio-medical engineering. The method
used involves taking skin from newborn babies or neonatal tissue
because it reproduces quickly and is very healthy. The skin is seeded
onto bio-compatible scaffolds. The scaffold is a polymer blend that the
body can dissolve in the blood stream and metabolise to carbon dioxide,
oxygen and water.
The cells on the scaffold need to be kept under optimal conditions. The
conditions are replicated in a bioreactor. In a bioreactor a piece of
neonatal tissue 70 mm x 100 mm can produce up to 20 000 square metres
of usable skin tissue.
Before implanting the skin onto a wound it must be free of all pathogens.
To achieve this it is cryopreserved at -70 C and transported in dry ice to
the operating theatre. Patients who have received this form of skin graft
have reported an improvement in pain in 30 minutes and may be allowed

Bio-engineering

25

to leave the hospital in one to two days. This compares to 10 to 12 days


when other methods were used.
Wound healing technologies have developed considerably, this is just the
beginning of this form of bio-engineering. Bioreactors have been
developed that will allow human cartilage, blood vessels, bone and even
liver and pancreatic tissue to be grown.
Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 2.4 and 2.5.

26

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Research process
Bio-engineering is a new and developing field and for this reason it is
often difficult to find information and undertake research work.
Conventional sources of information such as libraries may not have a
section that relates to the topic, particularly if it is a small library in an
isolated area. Much of the information needed for research work in bioengineering is so current it will be found in references such as
magazines, journals and even television documentaries.
Sources of information for research include, the Internet, CD-ROMs and
libraries. Each one of these sources of information for research will be
looked at in the coming parts as we study this module. For this part of
work we will look in detail at the Internet as a tool for research. This is a
particularly good source of information because many bio-engineering
companies, Universities and information data bases use the Internet to
publish.
The Internet can be used to search for topics relating to bio-engineering
through what are known as search engines that scan the Internet for any
topic nominated by the user. Search engines such as Google, Alta Vista,
Answers, Big Pond, are all useful for this purpose. Another form of
search engine that is considered to be more effective in searching for a
topic is a multi-site search engine. Dogpile <www.dogpile.com/> is a
multi-site search engine that searches a number of other sites
simultaneously, therefore giving a far more powerful search for topics.
Another type of search engine is one that clusters the URLs into sub
topics. An example of such a search engine is Vivisimo
www.vivisimo.com. This effective eliminates long lists of URLs that can
be generated by other search engines.
An important area of bio-engineering are the drawings and specifications
of artificial organs and limbs. As well as the design and research
involved in developing these articles, precise drawings need to be
developed that clearly indicate to those who construct them what
materials and sizes are to be used. The accepted form of graphical
communication for this is known as orthogonal projection.
Design and construction in fields such as electrical, mechanical and civil
engineering as well as architecture are governed by different codes or

Bio-engineering

27

standards. The name of the Australian Standard code for the mechanical
drawings is AS 1100.
You will need to begin your research in the bio-engineering area for your
engineering report in Part 5 of this module.

28

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Exercises
Exercise 2.1
a

Outline the steps involved in making a casting.


______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Identify five different casting techniques and outline the features of


each process.
i

___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

ii

___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

iii ___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
iv

___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

Bio-engineering

29

Illustrate and label the grain structure that could be expected if


castings were made into the following moulds.

Sand

Sand
Sand

Metal

Sand

Sand

Sand

Metal

Figure 2.23 Grain structure in a sand /sand mould and a sand/metal mould

When using the correct casting temperature:


i

what would be the expected grain structure?

Sand

Sand

Sand

Sand
Figure 2.24 Grain structure with correct casting temperature

ii

why is this physically advantageous to the casting?


____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

30

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Identify and describe a suitable casting technique that could be used


to make an artificial hip joint made by casting a titanium alloy as
shown in figure 2.25.

Figure 2.25 Artificial hip joint

______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Bio-engineering

31

Exercise 2.2
a

Define the term forging.


_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

Explain the difference between hot and cold working.


_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

32

Identify five different forging techniques.


i

___________________________________________________

ii

___________________________________________________

iii

___________________________________________________

iv

___________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

Compare the gain structure of a cast/machined product with a forged


product.

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Outline two advantages that forging has over machining as a


manufacturing technique.
i

__________________________________________________

ii

__________________________________________________

Exercise 2.3
a

Name a bio-engineered article that could be fabricated using the


following techniques.
i

Welding
___________________________________________________

ii

Brazing
___________________________________________________

Draw and label a simple sectioned sketch of one of the joining


methods used above.

Exercise 2.4
For a material to be suitable as a bio-engineering material it must be biocompatible.
a

Explain the meaning of bio-compatibility.


______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Identify a specific material that has caused a problem when used


as a Bio-material.

ii

Outline the nature of the problem.


___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

Bio-engineering

33

____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
c

Explain two reasons why stainless steel is commonly used in Bioengineering.


i

____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

ii

____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

List two advantages and two disadvantages of titanium.


Advantage

Disadvantage

1 ____________________

1 ____________________

2 ____________________

2 ____________________

Exercise 2.5
i

Select one exmaple of a bio-engineering product or enterprise that


has an identifiable effect on the environment.
_______________________________________________________

ii

Describe the environmental effect created by the product or


enterprise.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

34

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Progress check
In this part you examined materials used in bio-engineering, their
structure and properties and methods of forming.

Disagree revise your work

Uncertain contact your teacher

Uncertain

Agree well done


Disagree

Agree

Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box that best
represents your level of understanding.

I have learnt about

Forming methods
casting
forging
fabrication

structure and properties of appropriate materials.

I have to learn to

describe learning processes for materials used in Bioengineering

compare the microstructure and properties of materials


used in Bio-engineering.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http//www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

In the next part you will undertake mechanical analysis of bio-engineered


articles using graphics and mathematical methods.

Bio-engineering

35

36

Part 2: Bio-engineering materials

Exercise cover sheet


Exercises 2.1 to 2.5

Name: _____________________________

Check!
Have you have completed the following exercises?
Exercise 2.1
Exercise 2.2
Exercise 2.3
Exercise 2.4
Exercise 2.5
If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education
Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheets with
your responses as you complete each part of the module. Do not return
all the notes. They should be kept for future reference.
A regular return of work is required.
If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open
Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learners Guide to determine which
exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record
Slip.

Bio-engineering

37

Bio-engineering

Part 3: Bio-engineering
mechanics

Part 3 contents

Introduction ..........................................................................................2
What you will learn?................................................................... 2

Mechanical analysis ...........................................................................3


Order of levers........................................................................... 3
Mechanical advantage ............................................................... 4
Velocity ratio.............................................................................. 6
Pulley systems .......................................................................... 9
Stress and strain...................................................................... 17

Research methods ...........................................................................23


Exercises ...........................................................................................25
Progress check .................................................................................33
Exercise cover sheet........................................................................35

Bio-engineering

Introduction

In this part you will apply mathematical and graphical methods to solve
problems in bio-engineering.

What you will learn?


You will learn about:

engineering mechanics and hydraulics

orders of levers

mechanical advantage and velocity ratio

stress and strain (tensile and compressive forces).

You will learn to:

apply mathematical and/or graphical methods to solve problems of


bio-engineering practice.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http//www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

Mechanical analysis

Levers, pulleys mechanical advantage, velocity ratios and stress and


strain are critical mechanical principles in engineering.

Order of levers
Levers are a very simple mechanism that can be put to great effect in bioengineering products.
Levers are classified into three groups, know as orders first order,
second order and third order.
A lever is a rigid bar that is acted on by a load and an effort and
supported at pivot point called a fulcrum. The positioning of these three
points vary to give the three different orders of levers.
A first order lever is where the fulcrum is between the load and effort.
An example of this is surgical scissors shown in figure 3.1.
effort

load

fulcrum
Figure 3.1 First Order lever surgical scissors

Bio-engineering

A second order lever is where the load and effort are on the same side of
the fulcrum with the load nearest the fulcrum. An example of this is a
cheek retractor shown in figure 3.2.
load

fulcrum
cheek retractor

effort

Figure 3.2 Second order lever check retractor

A third order lever is where the load and effort are on the same side of
the fulcrum with the effort nearest the fulcrum. An example of this is the
tweezers shown in figure 3.3.
effort

fulcrum
load
Figure 3.3 Third order lever surgical tweezers

The distance from the fulcrum to the load is called the load arm and from
the fulcrum to the effort is called the effort arm.
The principle of moments can be used to calculate the forces as required.
SM =
=

0
(Load Load Arm) (Effort Effort Arm)

Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercise 3.1.

Mechanical advantage
A machine, or mechanism, is a device for doing work in overcoming a
resistance, or a load, by applying a force known as an effort.
Machines may be used to help do work with less effort, or with greater
speed.

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

A machine is said to have a mechanical advantage if a small effort can


move a load of greater magnitude. The mechanical advantage is
expressed as a ratio of the forces involved. It is the ratio of the load
moved to the required effort.
Mechanical advantage =
MA =

load
effort
L
E

Worked example 1
The clamp shown in the figure 3.4 requires a force of 5 N to achieve a
clamping force of 10 N.
Determine the mechanical advantage.
Effort

Load

Fulcrum

0.1
Figure 3.4

0.1

An example of mechanical advantage

MA =
=

Load
Effort
10
5

\ MA = 2
Worked example 2
An effort of 50 N is required to lift a load of 24 kg using a lever.
Calculate the MA of the lever.
You will recall that when a mass is given in kg, then you must convert
this to a force (weight). This is done by multiplying the mass (m) by the
gravitational attraction (g).

Bio-engineering

Thus the weight will equal:


W = m g
= 24 10
= 240 N
While the value of g varies slightly depending on where on Earth
the object is situated, the normal value for g is 9.8 m/s2. It is
acceptable, and recommended that the value for g be taken as 10
m/s2.

MA =
=

L
E
240
50

= 4.8
Mechanical advantage is a ratio of two forces and has no units, that is, it
is dimensionless.
Name another bio-engineered product that uses the principles of
mechanical advantage in its design.
__________________________________________________________
Did you answer?

A couple of common examples include:


clamps
scalpel.

Velocity ratio
The trade off in the previous situation was that when we apply a smaller
effort to lift a larger load, we have to move the effort through a greater
distance.
This is expressed as the velocity ratio (VR). As the name implies, it is a
ratio of two velocities. Velocity is found by measuring the distance
moved over a period of time.

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

VR =

velocity of effort
velocity of load

Since the time is equal for both, then mathematically:


VR =

dis tan ce effort moves


dis tan ce load moves

The velocity ratio is independent of the size of both the applied effort and
the load being lifted.
It is independent of frictional forces in the system. If there is friction in
the system, then the system will be inefficient.
The efficiency (h) of a device is the ratio of mechanical advantage to
velocity ratio.
h =

MA
100%
VR

For a perfect or ideal machine, the efficiency will be 100%.


For example, MA = VR.
In practice, there are always some losses, so an ideal machine does not
exist. Even a simple lever cannot quite reach 100% efficiency because
there are forces involved trying to bend the lever, or distort the bodies
being lifted.
Losses due to friction can often reduce the practical efficiency of a
machine by more than half. However, some machines can use friction to
advantage. A screw jack relies on friction to stop the screw thread from
unwinding due to a load placed on it.
A complex machine can be several simple machines combined in one.
The wheelbarrow is a combination of a lever and a wheel. By studying
the individual principles involved, it is easier to understand the workings
of a complex machine.
An effort of 160 N is applied by a bicep muscle to lift a weight of 100 kg
in the hand of a person. If the load moves 0.3 m and the muscle contracts
0.005 m, what is the velocity ratio?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

Bio-engineering

DID you answer?


VR =

dis tan ce effort moves


dis tan ce load moves

0.005
0.3

0.0166

There are no unit measurements for mechanical advantage (MA) and


velocity ratio (VR) is always written as a ratio.
Worked example 3
Find the effort required to lift a load of 200 N, if a lever is 1.5 m long. A
fulcrum is placed under the lever 300 mm from the load.
Free body diagram.
L = 200 N
300

E
1200

Figure 3.5 Example of lever Free body diagram (FBD)

Calculate the sum of the moments.


SM = 0
= (F1 d1) + (F2 d2)
= 200 0.3 E 1.200
1.2E = 200 1.2
E =

60
1.2

= 50 N
The effort required to lift the load is 50 N.

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

Pulley systems
There are numerous examples of pulley systems in bio-engineered
products, including lifting apparatus for bed-ridden patients with broken
legs.

Wheel and axle


The wheel is connected to an axle of a smaller diameter. This particular
machine has many practical applications.

Effort
Load

Figure 3.6 Pulley

Determine the load that can be lifted by a wheel of 500 mm diameter if an


effort of 600 N is applied to an axle of 100 mm diameter.
Find the mechanical advantage of this machine.
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Did you answer?
A free body diagram showing all the forces acting should interpret the data
given in the problem. It should show all the forces, known and unknown.

Bio-engineering

50

250

Load

E = 600 N

Figure 3.7 Representation of pulley Free body diagram (FBD)

From this free body diagram, you will notice that it resembles a lever.
The same principles, and calculation techniques, can be applied.
SM = 0
= (F1 d1) + (F2 d2)
= 600 250 L 50
50 L = 150 000
L = 3000
Therefore a load of 3000 N (or mass 300 kg) can be lifted.

Single fixed pulley


A single fixed pulley system, as shown in figure, 3.8, provides a change
of direction.
MA = 1
VR = 1

load

effort

Figure 3.8 Single fixed pulley

10

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

If a mass of 100 kg (1000 N) is to be lifted with this pulley system then


an effort of 1000 N needs to be applied.

Single movable pulley


Tension remains constant throughout the length of rope.

effort

load

Figure 3.9

A single moveable pulley

In the system illustrated in figure 3.9, by considering only the moveable


pulley it can be seen that the load is supported by two vertical forces F 1
and F2. Therefore the size of these forces is half of the load.
F1 =

L
2

F2 =

L
2

Load (L)
Figure 3.10 Analysis of the movable pulley

Bio-engineering

11

The force in the rope has the same magnitude therefore the lifting force is

L
.
2

For example, if the load is 100 kg (1000 N), then the tension in the rope
required to hold the load would be 500 N. If more than 500 N was applied
then the load would be raised.

Multiple movable pulley


The analysis of a multiple movable pulley system is the same as for a
movable pulley.

T2

C
B
T2

T1

T1

effort

load
Figure 3.11 Multiple movable pulleys

For pulley A
2T1 = L
\ T1 =

L
2

For pulley B
2T2 = T1

12

2T2 =

L
2

\ T2 =

L
4

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

Pulley C is a single fixed pulley that only changes the direction of T2 = E.


\ E =

L
4

Thus MA = VR
= 4
Worked example 4
A pulley system similar to that shown in figure 3.11 is used to lift a load
of 100 kg. Determine effort to just lift the load.
100 kg

= 1000 N

from E

then E =

L
4
1000
4

= 250 N

Block and tackle


When two or more pulleys are mounted together, they are known as a
block. If a single rope connects two blocks, then the system is known as
a block and tackle.
A block and tackle always allows a greater load than the applied effort to
be lifted. The number of ropes supporting the lower block can determine
the VR. This lower block will move up or down as the load is lifted or
lowered.
If the load is lifted by a distance, of say 1 m, and if there are four ropes
supporting the moveable block, then the effort must move a distance of 4 m.
VR =

distance effort moves


distance load moves

= number of ropes supporting the lower block


From the example, VR = four from the number of ropes
Therefore, the effort must move four times the distance the load moves to
maintain VR = 4.
When there is a single rope used in the system, and it passes around the
pulleys, which are assumed to be frictionless, then the tension in the rope
will remain the same in all parts of the rope.

Bio-engineering

13

Determine the velocity ratio and mechanical advantage of the block and
tackle system for the pulley system shown in figure 3.12.
T T

T T

Load

W
Figure 3.12 Block and tackle (T is for tension)

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Did you answer?
Velocity Ratio
VR

Number of ropes supporting the lower block

SF

T+T+T+TW = 0

4T

Mechanical Advantage.
For equilibrium:

Since the tension in the rope is assumed to be constant throughout the length of
the rope (frictionless pulleys), then the applied effort will also be equal to the
tension in the rope (T).

14

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

MA

Load
Effort

4T
T

= 4
In practice, the weight of the pulley block should also be included in the load,
as this weight also needs to be raised.

Inclined plane
The inclined plane is a simple mechanism with no moving parts. It is
commonly found in bio-engineering applications. The most recognisable
inclined plane would be the ramp, which can be used to lift a load from
one level to another level. This can be achieved by sliding the object up
the incline.
Effort

Normal reaction, N

30

Weight, W = mg
Figure 3.13 Example of inclined plane

This is also an application of the three force rule dealt with in earlier.
Worked example 5
Find the force, mechanical advantage and velocity ratio necessary to
move a box with a mass of 30 kg holding a wheelchair that needs to be
lifted from ground level through a vertical height of 2 m up a smooth
inclined surface.
There are three forces acting on the box. These are the effort required to
move the box up the plane, the weight of the box (load), and the normal
reaction of the plane (always at right angles to the surface).

Bio-engineering

15

A free body diagram should be sketched showing all these forces.


Remember this is not drawn to scale.
Effort E

30

W = mg
= 30 x 10
= 300 N

Figure 3.14 Example of inclined plane Free body diagram (FBD)

From the free body diagram, you can draw a force diagram. Remember
this is drawn to scale.
E

W = 300 N

Scale 1mm = 1N
N

Figure 3.15 Example of inclined plane force diagram

Scaling from the diagram.


E = 150 N
MA =
=

Load
Effort
300
150

= 2
VR =
=

16

distance effort moves(along the plane)


distance load moves(vertical heigh t raised)
length of inclined plane
height of the plane

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

1
sinq

1
sin 30

1
0.5

= 2
Note that the MA and VR are the same. That is because the incline was
assumed to be smooth (no friction) and thus 100% efficient.
Because the inclined plane has a mechanical advantage, it is classified as
a simple machine.
Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercise 3.2. and 3.3.

Stress and strain


Stress and strain are two terms that are relevant to engineering mechanics.
Stress (s) is a measure of the intensity of load per unit area, The unit of
measurement is Nm2.

Load
unit is Pa
Area

When completing mechanical analysis of a bio-engineering article, a


stress analysis will be critical to the engineer. Designing to the strength
of the material is essential.
Tensile stress is a force tending to lengthen an object along its axis,
whereas compressive stress is a force tending to shorten an object along
its axis as shown in figure 3.16.

Bio-engineering

17

CSA

Tensile stress

CSA

Compressive stress

Figure 3.16 Tensile stress and compressive stress

Strain ( e ) is the ratio of extension when compared to the original length of a


material under load. Strain is not measured in standard units as it is a ratio.

e =

Extension
Originallength

It can also be described as either tensile or compressive strain using the


previous definitions.
Stress and strain are two engineering terms that are regularly used by a
bio-engineer when designing and developing artificial devices. For
example, stainless steel pins that are inserted into bones to join fractured
or broken bones have to be of suitable diameter to withstand the forces
applied to them under the most demanding conditions. Computer
simulations may be needed to determine the maximum compressive and
tensile forces that are likely to occur in the area of bone under
consideration.
A pin inserted into a broken hip, for example, may have tensile,
compressive and shear forces applied to it as the leg and body engage in
different physical exercise. A bio-engineer would have to estimate the
maximum forces involved and multiply this by a factor of safety to
ensure that the sizes determined cover all possible situations. A factor of
safety is a factor (number) by which a size is multiplied to ensure it
easily covers the load applied. A pin could be designed for a hip that
would not break under the maximum load a human can carry, but may
fail in extreme circumstances such as a person carrying a large weight up
hill on a bicycle. The factor of safety is used to compensate for extreme
conditions.
Worked example 6
Determine the stress in a 12 mm diameter shaft if it is subjected to a
50 kN tensile load.

18

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

CSA

Tensile stress
Figure 3.17 Specimen subjected to a tensile load

Area in tension =

pd 2
4

p(12 10 -3 ) 2
4

p 144 10 -6
4

= 113 10-6 m2
Force = 50 kN
= 50 103 N
Stress (s) =
=

F
A
50 103
113 10 -6

= 442 106 Pa
Worked example 7
A specimen with an original length of 300 mm is subjected to a tensile
load of 40 kN and it was observed that there was an extension of 1.5 mm.
Determine the strain on the specimen.
Strain =
=

extension
Original length
1.5
300

= 0.005

Bio-engineering

19

Addition information can be determined when a graph is made of stress


and strain data.
A graph is made with stress on a vertical axis and strain on a horizontal
axis. A graph similar to that shown in figure 3.18 will result if a steel
specimen is being used.
The significant points on the graph are lettered and explained.
d
c
a b
Stress ( )

Strain ( )
Figure 3.18 Stress/strain diagram for a ferrous metal

Proportional limit the area of the curve where stress is proportional


to strain. That is for a unit increase in stress there will be a
proportional increase in strain. This is known as Hookes law.

Elastic limit this is the limit of proportionality or where the ratio of


stress to strain is constant.

Yield point the point where the material yields and stress is no
longer proportional to strain. This is the end of what is known as the
elastic range on the graph and where the plastic range begins. Once
the plastic range is reached the material can no longer return to its
original shape because it is permanently distorted.

Ultimate tensile stress the maximum height of the graphed line


indicates greatest tensile stress of the material.

Breaking point the point at which fracture occurs.


Some material, like the non-ferrous metals, such as brass and
aluminium, do not show a definite yield point on the stress/strain
curve. To find the yield strength for such materials the offset
method is used. To do this a strain of 0.002 is selected as the
starting point and a line parallel to the graph is drawn to cut the
curve at the yield point, as shown in figure 3.19.

20

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

Stress ( )

Strain ( )

0.002

Figure 3.19 Stress/strain diagram for a non-ferrous metal

Young's modulus (YM) or the Modulus of elasticity (E) can be


determined from the graph. It is a measure of the stiffness of the material
and is measured in the region where the graph follows a straight line
within the elastic region. The steeper the graph in this region the higher
the Modulus of elasticity. The unit of measurement is Nm2.
The formulae for the Modulus of elasticity is correctly written as:
Modulus of Elasticity =

stress
strain

E =

s
e

P
A
e
L

P L
A e

Where L

original length of the material

extension of the material

original cross sectional area

load

stress

strain

modulus of elasticity

Bio-engineering

21

Worked example 8
Determine the Modulus of elasticity for a specimen that had an original
length of 50 mm and diameter of 3.5 mm that when subjected to a tensile
load of 25 kN extended 6 mm.
Before commencing to use the formulae it is necessary to convert all of
the data into the appropriate units. Remembering that force (F or P) is
measure in N, distance is measured in m and area is m 2.
Data given:
Force = 25 kN
= 25 103 N
Origional length = 50 mm
= 50 10-3 m
extension (e) = 6 mm
= 6 10-3 m
Area =
=

pd 2
4
p( 3.5 10 -3 ) 2
4

= 9.621 10-6 m2
Modulus of elasticity =
E =
=

s
e
P L
A e
( 25 103 ) (50 10 -3 )
( 9.62110 -6 ) (6 10 -3 )
25 50103 10 -3
9.621 10 -6 6 10 -3
1250
57.73 10 -9

= 21 109
= 21 GPa
Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercise 3.4. and 3.5.

22

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

Research methods CDROM

CD-ROMs are a very effective way of researching information that


covers a wide area or is new such as bio-engineering. It is often difficult
to search through a number of books looking for information especially if
you need to read through sections to see if the topic relates to what is
required.
CD-ROMS are small discs that allow enormous amounts of information
to be stored. One CD-ROM will allow an encyclopedia consisting of a
number of volumes to be comfortably stored. Another advantage is that
combined with appropriate software and a computer, searches for
information can be made quickly and efficiently.
There are a number of companies marketing CD-ROMs that are
specifically designed for research. One such company is World
Magazine Bank. This company offers five CD-ROMS that contain
information from 240 magazines from Australia, the USA, the UK and
Asia. The subjects covered by these CD-ROMS include Literature, Art,
Medicine, Politics and Fashion. Ideally, a CD-ROM stack should be set
up where there are a number of CD-ROMS. This allows all of the CDROMS to be searched at once rather that ejecting and inserting discs until
the correct one is found.
Searches can be carried out based on a single word or a combination of
words or phrases. Many CD-ROMS will allow the use of a wild card to
replace a word you are not sure.
References on CD-ROMS are often only a brief description known as an
abstract. It summarises the major points of an article and if the complete
copy is needed when a secondary source has to be used. An organisation
that provides magazine articles on request is the Periodical Centre for
Schools at, PO Box E10, Woolloongabba, QLD, 4102. This organisation
provides copies of articles from a range of magazines extending back
over a considerable period at a reasonable price.
It should be remembered that if you are quoting from a journal article in
an essay, assignment or report the reference must be acknowledged in a
bibliography. The way this is done is very important, as the reference
needs to be able to be checked for accuracy.

Bio-engineering

23

The following illustration shows the techniques for acknowledging a


reference is in your bibliography.

Figure 3.20 Acknowledging a reference is in the bibliography

24

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

Exercises
Exercise 3.1
a

State the order of lever, created by the position of effort, load and
fulcrum, beside each of the following.

Illustrate the force system using a sketch.


a

_______________________

ii
fulcrum

effort

load

Figure 3.21 Surgical tweezers

_______________________

ii

fulcrum

load

effort
Figure 3.22 Surgical scissors
fulcrum

_______________________

ii
effort

load

Figure 3.23 Broom

Bio-engineering

25

_______________________

ii
effort

load

fulcrum

Figure 3.24 Muscle, elbow and hand of an arm

effort
load

_______________________

ii

fulcrum

Figure 3.25 Rock, lever and fulcrum

Exercise 3.2
The pulley system shown in figure 3.17 is part of an apparatus attached
to a bed in a hospital to lift the leg of patients.

effort

load
Figure 3.26 Hospital pulley system

26

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

Determine the VR of the system.


_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

Experiments on the pulley system resulted in the following table of


load versus effort.
Load

25

50

75

100

125

Effort

13

22

30

38

47

Effort

Plot these results on the axes given below.

Load
Figure 3.27 Load versus effort

Determine MA of the system when the load is 60 N using the


graphed information.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

Bio-engineering

27

Exercise 3.3
Examine and analyse the function of a screw jack.
350

Figure 3.28 Screwjack

The screw jack has a pitch (the distance between two consecutive
threads) of 5 mm and is operated by a bar of effective length of 350 mm.
This bar will turn the head on the top end of the threaded section of the
jack.
a

Determine the VR of the jack.


Hint: For one revolution of the effort on the thread, the load will
move through a distance equal to the pitch.

28

Determine the MA of the jack.

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

Exercise 3.4
a

Calculate the stress on a 20 mm2 square bar on an artificicial leg


prosthesis when it is subjected to a 5 kN tensile load along its axis.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

Calculate a suitable cross sectional area for a square support block


on a motorised wheelchair so that the stress does not exceed
250 KPa when a mass of 100 kg is placed on it.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

Calculate the required diameter of each spoke of a wheelchair if the


maximum tensile stress in each spoke is not to exceed 125 Mpa and
the load on each spoke is 100 N.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

Bio-engineering

29

Calculate the compressive stress in each of the three parts (A, B, C)


of a 12 5mm length of case hardened steel used for a pin in a
wheelchair. The load on the pin is 200 kg and the diametres are
shown in figure 3.19.
125
20

30

25

30

20

10

Figure 3.29 Axle (all dimensions are in millimeters)

30

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

Exercise 3.5
a

Outline three differences between stress/strain curves associated with


ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
Ferrous

Nonferrous

Draw a stress/strain diagram for a steel and label the following


points on the grid below:

Stress (N/m)

A) Yield point, B) Ultimate tensile strength, C) Breaking point,


D) The area on the curve where stress is proportional to strain.

Strain
Figure 3.30 Stress/strain diagram for low ductile material

Bio-engineering

31

Explain what can be measured by Young's modulus.


______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Calculate the extension in a steel pin that is 120 mm long and 12 mm


diameter when an axial load of 1.8 tonne is applied.
P
12

12

P
Figure 3.31 Pin

32

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

Progress check
In this part you applied mathematical and graphical methods to solve
problems in bio-engineering.

Disagree revise your work

Uncertain contact your teacher

Uncertain

Agree well done


Disagree

Agree

Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box that best
represents your level of understanding.

I have learnt about

Engineering mechanics and hydraulics


orders of levers
mechanical advantage and velocity ratio
stress and strain densile and compressure forces.

I have learnt to

apply mathematical and/or graphical methods to solve


problems of bio-enginering practice.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http//www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

In the next part you will develop your drawing skills to communicate
bio-engineering ideas.

Bio-engineering

33

34

Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanics

Exercise cover sheet

Exercises 3.1 to 3.5

Name: _____________________________

Check!
Exercise 3.1
Exercise 3.2
Exercise 3.3

Exercise 3.4

Exercise 3.5

If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education


Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheets with
your responses as you complete each part of the module. Do not return
all the notes. They should be kept for future reference.
A regular return of work is required.
If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open
Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner's Guide to determine which
exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record
Slip.

Bio-engineering

35

Bio-engineering

Part 4: Bioengineering
communication

Part 4 contents

Introduction ..........................................................................................2
What will you learn?................................................................... 2

Orthogonal drawing ............................................................................3


Orthogonal drawing.................................................................... 3
Standards and symbols.............................................................. 4
Dimensioning .......................................................................... 10
Indicating surface finishes ........................................................ 12
Indicating size tolerances ......................................................... 13
Sectioning ............................................................................... 14

Collaborative researching................................................................17
Exercises ...........................................................................................19
Progress check .................................................................................25
Exercise cover sheet........................................................................27

Bio-engineering

Introduction

In this part you will develop your orthogonal drawing skills employed by
engineers in all filed, including bio-engineering, to communicate
information.

What will you learn?


You will learn about:

Australian standard AS1100

dimensioning

collaborative working.

You will learn to:

produce orthogonal drawings applying appropriate Australian


Standards (AS1100)

construct quality graphics solutions.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http//www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

Communication

Engineers, including those in the field of bio-engineering, use particular


conventions and drawing techniques to effectively communicate
information which are standardized by AS 1100.

Orthogonal drawing
Bio-engineered products are generally manufactured to the most stringent
standards. This means that sizes must be extremely accurate.
The accuracy of a size is defined by a tolerance the amount of variation
allowable from a stated size. In the case of bio-engineered products, a
tolerance of 1/100th mm would be common.
Explain why accurate sizes are important in bio-products.
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Did you answer?
Many bio-engineered products need to be custom designed and built for a
particular client. It is important that these components are made to exact
specifications in order that components fit together or operate in the spaces
available.

Bio-engineering

Another feature of engineered products is the surface finish. A product


may have very specific requirements in regards to the roughness
(generally smoothness) of the product or parts of the product.
Explain why a smooth surface important in bio-engineered products.
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Did you answer?
If the bio-engineered part is to be used as a prosthetic joint then it is important
that the two surfaces act as frictionless as possible. Two highly polished
surfaces working on each other will smoothly glide over each other simulating a
frictionless plane. This will mean that less effort is required to make the joint
work.

Standards and symbols


When technical drawings are being completed, symbols are used to
represent features of the component such as a type of a line, a dimension
to indicate size or a surface shape or finish.
Standards for symbols are defined by the Standards Australia AS1100
publication. A selection of these standards is shown in figures 4.1, 4.2,
and 4.3. You should make yourself familiar with each feature and the
method of representing or identifying that feature.

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

Line types
The type of line used in a drawing can communicate information about
the object to the reader. The following table contains examples of line
styles, examples and common applications.
Line style

Example

Common application
All visible outlines

Continuous
thick

General details
Existing buildings
Landscaping in site
plans
Dimension lines
Projection lines

Continuous thin

Intersection lines and


leaders
Hatching
Fold lines

Continuous
thin, free-hand

Break lines

Dash thin

Hidden outlines

Chain thin

Centre lines and axes of


solids
Path lines

Chain thick at
ends & at change
of direction

Cutting planes

Figure 4.1 Line types

Bio-engineering

Drawing symbols
The following table contains examples of common drawing symbols
representing specific features that need to be identified.
Symbol

Example

Common application

Diameter of a circle or
cylinder
Placed in front of the
dimension

25

R 10

Radius
Placed in front of the
dimension

The dimension refers to


the width across the
flats of a square section
Placed in front of the
dimension

10

Centre line of a part or


group of parts
Placed at the end or on
the center line

1:3
Indicates a taper and its
direction

1:6
Indicates a slope and its
direction

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

SR 15
Indicates the radius of a
spherical surface

Symbol

Example
8

Common Application

16 x 90
Indicates a counter sink
Placed in front of the
dimension

16
Indicates a counterbore
or spotface
Placed in front of the
dimension

10

12
Indicates the depth of a
feature

Figure 4.2 Drawing symbols

Bio-engineering

Physical features
The following table define and describe common features found on many
engineered objects. You will be asked to draw several of these features
in the exercise section of this module.
Feature

Explanation

Pictorial

Orthogonal
R 10

Radius

Fillet

Curved edge
on a corner
of a part
A curved
shoulder at
the joining
plane of two
surfaces.

RADIUS

FILLET

R5

Increases
strength

Web

A thin part
that acts as a
support to
increase
strength

Blind hole

A hole drilled
to a
particular
depth

WEB

12

BLIND HOLE

Pitch circle
diameter
(PCD)

The diameter
of a circle on
which holes
or other
features are
placed

Flange

A rim on a
part that is
used for
joining

FLANGE

COUNTERBORE

Counterbore

40

6x 6
EQUISPACED

16

12

An
enlargenent
of a hole

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

Feature

Explanation

Pictorial

Orthogonal

COUNTERSINK

12 x 60

An
enlargement
of a hole
conically

Spigot

An extended
cylinder or
plug which
fits into a
matching
recess

Boss

A cylindrical
extension on
a casting or
forging

12

BOSS

Countersink

SPIGOT
8

RECESS

Recess

10

A mating
hole in which
a spigot fits

An inclined
plane
Taper

TAPER
TAPER

1:3

A part
conical
section
SHAFT

Shaft

A bar which
transmits
motion or
power

Key

Joins a shaft
to a pulley so
as to
eliminate any
slipping
occurring
between the
two parts.

20

KEYS

Figure 4.3 Physical features

Bio-engineering

Dimensioning
Dimensioning was introduced in Landscape products. At this time only
dimensions related to horizontal and vertical surfaces were considered.
Bio-engineering projects include a number of other types of surfaces and
planes.
Radii

the introduction of a curved edge at the intersection of two


surfaces results in a not so sharp edge and is less likely to form a
cutting edge; a rounded edge is generally put on such shoulders
and are generally small radius curves as shown in figure 4.4

dimensions should be preceded by the letter


R5

R5

R 20 000

R5

R5
R4

R5
R 150

Figure 4.4

Radii - alternative dimension techniques

leaders should pass through or be in line with the centres of the


arcs they refer to for larger arcs it may not be practical to
extend the leader to the center of the circle but should be placed
in the direction of the arc center.

Small spaces

there are several alternative techniques for indicating dimension


sizes as shown in figure 4.5.
7

Figure 4.5

Small spaces alternative methods

Spherical shapes

10

can be shown as spherical diameters or radii. The letter S before


the letter R indicates spherical radius as shown in figure 4.6.

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

20

SR 15

SR

Figure 4.6

Spherical shapes

Squares sections
the Bdenotes a square as shown in figure 4.7.
10

15

Figure 4.7

Square symbol

Tapers
there are several techniques acceptable for indicating a taper, a
diameter might be specified at a particular distance, or an angle
for the taper might be indicated as shown in figure 4.8.
36
20

15
45

15
20

45

Figure 4.8 Taper indicators

Bio-engineering

11

Indicating surface finishes


Where it is necessary to indicate a particular quality of surface
roughness, and the surface is to be machined, the symbol shown in figure
4.8 is used. The maximum permissible roughness is shown numerically
in micrometres (mm) and is be placed above the symbol.
60
approx
1.6

Figures 4.9 Surface finish symbols

The following table shows examples of surface finish.


Value

Quality

Application

0.025
0.05

Fine
quality
finish and
costly to
produce

An extremely fine finish, gives a high polished


appearance and is used on precision instruments such
as gauges and laboratory tools.

Medium
quality
finishes

First class machine finish produced with grinding


suitable for bearings and shafts carrying light loads.

0.4

0.8

3.2

6.3

25

Fine finish produced by honing and buffing and is used


on high speed shafts and heavily loaded bearings.

Is easily produced on lathes and is the finish generally


specified for machine operations.
Course
quality
finishes
where
surface
quality is
not
important

This finish is obtained when using course feeds on


lathes and other machines, examples are when tool
marks have no bearing on the performance of the
component.
A rough finish found on sand cast materials.

Figure 4.10 Surface finish values

How many mm are there in a mm?


__________________________________________________________
Did you answer?
1000

12

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

Indicating size tolerances


When manufacturing parts it is difficult to make them an exact size. A
tolerance is an allowable variation of the dimension of the finished part.
In figure 4.11 the dimensions are shown as a maximum and a minimum
value.
2

8.00
7.95

12.00
11.96

Assembly drawing showing given functional


requirement, namely the limits of height of top
face of Item 3 above top face of Item 1, with a
tolerance of 0.05.

Detail of head of Item 3


showing given limits of size,
with a tolerance of 0.04.

Figure 4.11 Size tolerance

An alternative method allows for tolerances to be expressed as allowable


differences. In the first example shown in figure 4.12 the end on the
shaft is to be 28.5 mm in diameter. However, when it is manufactured,
acceptable diameters can range from 28.5 mm to 28.45 mm. The 0
tolerance means that the end on the shaft cannot exceed 28.5 mm this is
known as a unilateral tolerance. The second example shows the length of
a section to be 30 mm long with a plus or minus allowance of 0.05 mm
permitted in manufacture. The final dimension can vary from 29.95 mm
to 30.05 mm this is known as a bilateral tolerance.
0
28.5 0.05
30 0.05

Figure 4.12 Unilateral and bilateral tolerances

Bio-engineering

13

Sectioning
Sections are often used to show hidden detail. A sectioned view shows
the part of an object that remains after a portion has been removed. The
remaining face is usually cross-hatched with continuous, thin lines at an
angle of 45o to the horizontal as shown in figure 4.13. Horizontal or
vertical cross-hatching section lines could cause confusion with other
aspects of the drawing.

Figure 4.13 Sectioning lines

If there are two adjoining parts to be sectioned then the section lines for
the second part should be at a different direction or angle as shown in
figure 4.14.

Figure 4.14 Sectioning adjoining parts

14

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

The position of the cutting plane should also be clearly indicated in an


additional view. In figure 4.15 the cutting plane is indicated by the
sectioning line labeled AA in the top view and the sectioned view is
known as the section AA.

SECTION A-A
Figure 4.15 Sectional views

It is not always necessary to complete full sections especially when the


object is symmetrical about a centerline. In this instance a half section is
sufficient to convey the required information as shown in figure 4.16.

HALF SECTION ON A-A


Figure 4.16 Half sectional elevation

When sectioning a part that contains a fastener (bolt, pin, rivet, key,
washers) shaft, bearing or similar device then no sectioning is shown on
these items; thin elements such as webs, lugs and spokes need not be
sectioned and; holes may be shown even if the cutting plane does not
pass through the center of the hole as shown in figure 4.17.

Bio-engineering

15

Figure 4.17 Holes and webs in section

16

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

Collaborativeresearching

Collaborative researching involves a number of people joining in the task


of collecting information to be used to solve a problem. This approach
allows the opportunity for people within a team to draw on their best
talents and thus present a better approach to problem solving than
working individually.
For example, a bio-engineering research problem may involve presenting
an essay on the development of artificial hearts.
A collaborative approach to this task could be to form a team of four
people to address the problem. The responsibilities of each member of
the team could be as follows.

A coordinator would organise the team so that the work of each


member is directed towards solving the problem. It would be the
task of this member to keep in touch with the other members of the
team and distribute material by fax, telephone or email.

Two researchers would undertake research into the topic using CDROMs, the Internet or libraries.

A presenter or writer would collate the research and present the


material collected by the team.

It can be seen that this team would present a far more powerful approach
to solving the problem than an individual working separately on all areas.
Can you think 3 advantages of researching as a team? Can you also think
of one disadvantage?
Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercise 4.1 to 4.4.

Bio-engineering

17

18

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

Exercises

Exercise 4.1
Identify the following features.
Feature

Name

Figure 4.18 Physical features

Bio-engineering

19

Exercise 4.2
Draw a freehand representation of the following physical features
applying AS1100 standards:

20

a flange in an orthogonal top view

a dimensioned disc shaped object that has a series of drilled holes at


a PCD

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

the elevation of a boss in a sectioned view

a tapered shaft with dimensioning.

Bio-engineering

21

Exercise 4.3
Measure and dimension the three following orthogonal views in figure 4.19.

Figure 4.19 Dimensioning

22

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

Exercise 4.4
Complete the orthogonal view of the pin shown in figure 4.20 by adding
the top view and the major dimensions.

Scale 1 : 1.

Third Angle Projection.

Do not show hidden lines.

Figure 4.20 Saft

Bio-engineering

23

24

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

Progress check
In this part you developed your orthogonal drawing skills employed by
bio-engineers to communicate information.

Disagree revise your work

Uncertain contact your teacher

Uncertain

Agree well done


Disagree

Agree

Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box that best
represents your level of understanding.

I have learnt about

Australian Standards AS 1100

dimensioning

research methods.

I have learnt to

produce orthogonal drawing applying appropriate


Australian Standards (AS1100)

construct quality graphics solutions.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http//www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

In the next part you will draw on your knowledge and skills to produce
an engineering report on one aspect of bio-engineering.

Bio-engineering

25

26

Part 4: Bio-engineering communication

Exercise cover sheet

Exercises 4.1 to 4.4

Name: _____________________________

Check!
Have you have completed the following exercises?
Exercise 4.1
Exercise 4.2

Exercise 4.3

Exercise 4.4

If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education


Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheets with
your responses as you complete each part of the module. Do not return
all the notes. They should be kept for future reference.
A regular return of work is required.
If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open
Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learners Guide to determine which
exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record
Slip.

Bio-engineering

27

Bio-engineering

Part 5: Bio-engineering
engineering report

Part 5 contents

Introduction..........................................................................................2
What will you learn?................................................................... 2

Engineering report..............................................................................3
Aims of an engineering report..................................................... 3
Structure of an engineering report............................................... 4
Developing an engineering report ............................................... 6
Sample engineering report ......................................................... 7

Exercises ...........................................................................................17
Progress check .................................................................................19
Exercise cover sheet........................................................................21
Bibliography.......................................................................................23
Module evaluation ............................................................................25

Part 6: Lifting devices engineering report

Introduction

In previous modules of the Preliminary course you have compiled


engineering reports which focus on an engineered product. In this
module you will produce an engineering report which focuses on
bio-engineering.
In this part you will examine the components of an engineering report,
and nominate and investigate one area of bio-engineering and detail
current projects and technologies in the areas.

What will you learn?


You will learn about:

engineering report writing

communication

research methods including the Internet, CD-ROM and libraries

collaborative work practices.

You will learn to:

complete an engineering report on the bio-engineering profession


with reference to

the nature of the work done

ethics related to the profession.

apply appropriate technologies to produce a report.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http//www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

Lifting devices

Engineering report

An engineering report is a formal, considered document which draws


together information gained about a product or filed, through research
and analysis, to arrive at a conclusion or present recommendations based
on investigation.
Engineers do not communicate with words alone. In an engineering
report, technical information is presented using a combination of text,
tables, graphs and diagrams.
An engineering report for an application module involves:

outlining the area under investigation

collecting and analysing available data

drawing conclusions and/or proposing recommendations

acknowledging contributions form individuals or groups

recording sources of information

including any relevant additional support material.

An engineering report for a focus module involves covering additional


aspects such as:

examining the nature of the work done by the profession

discussing issues related to the field.

Aims of an engineering report


A well structured engineering report aims to:

demonstrate effective management, research, analysis and


communication skills related to the content

include data relevant to the area under investigation

Part 6: Lifting devices engineering report

present information clearly and concisely so that it is easily


understood by the reader through the use of tables, graphs and
diagrams to illustrate mathematical and scientific facts

justify the purpose using observations, calculations, or other


evidence, to support a conclusion or recommendations.

document contributions and sources of information.

Structure of an engineering report


An engineering report generally includes the following sections:

title

abstract

introduction

analysis

result summary

conclusions/recommendations

acknowledgments

bibliography

appendices.

Title page
The title page gives the title of the engineering report, identifies the
author and gives the date when the report was completed.

Abstract
The abstract is a concise statement that describes the content of the
engineering report. It covers the scope of the report (what it is about)
and the approaches used to complete the analysis (how the information
was assembled).
The purpose of the abstract is to allow a reader to decide if the
engineering report contains relevant information.
The abstract should be no more than two or three paragraphs shorter if
possible.

Lifting devices

Introduction
The introduction provides an overview of the subject, purpose and scope of the
engineering report. It may contain background information regarding the topic.
It also outlines the sections of the engineering report including why the
investigation was undertaken, what research occurred, how data was collected
and what analysis was conducted.

Analysis
The analysis is the body of the engineering report and should show evidence of
research and experimentation. Information about materials and the mechanics
of products should be collected or calculated for all engineering reports. This
section must contain information required to satisfy the aim and purpose of the
report.
Tables and graphs, used to summarise detailed data in a concise form, are
common features of an engineering report.

Result summary
The result summary should present the results concisely and note any
limitations on the investigation.
The results inform and support the conclusions and recommendations.

Conclusions/recommendations
The conclusions/recommendations summarises major points or issues in earlier
sections of the engineering report.
This section requires the author to draw conclusions or make recommendations
based on data collected. If the purpose of the engineering report was to select
the best.., then the selection should be stated and the reason for the choice
explained.

Acknowledgments
The acknowledgment section provides the opportunity to credit other peoples
work that has contributed to the report.

Bibliography
The bibliography demonstrates that the report is well researched all
references need to be included. Bibliographic entries should follow established
guidelines.

Part 6: Lifting devices engineering report

A standard approach for referencing bibliographic entries includes identifying


the name of the author, the year of publication, the title of the work, the name
of the publisher and the place of publication.
For example:
Johnston, S. Gostelow, P and Jones, E 1999, Engineering and
Society, Addison Wesley Longman Australian Pty Ltd, Melbourne.

This information allows the reader to source the information for confirmation
of the details or conduct further research.

Appendices
The appendices should contain detail that has been separated from the main
body of the engineering report. The information in this section is not essential
but enhances the other data. Examples could be engineering drawings of
products being compared, where the overall dimensions of the product may not
have been part of the report, but may be relevant to some readers.
During the engineering course this section may contain a technical drawing and
could include information collected from organisations.

Developing an engineering report


Research and collaboration are the keys to developing an accurate and
informative engineering report.

Research methods
Research is a critical function for professional engineers. The process
involves:
1

Clarifying the issue


The first step involves clarifying the issue under investigation and
selecting an approach. This may require selecting sample materials,
experimentation, working collaboratively with others.

Collecting data
The second step involves collecting data. Sources such as the
Internet, CD-ROM, encyclopedia, texts and journals are all locations
where information can be gathered.

Lifting devices

NOTE:
Take care when gathering information from the Internet. Verify
the accuracy and reliability of the information by checking the
qualifications of the source, it cannot be assumed that the person(s)
placing the information on the Internet is an expert on the subject.

Analysing and interpreting information


The third step involves relating the evidence collected to support
conclusions drawn or recommendations made.

Collaborative work practices


Collaboration involves working with others. It is an effective and
efficient means of obtaining information and support during a project.
The degree of collaboration can range from including the contribution of
others through discussion to the involvement of a team depending on the
project.

Sample engineering report


The following section contains a sample engineering report on a the
profession of bio-engineering.
The sample engineering report provides a general overview of the field
of bio-engineering then focuses on a specific area the bio-engineering
environmental management.
You can use the sample engineering report as a guide when presenting
your work.

Part 6: Lifting devices engineering report

Lifting devices

Bio-engineering
Title:

Bio-fuels

Author/s:

D. Iesel

Date:

January 2000

Abstract
This report will examine the possible role that an environmental
bio-engineer could play in assessing the potential for developing
sustainable alternatives to the current use of fossil based fuels.

Introduction
The realm of the bio-engineer is particularly wide and can cover areas
ranging from cutting edge experimental medical technology, refining
existing medical technologies and practices through to the genetic
modification of plant crops to enhance harvest quality and quantity
and environmental management.
This report, developed by a bio-engineer specialising in environmental
management will show that the continued use of non-renewable fossil
based fuels is environmentally disastrous, and the continued use of
such fuels without modification and exploring alternatives is ethically
irresponsible. It will be shown that the burning of fossil fuels is a
significant contributor to the air pollution levels in major cities and is
responsible for numerous serious medical conditions throughout the
world. As such engineers are ethically bound to explore and find
alternatives that will result in an improved and sustainable living
environment.
Environmental pollution has reached a level that impacts on all living
species on the planet and it is imperative that the sources of pollution
are identified and research be conducted into methods for reducing the
quantities of pollutants being emitted.
Air pollution can be described as the presence in the atmosphere of
any contaminates that may be injurious to the health or welfare of
animal and plant life.
Pollutants can be classified as either natural or human generated.

Natural pollutants can include volcanic eruptions and other significant


geological disasters. Our ability to manage these is negligible.
Human generated pollutants, on the other hand, may be able to be
managed. The transport, domestic and industrial sectors are the main
contributors towards the rise in global pollutant levels. Particularly
significant is the quantity of the fuel being consumed by motor
vehicles. A vast majority of these vehicles are consuming fossil based
fuels such as petrol and diesel.

Analysis
Vehicles, such as cars and trucks, with petrol and diesel engines are
increasing their numbers on the roads of the world today at ever
alarming rates. In the last 50 years their numbers have increased
dramatically and each one of these vehicles will produce significant
quantities of potentially harmful by-products.
Without some form of intervention into their pollution cycle the
quantity of pollutants will choke the cities and render them
uninhabitable.
Data from the US census Bureau indicates that there are currently
in excess of 221 475 000 vehicles on US roads at the moment which
are consuming more than 220 000 000 000 gallons or over
900 000 000 000 litres of fuel annually. These figures only account
for the US and considerable quantities of fuel would be used in
Europe and Asia as well. No matter how these figures are viewed,
this is a lot of fuel.
It has been estimated that for every mile traveled, vehicles emit 3.3
grams of volatile organic compounds, 27.52 grams of carbon
monoxide (CO) and 2 grams of Nitrous oxides (NOx ). This means
that there will be at least 14 520 000 tonnes of volatile organic
compounds, 121 088 000 tonnes of CO and 8 800 000 Tonnes of NO x
released into the atmosphere annually.
The composition of global atmospheric pollution produced by
vehicles includes significant quantities of lead (used in fuel as a
lubricant), solid particulate matter (SPM), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen
oxides and carbon monoxide. Many of these pollutants can be
minimized by improving the efficiency of the fuel burn in the engine
combustion chamber and by modifying the chemical composition of
the fuel.

In Australia the significance of lead as a pollutant has been greatly


decreased as a result of legislation calling for the removal of the lead
from the fuel. However, globally lead is a significant pollutant and
along with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene
soluble organic matter (BSOM), other common by-products of the
combustion of fuel have been demonstrated to be carcinogenic in
nature.
Oxides of sulfur are linked with respiratory problems such as asthma,
bronchitis and in extreme cases emphysema and carbon monoxide
(CO) has been shown to have adverse effects on haemoglobin levels
in the blood.
Nitrous oxides when combined with oxygen and in the presence of
ultraviolet radiation will result in the development of photochemical
smog.
The quantities of pollutants produced are affected by the quality of the
fuel being used, the state of maintenance and the technology
employed in the motor. The importance of the relationship between
atmospheric pollution and the car was first recognised in America in
the 1940s but it was not until the 1970s that legislation, The Clean Air
Act was passed, initiating emission control for all vehicles.
Additionally, the long-term sustainability of the use of fossil fuels is
questionable. With the exponential growth in the number of vehicles
there has been a similar growth in the amounts of fuel supplies
needed. As the amount of fossil fuel is a limited resource, its
continued availability cannot be guaranteed.

Alternative fuels
The notion of sustainability resulted in the vehicle manufacturers
developing more efficient motors and experimenting with alternative
fuel supplies liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural
gas (CNG). LPG is widely available across most areas of Australia
and has been proven as a reliable and cleaner fuel. Compared to
petrol-powered vehicles LPG produces about 12% less CO2 , 30% less
NOx , CO and hydrocarbons and if compared to diesel vehicles it
produces about 90% less NOx and only 1/50th of the amount of
particles. As a result of the pricing structures it is more cost efficient
too.
CNG has been used in a number of bus fleets and by some councils in
Sydney, but the wide spread uptake has been hindered by the lack of
available purchase points for the public.

The cost of converting a vehicle to either LPG or CNG varies from


between $2 000 to $6 000 depending on the type of vehicle that it is
being fitted to and the type and number of storage cylinders that are to
be used. Both of these fuels reduce exhaust emissions, being dry
gaseous fuels they do not dilute the lubricating oil therefore reduce
engine wear and maintenance requirements. On the negative side both
of these fuels result in a loss of power when compared to the petrol
engine, can result in increased exhaust valve wear because of the dry
nature of the fuel and have the additional weight of the fuel cylinders.
Again they are still using finite resources.

Biodiesel
Biodiesel is a clean burning replacement diesel fuel suitable for all
compression ignition engines. Biodiesel can be made from either pure
(new) or recycled vegetable oils, animal fats or restaurant greases.
Biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel and used in many nonmodified diesel engines. Commonly 20% biodiesel is mixed with
80% petroleum diesel, this blend is known as B20, whereas pure
biodiesel is designated as B100. Engines using B100 fuel may need to
be modified to take advantage of this type of fuel. The transportation
and storage of this fuel requires no special requirements and in many
instances is safer than petroleum diesel fuel in that the flash point of
biodiesel is 150o C rather than 77o C.
Independent tests have shown that biodiesel produces a significant
reduction in all aspects of emissions and that it does not pose a threat
to human health. In the year 2000, biodiesel was recognised as the
only alternative fuel to successfully satisfy the stringent test
requirements under the US Clean Air Act.
The use of biodiesel significantly decreases the exhaust emissions of
SPM and decreases the CO levels. The CO is converted to CO2
because of a more complete combustion and similar decreases in the
sulfur dioxide emissions are also observed.
The crops used to produce biodiesel absorb large amounts of CO2 as
they grow and as the fuel is non-toxic and biodegradable it is an
excellent fuel for use in fragile environments including estuaries,
lakes, rivers, and national parks.

Electricity
Electricity has been used to power transport networks for many years
trains, trams and trolley busses. But these networks are limited in
that the vehicle must follow specific paths.
To allow for a wider ranging network electricity needs to be stored.
This storage has been through using batteries. Although there has been
significant research into the development of battery storage systems
they are still large and have limited applications.
At present most electric vehicles have a limited range because of the
storage capacity of the batteries and they need to be recharged at very
regular intervals. Development of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is
being carried out and many of the major vehicle manufacturers are
expected to have such vehicles available for personal transport within
the next few years.
There is also significant research currently being undertaken in the
development of the fuel cell. These cells produce electricity by the
electrochemical reaction that takes place between hydrogen and
oxygen in a fuel cell stack. The nonpolluting byproducts of this
reaction are heat and water. This makes it an extremely clean and
efficient fuel but currently this technology is only in its infancy.

Ethanol
The mixing of ethanol with diesel to produce E-diesel is a new
process and the results are not yet conclusive. The mixing of ethanol
with diesel lowers the flash point of the fuel making it more like petrol
to handle. This would necessitate the probable modification of current
diesel motors and would void the manufacturers warranty. As yet this
fuel has not passed the environmental regulations required by the US
Clean Air Act.
Recently in Australia there has been significant controversy over some
fuel distributors adding quantities of ethanol to the fuel supplies.
Vehicle manufacturers have declined to offer warranties for their
vehicles if they are operated with fuels containing significant
percentages of ethanol.

Solar energy and hydrogen


The use of solar energy and hydrogen are also seen as potential
sources of fuel but at present they are limited because of the storage
deficiencies associated with batteries.

Result summary
Historically there has been significant development of motors and
transport systems based on fossil fuels. Much of the recent activity
has resulted in motors becoming more efficient with their use of fuel
and decreasing the emission of pollutants. But from the shear
numbers of vehicles on the road today there is a need to actively
pursue developments focusing on renewable and nonpolluting energy
sources.
Whilst in the long-term fuel cell and solar technologies may be able to
sustain the fuel requirements it is apparent that short term solutions
need to be developed and implemented as soon as possible. Such an
alternative is the development of biodiesel. It uses existing motor
technology and the fuels are environmentally sustainable.
The results from developing such a fuel would have immediate and
dramatic impacts on the quantities if fossil fuel currently being used
and the pollution profile of vehicles. Whilst diesel motors are
commonly used as truck motors they are becoming more widely used
in passenger vehicles. This trend is particularly apparent in Europe
and is spreading worldwide with the introduction of small highpowered turbo diesel engines for cars.

Conclusions/recommendations
The development of sustainable fuel supplies in both the short and the
long-terms is dependent on the involvement of bio-engineers in the
field of environmental engineering.
Initially the bio-engineer may be involved in developing a crop source
that could be used to supply oil for traditional motors. This may
involve developing better cropping methodology, production
techniques and possible genetic modification of the crop to increase
harvest and quality of the product.
Additionally the bio-engineer may be involved with the development
of recycling methods and reprocessing centers for the repurposing of
various oil products into usable fuels.

Bibliography
The Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering
<http://www.atse.org.au/publications/reports/urbair3.htm> (accessed
13.08.03)

The Energy and Resource Institute


<http://www.teriin.org/energy/cng.htm#intro> (accessed 13.08.03)
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
<http://www.dar.csiro.au/information/urbanpollution.html> (accessed
13.08.03)
Environmental Protection Agency
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/consumer/fuels/altfuels/compressed.pdf
(accessed 13.08.03)
LP Gas Association <http://www.lpga.co.uk/LPGA.htm> (accessed
13.08.03)
Alternative Fuels and Data Center
<http://www.afdc.doe.gov/altfuels.html> (accessed 13.08.03)
The Energy and Resource Institute
<http://www.teriin.org/urban/air.htm> (accessed 13.08.03)
Public Access Networks Corporation <www.panix.com> (accessed
13.08.03)
US Census Bureau <http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statisticalabstract-02.html> (accessed 13.08.03)

16

Part 5: Engineering report

Exercises

Exercises 5.1
Select a bio-engineering development that interests you and report on the
nature of the work done and the related issues.
Describe the project and the technologies that are associated with the
project.
Possible areas could include:

development of tap handles for the arthritic

use of biomass obtainable from recycling centers

generation of power from recycling centers.

Consider the resources you have available when nominating the


area for investigation.

Bio-engineering

17

18

Part 5: Engineering report

Progress check
In this part of the module you applied your knowledge and skills to
produce an engineering report on bio-engineering the nature of the
work and the ethics related to the profession.

Disagree revise your work

Uncertain contact your teacher

Uncertain

Agree well done


Disagree

Agree

Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box that best
represents your level of understanding.

I have learnt about

engineering report writing

communication

research methods including the Internet, CD-ROM


and libraries

collaborative work practices.

I have learnt to

complete an engineering report on the bio-engineering


profession with reference to
the nature of the work done
ethics related to the profession.

apply appropriate technologies to produce a report.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http//www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

Congratulations! You have now completed Bio-engineering.

Bio-engineering

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Part 5: Engineering report

Exercise cover sheet

Exercises 5.1

Name: _____________________________

Check!
Have you completed the following exercise?
Exercise 5.1

title page

abstract

introduction

analysis

results summary

conclusions/recommendations

acknowledgments

bibliography

appendices.

If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education


Centre/School you will need to return the exercise pages with your
responses.
Return the exercise pages with the Title Page cover attached. Do not
return all the notes, they should be filed for future reference.
If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open
Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner's Guide to determine which
exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record
Slip.
Please complete and return the module evaluation that follows.

Bio-engineering

21

22

Part 5: Engineering report

Bibliography

Board of Studies, 1999, The New Higher School Certificate Assessment


Support Document, Board of Studies NSW, Sydney.
Board of Studies. 1999, Stage 6 Engineering Studies Examination, Assessment
and Reporting, Board of Studies NSW, Sydney.
Board of Studies. 1999, Stage 6 Engineering Studies Support Document, Board
of Studies NSW, Sydney.
Board of Studies. 1999, Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus,
Board of Studies NSW, Sydney.
Eide, A.R. Jenson, R.D. Marshall, L.H. and Northup, L.L 1998, Introduction to
Engineering Design, McGaw Hill, Boston.
Johnston, S. Gostelow, P and Jones, E 1999, Engineering and Society,
Addison Wesley Longman Australian Pty Ltd, Melbourne.
Schlenker, B.R, 1974, Introduction to Materials Science, John Wiley & Sons,
Sydney.
Warren, N G, 1990, Physics Outlines, Pergamon Press,
Sydeny.

Part 5: Engineering report

23

24

Module evaluation

To help us make improvements to future learning materials we would


like your comments on this material.
Tick the box which best describes you.
Gender

male

female

Study through

DEC

OTEN - OLP

Other

Age group

under 20 years

20 30 years

over 30

Circle the number that best represents your rating of this material.
The number 1 indicates a low rating and the number 5 indicates a high
rating.
There is room to make comment if you would like.
1

Rate your enjoyment of the


material.

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

Rate your understanding of the ____________________________


content.
____________________________
1
2
3
4
5
____________________________

Rate the usefulness of the


activities.

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

Part 5: Engineering report

25

Rate the relevance of the


exercises.

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

Rate the accuracy of the


indicative time given.

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

Rate the ease of obtaining the


resources.

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

Rate the helpfulness of any


support material.

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

Rate your achievement of the


outcomes for the material.

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

Finally!
Which were the most challenging parts of the material?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Please return this form to your teacher to forward on to OTEN LMP.
Thank you for this valuable information.

26

Learning Materials Production


Training and Education Network Distance Education
NSW Department of Education and Training