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DEPARTMENT OF PORTS

GOVERNMENT OF KERALA
Vizhinjam International Seaport Ltd.

DEVELOPMENT OF VIZHINJAM PORT WITH


PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION
Mundra

Kandla

Calcutta
(Haldia)

Porbander

Paradip
Mumbai

JNPT
Vishakhapattinam

Panaji
Marmagoa

ANDHRA
PRADESH
KARNATAKA

Ennore
Chennai

Mangalore
KERALA

TAMILNADU

Nagapattinam

Cochin
Tuticorin

Vizhinjam
Port

REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL


VOLUME 2 : SECTION VII

TECHNO-COMMERCIAL FEASIBILITY REPORT


May 2004 (Revised and Updated in June 2007)
L&T-RAMBLL CONSULTING ENGINEERS LTD
in association with

ROGGE MARINE CONSULTING, G.M.B.H


RAMBLL
L&T CAPITAL COMPANY LTD

C1071601 / RP002

DISCLAIMER
This volume 2 of RFP is provided only to help the
Bidders to come up with their own project development
plan and detailed proposal.
The information contained in the RFP, data room or
subsequently provided to Bidders, whether verbally or
in documentary form by or on behalf of Sponsor or the
Consultants or any of their employees or advisors, is
provided to the bidders on the terms and conditions set
out in the RFP and any other terms and conditions
subject to which such information is provided. The
purpose of the RFP is to provide the bidder(s) with
information to assist the formulation of their proposals.
The RFP does not purport to contain all the information
each Bidder may require. The RFP may not be
appropriate for all persons, and it is not possible for
Sponsor, their employees or Consultants to consider
the investment objectives, financial situation and
particular needs of each eligible party who reads or uses
the RFP.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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TECHNO - COMMERCIAL FEASIBILITY REPORT


TABLE OF CONTENTS
1

Introduction
1.1 Project Background and Outline
1.2 Project Team
1.3 Organisation of Report
1.4 Acknowledgement

Site Selection
2.1 General
2.2 Studies and Investigations for Siting
2.2.1 Site Reconnaissance Visits
2.2.2 Data Collection and Review
2.2.3 Identification of Data Gaps
2.3 Profile of Project Region
2.3.1 Definition of Project Region
2.3.2 Administrative Set-up
2.3.3 Natural Conditions
2.3.4 Population and Habitation
2.3.5 Industrial Infrastructure
2.3.6 Commercial Activities
2.3.7 Development Plans
2.3.8 General Perception of People towards Development in Region
2.4 Preliminary Port Development Requirements
2.4.1 Operational Requirements
2.4.2 Surface Linkages and Utilities
2.4.3 Existing Transport Infrastructure
2.5 Evaluation of Alternative Sites
2.5.1 Identification of Suitable Alternative Sites
2.5.2 Preliminary Evaluation of Sites
2.6 Conclusions on Site Selection

Field Surveys and Investigations


3.1 Location and Site Appreciation
3.2 Field Surveys and Investigations
3.3 Geotechnical Surveys
3.3.1 Objectives
3.3.2 Broad Scope of Work
3.3.3 Investigating Agency
3.3.4 Location of Land Boreholes
3.3.5 Location of Marine Boreholes
3.3.6 Methodology
3.3.7 Results and Discussions
3.3.8 Inferences
3.4 Seabed, Oceanographic and Topographic Surveys
3.4.1 Objective
3.4.2 Brief Scope of Work
3.4.3 Survey Methodology Details
3.4.4 Data Analysis and Survey Results
3.4.5 Shallow Geology
3.4.6 Currents
3.4.7 Delineation of High Tide Line
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3.4.8 Benchmark and Topography / Beach profiles


3.4.9 Grab Sampling
3.4.10Inference
3.5 Environmental and Social Surveys
4

Traffic Assessment Study


4.1 Methodology Adopted for Traffic Assessment Study
4.1.1 Data Collection and Review
4.1.2 Review of Current Ports and Maritime Traffic in the Region
4.1.3 Conducting Interviews and Questionnaire Surveys
4.1.4 Assessment of the Future Regional Traffic Market by Commodity Type
4.1.5 Assessment of the Future handling Capacities of the Competing Ports
4.1.6 Review of Current and Future Competitive Advantages and Weaknesses of
Vizhinjam Port
4.1.7 Traffic Forecast for Vizhinjam Port
4.2 Review of Previous Studies / Reports
4.2.1 Previous Studies / Reports
4.2.2 Observations
4.3 Socio-economic Profile
4.3.1 Profile of India
4.3.2 Profile of Kerala
4.3.3 Profile of Thiruvananthapuram District
4.3.4 Indian Economy
4.3.5 Sri Lankan Economy
4.4 Traffic Analysis - Indian Ports
4.4.1 General
4.4.2 Traffic Trends
4.4.3 Traffic v/s Economy (GDP)
4.4.4 Elasticity of Demand
4.4.5 Traffic Growth Rate
4.5 Captive Cargo and Major Port Users Analysis
4.5.1 Potential Port Users Questionnaire Survey
4.5.2 One to One Discussions/Meetings
4.5.3 Container Cargo
4.5.4 Summary and Conclusions
4.6 Traffic Forecast - Indian Ports
4.6.1 General
4.6.2 National Forecasts - Commodity
4.6.3 Port Forecasts - Commodity Wise
4.6.4 Container Cargo
4.7 Competitor Port Analysis
4.7.1 Introduction
4.7.2 Tuticorin Port
4.7.3 Cochin Port
4.7.4 Jawaharlal Nehru Port
4.7.5 Dubai Ports
4.7.6 Colombo Port
4.7.7 Singapore Port
4.7.8 Chennai Port
4.7.9 Mundra Port
4.7.10Visakhapatnam Port
4.7.11Gangavaram Port
4.7.12Cochin - Vallarpadam Terminal
4.8 Traffic Forecast - Vizhinjam Port
4.8.1 Introduction
4.8.2 Forecast of Generated and Attracted Cargo from / to Hinterland
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4.8.3
4.8.4
4.8.5
4.9
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3
4.9.4
4.9.5

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Forecast of Transhipment Cargo


Summary of Forecast Traffic
Upsides for Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast
Review of Traffic and Forecast (Addendum)
Container Traffic Present Indian Scenario
Asian Development Bank (ADB) Projections
Updated Traffic for Vizhinjam
Port Capacity
Conclusion

Vessel Size Analysis


5.1 General
5.2 Container Vessels
5.2.1 Review of World wide Container Vessels
5.2.2 Review of Container Vessels at Competitor Ports
5.2.3 Future Trends for Container Vessels
5.2.4 Recommended Size of Mainline Container Vessels
5.2.5 Recommended Size of Feeder Container Vessels
5.3 Dimensions of the Recommended Container Vessels

Development Needs and Planning Considerations


6.1 General
6.2 Navigational and Operational Requirements
6.2.1 Vessel type, Parcel Size and Dimensions
6.2.2 Operational Criteria
6.2.3 Protection against Waves
6.2.4 Stopping Distance
6.2.5 Navigation Channel Dimensions
6.2.6 Manoeuvring Area Dimensions
6.2.7 Dimensions Berthing Area Dimensions
6.3 Berthing Requirements
6.3.1 Cargo Volume
6.3.2 Design Vessel Sizes / Parcel Sizes
6.3.3 Cargo Handling Rates
6.3.4 Effective working hours per Day
6.3.5 Turn Round Time and Time for Peripheral Activities
6.3.6 Berth Occupancy
6.3.7 Number of Berths Required
6.4 Cargo Handling Equipment
6.4.1 Overview of Equipment selection
6.4.2 Quay Cranes
6.4.3 Rubber Tyred Gantry Cranes
6.4.4 Tractor-Trailers
6.4.5 Top lift Trucks and Reach stackers
6.4.6 General cargo
6.5 Storage Requirements
6.5.1 Terminal Ground Slots (TGS)
6.6 Port Connectivity
6.7 General Lighting
6.8 Water and Power Requirements
6.8.1 Water Requirements
6.8.2 Power Requirements
6.9 Navigational Aids
6.10 Port Craft
6.11 Storm Water Drainage
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6.12 Sewerage and Oily Waste Water Disposal


6.13 Solid waste/Bilge water Reception Facility
6.14 Buildings
6.15 Bunkering

Master Plan
7.1 General
7.2 Planning Considerations
7.2.1 Harbour Layout Considerations
7.2.2 Bathymetry and Sub-sea Soil Conditions
7.2.3 Wave Incidence and Tranquillity
7.2.4 Littoral Drift Management
7.2.5 Stages of Development
7.2.6 Environmental Aspects
7.3 Port Layouts
7.4 Model Studies
7.4.1 Objectives of the Study
7.5 Results
7.5.1 Offshore Wave Climate
7.5.2 NSW Simulations
7.5.3 Wave Tranquillity Simulation
7.6 Master Plan
7.6.1 Berthing Requirements
7.6.2 Breakwaters
7.6.3 Approach Channel and Turning Circle
7.7 Tranquillity Study for Fishing Harbour
7.8 Land Use Plan
7.9 Immediate / Short Term Development
7.9.1 Capacity Calculation
7.9.2 Berthing Facilities
7.9.3 Container Quay
7.9.4 General Cargo berth
7.9.5 Breakwaters
7.9.6 Quarry Locations
7.9.7 Equipment
7.9.8 Storage Facilities
7.9.9 Dredging & Reclamation
7.9.10Berths
7.9.11Turning Circle
7.9.12Approach Channel
7.9.13Navigational Aids
7.9.14Port Craft
7.9.15Terminal Road and Railway Facility
7.9.16Container Security Operations
7.9.17Pollution Control Facilities
7.9.18Water Supply
7.9.19Power Supply
7.9.20Buildings
7.9.21Bunkering
7.9.22Drainage and Sewerage System

Port Hinterland Connectivity


8.1 Existing Road & Rail Network in the Region
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8.1.1 NH 47 Bypass
8.2 External Road /Road Connectivity
8.2.1 Need for the Connectivity
8.2.2 Alignment Options
8.2.3 Reconnaissance Survey
8.2.4 Compatibility with Coastal Regulation Zone
8.3 Access from North Breakwaters - Short Term Development
8.3.1 Alignment Description
8.4 Access from South Breakwater - Long term Development
8.4.1 Description of the Corridor
8.4.2 Critical Areas in the Corridor
8.5 Preliminary Block Cost Estimates
8.5.1 Initial Phase Cost
8.5.2 Long Term Cost
9

Environmental and Social Impacts


9.1 General
9.2 REIA Study
9.2.1 Objective
9.2.2 Scope
9.2.3 Methodology
9.3 Baseline Environmental Status
9.3.1 Physical Conditions
9.3.2 Compatibility with Coastal Regulation Zone
9.3.3 HTL / LTL Demarcation
9.3.4 Marine Environment
9.3.5 Terrestrial Environment
9.3.6 Socio-Economic Conditions
9.4 Environmental and Social Impacts
9.4.1 Vizhinjam Port Activities
9.4.2 Environmental Impacts - Construction Phase
9.4.3 Social Impacts - Construction Phase
9.4.4 Environmental Impacts - Operation Phase
9.4.5 Social Impacts - Operation Phase
9.4.6 Beneficial Impacts
9.5 Environmental Management Plan
9.5.1 Mitigation Measures - Construction Phase
9.5.2 Mitigation Measures - Operation Phase
9.5.3 Environmental Monitoring

10

Risk Analysis and Legal Review


10.1 Risk Analysis
10.1.1General
10.1.2Exit and Compensation Clauses
10.1.3Risk Management
10.1.4Risk Categorisation
10.1.5Risk Analysis
10.1.6Risk Mitigation
10.2 Legal Review
10.2.1Power of GoK to grant the Concession
10.2.2Draft Port Policy of GoK
10.2.3Project Land
10.2.4Issues Specific to Transshipment
10.2.5Labour Laws
10.2.6Environmental Considerations
10.2.7Tariff Regulation
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10.2.8Summary of Conclusions
11

Port Operations
11.1 General
11.2 Terminal Components
11.2.1Mainline Container Berths
11.2.2Feeder Container Berths
11.2.3Container Handling Quay Cranes
11.2.4Container Parking Yard
11.2.5Empty Container Depot
11.2.6Reefer Container Parking area
11.2.7Container Freight Station
11.2.8Truck/Trailer Holding area
11.2.9Backup Area Equipment
11.2.10 Gate
11.2.11 Pre reception
11.2.12 Road /Rail / Terminal Control
11.2.13 Terminal Management system & Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
11.3 Port Procedures
11.3.1General Vessel Procedures
11.3.2Transhipment Procedure
11.4 Terminal Operations
11.4.1Vessel Crane Operation
11.4.2Container yard Operation
11.4.3Gate operation
11.4.4 Traffic flow direction

12

Organisational Set-up
12.1 General
12.2 Manning

13

Cost Estimates
13.1 General
13.2 Basis of Cost Estimates
13.3 Phasing of Development
13.4 Key Elements Costing
13.4.1Breakwater
13.4.2Equipment
13.4.3Berthing Structure
13.4.4Dredging and Land Reclamation
13.5 Capital Cost Estimates
13.6 Operation and Maintenance Cost
13.6.1Maintenance Cost
13.6.2Operation Cost
13.6.3Administrative expenses
13.6.4 Summary of O & M Cost
Cost Estimates (Superseded)

13
14

Tariff Structure
14.1 General
14.2 Port Charges
14.3 Tariff Structure at Competitor Ports
14.4 Feeder Vessels Charges
14.5 Mother Vessel Charges
14.6 Tariff Structuring for Vizhinjam Port
14.6.1Cargo & Vessel related Charges at Indian Ports
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14.6.2Vessel related Charges at Foreign Ports


14.6.3Transhipment charges at Foreign Ports
14.7 VPD - Tariff Recommendation
14.7.1Feeder Vessels
14.7.2Mother Vessel
14.7.3General Cargo Charges at Cochin port
14.8 Recommended Tariff Structure for Vizhinjam Port
14.9 Review on Tariff (Addendum)
14.9.1Present Tariff
14.9.2Comparison of Tariff with Other Ports
14.9.3 Conclusion
15

Project Implementation Schedule


15.1 Basic Considerations for Project Implementation
15.2 Pre-Development Activities

16

Financial Viability Analysis


16.1 General
16.2 Construction Period and Project Life
16.3 Traffic and Tariff
16.4 Capital Cost
16.5 Means of Financing
16.6 Annual Operating Costs
16.7 Statutory Assumptions
16.8 Key Parameters
16.9 Conclusion
Financial Viability Analysis (Superseded)

16
17

Field Survey & Investigation Reports


17.1 Geotechnical Investigations
17.1.1 Onshore
17.1.2 Marine
17.2 Seabed Engineering and Oceanographic Investigations

18

Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment Report

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
Abbreviation

Description

AC

Alternate Current

ADB

Asian Development Bank

B.W.

Breakwater

BG

Broad Gauge

BMO

Business Model Options

BOO

Build Own Operate

BOOT

Build Own Operate and Transfer

BOT

Build Operate Transfer

BS

British Standards

CCTL

Chennai Container Terminal Private Limited

CD

Chart Datum

CESS

Centre for Earth Science Studies

CFE

Consent for Establishment

CFS

Container Freight Station

CMIE

Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy

CONCOR

Container Corporation of India Ltd

CPCB

Central Pollution Control Board

CPSA

Cochin Port Staff Association

CPT

Cochin Port Trust

CRO

Container Release Order

CRZ

Coastal Regulation Zone

CSI

Container Security Initiative

CT-PAT

Ceestroms Trade Partnership Against Terrorism

CTT

Container Transhipment Terminal

CZMP

Coastal Zone Management Plan

DC

Direct Current

DER

Debt Equity Ratio

DGS

Director General of Shipping

DO

Delivery Order

DoP

Directorate of Ports

DPA

Dubai Ports Authority

DPI

Dubai Port International

DS

Disturbed Sample

List of Abbreviations
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Development of Vizhinjam Port with Private Sector Participation


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Abbreviation

Description

DSCR

Debt Service Coverage Ratio

DWT

Dead Weight Tonnage

ECA

External Credit Agencies

ECB

External Commercial Borrowings

ECO

Export Container Order

ED

Export Declaration

EDI

Electronic Data Interface

EIR

Equipment Interchange Receipt

EMP

Environmental Management Plan

EOI

Expression of Interest

EOU

Export Oriented Unit

EPC

Engineering, Procurement & Construction

FCL

Full Container Load

FEU

Forty foot Equivalent Unit (Container)

FTZ

Free Trade Zone

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GIM

Global Investor Meet

GOI, GoI

Government of India

GoK, GOK

Government of Kerala

GPS

Global Positioning System

GRT

Gross Registered Tonnage

HDI

Human Development Index

HHWS

Highest High water spring

HTL

High Tide Line

IAPH

International Association of Ports & Harbours

ICD

Inland Container Depot

IDC

Interest During Construction

IEIRD

Import Entry and Internal Revenue Declaration

IFC

International Finance Corporation

IFIs

International Financing Institutions (ADB/WB/IFC etc.)

IIDC

IL&FS Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd.

IMD

Indian Meteorological Department

IMO

International Maritime Organisation

INR

Indian Rupees

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List of Abbreviations
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Abbreviation

Description

IPA

Indian Ports Association

IRC

Indian Roads Congress

IRR

Internal Rate of Return

IS

Indian Standard

ISL

Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics

ISO

International Standards Organisation

ISPS

International Ship and Port Facility Security Code

IT

Information Technology

ITC

International Transport Corridor

JCT

Jaya Container Terminal, Colombo

JNPT

Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, India

KIAP

KINFRA International Apparel Parks Limited

KINFRA

Kerala Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation

K-Line

Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd.

Km

Kilometre

KMML

Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited

KN

Kilo Newton

KSEB

Kerala State Electricity Board

KSIDC

Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation

KWA

Kerala Water Authority

LBH

Land Bore Hole

LCL

Less than Container Load

LLWS

Lowest Low Water Spring

LNG

Liquefied Natural Gas

LOA

Length Over All

LPG

Liquefied Petroleum Gas

LTCC

L&T Capital Company Ltd. (Consultant's Associate)

LTL

Low Tide Line

LTR

L&T-RAMBLL Consulting Engineers Limited (Lead Consultant)

Metre

MARPOL

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships

MAT

Minimum Alternative Tax

MBH

Marine Bore Hole

MHHW

Mean Highest High water

List of Abbreviations
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Abbreviation

Description

MHLW

Mean Highest Low water

MLHW

Mean Lowest High Water

MLLW

Mean Lowest Low Water

MLO

Main Line Operators

MoD

Ministry of Defence

MoEF

Ministry of Environment & Forests

MoST

Ministry of Surface Transport

MOU

Memorandum of Understanding

MT

Metric Tonne

MTEU

Million Ton Equivalent Unit

MTPA

Million Tonnes Per Annum

MW

Mega Watt

N.A.

Not Available

NEERI

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute

NH

National Highway

NHAI

National Highways Authority of India

NIOT

National Institute of Ocean Technology, India

NOC

No Objection Certificate

NOSTRAC

North-South Transit Corridor

NRT

Net Registered Tonnage

NSDP

Net State Domestic Product

NSICT

Nava Sheva International Container Terminal

NTPC

National Thermal Power Corporation

O&M

Operation & Maintenance

OLRS

Online Release System

OOCL

Overseas Orient Container Lines

P&I

Protection & Indemnity Clubs (Insurances)

PCFZC

Ports, Customs and Free Zone Corporation, Dubai

P-Check

Physical Check

PIANC

Permanent International Association of Navigation Congress

POL

Petroleum Oil and Lubricants

PSA

Port of Singapore Authority

PWD

Public Works Department

QC

Quay Crane

List of Abbreviations
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Abbreviation

Description

R&R

Relocation and Rehabilitation

RFP

Request For Proposal

RGCT

Rajiv Gandhi Container Terminal

RHH, RH&H

Rambll, Hannenmann & Hjlund A/S, Denmark (Consultant's Associate)

RMC

ROGGE Marine Consulting, GmbH, Germany (Consultant's Associate)

RMG

Rail Mounted Gantry cranes

RMQC

Rail Mounted Quay Crane

RMQGC

Rail Mounted Quay Gantry Crane

RoW

Right of Way

RQD

Rock Quality Designation

RTG

Rubber-tyre Gantry Crane

SAGT

South Asia Gateway Terminals (Pvt) Ltd., Colombo

SAIC

Science Application International Corporation

SEZ

Special Economic Zone

SH

State Highway

SHI

Samsung Heavy Industries Ltd.

SIP

Small Industries Park

SLM

Straight Line Method

SLPA

Sri Lanka Ports Authority, Colombo

SPC

Special Purpose Company

SPT

Standard Penetration Tests (Geotechnical)

SPV

Special Purpose Vehicle

SSI

Small Scale Industry

TAMP

Tariff Authority for Major Ports

TEU

Twenty foot Equivalent Unit (Container)

TGS

Terminal Ground Slots

THA

Truck/Trailer Holding Area

TID

Truck Instruction Document

TPH

Tonnes Per Hour

TPT

Tuticorin Port Trust

TTPL

Travancore Titanium Products Limited

UCS

Uniaxial Compressive Strength

UDS

Undisturbed Sample

ULCS

Ultra Large Container Ships

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Abbreviation

Description

UNCTAD

United Nations Commerce, Trade and Development

UNESCAP

United Nations Economic and Social Communion for Asia and Pacific

USA

United States of America

USD

United States Dollar

VACIS

Vehicle And Cargo Inspection Systems

VCTP

Vallarpadam Container Terminal Project

VCTPL

Visakha Container Terminal Pvt Ltd

VHF

Very High Frequency

VLCC

Very Large Crude Carrier

VPD

Vizhinjam Port Development

VPPA

Vizhinjam Port Project Area

VPT

Visakhapatnam Port Trust

WDV

Written Down Value

List of Abbreviations
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CHAPTER 1
Introduction

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1 Introduction
1.1 Project Background and Outline
Liberalisation and globalisation of Indian economy in 1991 have made the coastal states to
attract private sector investments on port development. The broad objectives of the
participation of private sector in port development have been to bring about an improvement
in efficiency, productivity, quality of service as well as to usher competitiveness in the
provision of port services. In addition, the private sector is expected to mobilise adequate
resources required for capacity augmentation and introduce the latest technology and
management techniques in the port sector.
Government of Kerala (GoK) is keen to attract private sector participation for development of
infrastructure in the state such as ports, roads etc. GoK has drafted a policy for the
development of port infrastructure and inland navigation. The policy redefines the role of
Fisheries and Port development and Kerala Maritime Development Corporation in the
business of ports and brings out the privatisation guidelines. The policy is intended to bring
in substantial investments by providing a framework for co-ordinated development of ports
and related industries in the State. The objective is inter-alia, to increase Keralas share in
maritime trade of India, facilitate achievement of optimal multi-modal transport and logistic
chain, ensure protection of environment and coastal zones and invite and encourage
adequate private sector participation in ports, support services and other infrastructure on
commercial basis.
Kerala has a coastline of 580 km and has 14 minor ports, 3 intermediate ports and 1 major
port in Cochin. Except the major port in Cochin the remaining 17 ports are under the control
of Kerala and have collectively handled about 150,000 tonnes of cargo in the year 20012002. Southern Kerala being at the tail end of the country lacks port based heavy-industries
and as such there is not much scope for port based hinterland cargo. However being at the
southern tip of the country, Kerala enjoys the presence of being closer to the main
international shipping routes, especially the routes en route Port of Colombo. Today 35
percent of Indian container traffic is being handled at foreign ports such as Colombo, Dubai
and Singapore making Indias imports costlier and exports less competitive due to long
transit time and additional port costs. Kerala State being located in a strategic position close
to the international shipping route, GoK desires to tap the potential for development of a
container transhipment hub port in the state. It is anticipated that with the development of
container transhipment hub port at Vizhinjam, a fair share of Indian container traffic that is
presently being handled at foreign ports (mainly Colombo) will be handled at Vizhinjam.
The development of a container hub at Vizhinjam could, therefore, save foreign exchange
out flow to the country and increase global competitiveness of Indian exports. It is with these
objectives that GoK intends to develop a container transhipment hub at Vizhinjam. The
location of Vizhinjam in Kerala is shown in Figure FD0101 and bathymetric map off
Vizhinjam in Figure FD0102 and it can be seen from the map that Vizhinjam enjoys a natural
water depth of around 24 m within about one nautical mile from the coast. Factors such as
availability of deep waters close to the shore and proximity to shipping route make Vizhinjam
a good location for development of hub port. Additional advantage of Vizhinjam is its least
littoral transport along the coast that practically relieves the port from maintenance dredging.

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With this background, GoK had called for an international tender for the selection of
Consultant to assist the Government with project development and implementation. As a
result hereof and following an international competitive bidding, the consortium led by L&TRAMBLL Consulting Engineers (LTR), in association with Rogge Marine Consulting,
G.M.B.H, Germany (RMC), RAMBLL, Denmark and L&T Capital Company Limited have
been selected and appointed as Consultant for providing consultancy services. IIDC (IL&FS
Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd.) is functioning as GoK's advisors for this project.
The Scope of service of the project comprises of the following three phases:
Phase I

: Traffic Assessment and Preliminary Viability

Phase II

: Detailed Feasibility and Project Structuring

Phase III

: Assistance towards Technical and Financial Closure

Reports were prepared and submitted prior to the bidding process, which was commenced in
2004 and the bids were received in August 2005.

The above bid process however was not successfully culminated in award of
the project for implementation, , as the only bidder was not given necessary
clearance by the Govt. of India. Accordingly, GoK decided to resume the
process for selection of developer by inviting bids once again (i.e. re-bidding of
the project). In this connection VISL, the Nodal Agency/Sponsor for
development of the project requested LTR to review the Traffic forecast, Cost
estimates, Tariff structure and Financial Viability of the project. LTR has
reviewed and updated the above and presented in respective chapters as
under:
1. A new para (4.9) on Review of Traffic and Forecast as an
Addendum to the Chapter 4 (Traffic Assessment Study)
2. A revised chapter on Cost Estimate (Chapter 13) superseding the
earlier chapter fully.
3. A new para (14.9) on Review of Tariff as an Addendum to the
Chapter 14 (Tariff Structure)
4. A revised project implementation schedule superseding the earlier
project implementation schedule in chapter 15.
5. A revised chapter on Financial Viability Analysis (Chapter 16)
superseding the earlier chapter fully.
Bidders are requested to read the techno-commercial feasibility report (Volume
2 of RFP) in conjunction with the above addenda and revised chapters.

1.2 Project Team


The consortium for carrying out Consultancy Services for the Development of Vizhinjam Port
for Implementation with Private Sector Participation consists of:

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L&T- RAMBLL Consulting Engineers Limited


339/340, Anna Salai, Nandanam
Chennai-600 035, India
Ph: +91-44-24331181/2; Fax: +91-44-24331183

In association with:

ROGGE Marine Consulting GMBH


Am Lecuchtturm 3
DE - 27568 Bremerhaven,
Germany
Ph: (471) 4802-0; Fax: (471) 4802-129

RAMBLL
OlofPalmes Alle 22 DK-8200 Arhus N,
Denmark
Ph: +45 8944 7700; Fax: +45 8944 7625

L&T Capital Company Limited


10, Club House Road, Anna Salai, Chennai - 600 002.
India
Ph: 044-28462099

With Sub Consultant as

Nishith Desai Associates


Legal & Tax Counseling Worldwide
93 B, Mittal Court, Nariman Point,
Mumbai 400 021, India
Ph : 91 22 2282-0609; Fax: 91 22 2287-5792

Loyola College of Social Sciences


Sreekariyam, Thiruvananthapuram 5695 017
India
Ph: +91-471-2591018, Fax: +91-471-2591760

L&T-RAMBLL is the lead member of the consortium and co-ordinates the work of the
consortium and liaises with the Client.

1.3 Organisation of Report


Chapter 2: Site Selection
This chapter discusses the findings of site selection exercise for the most suitable location for
development of Vizhinjam Port. Site selection is made considering factors such as water
depth, land reclamation, space requirements, suitable protection of harbour against wave,
current and sedimentation, surface linkages, relocation and rehabilitation (R&R) issues etc.
As per the scope of the consultancy assignment, the site for the proposed port development
is to be selected from a coastline stretching about 10 km from south of the existing Vizhinjam

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Fishing Harbour. Out of the three possible sites from within the 10km stretch, one site is
selected for the proposed development.
Chapter 3: Field Surveys and Investigations
For the selected site, field surveys and investigations are carried out to gather site-specific
information, which is used in preliminary planning, and layouts. The chapter summarises the
field surveys and investigations at the selected site and presents project site environment.
Chapter 4: Traffic Assessment Study
This chapter summarises the Traffic Assessment Study for the proposed project. The chapter
presents the review of previous studies on Vizhinjam with respect to traffic volumes,
highlights socio-economic profile of the region and analyses the past Indian traffic. Analysis
of captive and main port users is carried out to assess the volumes of hinterland traffic for the
port. Profile of the competing ports, especially those involved in transhipment are reviewed to
assess the advantages and weaknesses of Vizhinjam Port. All this forms the basis and
provides the inputs for the traffic assessment of Vizhinjam Port. Total traffic for Vizhinjam
Port consists of hinterland traffic and container transhipment traffic. The main focus of this
chapter is on container transhipment traffic that is found to be the major component for
Vizhinjam port. Upsides of the container transhipment traffic for Vizhinjam Port are also
evaluated for different cases such as effect of no development at Vallarpadam, effect of the
proposed Seethusamudram ship canal project and impact of Indian legislation on container
transhipment traffic.
Chapter 5: Vessel Size Analysis
This chapter provides the basis for design vessel size for planning the port facilities. From
the point of view of size and magnitude of the port facilities, it is important to identify the right
band of probable vessel-mix that would call at the port besides the maximum size of vessel
for which the port facility needs to be planned and designed. While selecting the design
vessel for Vizhinjam port, it is essential to determine the global trends in the shipping in
terms of vessel type and size that are in the trade. Reference has been drawn not only to the
global scenario and the development trends in container fleet but also to the prevailing
conditions in the Indian ports, in particular the competing ports.
Chapter 6: Development Needs and Planning Considerations
The facility requirement in terms of number of berths, cargo handling equipment, navigational
and operational parameters, etc. are assessed in order to evolve the conceptual port layouts.
This chapter presents the development needs and port planning considerations for the
proposed traffic volumes and design vessel sizes.
Chapter 7: Master Plan
For the selected port layout, master plan layout is prepared in three stages viz. short term,
medium term and long term. The port facilities are planned for Moderate Traffic Scenario, but
with a provision to cater for Optimistic scenarios of traffic projections. The master plan
allows for development of facilities in stages to meet the traffic demand. For the various port
layouts, model studies are carried out to select the most optimum layout. This chapter
presents the details and results of model studies to arrive at the selected port layout. The
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master plan also provides flexibility to incorporate modifications in response to the emerging
containerisation scenarios in the future.
Chapter 8: Port Hinterland Connectivity
This chapter provides the options for port hinterland connectivity in terms of road and rail
linkages. The port connectivity are indicated for short, medium and long terms developments.
Chapter 9: Environmental and Social Impacts
Any infrastructure development activities are associated with varying potential impacts on the
environmental and social attributes of the region. The proposed development of Vizhinjam
Port is also likely to result in environmental and social impacts. In order to assess these
impacts and suggest mitigation measures, studies are carried out based on master plan
layout. The study is carried out in a format suitable for seeking No Objection Certificate /
Consent for Establishment from the statutory authorities. The impact assessment is carried
out keeping in view the master plan. This chapter summarises the REIA study.
Chapter 10: Risk Analysis and Legal Review
A detailed analysis on risk due to development of the Vizhinjam port is analysed. Detailed
review of legal issues are carried out here in this chapter.
Chapter 11: Port Operations
In this chapter, various operations involved in the movement of transhipment and hinterland
(import and export) cargo in the proposed Vizhinjam Port are explained. Container terminal is
divided into various components and the operations to be carried out among these
components for transhipment and hinterland container flow is described.
Chapter 12: Organisational Set-up
In order to efficiently run the container transhipment terminal, adequate and well-trained
manpower is required to meet the targets. This chapter provides information of total
manpower requirements split up under port management, port administration, port operations
and engineering and maintenance works.
Chapter 13: Cost Estimates
Project cost estimates are worked out for short, medium and long term developments for the
proposed facilities. The annual costs towards operation and maintenance (O&M) of the
facilities are also worked out. Costs are also estimated for environmental and social
mitigation measures and road connectivity from (from main grid) upto port boundary. The
project capital costs and O&M costs form the basis for financial viability analysis.
Entire chapter is revised based on 2007 rates. And old chapter become superseded
Chapter 14: Tariff Structure
The purpose of this chapter is to recommend tariff structure for the proposed Vizhinjam Port.
The major component of proposed traffic at Vizhinjam Port is Indian container transhipment
that is presently being routed through Colombo, Dubai and Singapore. With the
commencement of hub port operations at Vizhinjam, mother vessels will start calling at
Vizhinjam thus creating implied feeder incidence at Vizhinjam. With this understanding, tariff
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prevalent at Indian Ports for feeder vessels are used as guidance and tariff prevalent at
foreign ports for mother vessels are used as guidance for designing the appropriate tariff
structure for Vizhinjam. For the purpose of tariff analysis, ports such as JN, Cochin, Tuticorin,
Colombo, Dubai, Singapore and Salalah are considered competitors to Vizhinjam. An
analysis is carried out to arrive at charges at the competing ports for feeder vessels and
mother vessels based on the scale of rates published by the respective ports. Based on the
analysis, appropriate tariff is recommended for Vizhinjam port keeping in view the immediate
competitor for transhipment Port of Colombo.
Chapter 15: Project Implementation Schedule
This chapter delineates the proposed implementation schedules of the project.
Chapter 16: Preliminary Financial Analysis
Financial feasibility is a key determinant in a business oriented investment decision. A project
will attract investors only if it generates sufficient revenues during the project life to cover the
initial and additional investment costs, plus a sufficient return on investment. Based on the
project cost including annual O&M costs and recommended tariff structure, financial viability
of the project is worked out. All the costs (capital and operating) and revenue figures are
based on present-day cost and no escalation are assumed. Thus the financial model is a real
model. The viability study on financials include the key standard parameters like Project
Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Equity IRR and also includes a series of Sensitivity Analysis to
show the reliability of the results and any potential project risks.
Revised chapter based on 2007 costing and traffic is attached with this chapter.

1.4 Acknowledgement
Consultant acknowledges the help and assistance rendered by officials of VISL, GoK,
Department of Ports and their Advisors IIDC (IL&FS Infrastructure Development
Corporation Ltd.), and various other organisations/industries with whom interactions were
made for this Study Report and review thereof.

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FIGURES

CHAPTER 2
Site Selection

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2 Site Selection
2.1 General
The main objective of this chapter is to present the findings of site selection for most suitable
location for development of Vizhinjam Port. Site selection is made considering factors such
as water depth, land reclamation, space requirements, suitable protection of harbour against
wave, current and sedimentation, surface linkages, environmental, social and R&R issues
etc. As per the scope of the consultancy assignment, the site for the proposed port
development is to be selected from a coastline stretching about 10 km from south of existing
Vizhinjam Fishing Harbour upto a village viz. Kollemcodu bordering Tamil Nadu.
The traffic figures and port development requirements (mentioned in this chapter) that
influence the choice of site selection are based upon previous studies of similar nature and
Consultants best judgement. It is noted that the order of deviation between these
assumptions and the actual study on traffic assessment (Chapter 4) and port development
requirements (Chapter 6) is small. In other words, although the site selection exercise is
made based upon preliminary assumptions, the final selection of site does not change with
the outcome of the fresh studies on traffic and port planning which are taken up later in the
project (as will be evident if one proceeds further in this report).

2.2 Studies and Investigations for Siting


2.2.1 Site Reconnaissance Visits
The project team made fields visits to Thiruvananthapuram and Vizhinjam in order to study
the site conditions and to initiate the process of in-depth awareness of the project. The main
purpose of the site reconnaissance visit is to study the project region and gather information
required for initial screening of the site. The visit covered Vizhinjam Fishing Harbour, the 10
km stretch along the shoreline (from south of Fishing Harbour upto Kollemcodu), quarry
location used for construction of breakwaters at fishing harbour, Village and major district
roads connecting the coastal villages, NH 47, Trivandrum by-pass, surface linkages to the
coastline etc. are also covered. The reconnaissance survey of the area is performed using
available maps and topo sheets of the project region. At few prominent landmarks in the
region latitude-longitude co-ordinates are recorded using handheld Global Positioning
System (GPS).
The following team members visited the site:
1. Project Director / Team Leader
2. Dy. Team Leader
3. Dy. Coordinator / Cost Estimator
4. Project Engineer
5. Port Master Planner
6. Port Privatisation / BOT Advisor
7. Model Studies Expert
8. Geotechnical Expert
9. Traffic Economist
10. Highway Expert
11. Road / Rail Linkages Expert
12. Geotechnical Specialist

Dr. Carsten Sorensen


T. Srinivasan
K. Upendra Rao
K. Hari
Hans Hartelius
Capt. Manfred Menzel
P. N. Ananth
Dr. Kumar Pitchumani
G. Varadaraj
K. Jagadeesh
P. N. Rajesh
A. Madan Kumar
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13. Environmental Impact Assessment Specialist


14. Social Impact Assessment Expert
15. Social Impact Assessment Specialist
16. Policy Analyst and General Advisor
17. Model Studies Specialist
18. Environmental Scientist
19. Environmental Scientist

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T.K.S. Sridhar
Ram Mohan Rao
T. S. Thomas
K. Vijayachandran
J. Venkateswara Rao
K. Neetha
K. Pushpanathan

Details of site visits are presented in Annexure A.2.1 along with supporting photographs
taken during the field visits.
2.2.2 Data Collection and Review
During the field visits and meetings, Consultant has collected various reports / documents
from the Client and from other relevant offices in Thiruvananthapuram and Vizhinjam.
2.2.3 Identification of Data Gaps
The review of reports and the field visits have led to the identification of further data gaps.
With the assistance and good support of the Client, Consultant procured the missing data
from various sources such as Town planning department, PWD, Tourism department,
Railways, Industrial development in and around Vizhinjam and study of topo sheet etc.

2.3 Profile of Project Region


2.3.1 Definition of Project Region
Consultant has studied the stretch of 10 km along the coastline starting southwards of
Vizhinjam Fishing Harbour and ending at Kollemcode and selected the most optimum port
location for the proposed development. The 10 km coastline is shown in Figure FD0201.
2.3.2 Administrative Set-up
The headquarters of Thiruvananthapuram district is Thiruvananthapuram City. The whole of
Thiruvananthapuram district is treated as one revenue division spread over 2192 sq. km
divided into 4 taluks viz. Neyyattinkara, Nedumangad, Thiruvananthapuram and Chirayinkil.
The district is further sub divided into 116 revenue villages. Besides Thiruvananthapuram
Corporation, there are 4 Municipalities viz. Neyyattinkara, Nedumangad, Varkala and
Attingal. Vizhinjam is situated in Thiruvananthapuram district, 16 Kms, to the south of the
capital. Vizhinjam is a promising fishing village endowed with a natural bay formed by a rocky
promontory on the northern side and some rocky outcrops in the Southern Side. These
natural facilities coupled with the traditional fishing activity in the village have favoured the
establishment of a deep-sea fishing harbour at Vizhinjam to exploit the available fish
resources in the near and far off regions.
2.3.3 Natural Conditions
The general nature of the coastline is that beach road separates the villages and the
beachfront. The width of beachfront along the coastline varies in general from about 100 to
250 m. The villages along the coast have good vegetation of coconut and banana
plantations. The landuse in the region is predominantly residential followed by agriculture
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and floriculture. There are no significant industrial areas in the project region. Fishing is one
of the important occupations in the project region (coastal stretch). The project region also
has a good tourism potential, especially health tourism. All the villages in the project region
are well connected to Thiruvananthapuram city. Kovalam, one of the famous tourist
destinations in India is located in the northern fringes of the project region. There are two
rivers in the project region - Karichal and Neyyar, both opening up into sea. Coastal
vegetation such as mangroves and other endangered flora fauna are not observed in the
project region.
2.3.4 Population and Habitation
Based on the census figures of 1991, the data available for 5 Panchayat falling in the study
area indicates that Vizhinjam Panchayat has the highest human population of 42,402
whereas Poovar has the lowest with 18,755. Fishing is the predominant activity in the project
region. Shore based facilities to help fishing industry have also grown. At present, there are 4
ice plants in Vizhinjam area. Of these, the Department of Fisheries runs one, while the rest
are privately owned. The development of Kovalam (which is in proximity of 3 kms from
Vizhinjam) as an International Tourist Centre has contributed to the area development
around Vizhinjam.
2.3.5 Industrial Infrastructure
The general setting of Thiruvananthapuram district enjoys favourable infrastructural facilities
although it continues to be industrially backward compared to other districts in Kerala. The
district has several small-scale industries and few medium/large scale industries such as
Automobiles, plastic, light engineering, refinery, rubber, textile etc.
2.3.6 Commercial Activities
The project region is well known for its fishing activities. The data collected on predominant
economic activities including fishing in the region indicate that there are a total of 21,333
fishermen and women engaged in fishing activity (generally fishing by men and marketing by
women).
2.3.7 Development Plans
A Committee on Scientific Study of Kovalam, Govt. of Kerala has conducted an in-depth
study on the prospects, problems and suggestions for Management of Kovalam Tourists
Destination. The study report was submitted to Department of Tourism, GoK in August 2002.
The scope of the study was limited to the core zone of Kovalam with an area of about 3
sq.km located north of Vizhinjam Harbour upto the northern tip of Samudra beach and west
of new bypass of NH 47. However although the Kovalam tourist area extends from
Thiruvallam to Poovar, the study area was confined to the tourists hotspot area around the
two world famous Eves and Adams beaches.
GoK has organised a "Global Investors Meet" (GIM) during January 2003, in which various
infrastructure projects were proposed to attract private investors from all over the world. As a
prelude to this meeting, the District Administration had conducted a preliminary meeting to
map out the following potential development areas in the district: - Transhipment hub port at
Vizhinjam, International Airport, Mini-hydel project, Hi-tech Agriculture, Organic Farming,
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Export
oriented
Fruit/Vegetable
Thiruvananthapuram city etc.

cultivation,

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Roads,

Flyovers,

Sub-ways

in

The National Highways Division, Thiruvananthapuram is planning bypass to Trivandrum,


Neyyatinkara and other small settlements near Thiruvananthapuram by developing a bypass
to the NH 47 on the western side of the existing alignment.
2.3.8 General Perception of People towards Development in Region
Concerning general perception of people in the project towards development of infrastructure
such as port, road connections etc. it is found that the people are in favour of development of
the area. However people are worried that any development of infrastructure may result in
dislocation of people and affect their livelihood. People expressed that they would support
the development of port or industries in the region in expectation of government providing
adequate compensation for relocation and rehabilitation.

2.4 Preliminary Port Development Requirements


2.4.1 Operational Requirements
2.4.1.1 Traffic
Consultant has carried out traffic assessment studies for development of Vizhinjam Port. The
type of traffic envisaged are container traffic in the form of international transhipment traffic to
as well as container traffic / general cargo directly to the local hinterland in Kerala and South
Tamil Nadu.
It is confirmed by Consultant's traffic studies that the southern part of Kerala is not strongly
industrialised and hence it is expected that the transhipment traffic will be the major
contributor to traffic volumes at Vizhinjam Port. However construction of a port at Vizhinjam
will trigger new industrial developments in South Kerala and Tamil Nadu which will then
contribute to the port traffic in the form of project goods, various types of non-containerised
general cargo etc.
With respect to traffic volumes for the (dominating) container traffic, assessments are made
through comparison with the traffic through the nearby Colombo Port, handling a fair share of
container traffic to/from India at present.
For the container traffic assessment, it is recommended to plan on initial operational phase of
about 550,000 TEU per annum and reserve space for long term development of up to 5
million TEU per annum. This assessment includes the local import/export containers /
general cargo. The complete details on traffic assessment studies are provided in
Consultants Traffic Assessment Report.
2.4.1.2 Berth Lengths
When assessing the total length of berths, the first step is to segregate the types of berths
required. In this connection it is of crucial importance to operate with few, flexible, berth types
in order to have a high average utilisation of berths.

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As the container traffic is the main category, quay length for container handling is assessed
first and additional lengths needed for other cargo added subsequently. Facilities for the long
term traffic assessment is evaluated to get an overall impression of the final space
requirement of the port complex.
The handling rate of container terminals is often assessed as an average of 800 TEU per
metre quay per annum, however, P&O ports calculate with around 1,200 TEU at SAGT,
Colombo and Maersk/Sealand use a capacity figure of 1,500 TEU/year/metre at Salalah. In
Hong Kong, a highly efficient Sea-land terminal operates over 3,000 TEU per m/year.
Using a rather high efficiency of 2,000 TEU per m/year (taking into consideration, that the
high efficiency will be needed at a future stage, maybe 15-20 years from now, when
equipment etc. will have been developed further) the necessary quay length in the long term,
to handle up to 5 million TEU per annum, would be 2,500 m. General cargo/project goods,
etc. of around 0.5 million tons/year could occupy a berth of 250 m length.
Traffic assessment study reveals that there is no foreseeable traffic with respect to oil import
and exclusive bunkering. However in case the same should develop in the future, an intake
facility for moderate quantities could be integrated in the main quay, or a dedicated medium
size oil jetty could be constructed elsewhere in the harbour basin e.g. at the inner face of the
breakwater or SPM terminal could be developed, depending on the volume of cargo to be
handled.
A similar consideration could be done for a possible (but not very likely from traffic
assessment studies) need for a dedicated dry bulk terminal.
The conclusion of the above is that the port arrangement should allow for provision of quay
length for handling container traffic and general cargo while space for oil jetty, passenger
terminal, port craft, etc. would be available elsewhere in the harbour basin.
It can be mentioned that container quay lengths at Colombo Port including SAGT terminal
are 1,600+950 m = 2,550 m and the future planned South Port expansion would add another
2,000 m of quay length.
2.4.1.3 Water Depths
With respect to the main container quay, it shall be capable of receiving the biggest main line
carriers in operation. For these, many ports regard 14 m depth as sufficient, but ship drafts
are increasing above 13 m now, and SAGT Colombo has adopted 15 m depth, and Salalah
has 16 m depth. Maersk specialists warn that 17 m may be needed within the coming 20
years time.
Consultant recommends aiming at 16-m depth at the quay for the Master Plan. For the
stretch of quay wall, it would be possible to differentiate depths over sections of the quay, but
it is advisable to aim at full depth over the full length (also considering that the deep water is
generally near the coastline at Vizhinjam, so the quays would not be shallow!).
As regards the general cargo, water depths of 10-12 m would be sufficient, so the depth
recommended for the container quay is more than needed.

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2.4.1.4 Land Area


In the assessment of necessary land for the port, container stacking areas will be the
dominating factor (together with other necessities for the container operation such as
equipment maintenance, possible container freight station, administrative and personnel
facilities, etc.).
An overall assessment of the total area needed (e.g. using rubber tyre gantries at the yard)
will be 30-40 ha per 1 million TEU/year throughputs. Hence aiming at a future capacity of the
order of about 5 million TEU/year, the areas available should be of the order of 200 ha.
Taking into consideration space for the other activities like general cargo, project goods, etc.
it is advisable to have the possibility to develop port land areas of the order of 200 ha.
As a comparison, Colombo port including SAGT terminal has land areas of around 140 ha
where they at present handle around 2 million TEU/year (and could increase up to 3 million
TEU/year), as well as some general cargo, dry bulk, oil, etc. Their planned "South Port"
extension would add around 120 ha more to the port area, reaching a total of 260 ha area in
their medium/long term plan. For possible long-term expansions a future "North Port"
expansion can be carried out.
2.4.2 Surface Linkages and Utilities
Appropriate connections to the hinterland (defined as the areas behind the port creating its
traffic) and back-up areas in general with all supporting facilities for the port, are essential for
a port, even when the majority of the traffic is expected to be transhipment via the sea
routes. The linkages needed for the port are briefly summarised below:

Road connections to the national highway system, for long distance traffic as well as to
the near vicinity for local supplies, services and for the transport of the port personnel. As
regards the latter aspects, the connections to Thiruvananthapuram are of course the
most essential elements. With respect to the connection to main highway system, the
spur road to the port should at least be a double lane road, around 8m width, and not
passing through densely populated areas.

Rail connection, mainly for long distance cargo transport and supplies to the port.

Connections to public utility systems, such as water supply, power supply, sewerage
system connection etc. Power supply shall be a high-voltage link with sufficient capacity
for the ports requirements or a captive power plant must be developed to augment the
port requirements.

Connections to surface communication systems, such as local telephone network and


national grid. Ship radio links, satellite communication systems etc. will be developed as part
of the port project.
2.4.3 Existing Transport Infrastructure
Thiruvananthapuram district is well developed by roads, railways and airways besides port
facilities at Vizhinjam, Valiathura and Anjengo. NH 47 passes through Thiruvananthapuram
district and at a distance of approximately 8 km from the coastline in the project region. NH
47 connects Salem to Kanyakumari and is connected to Cochin port through NH 47A. From
Cochin further north it is connected to Mumbai by NH 17. The nearest major urban centres
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on the NH 47 are Thiruvanthapuram in the North and Nagercoil and Kanyakumari in the
South. NH 47 also connects the major towns such as Thrissur, Palakkad, Kollam and
Alappuzha in Kerala, and Coimbatore and Salem in Tamilnadu. Further NH 47 is connected
to Chennai and rest of the Country through NH 7, NH 4 etc. Hence NH 47 is well connected
to the national highway network of the country.
Newly constructed NH 47 bypass road from Thiruvananthapuram extends upto Kovalam and
there are plans to extend the same from Kovalam to Parassala, further south of
Neyyatinkara. Major District Road Kovalam to Neyyatinkara passes along the shore with
connections to NH 47. There are several village roads (branching off the district road) leading
to the villages on either side of the district road.
A railway line runs parallel to the National highway and connects the major towns such as
Thrissur, Palakkad, Kollam and Alappuzha. The railway line runs North-South and connects
to Mumbai through Konkan Railway. The rail line connects southern parts of Tamilnadu
through Nagercoil and Tiruchirapalli as well as to the north west region of Tamilnadu through
Palakkad and Coimbatore. Indian Railways have a major division in Thiruvananthapuram
and to its north is located the Goods Yard at Veli. Both Neyyatinkara and Balaramapuram
Railway Station are about 10 km from the project region. The rail line is broad gauge with
single line running between Thiruvananthapuram and Kanyakumari. Beyond
Thiruvananthapuram towards north, the rail is in double line up to Kayamkulam and further
north upto Cochin the rail doubling work is in progress. After Cochin the trunk route to
Chennai has double line track. Electrification of rail track between Cochin and
Thiruvanthapuram is in progress.
The villages along the shore appear connected to the basic facilities such as roads, power
(albeit shortage), potable water, transport, communication etc. with links to all the important
market centres in the state.

2.5 Evaluation of Alternative Sites


2.5.1 Identification of Suitable Alternative Sites
The coastal stretch identified at the southern part of Kerala for a possible development of
transhipment hub is between Vizhinjam Fishing Harbour down to the last village in Kerala,
approximately 10 km long as shown in Figure FD0201.
The coastline in the project region can be characterised as follows:

At the northern end is the existing Vizhinjam Fishing Harbour with its harbour basin
protected by a natural promontory strengthened by an eastern and a southern
breakwater.
The first stretch from the fishing harbour towards south-east of about 3.5 km is a rocky
coast with practically no sandy beaches and the ocean waves breaking directly at the
steep rocky face. Behind the coast, the steep rocky slopes rise towards a hillock area of
60-70 m height. On the hill slopes overlooking the sea, several tourist resorts are located.
Few prominent ones are Coral Beach Resort, Coconut Bay Resort, Soomatheram
Resorts and Travencore Estates.
Subsequently, from a southern promontory of the mentioned hillocks to the Karichal
River, is a stretch of approximately 2 km length with 400 to 500 m wide flat foreland in
front of a steep rocky face up to a 50-60 m high hillock area. In front of the hill slope is
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located a fishing village, Adimulathurai with around 10,000 people. The sandy beach in
front of the village is around 220 m wide at the northern end, reducing to 170 m near
Karichal river. The coast is filled with hundreds of fishing boats and many fishing groups
are using shore seines (long nets with a rope in each end with which 10 12 men at
each end pulls the net onto the beach where the women are ready with baskets or
buckets to pick up the fish) for coastal fishery. The purse seine is previously placed in the
sea approximately 100 m from the coast by a big rowing boat operated by around 10
persons.
Around Karichal River is located a low lying marshy area behind the coast, 500-1000 m
wide and stretching around 1.5 km inland from the coastline. The area is frequently
flooded during rains and is not inhabited, but filled with coconut trees, as all other soil
areas in the vicinity.
Southwards from Karichal River, the sandy coast continues with gently sloping area up
from the rear line of the sandy beach. Right from the back of the beach and landwards,
the fishing village Pullivila is located. The fishing villages have many, well built brickwork
houses with tiled roofs, schools, shops etc. are present. Pullivila village stretches around
1.5 km from Karichal River, southwards, with 150-170 m wide sandy beach in front and
concentrated fishing activity and boats as for Adimulathurai.
Southwards, the same type of coast continues for further 4.5 km, to the bigger village
Puuvar (in this stretch of 10 km). In between is Karumkulam fishing village, of similar type
as the others.
South of Puuvar, a large low lying area with marshy parts, prone to flooding from the
river, backwaters and small hillocks are located around the big Neyyar River. This
wetland area stretches along the coast, and due to lack of area behind the coast for
fishermens dwellings, there are no boats on the bank and also no coastal fishing activity.
The wetlands seem to have extent of several square kilometres. A few tourist resorts are
located in the backwater area.
Further south towards the border of Tamilnadu, a smaller fishing village is located,
named Pozhiyoor. Here the width of the sandy foreshore is only approximately 50 m, and
a rubble mound seawall protects the village. There are relatively fewer boats on the shore
in this village.

As regards the identification of possible sites for a major port, the following
criteria/considerations have led to the selection:
C.1
Depth Contour Lines in the Sea near Coastline: Only smaller variations, depth
contours almost parallel to coastline. 10 m contour is selected at 200 to 1000 m from coast,
20 m contour from 1300 to 1800 m from coast, 30 m contour from 2500 to 4000 m from the
coast. The tendency is that the coast is a somewhat steeper at the northern end than at the
southern end.
C.2
Access to Coastline: The coastal road (District Road) is running all the way just
behind the fishing villages, providing easy access from coastal areas to this local connection
road, except for the northern part where the coastal road is behind/on top of the hillock,
providing more difficult access to the coastline.
C.3
National Highway and Railway Line: Following parallel to the coast around 8 km
inland. Terrain conditions will permit access from any point of the coast, but with different,
somewhat winding routes.

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C.4
Level Coastal Area for Port Backup facilities: At the northern part no backup area
is available due to steep rocky slopes right up from the coastline. At the rest of the coastline,
backup area is available, but practically all areas out to the coastline are densely built up with
fishermens houses. The only exceptions are the low-lying wetlands around the rivers
Karichal and Neyyar. At Karichal, the marshy area between the beach and the coastal road
is assessed as having an area around 50 ha. The wetland/backwater areas at Neyyar would
be several square kilometres, but the availability will have to be further investigated due to
the fact that some tourist resorts are located in the area. Apparently the area has no
mangrove vegetation (which would be a protected habitat, not to be developed for industrial
use). If an area of around 50 ha of the wetland area can be made available, it would be a
good port back up land.
C.5
Fishermen Dwelling: Coastal fishing activity is very prominent in the region which is
hindering the development of the port. The question whether the beach front can be taken for
port development, just in front of a busy, densely populated fishing community has been
discussed with local authorities. The opinion voiced is that the areas behind the beach where
houses are built cannot be used. However, the beach front where boats are kept, pulled up
from the sea, could be expropriated for port use and the fishermen would be obliged to move
their boat landing 1 to 2 km up or down the coastline, outside the port area. Ideas are
mentioned that fishing port facilities could be created at the coastline north and south of a
possible traffic port, as compensation to the fishermen for the loss of the beachfront. Another
idea is to locate the landward side of the port facility around 100 m seaward of the beach
front, so that the beach is kept for the fishermen's use in shelter behind the port facility. In
this case, the gap between beach and port facility would gradually silt up due to the littoral
drift and the fishermen would be forced by natural causes to move their boats north or south
of the traffic port. A conclusion of the above is, that it is the best solution to avoid coastal
stretches heavily used by coastal fishermen dwelling right behind the beach.
When assessing the above described 5 criteria (C.1 through C.5), the following three
potential sites A, B and C have emerged in the project region for a possible port
development. The sites are marked from North to South (See Figure FD0202).

Site A: Location from the south breakwater of Vizhinjam fishing port to the promontory of
the coastal hillocks 2.5 km further south-east.
Site B: Location from Karichal River and 2.5 km towards Southeast in front of Pullivila
Village.
Site C: Location in front of the backwaters around the mouth of River Neyyar, from
Poovar and 2.5 km towards Southeast.

Site A, which is a location just south of the present Vizhinjam Fishing Port comes out with
advantages:

C.5: No fishermen dwelling (no coastal backup area available) and no coastal fishing or
boat landing (no sandy beach!)

Site B is a location in front of Karichal River wetland comes out with advantages:

C.4: Inland backup area available to an extent of approximately 50 ha.


C.1: Coastal contours are a little less steep than for the site near Vizhinjam fishing port:
Quay front would be around water depth 10 m and outer breakwater around 20 m water
depth.

Site C in front of the at Neyyar River comes out with advantages:


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C.5: No fishermen dwelling behind the coastal area and therefore no boats kept at the
beach front and no coastal fishing activity concentrated here.
C.4: Inland backup area available if part of the wetland area (50 ha) can be released for
port use.
C.1: Coastal contours are a little less steep here, meaning that the quay wall would be
built at around 8 m water depth, requiring dredging to -16 m. This would provide sand fill
for reclamation and filling heights over the reclamation area (e.g. up to level +4 m or
similar) would be from 4 m to 12 m. Outer breakwater, located approximately 1 km
seaward of quay front would be located at around 15 to 18 m depth.

The above mentioned 3 sites are identified as the best locations of the coastline available,
and they represent different positive features of the coastline, so the evaluations of these
sites will provide a detailed assessment of all relevant coastal features.
2.5.2 Preliminary Evaluation of Sites
From the basic requirements of berth length of 2500 m, water depth of 16 m and port backup
area of 200 ha., the following layout requirements are derived:
The quay is designed for Super Post Panamax container ships which may have length of
350 m, hence turning circle of 700 m diameter is required in the harbour basin, and with a
simple, functional layout as shown at the preliminary layout drawing, the width of the
harbour basin from the quay front to the inner face of the outer breakwater should be
approximately 900 m. This roughly determines the location of the outer breakwater.
The port land area assessed as 200 ha. in total can be divided into an area just behind
the quay front and some backup area located further back, but directly connected to the
quay apron area. However, the quay apron area shall have an average width of 400 m
from quay front. With the stipulated quay length of 2500 m, it means that the quay apron
area will be at least 4 x 25 = 100 ha, and rear backup area can be max. 100 ha.
The above simple criteria have determined the preliminary layouts shown at Figure FD0202.
2.5.2.1 Site A
Presence of rocky coast and cliff behind the coast are two prominent natural conditions
prevailing at Site A. Level access to the site from district road could be made available either
from south breakwater of fishing harbour or from Adimulathurai village. Since no backup area
behind the coastline is available, the full port area of 200 ha will therefore be established as
quay apron area. This means that the quay area width will be of the order of 800 m, along
the 2.5 km quay front. Hence the dimension of the port from coastline (front of rock face of
hillock) to the inner face of the outer breakwater will be 800 + 900 = 1700 m for planned
operational water depth of 15-16 m.
However since the 200 ha port area will have to be filled up at a level of +4 m from 16 m
depth near the quay wall, this entails a costly reclamation work. The outer breakwater will be
located at water depths of around 18 to 23 m. The port entrance route, approaching along a
straight sandy coast, approximately 2 km from the coastline and at natural depth of 20-23 m
is an easy and safe approach.
The shoreline at Site A is rocky characterised with thick laterite capping with exposures of
gneissic rocks at the foothills. The beachfront in this stretch is non existent or very narrow at
few locations. Environmentally sensitive coastal vegetation like mangroves is not observed
along this stretch.
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The impact on the tourism potential due to decrease in the tourists as the construction and
operation of the port could result in loss of beachfront, sea visibility, silt deposition along the
shoreline, contamination of beach waters due to ship discharges, harbour wastes etc. and
increase in air and noise pollution.
This site, as well as Sites B and C involves reclamation of beachfront areas for creating port
land. However the big volumes of sand for filling / reclamation needed for these works will be
brought from the sea by dredgers and will as such not create significant land traffic.
Nevertheless, construction of this kind of large national projects may involve considerable
movement of material resulting in increase in traffic volume leading to some effects on air
quality, increase in background noise levels and accidents along the access roads.
The relocation and rehabilitation (R&R) programmes in this region is fairly in place compared
to other regions owing to the history on R&R problems which arose during construction of
fisheries harbour at Vizhinjam. The coastal stretch at this site does not come under active
fishing zone area. Fishing activity in this area is confined to deep seas. In addition to the
deep-sea fishing, shoresien fishing (also known as long lining fishing) is occasionally
reported in this stretch between Mulloor and Vizhinjam.
2.5.2.2 Site B
Beach area at Site B is almost 200 m wide and fishing communities thickly populates the
area behind the beach. Presence of Karichal River is to be kept in mind while planning port
development at this site. If required, the river opening into the sea may have to be diverted
so as to avoid opening of the river in the proposed harbour basin. It is assumed that backup
area of 50 ha can be established in the marshy area along Karichal River. This means that
the quay apron area will be 150 ha in the full development, i.e. an area of 2500 m x 600 m.
With the width of the quay apron of 600m, the dimension of the port from the coastline
(waterline of sandy beach) to the inner face of outer breakwater will be 600 + 900 = 1500 m.
The drawing indicates that the quay front will be located at around the 10 m depth contour,
and the outer breakwater located at around 20 m water depth. This means that the 600 m
wide quay reclamation area will need filling from 4 m height at the coastline to 14 m height at
the quay wall. This entails lower filling volumes than compared to Site A, although some
filling of the marshy areas (4-5 m height) will also be needed.
The port entrance route, approaching along a straight sandy coast, approximately 2 km from
the coastline and at natural depth of 16-20 m is an easy and safe approach.
The village road connecting the District Road at Adimulathurai can access the proposed site.
Widening of this road may be needed to cater to road traffic. Other surface linkage
connection could be to construct a road/rail corridor along the Karichal River from the
proposed port site to the main transport links - NH 47 and railway line at Balaramapuram.
Feasibility of such a corridor remains to be checked.
On the environmental front, the main issues will be related to impacts on air environment,
noise and water pollution aspects in addition to diversion of river mouth. Coastal vegetation
like mangroves is not observed in this stretch.
The beachfront in the area is used for parking the fishing crafts and also used for drying the
fish. Compared to the Site A, fishing activity (shoresien) is highly intensive in this stretch.
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Densely populated areas are observed near this site that may be affected due to the
development of the port. Hence the issue of usage of the beachfront by the local fishermen
for the fishing activity is of importance. Development of port will directly affect the fishing
activity and thereby resulting in R&R issues that may lead to delay in the project
development. This site also involves land acquisition covering the marshy land along the
Karichal River for creating the necessary backup area for the port. No tourism resorts are
observed along the stretch.
2.5.2.3 Site C
Presence of Neyyar River and wetland is a prominent feature at this site. The River opening
into the sea may have to be diverted depending on the final layout of the proposed port at
Site C. It is assumed that backup area of 50 ha can be established in the wetland area along
Neyyar River. This means that the quay apron area will be 150 ha in the full development,
i.e. an area of 2500 m x 600 m. The back-up area in the wetland zone will be easy to utilise
and integrate in the port functions. Remarks concerning regulation of the river passing the
port zone will also apply. With the mentioned port area dimensions, the overall dimension of
the port from the coastline (waterline of sandy beach) to the inner face of outer breakwater
will be 600 + 900 = 1500 m.
The preliminary planning drawing indicates that the quay front will be located at around 10 m
water depth and the outer breakwater located at 20 m water depth. This means that the 600
m wide quay reclamation area will need filling from 4 m height at the coastline to 14 m height
at the quay wall. This entails almost equal filling volumes compared to Site B but lower filling
volumes than Site A, although some more filling of the marshy areas (4-5 m height) will also
be needed. It is envisaged that quantities for breakwater construction will be lower at Site C
compared to other two Sites.
The above means that the harbour basin needs dredging to 16 m depth over most of the
area (from a natural depth of around 8 to 16 m). Towards the harbour entrance the channel
will need dredging to 17 m depth, and some approach channel dredging will also be needed.
The port entrance route, would approach along the straight sandy coast, approximately 2 3
km from the coastline at a natural depth of around 20 m, until it reaches the dredged, marked
entrance channel. This will be an easy and safe approach. The village road connecting the
District Road at Puuvar can access the proposed site. Widening of this road may be needed
to cater to the anticipated road traffic.
The backup area (swampy area) earmarked for the port is devoid of mangroves. The
vegetation observed in the site is mostly represented by local floral varieties i.e. coconut
trees. This coastal stretch is free from high density of population, probably because of the
presence of marshy soil.
Three resorts are seen on the southern banks of the Neyyar River with boating in the river,
being one of the important activities for the tourists. Currently the access to the project is
from the Puuvar village through a single lane road. This site is connected to NH 47 through a
two-lane road till Neyyatinkara village.
The important aspect in this site is that there is no fishing activity in this beachfront. Further
there is no fishing activity observed in the Neyyar River.

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2.6 Conclusions on Site Selection


Based on these aspects and among the three alternative sites, it is observed that Site B has
lot of disadvantages compared to Site A and Site C. Hence Site B is least preferred out of the
three sites and need not be included for further analysis and comparison. Hence the
remaining options are Site A and Site C, both of which score equal ranking. Based on the
above discussion, the following may be summarised in respect of Sites A and C:

In terms of project development cost, Site C is less expensive compared to Site A.

In terms of CRZ status, both the sites have the same status and port is a permitted
activity as it requires the waterfront and foreshore facilities.

In terms of R&R issues and awareness of the people towards the proposed project, it is
found that Site A is preferable over Site C.

Considering the impact of shoreline changes in the neighbouring state due to port
development at Site C, Site A is preferable over Site C.

In terms of impact on resorts / tourism due to port development, it can be seen that both
the sites have equal disadvantages.

Considering the impacts of diversion of rivers, Site A is preferable compared to Site C as


there are no rivers opening up in the harbour basin at Site A.

Considering the above, it is recommended that out of the three sites, Site A is the preferred
site for development of port.

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FIGURES

ANNEXURE

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Annexure A.2.1 Note on Site Visit


A.2.1.1

Introduction

The Consultants team made reconnaissance visits to the site at Vizhinjam to gain a better
understanding of the project requirements.
A.2.1.2

Reconnaissance Visit

On day 1 of the site visit, Consultant team went to Chowarai village (in Vizhinjam) on the top
of the cliff to get an aerial view of the shoreline starting from Adimulathurai towards Karichal.
The team then visited Vizhinjam fishing harbour (Plate 1) to get a feel of fishing activities and
the facilities available in the harbour.
A walk through survey was carried out along the entire shoreline on day 2 of the site visit
starting from Mulloor beach (south of Vizhinjam Fishing Harbour) and upto Tamil Nadu
border. Mulloor beach is narrow with a maximum beachfront of about 50 m (Plate 2). Just
behind the beach there is a cliff of height varying between 50 to 100 m which continues for
almost 3 to 4 km along the shoreline upto Karichal river. Mulloor beach and the hillock behind
the beach are famous for attracting tourists. The team noticed two resorts in this region b
name Coconut Bay Resort and Coral Reef Resort. On the hillock, there is a famous hill
station for tourists called Pullinkudi Hill Station.
Further south of Pullinkudi hill station, there are two more resorts on the hillock called
Somatheram Resorts and Travancore Estate. As per some sources, these resorts are also
famous hot spot tourism destinations, next only to Kovalam, in Thiruvananthapuram district.
The team then travelled through the District Road to reach Adimulathurai village and drove
through the village road (Plate 3) to reach the beach on the northern side of the village. The
beach road separates the shoreline and the village. Towards the seaside of the beach road,
there is an open beach, while on the other side of the road, there is habitation. The distance
between shoreline and the beach road at this location is about 220 m. Lot of fishermen are
seen fishing in open sea and lot of boats are also seen beached against the shore. Few
fishermen (about 25 to 30 in number) are seen involved in 'long lining fishing at this location.
Long lining fishing is a method by which the fishing net with long leads is cast in the open
sea (perhaps 100 - 200 m into the sea). The group divides itself into two at the shoreline and
each group pulls the fishing net lead towards themselves and gradually close the net as it
approached the shore (Plate 4). By this way the fishes are caught in the net. It is seen that
the fishermen are involved in fishing while the fisher women are involved in selling the fish
catch in baskets (Plates 5 & 6).
Few tourists are also seen strolling in the beach. It was conveyed by the local people that the
tourists from Somatheram Resorts come down to Adimulathurai beach for recreation. At the
time of the site visit, there was some film shooting taking place in the beach.
The team then travelled along the beach road (Plates 7 & 8) to reach Karichal river. At this
location the beachfront between the shoreline and the beach road is about 170 m wide. The
local people have constructed a bund to close Karichal river mouth. By this way the water
level in river rises and provides adequate water for irrigation and other uses on the upstream
river. The bund formation at the mouth has at least two advantages. Firstly, when the water
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rises above certain level, the bund is opened and the water is let into the sea thus avoiding
flooding of villages upstream. Secondly the bund also prevents entry of seawater into the
river. Two bridges are seen upstream Karichal river, one along the district road and other
(Chappath bridge) about half a km upstream of the first bridge. View of Karichal river outlet at
the sea is shown in Plate 9.
Between the two bridges and along the river, there is a low-lying marshy area. As per some
sources this area measures about 250 acres and devoid of human habitation. As per the
Client, Kumar's Group had submitted a proposal to develop a naphtha based power plant in
this area (mainly because it was devoid of human population) and even had plans to
establish a captive berth for the import of naphtha for their power plant. Due to some
reasons, the project did not take off.
The team continued their travel to through the District Road (Plate 10) reach Pullivilla village
on the southern side of Karichal River. This village is also separated from the beachfront by
the beach road. Fishermen and other supporting communities also predominantly populate
this village. The village has facilities such as Primary School, Sports Club, etc. The distance
between beach road and the shoreline at this village is about 150 m. Further south of
Pullivilla village there are two more fishing villages namely Puthiathura and Karinkulam. The
distance between the beach road and the shoreline along these villages is also about 150 m.
In Karinkulam the State Fisheries Department has constructed a couple of sheds near the
beach road for auction of fish catch by the villagers (Plate 11).
Further south of Karinkulam, there is a village called Puuvar. On the south of Puuvar village,
there is a river called Neyyer, which opens into the sea. The beachfront is about 120 m wide
at this location. The Neyyer backwaters have been attracting tourists and there is also a
resort called Muthoot Puuvar Resorts on the riverbank close to the mouth. Neither the
fishermen nor the fishing boats were seen along the beach in Puuvar village (Plate 12). View
of Neyyer River, upstream in backwaters in shown in Plate 13.
The team crossed the Neyyer river (Plate 14) along the District road to reach a village called
Pozhiyoor on the south of Neyyer river. Pozhiyoor village also has a beach road separating
the beach and the village. Some fishermen and fishing boats were seen along the beach in
this village. The team then went to the last village called Kollumkodu, further south in Kerala
State. Fishing activities is similar in this village as in Pullivila or Adimulathurai villages. A
seawall has been constructed along the beach in this village.
The team then travelled along the district road from Puuvar to Neyyattinkara, a bigger town
along NH 47. If Puuvar is selected as the preferred site for development of port, then the
district road connecting Puuvar and Neyyatinkara, about 10 km long, will act as the main link
between the port and NH 47. The team travelled back to Thiruvananthapuram on NH 47 to
get an idea of traffic pattern on the national highway. The team also visited the quarry
location, which was used for construction of breakwaters in Vizhinjam Fishing Harbour (Plate
15).
The photographs taken during the field visits are enclosed.

Annexure A.2.1 Note on Site Visit


Page 2-2

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CHAPTER 3
Field Surveys and Investigations

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3 Field Surveys and Investigations


3.1 Location and Site Appreciation
The proposed site for development of Vizhinjam Port is located south of Vizhinjam fishing
harbour in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala State. The seacoast in this area is curved
inwards forming a small bay stretching between Vizhinjam and Chowara as shown in Figure
FD0301. The coast in this stretch is rocky characterised with thick laterite capping with
exposures of gneissic rocks at the foothills. The beachfront in this stretch is non-existent or
very narrow and varies 100 to 250 m. South of this site, down towards Karichal River,
shorsien fishing is observed at the beach.
The hill stretch between Vizhinjam and Chowara is a good tourist destination due to the
presence of various resorts that are taking care of the recreational and the health needs of
the tourists. These resorts (ayurvedic) are attracting foreign exchange and boosting the
revenue of the state. The beach road (from Adimulathurai to Kollemkodu village) separates
these villages with predominantly fishing community and the beachfront. District road of 7 m
wide is the connecting link for all the villages. The bypass road for NH 47 is at present
extending from Thiruvananthapuram Airport to Kovalam beach. However there are plans to
extend the bypass road upto Kanyakumari.
For the selected site, field surveys and investigations have been carried out as described in
the following paragraphs. Consultant has prepared a report on field surveys and
investigations and the same was submitted to the Client during August 2003. This chapter
describes in brief the various surveys and investigations carried out including observations
and preliminary conclusions. However, it shall be noted that these field surveys and
investigations are only for planning and preliminary designs and not for the final detail design
and construction purposes. Detailed and specific investigations would be required prior to
construction stage and normally taken up by developer as is practice in BOT projects.

3.2 Field Surveys and Investigations


Studies have already been carried out in the past by various agencies for development of
port at Vizhinjam. Critical review of all these reports (review details presented in Inception
Report and Siting Report) reveals either inadequacy and/or inconsistencies. As the sitespecific data was not available for detailed planning, design and optimization of facilities
required for port, therefore Consultant felt it was necessary to carryout the following field
surveys and investigations:
Geotechnical investigations
Seabed, Oceanographic surveys
Topographic surveys and
Environmental and Social surveys

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3.3 Geotechnical Surveys


As part of Phase-I work of the project, field surveys and investigations were carried out and
subsequently the report with document number RP009 R0 titled Field Surveys and
Investigations Report was submitted in August 2003. Although, the soil investigation agency
had mobilised suitable floating craft with other necessary arrangements during April-May
2003 for carrying out the marine soil investigations, it was not possible to conduct the marine
geotechnical investigations due to the following reasons.

Nation-wide truckers' strike and local bandhs in Kerala during April-May 2003, delaying
the mobilisation of marine craft and drilling equipments.

Decision on initial selection of site was taken during end April.

Prevalent rough sea conditions prior to monsoon season forcing us to stop the
deployment (during mid May 2003) of the fully assembled marine craft at final location.

Due to this inclement weather, the investigating agency was unable to perform the
marine/offshore investigations as per the proposed plan. However, three land boreholes
were explored along the coastline of the project area as planned and results of these
investigations were included in the report RP009 R0.
Subsequently, it was proposed to undertake the marine borehole investigations in the next
fair weather slot possibly between mid September to mid October. Accordingly, during
October 2003, the agency mobilised a superior drilling platform with other necessary
arrangements for carrying out the marine soil investigations.
This report describes the marine soil investigations carried out in the proposed project area.
3.3.1 Objectives
Geotechnical investigations are required to determine various soil/rock parameters at the
proposed location of port facilities in order to carry out engineering analyses. Investigations
are also required to assess the dredgeability of soil/rock in the harbour basin.
The broad objectives of the investigations are:

To evaluate geo-technical parameters of soil/rock

To assess dredgeability of soil/rock in the harbour basin

To recommend suitable foundation systems

3.3.2 Broad Scope of Work


It was proposed to explore three land and three marine boreholes in the project area.
Relevant laboratory tests were proposed for assessing engineering properties of soil/rock.
The summary of the marine investigations is discussed in the following sections.

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3.3.3 Investigating Agency


With the above background, detailed scope of work and technical specifications were
prepared and forwarded to M/s Fugro-KND Geotech Limited Mumbai to carry out the marine
soil investigations.
The geotechnical investigations were supervised by the Consultants team of engineers for
quality control and for deciding on the termination depth of the boreholes. Two experienced
geotechnical engineers supervised continuously from beginning to end of the investigation
work. Geotechnical experts made frequent site visits to check the quality of the
investigations. All fieldwork was certified by the field in-charge and reports were forwarded to
Consultants office. Field observations were recorded by both Consultants and Contractors
personnel. Field investigations were conducted during November 2003. Soil/rock samples
collected at site were tested in laboratory.
3.3.4 Location of Land Boreholes
The land boreholes are distributed evenly along the coastline of the proposed project area as
shown in Figure FD0302. The location of land boreholes is given in the following table.
UTM Co-ordinates

Geodetic Co-ordinates

Easting

Northing

Easting

Northing

LBH-01

720552.63

925553.20

77 00 11.2 E

8 22 07.4 N

LBH-02

721658.31

924139.29

77 00 47.1 E

8 21 21.2 N

LBH-03

719553.73

926436.10

76 59 38.7 E

8 22 36.3 N

Boreholes

3.3.5 Location of Marine Boreholes


The marine boreholes are distributed evenly along the proposed project area as shown in the
sketch Figure FD00303.
There was difficulty in finalising the marine borehole locations due to reasons mentioned
below.
1. It was not possible to anchor the drilling vessel at some locations due to the existence of
rock out crop in the vicinity of the proposed investigation area, due to insufficient
penetration of the anchor into the seabed.
2. The local fishermen (draggers) opposed to locate the borehole locations in the trawl area
and also advised not to locate the drilling platform in the route of the fishing vessels.
Hence, borehole MBH-1 was located in the fishing harbour.
Due to these reasons, it was decided at site to locate the boreholes at suitable locations such
that there would not be any interference to the fishermen. Attempts were made to identify
locations where it would be easy for anchoring the drilling vessel. In this process a number of
rock outcrops were detected on the seabed (Information was collected from the fishermen

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who dive and collect shellfish from the rock-bed, on existence of rock bed). The locations of
the detected rock outcrops are presented in Table 3-1 for information.
Table 3-1: Location of rock outcrops on the seabed
Location
No.

Apprx. Depth
of Water

Co-ordinates

7m

080 22 19.6 N

760 59 48.5 E

8m

080 22 15.2 N

760 59 56.7 E

7m

080 22 15.0 N

760 59 58.2 E

11 m

080 21 38.55 N

770 0 16.9 E

10 m

080 21 38.6 N

770 0 7.64 E

13 m

080 21 45.15 N

770 0 3.01 E

After trials, three locations were identified for conducting the marine soil investigation. The
locations of the marine boreholes are presented in Table 3-2.
Table 3-2: Location of Marine Boreholes
BH No.

Co-ordinates

MBH-1

080 22 29.22 N 760 59 24.0 E

MBH-2

080 22 20.73 N 760 59 47.23 E

MBH-3

0
080 21 34.58 N 77 0 14.76 E

3.3.6 Methodology
The following equipments were mobilised for carrying out the marine geotechnical
investigations (MBH1 to MBH3)

Floating pontoon mounted with drill rig, water pump, testing tools and other necessary
accessories.

Positioning of the borehole locations by using hand held GPS.

Exploratory bore holes of 150 mm dia. were advanced using rotary washing method so
that minimum disturbance is caused to the soil below the boring depth.

A continuous casing was installed in boreholes to prevent caving-in of loose sand into the
drill hole.

Collection of soil (disturbed and undisturbed) and rock samples as per the technical
specifications.

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Carrying out the laboratory testing on soil and rock samples.

The geotechnical investigations were carried out as per technical specifications that comply
with the procedures stipulated in the relevant Indian Standard (IS) Codes of practices.
Standard Penetration Tests (SPT), collection of Disturbed samples (DS), field identification of
soil layers etc. were carried out in bore holes. An attempt was made to collect Undisturbed
samples (UDS) but since the stratum at all locations was predominantly sandy it was not
possible to collect the undisturbed soil samples. The laboratory investigation covers the
determination of grain size distribution and shear strength on soil and rock samples.
3.3.6.1 Standard Penetration Test
Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) were conducted at different depths in the bore holes. SPT
split spoon sampler of standard size was driven into the soil from borehole bottom using
63.5kg hammer falling from 75cm height. Winch was used to drop the weight in conducting
these tests by using guide rods. Blow count for the penetration of every 15cm was recorded
and the N value is reported as the blow counts for 30cm penetration of the sampler leaving
the first 15cm penetration as seating drive. These tests were conducted at every 1.5m
intervals to have a continuous SPT N value profile.
3.3.6.2 Soil Sampling
Disturbed soil samples were collected from the SPT spoon while carrying out the penetration
test at regular intervals. As explained above, it was not possible to collect the Undisturbed
Soil sample as the strata was predominantly sand in all of the boreholes. The disturbed soil
samples were preserved in polythene covers and transported to laboratory for testing.
3.3.6.3 Rock Coring
Rock coring was attempted in all boreholes in the rocky strata. Tungsten Carbide and
Diamond drill bits were used for coring in rock. Core recovery and rock quality designation
was recorded for each penetration of the core barrel. It was unmanageable to drill
continuously 3 m into hard rock at MBH-2 and MBH-3 locations, due to unsteady condition of
the drilling platform because of the rough sea environment. Insufficient penetration of the
casing pipe into the thin sand stratum also posed problems in coring. However several trials
were made to collect some of the rock cores from the boreholes for testing purposes.
3.3.6.4 Laboratory Testing
Laboratory investigations were conducted on the disturbed samples and laboratory results
are available for review. Laboratory testing schedule was issued to the soil contractor for
testing of soil/rock samples. Physical properties such as grain size analysis and engineering
properties such as unconfined compression tests on rock samples were carried out in the
laboratory.
3.3.7 Results and Discussions
The soil investigation data has been reviewed and details are described below.

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Land Boreholes
It is observed from the general topography of the project area that at most of the locations
rock is exposed and protrudes into sea along the entire seashore except at few locations
where beaches are formed. The rock exposed to the fury of the sea is metamorphosed form
of Granite. Lateritic deposits are seen at higher elevations away from the beach. The surface
soil is generally sandy type and relatively medium to dense.
The soil strata at LBH-1 consists of medium to dense sand up to a depth of 1.36 m followed
by weathered granite rock (Metamorphosed Granite). SPT refusal was observed in the sand
layer.
The soil profile at LBH-2 consists of medium to dense sand to a depth of 4.05 m followed by
hard Granitic rock. The observed SPT N values are in the range of 39 to 49 in sand deposit.
Core recovery of >70% and (Rock Quality Designation) RQD of >32% is observed in this
borehole.
The soil profile at LBH-3 consists of medium to dense sand to a depth of 7.80 m followed by
weathered rock. The SPT N values are increasing with increase in depth. Lateritic deposits
are encountered at 12.5 m depth below the existing ground level. SPT refusal was observed
in this layer.
The observed bedrock is moderately weathered at surface and rapidly graded into sound
rock as depth increases. The core recoveries in the bedrock layer typically varied between
25% to 70% and RQD (Rock Quality Designation) varied between 0 to 60%. There is no
RQD observed in LBH-3. It is seen from the petrography tests that the encountered rock is
Khondalite and Leptynite. The average uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) is 524 kg/cm2
for land boreholes. Sectional details of boreholes is given Figure FD 0302.
Keeping the proposed marine facilities in view and based on the field and laboratory
investigations, it may be decided that deep foundations are suggested for marine structures.
Marine Boreholes
The soil strata at MBH-1 consists of loose to dense sand up to a depth of 19.5 m with
increasing SPT N values with depth. The N values range from 7 at shallow depth to 62 at
deeper depths. A stiff clay layer of about 2 m thick is sandwiched in the sandy layer at 13.85
m having N value of 17. Highly weathered to completely weathered rock (occasional quartz
crystals are seen) is encountered up to the termination depth of 23.65 m below the existing
bed level. SPT values of 29 to refusals are observed in this layer.
The soil profile at MBH-2 consists of loose to dense sand to a depth of 2.95 m followed by
hard rock. The observed SPT N values are in the range of 13 to 14 in sand deposit. The
uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of the rock sample is 11.11 MPa.
The soil profile at MBH-3 consists of loose to dense sand to a depth of 1.00 m followed by
weathered/hard rock. The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of the rock sample is 7.143
MPa.
It is seen from the borehole profiles that the soil encountered is predominantly sandy in
nature. Sand or silty sand is observed in all boreholes down to the weathered rock/hard rock
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level. Based on observed SPT N values, the relative densities of these soils typically range
between loose to dense. Some of the engineering and physical properties of the encountered
sandy soil are mentioned below.
Sand content
Silt and Clay content
Soil Classification as per IS
Relative density
Angle of frictional resistance,

: >80 %
: <20 %
: SP
: loose to dense
: 30 to 35 degrees

Hard rock is encountered in all boreholes at varying depths. The observed bedrock is
moderately weathered at surface and rapidly grades into sound rock as depth increases.
Sectional details of boreholes is given Figure FD 0303.
It is seen from the petrography tests that the encountered rock is Khondolite. The texture of
this rock is coarse grained inter granular and dark greyish black in colour.
3.3.8 Inferences
Land Boreholes
The subsurface stratification at shore generally consists of medium to dense sand varying
from 1 m on northern side to 7.8 m near the southern side, followed by either weathered
granite rock or hard Granite rock. The rock exposed to the beach is metamorphosed form of
Granite. Lateritic deposits are seen at higher elevations away from the beach.
Marine Boreholes
It is observed from the general topography of the project area that at most of the locations
rock is exposed and protrudes into the sea along the entire seashore except at few locations
where beaches are formed. The surface soil is generally sandy and relatively loose to dense.
The subsurface stratification in offshore region generally consists of loose to dense sand with
varying thickness, followed by either weathered rock or hard Khondolite.
Keeping the proposed marine facilities in view and based on the field and laboratory
investigations, it is recommended that foundations for the proposed marine facilities shall be
founded on hard rock

3.4 Seabed, Oceanographic and Topographic Surveys


3.4.1 Objective
Seabed surveys and investigations have been carried out by M/s National Institute of Ocean
Technology (NIOT), Chennai, on behalf of LTR. The objective of these field surveys and
investigations are to obtain precise bathymetry, seabed features and nature of the surface
layer through sidescan sonar survey, shallow geology through seismic profiling and physical
oceanographic parameters such as tide and current for appropriate planning and design of
proposed development of Vizhinjam port.

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3.4.2 Brief Scope of Work


The scope of work for the field surveys and investigations includes,

Establish a reference point on land, which can be used for both land and water, based
surveys.
Carry out echosounding in the area to obtain precise bathymetry
Demarcate Low Tide Line (LTL) and High Tide Line (HTL) along the proposed area.
Carryout sidescan sonar survey and shallow seismic survey
Establish tide gauge and compare the observed tides with the predicted tides in order to
reduce the soundings to chart datum and to prepare the bathymetric map.
Carryout current measurements at two water depths and to get current profiles for a
period of about 12hr each.
Collect sea bed sediment samples either by gravity corer or by grab sampler and
Process all the survey data and prepare charts reports etc.

The complete report on Seabed, Oceanographic and Topographic surveys report submitted
by M/s NIOT was enclosed along with Field surveys and investigations report. The summary
of report is discussed in the following sections.
3.4.3 Survey Methodology Details
3.4.3.1 Seabed Surveys
The seabed surveys namely bathymetry, sidescan sonar survey and sub-bottom profiling
have been carried out simultaneously by deploying the echosounder (Odome), sidescan
sonar (DF-1000), and sub-bottom profiler (Chirp) respectively from onboard. CRV
Sagarpurvi. The differential Global Positioning data in 12 channels were received utilising the
coastal radio beacon network. All the data pertaining to position and bathymetry were
recorded in the laptop using hypack software, whereas sidescan data were recorded in the
triton Elics system and the sub bottom profiler data were collected in the MP disk of the Coda
system. The location and the extension of the surveys are shown in Figure FD0304.
3.4.3.2 Oceanographic Investigation
For measuring tide and current data at the project area a Vale port tide gauge and ADCP
current meter were deployed. A continuos automatic recording of tidal measurements have
been carried out during the complete survey. These measurements were used for reduction
of bathymetry /depths to chart datum. The current pattern in the near shore waters of the
project area was obtained using ADCP system. This system was deployed from the side of
the moored CRV Sagarpurvi. This instrument operates in 300Khz frequency having a beam
angle of 20 degree and 4 beam system with down looking orientation.
3.4.3.3 Topographic Survey
For topographic survey a pair of Leica SR95000 RTK systems with SKI post processing
software was used. The accuracy of the system is 3 cm (+/-) 1ppm. The benchmark used for
transforming the co-ordinates is an SOI benchmark (RL: 6.945 m w.r.t CD) located on a rock
adjoining to basement on the western side of Vizhinjam mosque near the gate of the harbour
entrance. The identification of topographic features, shoreline profiling w.r.t. chart datum at a
transect interval of 100/50 m on each profile within the area were carried out.

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3.4.4 Data Analysis and Survey Results


3.4.4.1 Bathymetry
The results of the bathymetric surveys in a 1.5 km X 10 km wide corridor along the shore are
presented in Figure FD0305. Initially, the 10 km stretch was surveyed along five shore
parallel lines to obtain the overall bathymetry of area A. subsequently the 4 km stretch of the
coast at Vizhinjam (zone 1) was surveyed along 12 shore parallel lines and cross lines of 2
km each at a spacing of 0.5 km. Due to presence of hard stratum with uneven nature at near
shore areas, the survey beyond 7m towards the shore could not be carried out.
The bathymetry reveals that the contours are generally parallel to the coast. There are some
sudden rises and falls in the seabed due to the presence of hard rock/compact formations.
Three sections i.e. AA, BB, CC were chosen at the project location and the seabed slopes at
those sections are presented in the following Table 3-3
Table 3-3 : Seabed Slopes in the Project Area
Seabed
Section

Contour Depth w.r.t. CD


10-15m

15-20m

20-25m

Label AA

1 in 28 to 1 in 50

1 in 70 to 1 in 90

1 in 98 to 1 in 103

Label BB

1 in 25 to 1 in 100

1 in 98 to 1 in 148

1 in 74 to 1 in 180

Label CC

1 in 100 to 1 in 150

1 in 70 to 1 in 160

3.4.4.2 Seabed Features


Sidescan sonar survey has been carried out for a total of 98.1 line km in the project area with
five regional shore parallel lines of 10 km in area A and 12 lines of 4 km each in zone I. The
surface features as determined by the sidescan sonar survey are presented in Figure
FD0306.
It reveals that the entire area is mostly covered by sandy sediments of fine to medium size
with outcrops of hard/compact formations at places. The sand at places show sand waves
less then 1m high. At many places the sandy sediments were seen to have mega ripples.
The most interesting feature brought out by sonar image was the presence of hard rock /
compact formations in the area. Rock outcrops of flanges ranging between 40 to 350 m are
identified at 5 locations in the survey area, the most prominent being the one near the shore
to the south of the Shiva temple.
3.4.5 Shallow Geology
The isopachs of the sedimentary units with respect to CD in 1m interval are presented in
Figure FD0307. The survey has identified significant sub bottom reflector occurring at depths
ranging from 1.6 to 12.6 m below the seabed. On the north-western part of the area between
8.220 8.230 N and longitude 76.580 76.590 E the average thickness of the sediments
around 6.5 m and appears to thicken towards the coast, where it attains a maximum
thickness of about 12.6 m.

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3.4.6 Currents
The current speed and directions were measured at two locations for the total depth at every
1m interval from surface to the bottom. Due to the limitation of ADCP it was possible to
measure currents only from 3.64 m from the water surface to 20 m at location 1 and 3.64 m
from the water surface to 15 m at location 2. The maximum current observed during
deployment was 0.86 m/s. The current direction is noticed as SE and NW (i.e. parallel to the
coast) during different phases of tide and direction of waves.
3.4.7 Delineation of High Tide Line
Based on topographic survey, shoreline profiling has been carried out and the levels reduced
to CD. The high and low tide levels have been estimated using tidal data of Trivandrum. The
values for HTL and LTL are 1.20 m and 0.10 m respectively. The High and Low tide lines
together with the 200 and 500 m lines from HTL are presented in Figure FD0308.
3.4.8 Benchmark and Topography / Beach profiles
Two benchmarks were located near the site for the transformation of GPS coordinates of
topographic survey. One is established by the Survey of India and the other is a
hydrographic survey benchmark. The geographic position of hydrographic survey benchmark
is Latitude 0802234.37 N, Longitude 760 59 13.03 E. Based on the Survey of India and
Hydrographic survey bench marks, a local benchmark was established by surveyors at
project site (Nagashetram) with geographical position 080 21 56.77 N, 770 00 14.59 E for
all future requirements. The topography / beach profile survey results are shown in Figure
FD0309. From the figure it can be seen that major rock out crops are existing at 4 locations
along the beach and dumped rock boulders of 300 m along the beach are existing 600 m
away from southern side of Vizhinjam fishing harbour. Also, dense and continuous
vegetation (Coconut trees) exists along the beach.
3.4.9

Grab Sampling

To validate the ground truth of sidescan & sub-bottom, grab samplers are collected from 20
stations in the area. The collected samples reveals that most of the area consists of fine
sand with a mixture of medium sand. The percentage of silt and clay increases with depth
and varies between 2 and 41. At two places grab samples show the higher percentage of 34
and 41% of clay. Sensors of sidescan & sub-bottom have observed similar features, which
confirm the seabed composition.
3.4.10 Inference
The bathymetry shows availability of 15 m contour at around 850 m near the fishing harbour
to around 500 m at the rocky promontory at the southern end of the Site A. 20 m contour is
almost parallel to the 15 m contour and at a distance of about 450 m from the 15 m contour.
This confirms the basic assumptions made at the beginning of this exercise.
Sidescan sonar image confirms the presence of hard rock / compact formations in the area.
The soft layer thickness varies from 1.5 m to 5 m within 15 m contour and varies 5 m to 8 m
from 15 to 26 m contour.

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The current velocity and tide levels are within the acceptable range for a normal development
of port.

3.5 Environmental and Social Surveys


The objective of the environmental and social surveys is to derive the existing environmental
and social conditions in and around the Vizhinjam Port area, which will be used in the
assessment of environmental and social impacts due to the development of the proposed
project. A summary outlining the major findings of this report is presented in Chapter 9 of this
report.

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FIGURES

CHAPTER 4
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4 Traffic Assessment Study


This chapter summarises the Traffic Assessment Study for the proposed Vizhinjam Port. The
chapter begins with the methodology adopted for carrying out traffic assessment study,
presents the review of previous studies on Vizhinjam with respect to traffic volumes,
highlights socio-economic profile of the region and analyses Indian traffic for the period
between 1980 to 2001. Captive and main port user analysis is carried out to assess the
hinterland traffic volumes for the proposed port. Competitive ports profile is reviewed to
assess the advantages and weaknesses of Vizhinjam port. All this forms the basis and
provides the inputs for the traffic forecast of Vizhinjam Port. Total traffic for Vizhinjam Port
consists of hinterland cargo and container transhipment cargo. Upsides of the container
transhipment traffic for Vizhinjam Port is also evaluated for different cases such as effect of
no development at Vallarpadam, effect of the proposed Seethusamudram ship canal project
and impact of Indian legislation on container transhipment traffic.

4.1 Methodology Adopted for Traffic Assessment Study


Any decision about development of a commercial port at Vizhinjam needs to be based on a
realistic forecast of traffic volumes. An exercise is carried out to arrive at forecasts of the
cargo throughput to be handled at Vizhinjam Port for the next 30 years. The Consultant
adopted following methodology for traffic assessment exercise:

Data collection pertaining to traffic assessment and its review.


Review of current ports and maritime traffic in the region.
Conducting interviews and questionnaire survey covering major international and
domestic liners, feeder liners and hinterland survey of port users.
Assessment of the future regional traffic market by commodity type.
Assessment of the future handling capacities of the competing ports.
Review of current and future competitive advantages and weaknesses of the proposed
Vizhinjam Port.
Preparation of traffic demand forecast for Vizhinjam Port.

4.1.1 Data Collection and Review


4.1.1.1 Sources of Information
To cover different facets of Traffic Assessment exercise, Consultant reviewed background
information relevant to the present study. The information collected from different sources
are as mentioned below:

Interviews
Meetings / discussions
Questionnaire surveys
Previous/Related Study Reports
Internet data
Literature Survey (journals, News clippings etc.)
Consultants internal data bank on global shipping and port development.

4.1.1.2 Groups of Data


The above data is grouped under the following categories:
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Economic development of Kerala and India


Traffic volumes
Shipping routes
Shipping lines / agents
Container terminals

4.1.2 Review of Current Ports and Maritime Traffic in the Region


Consultant collected pertinent data and information, including official yearbooks and
unpublished statistical data series from relevant port authorities, as well as yearbooks and
statistical series from relevant national and international institutions. The raw data is
organised and presented in tables and supporting graphs.
4.1.3 Conducting Interviews and Questionnaire Surveys
In order to gather information on present strategies and future plans of major international
and domestic shipping lines and shipping agents, Consultant conducted interviews as given
below:

Interviews with the shipping lines offering direct services between Europe and India.
Interviews with the main carriers (Maersk, P&O etc.) at their European headquarters
focusing on present and strategies regarding "loop and pendulum services".
Interviews with European and Indian shipping agents.
Interviews with the companies that showed interest in Cochin / Vallarpadam bid.
Interviews with state agencies, industrial bodies and select industries.

Consultant also distributed questionnaires to port based industries in Thiruvananthapuram


region to obtain their perceptions on using the proposed port at Vizhinjam for their
import/export needs.
4.1.4 Assessment of the Future Regional Traffic Market by Commodity Type
Consultant reviewed the socio-economic setting of the hinterland and considered appropriate
economic growth factors in order to predict the future traffic from the region. Traffic forecasts
are based on the relationship with economic growth, and also consider the events and
developments that are expected to have an impact upon future traffic development. The
forecasts are based on a "bottom up" approach, i.e. forecasts are made individually for each
type of commodity and then aggregated to the respective port's total throughput volume.
Traffic demand at the national level is projected for the period 2003 - 2033, by commodity
type. Traffic forecasts are calculated for the three economic growth scenarios (pessimistic,
moderate and optimistic).
4.1.5 Assessment of the Future handling Capacities of the Competing Ports
Consultant assessed alterations in port infrastructure, suprastructure and equipment
expected in the future for the regional ports. Consultant studied port expansion plans and
modernisation programmes of regional ports with regard to their future development /
augmentation of port capacities. Concerned Indian major ports, international transhipment
hub ports and private terminals are studied for container handling facilities and capacities. In
particular, focus is laid on Port of Colombo, which in the present study is considered as the
main transhipment (hub port) competitor to the proposed Vizhinjam Port.

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4.1.6 Review of Current and Future Competitive Advantages and Weaknesses of Vizhinjam
Port
As regards the current competitive situation, Consultant collected general operational
performance data for main activities of regional ports. For few domestic ports, cargo
handling, port performance and dwell time indicators, tariff rates, cargo handling equipment,
cargo storage and warehousing etc. are also collected. Efforts are made to collect similar
information to the possible extent for international hub ports.
4.1.7 Traffic Forecast for Vizhinjam Port
Traffic forecast for Vizhinjam port is considered for the following three cases:

Generated traffic from hinterland as a result of new development of industries;


Attracted regional traffic from neighbouring ports considering their expansion plans and
capacity constraints; and
Indian container transhipment traffic.

Generated traffic that is likely to use the proposed port at Vizhinjam is estimated based on
the discussions with user agencies in the hinterland.
Attracted traffic to the proposed Vizhinjam Port is estimated based on the capacity
constraints and future expansion plans at neighbouring ports. Based on the current and
future capacities at neighbouring ports, appropriate traffic is assigned to Vizhinjam.
The forecast of transhipment traffic to the proposed Vizhinjam Port from the competing
transhipment hubs serving Indian cargo are based on national level forecasts of Indian
container traffic and factors at competing ports, such as; physical features / constraints,
capacity constraints / augmentation plans, vessel sizes, environmental considerations etc.
Finally summary of traffic forecast for Vizhinjam is presented under three scenarios
pessimistic, moderate and optimistic.
Upsides of traffic forecast for Vizhinjam Port are also proposed for cases such as effect of no
further development at Vallarpadam Terminal (Cochin), effect of proposed Sethusamudram
Canal Project and impact of Indian legislation on container transhipment at foreign ports.

4.2 Review of Previous Studies / Reports


4.2.1 Previous Studies / Reports
The following reports are reviewed with the purpose of traffic forecast for the proposed
Vizhinjam Port.
1. Development of Ports in Kerala - A Proposal - Government of Kerala - GoK (2001).
2. Development of Container Load Centre at Vallarpadam (Cochin) - Bid Document (1997).
3. Feasibility Report on Vizhinjam Port Development - Kumar's Group of Companies (1996).
4.2.2 Observations
4.2.2.1 GoK Proposal
GoK Proposal for port development is a broad assessment of port requirements in the state
for handling future cargo that is likely to be generated due to the industrial development in
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the state. Further, its proposal for a transhipment hub at Vizhinjam is based on the
assumption that Indian exporters/importers could save considerable foreign exchange. GoK
also made broad assessment of the likely cargo at national level and not specifically for the
port at Vizhinjam.
4.2.2.2 Vallarpadam Load Centre
Based on the Frederic (R) Harris Report of 1997, the estimated traffic projections for
Vallarpadam Load Centre as reported in the Bid Document for the project are given in Table
4-1.
Table 4-1 Traffic Projections for Vallarpadam Container Terminal
Year
1997
2003
2007
2012
2017
2022

Container Traffic (TEU)


122,000
510,000
1,379,000
2,137,000
2,640,000
3,339,000

4.3 Socio-economic Profile


4.3.1 Profile of India
India is the second populous country, next only to China. The country accounts for 2.4 per
cent of the world surface area whereas it supports 16.7 per cent of the world population.
According to the provisional results of Census of India 2001, the population of India as on
March 1, 2001 crossed one billion and was enumerated at 1.027 billion. The decade's growth
of population at 21.34 per cent between 1991-2001 was the sharpest decline in the rate of
growth of population witnessed since independence. Trends indicate that the country is
entering a phase of demographic transition.
Economic reforms initiated a decade ago were aimed at a paradigm shift in the
developmental policies initiated after national independence. Agricultural policy is moving
away from the objective of providing food security to the national economy. Industrial sector
was the focus of much of the economic reforms carried out, so far. Foreign Direct Investment
and removal of barriers inhibiting access to capital markets are expected to result in
sustained high growth in industrial production. Structure of new investments in industry is
expected to shift to more capital intensive from more labour intensive ones.

4.3.2 Profile of Kerala


The State of Kerala, which forms the main hinterland of the proposed port, is the southwestern tip of India, neighboured by Karnataka State in the north, Tamil Nadu in the east and
Lakshadweep Islands in the west. A narrow strip of land, 560 km along the western coast of
India with width varying from 15 to 120 km, forms the Kerala State. Kerala has a total land
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area of 38,863 sq. km. The State has 44 short and swift flowing rivers with 41 flowing
towards west and 3 towards east. With an annual rainfall of over 300cm from the two
monsoons, Kerala is known for its tropical evergreen forests.
Indian Census 2001 has estimated Kerala population at 318 Lakhs. The State had registered
the lowest population growth rate among Indian States during 1991-2001: 9.4 percent as
against the all India average of 21.3 percent. Keralas share in Indian population now stands
at 3.1 percent. Kerala has its unique demographic characteristics compared to the rest of
India, in so far as sex ratio, birth and death rates, infant mortality rate and the percentage of
aged. Another salient aspect is density of population: India as a whole has 324 persons per
sq. km whereas Kerala has 819. The State has been maintaining its No.1 position in Human
Development Index (HDI) for long: as per the reports of the Centre for Monitoring Indian
Economy (CMIE), the level of HDI for Kerala was 0.638 in 2001 as against the National
average of 0.472. Among the 14 administrative districts as shown in Figure FD0401,
Thiruvananthapuram has the largest population at 32.3 lakh persons. The road/rail
connectivity map for South India is shown in Figure FD0402.
Per capita State Domestic Product of Kerala at current prices was Rs. 21046 in 2000-01,
which are about 25 percent higher than all India average. State income i.e. Net State
Domestic Product (NSDP) of Kerala, at constant (199394) prices, was an estimated at
Rs.36079.79 Crores for the year 200102, recording a real growth rate of 4.7% compared to
the previous year. Computation of State Income does not include remittances from outside
the State. If this is added the State income would have been more by 20% of the reported
state domestic products. The comparatively reported better Quality of Life in the State is to
be seen from this perspective.
Industrial Investment by the state is confined to a few sectors, depending on the raw
materials available within the state. Central Public Sector investments in Kerala are relatively
small. In fact, Kerala's share in Central Sector investment steadily declined from 3.24% in
1975 to 1.5% in 1998. From 1999 onwards there was some improvement and it has reached
2.34% by 2001, still far below its entitlement for a population share of more than three
percent. Private sector investments by large industry houses and foreign companies have
not registered their presence in any big way in Kerala. Kerala's industrial sector continues to
be dominated by the so-called traditional, small and informal sectors, typical of
underdeveloped economies.
According to the Tenth Five Year Plan of the State, approved by the National Development
Council, Kerala economy is expected to achieve a growth rate 6.5% per annum in the plan
period (2002-07).

Kerala does not possess natural resources for the setting up of heavy industries. However,
Kerala's coastal belt has large reserves of Thorium, nuclear fuel of the future, and its beach
sands are rich in rare earth resources namely, Ilminite, Monazite and Zircon. Large reserves
of silica sands are reported from the coastal belt and extensive deposits of China clay
reported from the hilly middle zone. State has no reported reserves of fossil fuels and
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Hydroelectric Potential situated close to the population centers is the major source of
electricity in the state; only a third of this potential is currently used, with environmental
objections standing in the way of its fuller utilisation. State Power Grid of Kerala State
Electricity Board is connected to the national grid and nearly forty percent of energy comes
from the neighbouring states.
Keralas Share of exports from the country (4%) is above the National average on a percapita basis. The commodity composition of exports from Kerala suggests that traditional
items such as tea, cashew kernels, sea-foods, coir products, spices and coffee, continue to
figure as major individual items but the category under miscellaneous items represents the
major chunk of exports. Kerala continues to be one of the major players in the marine
products exports from India. More than half of the export of processed cashew kernels from
India is from Kerala. Kerala plays of a major role in the export of coir and coir products.
Imports to Kerala from other countries consist largely of POL for the Kochi Refineries Ltd.,
which account for almost 90% of the total quantity of imports through Cochin port. Other
main items of import are fertilisers and raw materials, iron and steel machinery, newsprint,
raw cashew-nut and food grains.
4.3.3 Profile of Thiruvananthapuram District
Vizhinjam is a fishing village in Thiruvananthapuram District, the southern most district of
Kerala. To the south and east of this district are Kanyakumari and Tirunelveli Districts of
Tamilnadu and to the north is the Kollam district. Thiruvananthapuram City, is the seat of the
State Government and the Government has announced in the current budget a Capital
Region Development Program and the present study is reportedly financed from its funds.
Net Domestic Product of the District was estimated at Rs.6584 Crores at current prices for
the year 1999-00 at current prices which worked our to Rs.20484 per capita compared to the
state average of Rs.19461.
4.3.4 Indian Economy
4.3.4.1 Past 1980 to 2002
The growth of Indian economy during the period between 1980 and 2002 is presented in
Table 4-2. It has increased from Rs 401162 Crores in 1980 to Rs 1320700 Crores in 2002.
The annual growth of economy exhibited different characteristics during two distinct periods,
one between 1980 and 1991 and the other between 1991 and 2002. The annual growth of
economy during the earlier period (1980-91) exhibited greater fluctuations as compared to
that during the latter period. The economy during this period varied between 1.30 percent (in
1991) and 10.47 (in 1988) percent. The economy during the latter period is following a
definite pattern as evidenced from the annual growth rates, realised during this period. It
peaked to a value of 7.84 percent (in 1996) from an initial value of 5.12 (in 1992) and then
ranged between 4.4 and 6.5 thereafter. The steady growth of the economy during this period
can be attributed to the economic policies framed in the post liberalisation era, which
commenced in 1991. Average growth of economy during the post liberalisation period, 19922002, is 6.17 percent per year as against 5.39 percent during the previous decade (19821992).

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Table 4-2 : GDP Growth between 1980 and 2002

Year
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

(@ Constant 1993 Prices)


GDP
Annual
Growth (%)
(Rs Crores)
Growth (%) Since 1980
401162
425110
5.97
5.97
437638
2.95
4.45
471190
7.67
5.51
490027
4.00
5.13
514058
4.90
5.08
536338
4.33
4.96
556874
3.83
4.80
615206
10.47
5.49
656470
6.71
5.62
693051
5.57
5.62
702067
1.30
5.22
738002
5.12
5.21
781345
5.87
5.26
838031
7.25
5.40
899563
7.34
5.53
970083
7.84
5.67
1016594
4.79
5.62
1082748
6.51
5.67
1148442
6.07
5.69
1198685
4.37
5.63
1265429
5.57
5.62
1320700
4.37
5.57

4.3.4.2 Forecast 2003 to 2033


The Planning Commission, Government of India, indicates the forecasts of the national
economy through five-year plan projections. Currently, the 10th five-year Plan (2002-2007) is
in operation.
According to the Approach Paper to the 10th five-year Plan, GDP growth in the post reforms
period has improved from an average of 5.7 percent in 1980s to an average of 6.5 percent in
the Eighth and Ninth Plan periods, making India one of the fastest growing developing
countries. The percentage of population below poverty line has continued to decline, even if
not as much as targeted. Sectors such as software services and IT enabled services have
emerged, as a new source of strength creating confidence about India's potential to be
competitive in the world economy. The Approach Paper aims for GDP growth of 8 percent
per year, on an average, against a base scenario, as detailed in the Table 4-3 given below:
Table 4-3 : Alternative GDP (%) Growth Paths - X-Plan Period
Year/Period
Scenario
Base

2002
6.3

2003
6.5

2004
6.8

2005
6.6

2006
6.6

X-Plan
6.5

Last 3
Years
6.6

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Target

6.7

7.3

8.1

8.7

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9.2

8.0

8.7

The performance of the Indian economy was analysed by international funding agencies,
credit rating agencies and industry bodies in the country. These agencies have indicated that
the economy of India would grow at different growth rates as presented below in Table 4-4.
Table 4-4 : Economic Forecast by Different Agencies
S.
No
1
2
3
4
5

Agency

GDP 2003-04

Investment Credit Rating Agency


World Bank / International Monetary Fund
CRISIL / Confederation of Indian Industry
Economic Times Intelligence Group
Asian Development Bank

5.5 to 5.7
5 to 5.5
6.4
5.8
6.0 (6.3 in 2004-05)

The GDP growth in future is assumed for three different scenarios, ' Pessimistic', 'Moderate'
and ' Optimistic'. It is considered prudent not to assign different growth values for each year
in the plan period and assume an average growth for the plan period.
The long-term growth during 1980 to 2002 was 5.57 percent as reflected in Table 4-2.
Additionally, it is observed that during the last three 5-year periods it was over 5.5 percent
and maintained a steady growth during the last decade -1992-2002. Thus, it was considered
that on an average the GDP growth could be as low as 5 percent and no lower. Considering
that GDP growth in the past was above 7.5 percent only a few times, it was assumed that
GDP could be as high as 6.5 percent on an average. These rates have been assumed to
reflect the most realistic range of GDP growth values. Thus, three different scenarios, which
are considered pragmatic and conservative, are adopted for this study, namely:

Pessimistic growth starts at

5.00 percent

Moderate growth starts at

6.00 percent

Optimistic growth starts at

6.50 percent

The growth rates for the latter periods are reduced for every block of five years. It is assumed
that the economic growth (GDP) will be no lower than 5.5 percent in the optimistic growth
scenario. This is based on the information that the long-term average growth observed for
the period between 1980 and 2002 is about 5.5 percent. And, further the average of the three
5-year periods of 5+ percent growth during the last two decades excluding the peak 7
percent 5-year period (1992-97) is also about 5.5 percent. The GDP growth during the
moderate growth scenario will be no lower than 5 percent the growth observed during the
period 1982-87, the lowest among the four 5-year period growths. In the pessimistic growth
scenario, it is assumed this value will be no lower than 4.5 percent, the growth observed in
two separate years (2000-01 and 2002-03) in IX-Plan period. The assumed GDP growth
rates for the three growth scenarios for the study are as presented in Table 4-5 given below:
Table 4-5 : GDP Growth Forecast between 2003 and 2033
Year
2003
2004

Pessimistic Moderate
5.00
5.00

6.00
6.00

Assumptions (%)
Optimistic
Year
2018
6.50
2019
6.50

Pessimistic Moderate Optimistic


5.00
5.75
6.25
5.00
5.75
6.25

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2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017

5.00
5.00
5.25
5.25
5.25
5.25
5.25
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00

6.00
6.00
6.25
6.25
6.25
6.25
6.25
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
5.75

7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.25

2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033

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5.00
5.00
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.50
4.50

5.75
5.75
5.50
5.50
5.50
5.50
5.50
5.25
5.25
5.25
5.25
5.25
5.00
5.00

6.25
6.25
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
5.75
5.75
5.75
5.75
5.75
5.50
5.50

4.3.5 Sri Lankan Economy


A large part of the Indian cargo passes through Colombo Port, the transhipment hub in the
region. One of the important sources of Sri Lankan Economy is the contribution of the
shipping trade (transhipment operations).
According to ADB, Sri the Lanka entered 2002 with an economy in serious difficulty battered
by both global and domestic events. The previous year had seen countrys worst
macroeconomic performance since independence, with the economy contracting by 1.4%,
inflation accelerating, and the fiscal position deteriorating. From this perspective, although
the 2002 recovery may have been modest, the Governments progress in stabilizing the
economy provides a firm foundation for more rapid growth in the medium term. In aggregate,
GDP expanded by 3.0% in 2002. The end of the drought brought relief to the agriculture
sector, which grew by 2.4% during the year, compared with a decline of 3.0% in the previous
year. The one area of continued weakness was the industry sector, where the level of output
remained largely unchanged from the previous year, growing by only 0.5%.
The Governments initiative toward solving the civil conflict augurs well for the countrys
development and has received favourable responses from the international community,
including donors. Now that progress has been made in establishing macroeconomic stability,
Sri Lanka is expected to enjoy rising GDP growth in 2003, particularly during the second half.
Rising external demand from industrial countries, mainly in the second half of 2003, should
provide a much-needed boost to the export sector. Tourism and shipping have shown the
strongest recoveries as a consequence of the ongoing peace negotiations, and they are very
likely to continue expanding in 2003. Investment as well should improve due to the cessation
of hostilities and lower interest rates.
High oil prices would act as a damper on industrial growth, but the end of the drought that
plagued the country over the last several years should help keep electricity prices in check,
as generation need not rely as much on expensive thermal plants. More-over, electricity
supply should become more reliable with the commissioning of an additional 165 megawatts
of generation capacity in the first half of 2003. Agricultural production has also shown
resurgence in recent months and should perform well in the first half of 2003. With continued
favourable weather, the economy is expected to grow by 5.0% in 2003 with somewhat higher
growth of 5.5% in 2004. This forecast is a bit more conservative than the Governments
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projection of 5.5% growth in 2003 and 6.5% in 2004, reflecting uncertainty in the strength of
the global environment.

4.4 Traffic Analysis Indian Ports


4.4.1 General
Cargo volumes (both imports and exports) passing through the 12 major Indian Ports as also
the information on GDP growth during the period 1980 to 2001 is collected. The two sets of
information - aggregate cargo volumes and GDP growth rates - are analysed and their inter
relationship developed through statistical (regression) methods. Cargo movement is
classified as Containers (in Tonnes and TEU separately), Break Bulk, Liquid Bulk, Dry Bulk
and General Cargo considering the traffic that is currently moving through the major ports
along the east and west coasts of the country. The analysis is also carried out for each of the
principal commodity types, namely iron ore, fertilisers, POL (crude and products), coal and
others.
The analysis is carried out considering the data for a period of twenty one years, for the
objective of the study is to provide cargo forecasts up to the horizon of the study - 2033.
Elasticity of traffic demand (cargo volumes) vis--vis economic growth and traffic growth
rates up to the horizon is established on the basis of the results of the regression analysis.
Traffic growth rates are established based on the estimated elasticity of traffic demand and
assumed GDP growth rates.
4.4.2 Traffic Trends
4.4.2.1 Overall Traffic
The aggregate cargo traffic passing through major ports in the country is of the order of 288
million tonnes in 2001 as against 81 million tonnes in 1980 resulting in an annual average
growth of 6.25 percent during the period. The growth of traffic through JNPT (Jawaharlal
Nehru Port Trust in Mumbai) since its operation in 1990 registered a growth of about 25
percent per year. This is mainly due to the large volumes of container traffic being handled at
this port, in fact, majority of the container traffic (50% by weight and 55% in TEU) generated
in the country passes through this port. Excluding JNPT, the fastest growing port in the
country is New Mangalore, with an annual growth rate of 15 percent followed by Paradip at
11 percent. The variation in the growth rate among the ports on the East Coast is minimal
(Calcutta-1.34 and Paradip-11.28) as compared to those on the West Coast where the
variation is high (Mumbai-2.13 and JNPT-24.47). The growth of cargo, during the past two
decades, through Calcutta and Mumbai is between two and three percent. This is mainly
because two ports are in operation in each of these two corridors, with perhaps specialised
facilities available at Haldia and JNPT. The growth in the two corridors, however is about 6
percent (Calcutta-Haldia) and 5 percent (Mumbai-JNPT) respectively. The cargo volumes
through the ports on the East Coast are growing at an annual average growth rate of 7
percent as compared to that of 5.5 percent growth of cargo volumes through the ports on the
West Coast. It is interesting to note that the aggregate cargo volume through East Coast has
surpassed that moving through West Coast ports in the last two years. The aggregate cargo
traffic passing through East Coast ports is of the order of 148 million tonnes in 2000 and
2001 while that passing through West Coast ports is of the order of 133 million tonnes in

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2000 and 139 million tonnes in 2001. About 3.4 million tonnes of cargo passed through
Ennore Port on the East Coast in 2001.
A high volume of traffic, about 44 million tonnes (in 2001) passed through Visakhapatnam
Port (maximum through any port) followed by Kandla (38 million tonnes) and Chennai (36
million tonnes). Cargo volumes through Cochin and Tuticorin, the hinterland of which ports
include Kerala, is of the order of 12 and 13 million tonnes respectively. The traffic growth
through these ports is of the order of 4 and 8 percent respectively. Calcutta is the only port
through which lower volume of cargo (5 million tonnes) flows through it than these two
southern ports.
4.4.2.2 Iron Ore
The average annual growth of Iron Ore traffic through Indian ports is about 3 percent. Over
ninety six percent of the Iron Ore traffic passes through five of the twelve major ports along
the Indian coast line with three on the East Coast (Visakhapatnam, Chennai and Paradip)
and two on the West Coast (Marmugao and New Mangalore). The growth of Iron Ore traffic
through Chennai is 5 percent and New Mangalore is about 6 percent and is about 2 to 3
percent at the other ports. About 18 million tones of Iron Ore traffic passes through
Marmugao (highest). Iron Ore traffic through Haldia has increased from 0.4 million tonnes in
2000 to 1.8 million tonnes in 2001. Iron Ore traffic through Tuticorin is negligible and that
through Cochin is nil.
4.4.2.3 Fertiliser
The average annual growth of Fertiliser (including raw materials) traffic through Indian ports
is about 2 percent. Over seventy percent of the fertiliser traffic passes through ports on the
East Coast. Fertiliser volumes through all ports except Visakhapatnam (1.6 million tonnes)
and Paradip (2.8 million tonnes) are less than 1 million tonnes. All ports except four on the
East Coast have negative growth of fertiliser traffic. Fertiliser traffic growth at Haldia is similar
to the decreasing rate observed at Calcutta. Growth rate of fertiliser traffic through Paradip
Port is the highest with 18 percent. Fertiliser traffic volumes through Cochin and Tuticorin
ports are of the order of about 500 and 800 thousand tonnes in 2001. Fertiliser volumes
through these ports during the last 5 years exhibited very little variation.
4.4.2.4 POL
The average annual growth of POL traffic through Indian ports is about 5.5 percent. Nearly
58 percent of the POL traffic passes through ports on the West Coast. A sudden increase in
POL traffic through New Mangalore Port is observed from nearly 1 million tonnes in 1995 to 5
million tonnes in 1996 which perhaps may be due to the availability of additional facilities.
Maximum quantity of
POL passes through Kandla Port (23 million tonnes) despite a drop in last years throughput
as compared to the previous five years. The average growth (5.6 percent) through this port is
similar to the average growth (5.5 percent) of all the major ports together. Visakhapatnam
Port is next to Kandla Port in terms of handling large volumes (second highest) of POL traffic
(19 million tonnes) and has a steady growth of about 10 percent on an average. Kandla and
Mumbai on the West Coast and Visakhapatnam and Haldia on the East Coast are the only
ports handling more than 10 million tonnes of traffic of this cargo type. New Mangalore Port
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is not far behind these ports with it handling nearly 10 million tonnes in 2001 and over 10
million tonnes in 2000. The volume of traffic of this cargo passing through Cochin is of the
order of 8.5 million tonnes and similar volume passes through Chennai Port. Very little
variation is observed in the POL traffic passing through Cochin Port with it varying between
9.2 and 9.9 million tonnes during the period 1995 and 2000.
4.4.2.5 Coal
The average annual growth of coal traffic through Indian ports is about 16 percent. Nearly
ninety five percent of the coal traffic passes through ports on the East Coast. Marmugao is
the only port on West Coast, which handled more than 1 million tonnes of coal cargo during
the last two years 2000 and 2001.
Very little coal cargo passed through the ports on the West Coast except that referred earlier
and in fact no coal cargo passes through Mumbai and JNPT ports. The average growth rates
of this traffic on the East Coast varied between 10 percent (Tuticorin) and 27 percent
(Paradip) per year during the last two decades. Calcutta Port handled coal cargo until 1990
albeit very little. However, coal cargo through Haldia Port is growing at 12 percent per annum
with current (2001) volume being of the order of about 7 million tonnes. About 10 million
tonnes of coal cargo passes through Visakhapatnam and Paradip ports with growth rates of
17 and 27 percent respectively. Coal cargo through Chennai Port is currently about 8 million
tonnes lower than the volume that passed through this port during the last four years.
However, considering that about 3.4 million tonnes of this cargo is currently passing through
Ennore Port (new port -neighbour to Chennai Port) the reduction through this corridor is not
very significant. Coal cargo through Tuticorin and Cochin ports is growing at 10 and 20
percent per annum but the volume passing through Cochin is negligible and that through
Tuticorin is over 5 million tonnes.
4.4.2.6 Others/Miscellaneous
The average annual growth of this category of traffic through Indian ports is about 6 percent.
This category of traffic is about 46 million tonnes. Calcutta Port is the only one with negative
growth of this traffic. The growth of this traffic through Calcutta (including Haldia) and
Mumbai (including JNPT) corridors is about 2 percent. Excluding negligible volumes of this
type of cargo during the initial years (1990 and 1991) of JNPT operation the growth in traffic
through JNPT is about 14 percent. Kandla Port caters to over 12 million tonnes of this traffic,
which is highest among the volumes being handled at all the other ports individually. Cargo
volumes of this category through other ports range between 1 and 6 million tonnes. About 1
million tonnes of this cargo passes through Cochin and 4.4 million tonnes through Tuticorin.
4.4.2.7 Containers
Cargo volume to the tune of 37 million tonnes is being transported by containers through
Indian ports. Thus, about 83 million tonnes of General Cargo (including others) passes
through Indian Ports. This indicates that about 45 percent of General Cargo are being
transported by containers. Cargo movement by containers through Mumbai corridor (22
million tonnes) is nearly 60 percent of that passing through Indian ports. Cargo by containers
through Chennai Port is about 6 million tonnes. Tuticorin and Cochin are the two other major
ports handling container traffic of the order of about 2 million tonnes. The average growth of
cargo by containers in India is about 16 percent and that through Mumbai Corridor (including
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JNPT) is about 14 percent. Container traffic in terms of TEU through Indian Ports is about 2.9
millions. The volume of containers passing through Mumbai Corridor is about 1.8 million
constituting about 63 percent of the aggregate container volume. The growth of containers
through Indian Ports is 13 percent on an average since 1987 and that through Mumbai
Corridor is 14 percent. Chennai (345 thousand TEU) and Tuticorin (214 thousand TEU) ports
on the East Coast and Cochin (152 thousand TEU) and Kandla (126 thousand TEU) ports on
the West Coast cater to about 29 percent of the container traffic (in TEU). Thus about 92
percent of the container traffic is passing through these four ports and Mumbai corridor.
Container traffic through Tuticorin and Cochin is growing at 26 and 9 percent per annum
respectively.
4.4.2.8 Dry Bulk
Dry bulk cargo through Indian ports has increased from about 83 million tonnes in 1995 to
about 120 million tonnes in 2001. The growth of this traffic during this period is over 6
percent per year. Dry bulk cargo through Haldia, Paradip, Cochin and Kandla registered a
growth of over 6 percent, the national average. The growth rates of these ports ranged
between 8 and 14 percent. The growth of this cargo through Cochin Port is over 10 percent
with cargo volumes increasing from 0.6 million tonnes in 1995 to 1.2 million tonnes in 2001.
The growth of this cargo through Tuticorin Port is over 3 percent with cargo volumes
increasing from 6.3 million tonnes in 1995 to 7.8 million tonnes in 2001.
4.4.2.9 Liquid Bulk
Liquid bulk cargo through Indian ports has increased from about 99 million tonnes in 1995 to
about 115 million tonnes in 2001. The growth of this traffic during this period is about 2.5
percent per year. High growth rates of liquid bulk traffic passing through New Mangalore (41
percent) and JNPT (65 percent) ports are observed. Calcutta, Haldia, Paradip and
Visakhapatnam ports on the East Coast exhibit a growth rate ranging between 3 and 8
percent, above the national average. The growth rate of liquid bulk through Kandla (1
percent) is lower than the national average. The growth rate of liquid bulk through other ports
is negative. The volume of liquid bulk traffic through Cochin Port is of the order of 9 to 10
million tonnes.
4.4.2.10 Break Bulk
Break bulk traffic passing through Indian ports during the period between 1995 and 2001
increased at a rate less than one percent per year on an average. On an average, this traffic
is about 16 million tonnes. Large volumes of Break Bulk traffic ranging between 1 and 5
million tonnes passes through Mumbai and Kandla ports on the West Coast and Calcutta,
Visakhapatnam, Chennai and Tuticorin ports on the East Coast.
4.4.2.11 East-West
Cargo flowing through the ports on the east and west coasts by category is presented in
Table 4-6 and the share of each coast in Table 4-7. The aggregate cargo volume through
ports on the East Coast increased from about 104 million tonnes in 1995 to about 148 million
tonnes in 2001. During the same period, the traffic on the West Coast increased from 110
million tonnes to 139 million tones. The share of East Coast traffic between 1995 and 1999
was less than that of the West Coast. The difference is less than 4 percent. However, during
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the last two years, 2000 and 2001 the share of the East Coast is more than that of the West
Coast with the difference remaining similar to that of the earlier period (1995-99). The share
of dry bulk (conventional) traffic is over 75 percent on the East Coast. High volumes of liquid
bulk (58 to 62 percent) and container traffic (68 to 80 percent) pass through ports on the
West Coast. The share of container traffic through ports on the East Coast is gradually
increasing.
4.4.3 Traffic v/s Economy (GDP)
It is recognised that the international trade is highly dependent on the economic growth of the
region in which the same is generated. The relationship between the two parameters in the
present study is assessed through regression (statistical method) analysis. A log-log form of
curve is fitted for the data on each commodity type separately and the observed GDP values.
This form of the curve is considered, for, the coefficient of the independent parameter, GDP,
represents the elasticity of the traffic demand vis--vis the economic growth. Missing data in
the time series information was filled adopting the appropriate statistical technique for such
purpose.
Log (Iron Ore) = 1.69 + 0.48 * Log (GDP)
Log (Fertiliser) = 1.74 + 0.37 * Log (GDP)
Log (POL) = -1.23 + 1.04 * Log (GDP)
Log (Coal) = -11.94 + 2.75 * Log (GDP)
Log (General Cargo) = -3.79 + 1.42 * Log (GDP)
Container (%) = -191.20 + 48.31 * Log (G. Cargo)

r2 = 0.87
r2 = 0.82
r2 = 0.94
r2 = 0.91
r2 = 0.97
r2 = 0.91

1
2
3
4
5
6

4.4.4 Elasticity of Demand


Elasticity of the cargo demand by type through the ports on Indian coast line are estimated
based on the results of the regression analysis using the historical data between 1980 and
2001. Further, the change in the elasticity of each cargo type is assessed based on the
yearly values and the moving averages. Moving averages are estimated for a block of five
years or less as possible to eliminate the negative growths occurred during certain specific
years. Due consideration was given to the minimum, maximum of the moving averages and
to the average for the period between 1992 and 2001. The base year (2002 starting year of
forecasts) elasticity is generally based on the values obtained through regression models.
However, if the same are observed to be unrealistic they have been adjusted considering the
values obtained based on the yearly changes and moving averages. The elasticity is
assumed to remain constant for a block of five years and is reduced down to the minimum
observed value by 2021. Thereafter the elasticity values are reduced up to the horizon
considering a similar trend as that exhibited between 2002 and 2021. The elasticity values
considered for each cargo type is given in Table 4-8.

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Table 4-6 : Distribution of Cargo Traffic by Category Through East and West Coast
Ports During 1995-96 to 2001-02

West Coast Ports

East Coast Ports

Port

Year

Category (In '000 Tonnes)


Dry Bulk
Liquid
Break Container
Conventional
Bulk
Bulk
32291
39405
7245
3066

1995-96

Dry Bulk
Mechanical
21631

Total**

1996-97

24078

32231

41856

6359

5700

110224

1997-98

28033

37885

43660

6632

6768

122978

1998-99

21330

40957

45785

8701

6726

123499

1999-2000

24147

42361

49440

7237

8423

131608

2000-01

34963

47497

49152

6037

10441

148090

2001-02

39304

43446

48203

6142

11316

148411

1995-96

23587

5323

59411

8827

12593

109741

1996-97

22304

7036

64387

8416

14890

117033

1997-98

26445

7856

68838

9038

16352

128529

1998-99

21657

8494

71864

9150

17056

128221

1999-2000

22339

9396

79895

9418

19267

140315

2000-01

21475

9838

70735

9186

21781

133015

2001-02

23584

13121

66476

10073

25923

139177

103638

Note: (**) The Total Value Includes Import, Export and Transhipment (Overseas and
Coastal) Traffic.; Source: Major Ports of India
Table 4-7 : Share of Cargo Traffic by Category of East and West Coast Ports During
1995-96 to 2001-2002

West Coast Ports

East Coast Ports

Port

Year

Category (%)
Dry Bulk
Dry Bulk
Liquid
Break
Mechanical Conventional
Bulk
Bulk

Container

Total

1995-96

47.84

85.85

39.88

45.08

19.58

48.57

1996-97

51.91

82.08

39.40

43.04

27.68

48.50

1997-98

51.46

82.83

38.81

42.32

29.27

48.90

1998-99

49.62

82.82

38.92

48.74

28.28

49.06

1999-2000

51.94

81.85

38.23

43.45

30.42

48.40

2000-2001

61.95

82.84

41.00

39.66

32.40

52.68

2001-2002

62.50

76.80

42.03

37.88

30.39

51.61

1995-96

52.16

14.15

60.12

54.92

80.42

51.43

1996-97

48.09

17.92

60.60

56.96

72.32

51.50

1997-98

48.54

17.17

61.19

57.68

70.73

51.10

1998-99

50.38

17.18

61.08

51.26

71.72

50.94

1999-2000

48.06

18.15

61.77

56.55

69.58

51.60

2000-2001

38.05

17.16

59.00

60.34

67.60

47.32

2001-2002

37.50

23.20

57.97

62.12

69.61

48.39

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Table 4-8 : Elasticity for different Cargo Types


Year

Iron Ore

Fertiliser

POL

Coal

2002
2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032

0.48
0.36
0.30
0.24
0.18
0.15
0.12

0.37
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.25
0.23
0.21

0.96
0.93
0.92
0.90
0.88
0.86
0.85

1.07
1.04
1.02
1.00
0.97
0.95
0.93

General
Cargo
1.42
1.21
1.11
1.00
0.85
0.78
0.70

4.4.5 Traffic Growth Rate


Traffic growth rates for each commodity type are estimated based on the assumed growth of
economy (GDP) up to the horizon 2033 and estimated elasticity for each commodity type as
described earlier. The estimated traffic growth rates are presented in Table 4-9.
Table 4-9 : Commodity wise Traffic Growth Rates from 2002 2033
Year
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028

Iron Ore
P
M
O
2.09 2.09 2.09
2.40 2.88 3.11
2.40 2.88 3.11
2.40 2.88 3.35
2.40 2.88 3.35
1.89 2.26 2.53
1.89 2.26 2.53
1.89 2.26 2.53
1.89 2.26 2.53
1.89 2.26 2.53
1.51 1.81 1.96
1.51 1.81 1.96
1.51 1.81 1.96
1.51 1.81 1.96
1.51 1.81 1.96
1.21 1.39 1.52
1.21 1.39 1.52
1.21 1.39 1.52
1.21 1.39 1.52
1.21 1.39 1.52
0.87 1.00 1.10
0.87 1.00 1.10
0.87 1.00 1.10
0.87 1.00 1.10
0.87 1.00 1.10
0.72 0.80 0.88
0.72 0.80 0.88

Fertiliser
P
M
O
1.60 1.60 1.60
1.84 2.20 2.39
1.84 2.20 2.39
1.84 2.20 2.57
1.84 2.20 2.57
1.70 2.02 2.27
1.70 2.02 2.27
1.70 2.02 2.27
1.70 2.02 2.27
1.70 2.02 2.27
1.51 1.81 1.96
1.51 1.81 1.96
1.51 1.81 1.96
1.51 1.81 1.96
1.51 1.81 1.96
1.40 1.61 1.75
1.40 1.61 1.75
1.40 1.61 1.75
1.40 1.61 1.75
1.40 1.61 1.75
1.17 1.36 1.48
1.17 1.36 1.48
1.17 1.36 1.48
1.17 1.36 1.48
1.17 1.36 1.48
1.09 1.21 1.33
1.09 1.21 1.33

Commodity (%)
POL
P
M
O
4.19 4.19 4.19
4.79 5.75 6.23
4.79 5.75 6.23
4.79 5.75 6.71
4.79 5.75 6.71
4.89 5.82 6.52
4.89 5.82 6.52
4.89 5.82 6.52
4.89 5.82 6.52
4.89 5.82 6.52
4.59 5.50 5.96
4.59 5.50 5.96
4.59 5.50 5.96
4.59 5.50 5.96
4.59 5.50 5.96
4.52 5.20 5.65
4.52 5.20 5.65
4.52 5.20 5.65
4.52 5.20 5.65
4.52 5.20 5.65
4.17 4.83 5.27
4.17 4.83 5.27
4.17 4.83 5.27
4.17 4.83 5.27
4.17 4.83 5.27
4.11 4.54 4.97
4.11 4.54 4.97

Coal
P
M
4.69 4.69
5.37 6.44
5.37 6.44
5.37 6.44
5.37 6.44
5.44 6.48
5.44 6.48
5.44 6.48
5.44 6.48
5.44 6.48
5.09 6.11
5.09 6.11
5.09 6.11
5.09 6.11
5.09 6.11
5.00 5.75
5.00 5.75
5.00 5.75
5.00 5.75
5.00 5.75
4.59 5.31
4.59 5.31
4.59 5.31
4.59 5.31
4.59 5.31
4.51 4.98
4.51 4.98

O
4.69
6.98
6.98
7.52
7.52
7.26
7.26
7.26
7.26
7.26
6.62
6.62
6.62
6.62
6.62
6.25
6.25
6.25
6.25
6.25
5.79
5.79
5.79
5.79
5.79
5.45
5.45

General Cargo*
P
M
O
6.21 6.21 6.21
7.11 8.53 9.24
7.11 8.53 9.24
7.11 8.53 9.95
7.11 8.53 9.95
6.36 7.57 8.47
6.36 7.57 8.47
6.36 7.57 8.47
6.36 7.57 8.47
6.36 7.57 8.47
5.53 6.63 7.18
5.53 6.63 7.18
5.53 6.63 7.18
5.53 6.63 7.18
5.53 6.63 7.18
5.00 5.75 6.25
5.00 5.75 6.25
5.00 5.75 6.25
5.00 5.75 6.25
5.00 5.75 6.25
4.05 4.68 5.11
4.05 4.68 5.11
4.05 4.68 5.11
4.05 4.68 5.11
4.05 4.68 5.11
3.69 4.08 4.47
3.69 4.08 4.47

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2029
2030
2031
2032
2033

0.72
0.72
0.72
0.55
0.55

0.80
0.80
0.80
0.61
0.61

0.88
0.88
0.88
0.67
0.67

1.09
1.09
1.09
0.96
0.96

1.21
1.21
1.21
1.07
1.07

1.33
1.33
1.33
1.18
1.18

4.11
4.11
4.11
3.83
3.83

4.54
4.54
4.54
4.26
4.26

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4.97
4.97
4.97
4.68
4.68

4.51
4.51
4.51
4.19
4.19

4.98
4.98
4.98
4.66
4.66

5.45
5.45
5.45
5.12
5.12

3.69
3.69
3.69
3.17
3.17

4.08
4.08
4.08
3.52
3.52

4.47
4.47
4.47
3.87
3.87

Note : General Cargo* Includes Cargo by Containers; P-Pessimistic; M-Moderate; O-Optimistic

Share of general cargo by containers (Table 4-10) is estimated based on the regression
model developed for the purpose. The share of general cargo by containers is likely to
increase from the current share of about 43 percent to about 65 percent by 2013. The share
is restricted to an upper limit of 65 percent to be conservative on the estimates of cargo
movement by containers.
Table 4-10 : General Cargo - Share of Containers
Forecast 2002-2033
Year
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017

Percent
47.84
49.56
51.28
53.00
54.71
56.24
57.77
59.30
60.83
62.36
63.71
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00

Year
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033

Percent
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00

4.5 Captive Cargo and Major Port Users Analysis


The success of a port, be it transhipment or otherwise, to a large extent depends on the
cargo that is likely to be generated (exports/imports) within its immediate hinterland and its
use for transportation needs. In this context it is essential to identify the captive cargo
volumes and also the major port users who are likely to use the proposed facility. In order to
achieve this desired objective, discussions are held with (a) state planning and development
agencies and (b) port users (industry). In addition a well-structured questionnaire is sent to
sample of industries to elicit information on international trade volumes and other relevant
parameters.
4.5.1 Potential Port Users Questionnaire Survey
The questionnaire designed for the purpose of assessing the likely international trade
volumes being generated by the industries and understanding the parameters influencing the
same in the immediate hinterland is distributed to potential port users in the region. Broadly,
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the questionnaire for this survey was designed to obtain the information on the following
aspects:

Brief description of existing plant facilities


Present annual capacity of production
Planned annual capacity for expansion of existing facilities
Current annual exports/imports, packing form, parcel size, etc
Transportation of raw material/finished products from and to the port
Total transportation costs for imports/exports
Advantages/disadvantages (if any) of the current transportation systems
Rating of performance of transportation system
Expectations of users of facilities at the proposed port

4.5.2 One to One Discussions/Meetings


International trade volume through a port is highly dependent on the economy of the
hinterland and its growth in future. In this context it is pertinent to understand the future of
industrial scenario and likely developments within the immediate hinterland. Discussions are
held with the officials of the following organisations which included state planning and
development agencies and industries (port users).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

State Planning Board


Kerala Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation (KINFRA)
Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation (KSIDC)
The Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited (KMML)
Travancore Titanium Products Limited (TTPL)
Leela International Limited (LIL)
KINFRA International Apparel Parks Limited (KIAP)/Small Industries Park (SIP)

The discussions with the above-cited agencies are useful in understanding the developments
that are taking place and are likely to occur in the state.
Large volumes of Dry Bulk or Liquid Bulk cargo passing through the proposed port at
Vizhinjam is unlikely.
The overall import/export trade of various commodities under general / break bulk category
(for e.g. spices, turmeric, curry powders, spice oils, cashew kernel, cashew nuts, coffee, tea,
coir etc.) is currently over 500,000 metric tonnes. A part of this volume could be attracted to
the proposed Vizhinjam Port as these volumes are currently being transported through
Cochin Port.
4.5.3 Container Cargo
The discussions with KIAP and LIL indicate that the cargo volumes generated in apparel
parks would be moved by containers. Also the cargo generated by units in SIPs could be
moved by containers and this volume is not available at this stage. It is understood from the
discussion with KIAP that cargo loads requiring the movement of about 3600 to 5400
containers annually would be generated in the apparel park alone with only 30 percent of the
units functioning. Thus potential exists for movement of about 12,000 to 18,000 containers
annually if all units in the apparel park function as planned. In addition cargo volumes
generated in the export promotion park and the seven small industries parks across the state
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could be transported through a large number of containers. Assuming on an average 15,000


container movements annually could be generated by an industrial park the total container
movement in the state could be of the order of about 100,000 containers. It is possible that
some of these could be handled at Cochin Port. The proposed new port at Vizhinjam could
attract a fair number of containers considering the capacity constraints and operational
facilities at Cochin and Tuticorin.
4.5.4 Summary and Conclusions
A number of industrial parks of various categories are planned across the state and are in
different stages of implementation. A sizeable number of industries in these parks are likely
to be EOUs generating high aggregate volumes of export cargo and also that of import
cargo. These are likely to be moved by containers. Container traffic of about 100,000 TEU
could be expected to be generated in the state. Large share of this volume could be attracted
to the proposed Vizhinjam Port. Dry Bulk volumes that could be attracted to Vizhinjam Port
would be very low. Liquid Bulk volumes that are likely to be generated in the state could get
attracted or use facilities at Cochin Port. General/miscellaneous cargo volumes of the order
of over 500,000 metric tonnes (being the sum of a part of the current volumes and that is
likely to be generated through new industries) could be expected to flow through the
proposed Vizhinjam Port.

4.6 Traffic Forecast - Indian Ports


4.6.1 General
Traffic forecasts of the international trade through 12 major Indian Ports are made and
described in this chapter. Traffic forecasts are based on the traffic growth rates (estimated in
Chapter 3) considering the results of the relationship between traffic volumes and economic
growth of the country and that is likely (economic growth) in future for three different
scenarios - Pessimistic, Moderate and Optimistic. The forecasts are presented at two levels,
namely, national level (aggregate of all ports) and at port level. The forecasts for the ports
represent the traffic that is likely to pass through the corridor identified by the port currently
operating at a particular location. Traffic forecasts are presented by type of commodities and
categories of cargo. Containerisation trend in the country is assessed and the estimates of
the cargo by containers are made accordingly.
4.6.2 National Forecasts - Commodity
4.6.2.1 Overall Traffic
The overall traffic through major Indian Ports is likely to increase from 300 million tonnes in
2002 to over 1100 million tonnes by 2033 across the different growth scenarios defined for
the study. Traffic of the order of about 1400 million tonnes in the moderate scenario and
about 1650 million tonnes in the optimistic scenario is likely by the horizon year. This
indicates that the traffic over the years in future up to the horizon is likely to increase
between 3.7 and 5.5 times of the base year traffic.

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4.6.2.2 Iron Ore Traffic


The iron ore traffic through Indian Ports is likely to be the order of about 76 million tonnes by
2033 in the moderate growth scenario. It is likely to be 71 million tonnes and 80 million
tonnes respectively, by the horizon, in the other two growth scenarios.
4.6.2.3 Fertiliser Traffic
The fertiliser traffic through Indian Ports is likely to be the order of about 16 million tonnes by
2033 in the moderate growth scenario. It is likely to be 15 million tonnes and 17 million
tonnes respectively, by the horizon, in the other two growth scenarios.
4.6.2.4 POL Traffic
The POL traffic through Indian Ports is likely to be the order of about 517 million tonnes by
2033 in the moderate growth scenario. It is likely to be 416 million tonnes and 602 million
tonnes respectively, by the horizon, in the other two growth scenarios.
4.6.2.5 Coal Traffic
The coal traffic through Indian Ports is likely to be the order of about 269 million tonnes by
2033 in the moderate growth scenario. It is likely to be 212 million tonnes and 319 million
tonnes respectively, by the horizon, in the other two growth scenarios.
4.6.2.6 General Cargo Traffic
General cargo comprises cargo of other commodities and that moving by containers. It is
likely to be the order of about 531 million tonnes by 2033in the moderate growth scenario. It
is likely to be 413 million tonnes and 634 million tonnes respectively, by the horizon, in the
other two growth scenarios.
4.6.3 Port Forecasts Commodity Wise
The base forecasts of the traffic through each of the Indian major Ports are estimated based
on the share of the traffic as observed for the year 2001. This is mainly to assess the
volumes that are likely to flow through the corridors identified by the ports operating at a
particular location. Estimates of overall traffic likely to pass through each of the ports in the
moderate scenario indicate that over 50 million tonnes of traffic would pass through each of
them except the Calcutta port. Traffic that is likely to pass through Calcutta Port during each
of the scenarios would be of the order of about 24 to 36 million tonnes.
The estimates indicate that Visakhapatnam and Chennai ports on the East Coast and Kandla
on the West Coast are likely to handle close to or over 200 million tonnes of cargo by the
horizon in moderate growth scenario. Haldia Port on the east coast and Mumbai and JNPT
ports on the West Coast are likely to handle over 125 million tonnes of cargo by the horizon
in the same scenario. In this scenario, Mumbai and JNPT ports together are likely to handle
close to the current national volume of cargo by the horizon. In pessimistic scenario, these
ports are likely to handle between 100 and 165 million tonnes. In optimistic growth scenario,
Paradip Port is also likely to handle over 100 million tonnes by horizon. Thus in optimistic
scenario seven of the major ports - four on the East Coast and three on the West Coast - are
likely to handle over 100 million tonnes of cargo by horizon. In moderate growth scenario the
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number of ports handling over 100 million tonnes would be six with three each on East and
West coasts respectively.
Currently, the industry and major port users in the immediate hinterland of the proposed port
at Vizhinjam use Cochin and Tuticorin ports for international trade requirements. The
moderate growth scenario estimates for these ports indicate that Cochin Port is likely to
handle about 63 million tonnes by horizon and Tuticorin is likely to handle about 76 million
tonnes by the same period. In the pessimistic growth scenario, these volumes are likely to be
50 and 60 million tonnes respectively.
4.6.3.1 Overall Traffic - Cochin & Tuticorin
The overall traffic through Cochin Port in moderate growth scenario is likely to increase from
13 million tonnes in 2002 (base year) to 63 million tonnes by the horizon (2033). During the
same period traffic through Tuticorin Port is likely to increase from 14 million tonnes to 76
million tonnes. The overall traffic through Cochin and Tuticorin ports in the pessimistic
scenario by horizon would be about 50 and 60 million tones respectively. The corresponding
figures for optimistic scenario are be 73 and 90 million tonnes.
4.6.3.2 POL Traffic - Cochin & Tuticorin
The POL traffic through Cochin Port in moderate growth scenario is likely to increase from 9
million tonnes in 2002 (base year) to 43 million tonnes by the horizon (2033). During the
same period POL traffic through Tuticorin Port is likely to increase from about 1/2 million
tonnes to 2 million tonnes. The POL traffic through Cochin and Tuticorin ports in the
pessimistic scenario by horizon would be about 35 and 1.7 million tones respectively. The
corresponding figures for optimistic scenario are 50 and 2.5 million tonnes.
4.6.3.3 Coal Traffic - Cochin & Tuticorin
The coal traffic through Cochin Port in moderate growth scenario is likely to increase from 65
thousand tonnes in 2002 (base year) to 367 thousand tonnes by the horizon (2033). During
the same period coal traffic through Tuticorin Port is likely to increase from about 5 million
tonnes to 31 million tonnes. The coal traffic through Tuticorin port in the pessimistic scenario
by horizon would be about 24 and in optimistic scenario it would be 36 million tones.
4.6.3.4 General Cargo Traffic - Cochin & Tuticorin
The general cargo traffic through Cochin Port in moderate growth scenario is likely to
increase from 3 million tonnes in 2002 (base year) to 18 million tonnes by the horizon (2033).
During the same period general cargo traffic through Tuticorin Port is likely to increase from
about 7 million tonnes to 42 million tonnes. The general cargo traffic through Cochin and
Tuticorin ports in the pessimistic scenario by horizon would be about 14 and 33 million tones
respectively. The corresponding figures for optimistic scenario would be 22 and 50 million
tonnes.

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4.6.4 Container Cargo


4.6.4.1 National Forecasts
General cargo moving by containers is likely to be the order of about 345 million tonnes by
2033 in the moderate growth scenario. It is likely to be 268 million tonnes and 412 million
tonnes respectively, by the horizon, in the other two growth scenarios.
The estimate of container movement is likely to be the order of about 29 million TEU by 2033
in the moderate growth scenario. It is likely to be 22 million TEU and 34 million TEU
respectively, by the horizon, in the other two growth scenarios.

(in million TEUs)

Growth Of Indian Container Traffic


35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Pessimistic
Moderate
Optimistic

2007

2012

2017

2022

2027

2032

Years

The general cargo - break bulk - traffic that is not likely to move by containers would be of the
order of about 186 million tonnes by 2033 in moderate growth scenario. It is likely to be 144
million tonnes and 222 million tonnes respectively, by the horizon, in the other two growth
scenarios.
4.6.4.2 Port Forecasts
Port wise estimates of container movement are based on the share of container traffic
currently handled at major Indian Ports of the aggregate container movement.
Cargo by containers through Cochin Port is likely to be 17.6 million tonnes (1.5 million TEU)
by 2033 in moderate growth scenario if the current trend of container movement through
Indian Ports continues. It is likely to be 1.2 million TEU (13.7 million tonnes) and 1.8 million
TEU (21.0 million tonnes) respectively, by the horizon, in the other two growth scenarios.
Cargo by containers through Tuticorin Port is likely to be 20.4 million tonnes (2.1 million TEU)
by 2033 in moderate growth scenario if the current trend of container movement through
Indian Ports continues. It is likely to be 1.7 million TEU (15.8 million tonnes) and 2.5 million
TEU (24.3 million tonnes) respectively, by the horizon, in the other two growth scenarios.
4.6.4.3 Potential Container Traffic
A change in the share of container movement through different major ports may be expected,
for, each is planning to expand the container handling facilities in the respective ports.
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Currently the container handling is mainly at Mumbai/JNPT corridor and Chennai corridor.
About 75 percent of container movements are being handled through these corridors. Again
over 70 percent of the ICD (Inland Container Depot) traffic are handled at major Indian ports.
ICDs are located at different places in the country. The change can be expected due to
spatial distribution of ICDs and capacity constraints at different ports. It is assumed that the
volume of cargo from a particular ICD to any port on the Indian coastline is inversely
proportional to the distance between concerned ICD and the ports. That is, larger volumes to
the port nearest to it and lesser volume to the port farthest from it. A Logit Model is employed
for the purpose.
Pr (a) = eUx / e Ux ..1
Where Pr (a) = Probability of using port a
Ux = Utility of using port x
The utility is measured in terms of the distance between ICDs and ports. Thus, an estimate
of the likely attraction factor of a particular port for container handling is made based on the
utility of using that port vis--vis others by the traffic generated from a particular ICD. The
share of container traffic (Table 4-11) at each major port of aggregate container traffic
generated in the country is estimated based on the results obtained from the Logit Model for
each ICD separately.

Table 4-11 : Share of Container Traffic at Major Ports


Port
Calcutta
Haldia
Paradip
Visakhapatnam
Chennai
Tuticorin
Cochin
New Mangalore
Marmugao
Mumbai
J.N.P.T
Kandla
Total

Existing Share(%)

Likely Share(%)

3.40
3.22
0.00
0.76
11.96
7.42
5.27
0.14
0.14
8.80
54.52
4.37
100.00

6.94
6.18
5.88
6.20
12.37
5.72
6.38
6.75
7.31
13.40
13.40
9.46
100.00

4.7 Competitor Port Analysis


4.7.1 Introduction
For any port to be successful in its operations, it is essential to be competitive in terms of
facilities, draft, tariff etc. In this context, an exercise to assess the competitiveness of
Vizhinjam port in relation to neighbouring ports is essential. The following domestic and
international ports are studied with respect to container cargo existing facilities, future
development plans etc.

Major Ports in India


Tuticorin Port
Cochin Port
Jawaharlal Nehru Port

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International Ports
Dubai Port
Colombo Port
Singapore Port
Other Indian Ports
Chennai port
Mundra port
Visakhapatnam port
Gangavaram port
Cochin - Vallarpadam terminal
Location of the above ports with respect to Vizhinjam is shown in Figure FD0403.
4.7.2 Tuticorin Port
Tuticorin port located on the south eastern coast of India in Gulf of Mannar with Sri Lanka on
its south eastern side and the large land mass of India on its west. The port has 8 alongside
berths (including two shallow berths), one oil jetty and two coal jetties. The capacity of port in
year 2002 was about 14 million tonnes and has handled 203,000 TEU of container traffic
during the same year.
Tuticorin Port Trust (TPT) envisages further deepening of the port to handle 12.8 m draft
container/bulk vessels and to construct, manage and operate new Container Terminal
(length 340m & draft 10.7m) within the harbour basin. The existing draft in the harbour basin
is 10.7m. It is estimated that an additional 1million TEU can be handled if these facilities are
created. TPT is pursuing the matter with Port of Singapore Authorities for the joint venture for
taking up this project.
The capacity of General Cargo Berths at the port has been increased to 0.64 million tonnes
per annum as against the existing handling capacity of 0.20 million tonnes per annum.
In view of the limited space availability and draft restrictions, TPT has plans to develop an
outer harbour with breakwaters. In this regard, TPT has carried out a Masterplan studies
recently. In view of very high cost for the development, the extension may not take place in
the near future.
Several feeder services operate from Tuticorin to US east coast, Chittagong, Salalah, Port
Kelang, Singapore etc. Tuticorin Port has sought Central support of Rs 100 crore for capital
dredging for improving the draft at the port from the present 10.7 to 12.8 meters. During the
10th five-year plan Tuticorin port proposes to add an additional 8 million tonnes of capacity
estimated at the cost Rs 230 crore, with the total throughput forecast to grow to 21.65 million
tonnes in 2006-07.
4.7.3 Cochin Port
Cochin port is an artificial lagoon located on Wellington island on the Southwest coast of
India, about 930 km south of Mumbai and 320 km north of Kanyakumari.

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Cochin Port has 16 berths including 3 oil jetties with alongside draft varying from 9.14 to
12m. The port capacity in year 2002 was 15.5 million tonnes and has handled 151,000
containers during the same year.
The modernisation and expansion programme of the port includes the following schemes
with private sector participation or joint venture:

Establishment of an International Container Transhipment Terminal at Cochin


(Vallarpadam)
Conversion of berth 6 & 7 (General cargo) into container berths
Construction of LPG and LNG Terminal at Puthuvypeen
International Bunkering Terminal
Construction of multipurpose berth at low wharf area

Cochin Port however suffers from certain constraints like shortage of adequate land at
Wellington Island, shortage of power and water supply, inadequate railway connectivity to
cater to modern container terminal, shortage of adequate container storage area in the
container terminal etc. Also many of the equipments used in the Port like transfer cranes and
RTGs at Container Terminal, cranes at berth, floating crafts are old and are to be replaced.
4.7.4 Jawaharlal Nehru Port
Jawaharlal Nehru Port is an all weather tidal port located within Mumbai harbour on west
coast of India. The port capacity in year 2002 was 28 million tonnes. Container traffic
handled at JNPT during 2002 2003 was 0.8 million TEU while at NSICT it was 1.14 million
TEU during the same year. The current draft at the port is 13.5m which is capable of
receiving 5th generation vessel. Port is planning to develop a third container terminal on BOT
format and is awarded to Maersk-Concor consortium. By addition this terminal capacity of
port will increase by another 1.0 million TEUs by the year 2010. Port is also planning to
develop 4th container terminal on private participation. Masterplan study of this being
explored.
The average crane productivity during 2000-01 was to the tune of 16 to 17 moves per crane
per hour. Gross berth productivity is 25 moves per hour. Based on the cargo handled and
future development plans, the future capacity to handle containers at JNPT is estimated to
be about 2.7 million TEU assuming its current plans of conversion of existing four
bulk/general berths into container berths.
4.7.5 Dubai Ports
Dubai Port Authority (DPA) is ranked as the 10th largest container operator in the world with
its two terminals, Jebel Ali and Port Rashid. Over 100 international shipping lines call Jebel
Ali and Port Rashid. 60% of all cargo handled by DPA is transhipment. Jebel Ali Port is
situated 35km SW of the city of Dubai. Port of Jebel Ali has 67 berths occupying 15km of
quay with alongside depth of 15m. Port Rashid is situated in the city of Dubai and has 35
berths with alongside depth of varies between 9-13m.
Sailing distances from Dubai to other ports in nautical miles are:
Mumbai
Cochin
Colombo

1185
1598
1994
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Rotterdam
Hong Kong

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3522
6165
4890

Table 4-12 : Container Traffic handled at Dubai Ports (traffic in TEU)


Year
1991
1995
2000
2002

Inbound
336,604
515,638
881,095
1,196,140

Outbound
268,559
515,652
706,854
904,187

Transhipment
650,097
1,041,791
1,470,919
2,093,942

Total
1,255,260
2,073,081
3,058,868
4,194,269

Dubai Ports has plans to raise its container handling capacity more than five fold to 21.8
million TEU by 2020. On completion of the four-phase expansion, Jebel Ali will have 82
berths equipped with 125 quayside cranes and supporting yard equipment. Capacity of the
ports would be lifted to 5.7 million TEU by 2005 with the addition of five new berths and 14
super post Panamax gantries and deep water quays to accommodate 8000 TEU plus mega
vessels.
4.7.6 Colombo Port
Colombo Port, South Asia transhipment hub through which moves a large part of India's
containerised cargo, is rapidly recovering from the setbacks of recent years and looking to
expand capacity and services. Last year, the port handled its highest number of containers
ever around 1.8 million TEU despite the sluggish global economic environment and the
tensions in the Middle East.
The port has handled 1.76 million TEU and has a capacity to handle upto 2 million TEU. Also
from the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific of the United Nations
(UNESCAP) analysis it is observed that around 75% of the throughput of Colombo will
continue to be transhipment, mainly to and from India as it is the case today and the demand
would be 4.45 million TEU in 2006, 5.38 million TEU in year 2011 and 22 million TEU by year
2022.
Colombo also enjoys a hub status for transhipment of cargo to & from countries on the Indian
sub-continent. The sailing time distances from Colombo to few other ports is tabulated in
Table 4-13.

Table 4-13 : Sailing Time & Distances from Colombo to Other Ports
Port
Kolkata
Chennai
Cochin
Mumbai
Visakhapatnam
Singapore

Sailing Time
Days
Hours
2
14
1
5
15
1
20
1
19
3
6

Distance in NM
1,244
590
307
889
866
1,567

Existing layout of Colombo Port and proposed south harbour expansion is shown in Figure
FD0404.

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Container throughput at Colombo has seen double-digit growth in the last six months,
indicating that it is recovering from the crisis of 2001 triggered by Tamil Tiger raid on the
island's international airport. This resulted in hefty war risk insurance premiums, being
imposed on ships calling at Colombo, forcing them to avoid the port. Colombo has ambitious
plans to meet the local demand.
Sri Lanka has five commercial ports, viz Colombo, Galle, Trincomalee, Kankesanturai and
Point Pedro. These ports are administered by Sri Lanka Ports Authority (SLPA), a statutory
organisation of the government. Presently, only Colombo Port is capable of handling
containers. Plans have also been drawn up to develop Galle Port for container handling.
SLPA has been operating in the midst of mounting competition from other regional ports that
had a severe impact on the demand for transhipment handling at the Port of Colombo.
Recently Maersk Sealand had signed an agreement with SLPA in which Maersk Sealand has
committed to use Jaya Container Terminal for two years with an annual volume of 125,000
transhipment containers and 40,000 domestic containers. Transhipment. Although Colombo
port is being used by new operators, the diversion of ships to other regional ports such as
Salalah in Oman and Aden in Yemen by major operators highlighted the need for improving
the competitiveness of the Port. Although in recent years productivity has increased
considerably due to efforts made by the SLPA, continuous efforts are needed to improve its
operational efficiency to face the challenges in a more competitive environment.
Development of the Queen Elizabeth Quay was given to a consortium (South Asia Gateway
Terminal SAGT) on a BOT basis in May 1999. SAGT is led by P&O Group (UK & Australia)
and includes John Keells Holdings Ltd (SL), ADB, IFC, CDC (UK), Evergreen Shipping
Group (Taiwan) and the SLPA. The project, which is scheduled to be completed by January
2004, is estimated to cost US$ 240 million and will increase the terminals handling capacity
from 500,000 to 1 million TEU per annum. The total capacity of Colombo port for handling
containers is 2.4 million TEU out of which the capacity of Jaye Container Terminal (JCT) is
1.9 million TEU, the remaining 0.5 million TEU being SAGTs capacity.
A brand new deep-water facility known as South Port, next to the existing harbour is planned
to cater to the new generation of mega container vessels. This would have 12 container
berths with an annual capacity of around 4 million TEU. The Governments recent decision to
proceed with the new South Port of Colombo would act as a positive signal to the shipping
community that Sri Lanka is committed to expanding its container handling capacity to meet
the growing demand in the region. The new South Port of Colombo is to be completed in six
stages and on completion would have 12 berths with an overall berth capacity of over 7
Million TEU per annum. The first two berths under this development program which is to be
undertaken on a public-private partnership with the berths being developed on a BOT basis,
is to be commissioned by 2005/6. Such measures would greatly assist Sri Lanka to
consolidate and enhance its position as a major maritime Centre in South Asia. Currently the
Colombo Port could handle vessels up to 6000 TEU (or requiring a draft of 14 m) and the
new facility would have a draft of 17 m (capable of handling Malaccamax type of carriers that
are expected to be launched in the future).
4.7.7 Singapore Port
Singapore has become the worlds largest container transhipment hub (Hong Kong being the
biggest container port in the world). Service, efficiency and a strategic geographic location
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have helped the Port of Singapore to secure more than 20 percent of the worlds total
transhipment business. The operator of the Port of Singapore is a company called Port of
Singapore Authority (PSA) Corporation, today the largest container terminal operator in a
single location and a leading provider of integrated port and logistics services in the world.
PSA controls a new state-of-the-art hub terminal in Aden and the container terminal at
Tuticorin. Singapore port has 4 container terminals and a multipurpose terminal. In 2001, the
port has handled 19.13 million TEU worldwide including 15.52 million TEU in Singapore.
PSA has plans to attract the larger generation of 6,000 TEU container ships. The terminal is
situated on 84 hectares of land with 2,145 metres wharf length. It has 24 quay crane (QC),
44 bridge cranes (BC), 15 Rail Mounted Gantry cranes (RMG), 14,000 ground slots on its
stacking yard, 1000 reefer points and 12 container gates.
4.7.8 Chennai Port
Chennai Port is an artificial harbour situated on the East Coast in South-East India and is the
second principal port in the country for handling Containers. Chennai Port has 21 alongside
berths in the 3 Docks viz., Dr. Ambedkar Dock, Jawahar Dock, Bharathi Dock and Container
Terminal.
Ministry of Surface Transport (MoST) has awarded the Container Terminal to M/s. P&O
Australia Ports Pty. Ltd. The long-term plan of the Port Trust is to convert itself into a major
container handling facility on the East Coast. The Chennai Container Terminal Limited
(CCTL) has handled 3.94 lakh TEU in 2002and has guaranteed a minimum traffic of 3.50
lakh TEU in the first year. CCTL started its operations in November 2001.
CCTL, which has proposed to invest $150 million on terminal infrastructure in the Chennai
Port in the next five years has within one year of its operation invested $60 million in the form
of improving port infrastructure, equipment and information technology. The terminal has its
current container handling capacity at 850,000 TEU and it has the potential to handle up to
1.7 million TEU.
4.7.9 Mundra Port
Mundra is an all weather port, which has the deepest draft of 18m on the west coast of India.
It is the nearest port to the northern hinterland of the country the major container generation
region. P&O Ports has taken over the Adani owned Mundra International Container Terminal
for $195 Million USD. According to the deal, two container berths have been taken over by
P&O Ports which also has the first right of refusal for two more berths after crossing 800,000
TEU in six years. The two berths, having a quay-length of 630m, have capacity of 1.25
million TEU.
4.7.10 Visakhapatnam Port
Visakhapatnam Port, a natural harbour of eastern coast of India, is ideally located almost
midway between Kolkata and Chennai in the northeast of Andhra Pradesh State.
The contract for the development and management of a container berth at Visakhapatnam
Port was awarded to a consortium comprising Dubai Port International, United Liner
Agencies of India (Pvt) Ltd. and J M Baxi Group for leasing out the 450m multipurpose berth

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in the outer harbour to the joint venture company for 30 years. The new company will be
known as Visakha Container Terminal Pvt Ltd (VCTPL).
The existing container throughput at Vizag is about 35,000 TEU per annum. Considering the
large hinterland around Vizag and the growing trade with South East Asia and China, VCTPL
envisages that during the Phase 1, it will handle 100,000 TEU by year 2005. These
developments will grow further during Phase 2 with the growth in traffic to about 350,000
TEU. Phase 3 will eventually see the operation of an additional berth length of 350m to cope
with larger vessels and for a higher throughput. The developer has plans to bring main line
vessels.
4.7.11 Gangavaram Port
Gangavaram Port situated in Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh state about 15km
south of Visakhapatnam port was declared as a minor port in 1994. The port is being
developed is as an all weather deep-water multipurpose port including facilities for handling
containers. It is proposed to handle 3000 TEU vessels during Short term (2005), 6000 TEU
vessel during medium term (2012) and 8000 TEU during long term (2010). Accordingly the
berthing and cargo handling facilities would be provided to handle the estimated container
traffic of 0.31, 0.7 and 1.5 million TEU respectively.
4.7.12 Cochin - Vallarpadam Terminal
Vallarpadam island is located to the north of the main shipping channel of Cochin port. The
feasibility study (by M/s Frederic Harris, the Dutch Consultants) for setting up of Vallarpadam
transhipment terminal was completed way back in 1990 and the updated feasibility report
was completed in October 1998. To develop the project faster it is envisaged that the existing
Rajiv Gandhi Container Terminal (RGCT) should be used to attract mainline vessels. This is
proposed to be achieved through collaboration with a leading terminal operator on a
commercial format. The road link to Vallarpadam Island is being implemented through
Government of Kerala. DUBAI Ports International (DPI) is likely to be awarded the contract
for operating. As per the terms, the successful operator will be allowed to operate the
existing Rajiv Gandhi Container Terminal (RGCT) at the port for a maximum of 8 years
before shifting operations to the new development at Vallarpadam or Puthuvypeen islands.
The development of transshipment terminal will be triggered on 0.4 million TEU handling.
Master plan for development of Cochin port reveals the following developmental plans for
Vallarpadam container transhipment terminal (to handle 4th and 5th generation vessels):

Table 4-14 : Berth Requirement at Vallarpadam Container Transhipment Terminal


Year
2007
2012
2017

Total Number of Berths


Mainline
Feeder
3
3
3
3
4
3

Total Length of Berths (m)


Mainline
Feeder
975
480
975
480
1300
480

The container traffic estimated is about 3.39 million TEU by 2025. The hub terminal will have
backup area of 350 acres. The terminal will have a quay length of more than 1400 m initially
and will be expanded to about 1800 m in the final phase development.

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4.8 Traffic Forecast Vizhinjam Port


4.8.1 Introduction
Traffic forecast for Vizhinjam is prepared at three levels i.e. pessimistic, moderate and
optimistic forecasts covering the required time frame up to 2033. Traffic potential for
Vizhinjam is assessed based on the following main considerations:

Vizhinjam is a green-field port and if developed as a transhipment hub, would have to


attract traffic that is presently being handled at other transhipment hubs in the region.
Vizhinjam is close to the international shipping routes and would have able to attract main
line vessels that are presently calling other transhipment hubs.
Traffic generated in the hinterland by the existing and proposed industries should
constitute a basic traffic load for the port.

4.8.2 Forecast of Generated and Attracted Cargo from / to Hinterland


4.8.2.1 Hinterland
Traditionally the hinterland is determined based on a cost-benefit approach (commodity wise)
taking into consideration transportation opportunities, costs and time. So ideally, from
geographical considerations, ports could have hinterlands independent of each other, but the
same is not true considering operational characteristics and marketing strategies of the ports.
That is, the hinterlands of different ports overlap each other. In the present case, considering
the location of the proposed port, its hinterland could overlap with that of Cochin Port and
also with that of Tuticorin Port.
In the present case Vizhinjam Port hinterland is determined by the bisection method on the
assumption that all ports have the same degree of influence. This assumption is based on
the concept that cargo is attracted to the nearest port for onward transportation such that the
costs of transportation are minimised from the production centres to the ports, i.e. a main
criteria for selecting a port for servicing a company is the transportation time and cost
between the port and the traffic generation location, and not necessarily the geographical
distance. Road quality and especially steep and winding mountain roads, gravel road
sections etc. will be strong obstacles in the goods transportation and will influence the
selection of port connection for the users.
Considering three ports viz. Tuticorin, Vizhinjam and Cochin at a time centroids are
identified. The lines joining the centroids and the mid points of two adjacent ports form the
boundary of the hinterland of the respective ports. This indicates that of the total area that is
likely to be served by the three ports - Cochin, Tuticorin and Vizhinjam - the hinterland area
that is likely to be served by Vizhinjam is about 6% while that of Cochin and Tuticorin are
57% and 37% respectively. In the absence of Vizhinjam (present scenario) the share of the
hinterland between Cochin and Tuticorin is 59% and 41% respectively. It shall be mentioned
that registered traffic (general cargo) through Tuticorin is over two times that through Cochin
consisting of sharing 67% through Tuticorin and 33% through Cochin.
There may be
different reasons for this such as:

like the physical bottleneck for traffic crossing the hill range that forms a natural border
line being closer to Cochin than to Tuticorin,
possible uneven industrial development across the two states,
like more direct / shorter links to the major hub port at Colombo through Tuticorin etc.
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For the purpose of forecasting the future hinterland traffic at Vizhinjam in the three port
scenarios, the following basic traffic sharing is applied, Vizhinjam 6%, Cochin 30% and
Tuticorin 64%.
With the development of Vizhinjam Port the Kerala state would be served by Mangalore,
Cochin and Vizhinjam ports with their share of state area being of the order of about 20%,
70% and 10% respectively. This is based on the hinterlands of the respective ports as
described earlier. Selective improvements in transportation network (road/rail) would expand
the hinterland area and thereby increase the cargo volumes likely to be handled at the
concerned port. In the present case, Vizhinjam Port, may not have greater benefits from the
Golden Quadrilateral Project (being implemented by National Highways Authority of India,
NHAI) as it is way up north (more than 600 Kms) of the new port location. And, the northsouth corridor of N-S & E-W Corridors (National Highways) project could benefit Tuticorin
Port along with Port Connectivity project (National Highways) but most likely not change
anything for Vizhinjam. However, the development of North-south Expressway (being
planned) in Kerala could have positive impacts on the cargo volumes being handled at
Cochin and to minor extend volumes likely to be handled at the proposed Vizhinjam Port.
Inland waterways in Kerala could help the movement of cargo in the hinterland restricted to
the influence areas of each waterway. This however, is not likely to benefit cargo moving up
north beyond Kerala, as Inland waterway development to serve such areas is very remote as
per the present scenario of such a development.
The new 4 lane road connecting Thiruvananthapuram to Kanniya Kumari announced by
MoST in January 2004 to be constructed by NHAI will have a positive impact on hinterland
cargo volumes to be handled on Vizhinjam.
4.8.2.2 Total Volumes of Hinterland Traffic
Traffic for Vizhinjam from its hinterland consists of the following two components:
1. Generated Cargo
2. Attracted Cargo
The regional traffic forecasts of these components are presented in Chapter 5.5 estimated on
the basis of the industrial scenario of the state in the future and forecast of traffic vis--vis
economic development in the country. The estimates of traffic likely to flow through Vizhinjam
following its development are determined by sharing the regional traffic between the regional
ports such as Tuticorin and Cochin using the model outlined in above.
4.8.2.2.1 Generated Cargo
Generated cargo is generally considered to be the volumes that gets generated in the
hinterland through fresh initiatives such as the development of industrial parks or any major
developments of such nature triggered by the development of the new port. In the present
study the estimates of this traffic are based on the interviews and discussions held for the
purpose as reported in Chapter 5.5. It covers all traffic generated by actual new initiatives in
the state in the present period.

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It is estimated that about 100,000 TEU per year (approximately 1,200,000 tonnes) of traffic is
likely to be generated in Kerala the state through fresh initiatives. Since this traffic is likely to
be generated in the whole of the state and the cargo can be transported through any of the
ports in the region that is convenient and economical to the end user, it is estimated that
about 10% of this traffic could be attracted to Vizhinjam. That is 120,000 tonnes
(approximately 10,000 TEU per annum). The likely industrial developments within the
hinterland of Vizhinjam Port and located in the southernmost part of Tamil Nadu are
discussed in Chapter 3. However, in the absence of actual registration of quantities the same
density of cargo generation is assumed for Tamil Nadu as indicated for Kerala above. The
hinterland of Vizhinjam lying within Tamil Nadu is about 1/3 of the hinterland lying within
Kerala. Therefore the contribution of generated cargo originating in Tamil Nadu may be
estimated to around 40,000 tonnes per annum or approximately 3300 TEU. The potential
total generated traffic through Vizhinjam may therefore be estimated at around 160,000
tonnes per annum or 13,300 TEU. This is considered under the moderate and optimistic
scenarios. For the base year of 2007, the figures for the pessimistic scenario are taken as
50% of moderate scenario. For subsequent years, the GDP growth rates for the three
scenarios as given in Table 4-5 are applied to arrive at the traffic figures as given in Table
4-15.

Table 4-15 : Growth of Generated Cargo under Three scenarios (traffic figures in TEU)
Year
2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Pessimistic
6,600
8,500
11,000
14,000
17,600
22,300
23,300

Moderate
13,300
18,000
24,200
32,000
41,800
54,000
56,650

Optimistic
13,300
18,700
25,600
34,600
46,300
58,500
61,700

4.8.2.2.2 Attracted Cargo


The traffic (cargo) that is passing through the existing ports is likely to increase in the future.
Each of the ports currently have certain expansion plans to handle future volumes likely to
pass through them. However, the current expansion plans and future volumes suggest the
necessity of further augmentation of port capacity either at existing ports or through new port
developments. Iron ore and fertiliser traffic through Cochin and Tuticorin ports is very small
and has not been considered for Vizhinjam. Coal traffic pass through Cochin but the same
was not considered for Vizhinjam on environmental considerations. POL/LNG traffic passes
through Cochin Port and its future demand is likely to be met by expansion plans of Cochin
Port and development of captive terminals for the purpose (reason being Kochi Refinery
located close to Cochin Port).
Container traffic through Vizhinjam is separately addressed in the Transhipment Cargo
estimates.
Thus only General Cargo that is not being transported through containers is considered for
diversion from Cochin and Tuticorin Ports using the model outlined earlier and taking the
current capacity augmentation plans of the respective ports into consideration.

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It is estimated that Cochin Port capacity for general cargo is likely to decrease from about 2.4
to 1.9 million tonnes per annum to facilitate expansion of container handling facilities.
However, this is not likely to cause any major problem for handling of general cargo at
Cochin Port as the future volumes of the same would be lower than the current (base year)
volumes, which is lower than the available capacity. The decrease in future general cargo is
due to the increasing trend of containerisation that is likely to occur in the future. What is left
of regional traffic to be attracted to Vizhinjam Port is not because of capacity constraints at
Cochin but due to other advantages and the natural hinterland of Vizhinjam.
The traffic forecasts for Tuticorin Port suggest that a high volume of non-containerised
General Cargo is likely to flow through Tuticorin Port in the future. Part of this traffic is
generated in the natural hinterland of Vizhinjam and could therefore be diverted to Vizhinjam.
The capacity for handling of General Cargo at Tuticorin will be increased from the current
level of 3.7 to 4.14 million tonnes per annum. It is assumed that the additional capacity would
be available by 2007 considering that Tuticorin Port would plan for further expansion of
capacity on realisation that high volumes of this category of traffic is possible. On this
background the following scenarios are suggested:

Optimistic scenario: Tuticorin and Cochin ports capacity are considered to expand to
cater for 50% of future overflow traffic as compared to capacity by 2007. Overflow of
traffic is shared between Vizhinjam and other neighbouring states ports (including new
port developments in the state) in the ratio of 30% / 70%. The base traffic for Vizhinjam is
taken as 6% of the overall traffic in the region. The total traffic at Vizhinjam would be sum
of base and overflow traffic.

Moderate Scenario: The capacities of Tuticorin and Cochin are considered to expand to
cater for 75% of future overflow traffic as compared to capacity at 2007. The resulting
overflow of traffic at Tuticorin and Cochin is shared between Vizhinjam and neighbouring
states ports (including new port developments in the state) in the ratio as above 30% /
70%. The base traffic for Vizhinjam is taken as 6% of the overall traffic in the region. The
total traffic at Vizhinjam would be sum of base and overflow traffic.

Pessimistic Scenario: Tuticorin and Cochin ports capacities continue to expand as per
the future traffic requirements; no traffic overflow to Vizhinjam. The base share of
Vizhinjam is taken as 6% of the overall traffic in the region.

The traffic that may be attracted from Tuticorin to Vizhinjam is tabulated in Table 4-16.

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(all traffic figures are in 000 tonnes)

Table 4-16 : General Cargo Traffic Forecast Vizhinjam Port 2007-2033


Year

Pessimistic

Moderate

Optimistic

Total traffic Traffic Total traffic Traffic


Capacity Overflow Share of
Total
Total
Traffic Capacity Overflow Share of
Total
in the
volumes
in the
volumes
of
of traffic overflow traffic for traffic in volumes
of
of traffic overflow traffic for
regional
for
regional
for
Tuticorin in the
traffic to Vizhinjam
the
for
Tuticorin in the
traffic to Vizhinjam
hinterland Vizhinjam hinterland Vizhinjam
and
region Vizhinjam (basic +
regional Vizhinja
and
region Vizhinjam (basic +
(basic)
(basic)
Cochin
(overflow) overflow) hinterland m (basic) Cochin
(overflow) overflow)
ports
ports

2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

2=6% of 1

6,442
7,321
9,223
11,664
14,174
16,906
17,442

387
439
553
700
850
1014
1047

6,868
8,252
10,916
14,291
17,864
21,703
22,466

4=6% of 3 5=C+(3-4- 6=3-4-5


C)x0.75
412
495
655
857
1,072
1,302
1,348

6,352
7,328
9,206
11,585
14,104
16,811
17,349

104
429
1,055
1,848
2,688
3,590
3,770

7=30% of
6

8=4+7

31
129
317
555
806
1,077
1,131

443
624
972
1,412
1,878
2,379
2,479

7,202
8,995
12,206
16,350
20,850
25,798
26,797

Note: C stands for port capacities at Tuticorin and Cochin Port (=6.04 million tonnes)

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10=6% of 11=C+(9- 12=9-109


10-C)x0.5
11
432
540
732
981
1,251
1,548
1,608

6,405
7,248
8,757
10,705
12,820
15,145
15,615

365
1,208
2,717
4,665
6,780
9,105
9,575

13= 30%
of 12

14=10+13

109
362
815
1,399
2,034
2,732
2,872

542
902
1,547
2,380
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4.8.2.3 Volumes for Vizhinjam Port


Sum of generated hinterland traffic is tabulated in Table 4-17.

Table 4-17 : Total Generated Hinterland Traffic for Vizhinjam Port Containers (TEU)
Year
2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Pessimistic
6,600
8,500
11,000
14,000
17,600
22,300
23,300

Moderate
13,300
18,000
24,200
32,000
41,800
54,000
56,650

Optimistic
13,300
18,700
25,600
34,600
46,300
58,500
61,700

Sum of attracted hinterland traffic is tabulated in Table 4-18.

Table 4-18 : Total Attracted Hinterland Traffic for Vizhinjam Port General Cargo
(in '000 Tonnes)
Year

Pessimistic

Moderate

Optimistic

2007

387
439
553
700
850
1,014
1,047

443
624
972
1,412
1,878
2,379
2,479

542
902
1547
2,380
3,285
4,279
4,480

2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

4.8.3 Forecast of Transhipment Cargo


4.8.3.1 General Considerations for Indian Cargo
Commodities such as coal, crude oil, iron ore etc. are usually transported in bulk quantities.
Theoretically, transhipment of such cargo is a feasible option, subject to commercially sound
logistics operations. Transhipment becomes feasible due to economics of scale (big volumes
handled in large vessels) and many ports in India (both major and minor ports) where these
commodities are handled, have capabilities to directly accommodate bigger vessels. Further
taking into account the site conditions and limited backup area availability at Vizhinjam, it is
not prudent to consider transhipment of bulk commodities and therefore only containers are
considered as potential for transhipment at Vizhinjam.
There are basically two options for container exports / imports from/to India:
indirect shipping via transhipment at a hub port (for trades to Europe, Far East and North
American East- and West Coast);
direct shipping between an Indian port and a port in Europe or Far East.

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Transhipment via "hub - ports"


During the last decade, the "hub - port concept" with associated feedering to secondary ports
has been developed. Regarding the Indian sub-continent, the "natural" hub port for
transhipments was Colombo, from where the containers were feedered to the ports in India,
Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar (the latter two countries and the Indian East coast were
also feedered by services from Singapore). The main container carriers and decision-makers
in this business deployed ever larger container vessels and established "Around the world" or
"pendulum" services, with the basic strategy to minimise the number of calls on the way
between Europe and Far East (i.e. first stop in one port on the Arabian peninsula, second
stop in Colombo, third stop in Singapore etc.). From these "hub ports" the cargo was
distributed to their final destination via feeder services.
With the strong boom in Indian exports/imports, the port of Colombo became severely
congested by the mid 90's, which lead to a port development program that resulted in an
improved performance of the existing public container terminal (the SAGT Terminal,
approaching full operational capacity at present, 2003), and - at present also the initial
steps towards implementation of a new substantial expansion of Colombo port (New South
Harbour Development Project). Moreover, during the last decade a network of feeder
services between Colombo and the Indian Subcontinent has been developed. The feeder
companies usually work in close co-operation with the large international shipping lines, have
their schedules co-ordinated and have established a well functioning network of shipping
agents. Hence, containers arriving in Colombo on any "pendulum" or "around the world"
service are unloaded from the main carrier and loaded on the feeder ship on the same day
for onward-voyage to India.
By the end of the last decade, a number of ports in the region emerged as competitors to the
port of Colombo for transhipment cargo to / from the Indian sub-continent: e.g. Fujairah, Khor
Fakkan, Salalah and others on the Arabian peninsula, Port Kelang in Malaysia and
Singapore.
Particularly the Indian trade connections with Far East countries as well as with North
America West Coast were more and more feedered via Singapore or Malaysia: these
services called at the Indian East Coast ports, Bangladesh and Myanmar and carried the
containers to Singapore for onward eastern voyage on the main carrier pendulum or around
the world services.
Direct services between India and Europe ("Europe - India loop services")
With the increase of Indian exports and imports in the second half of the last decade, and
particularly a strong trade development with the European Union, direct services have
developed. Several medium sized European shipping lines started so-called "Europe - India
loop services", i.e. they offered regular sailing to the Indian West Coast, with calls in the
Middle East, Pakistan, one or two ports on the Indian West Coast and in Colombo, where
cargo for the Indian East coast was unloaded. From Colombo the vessels turned back to
Europe. On the return journey, these services loaded containers with destination to Europe,
as well as containers with destination to the North American East Coast that were
transhipped at specialised hubs such as Gioia Tauro (Italy) or Algeciras (Spain) for onward
journey to the US and Canada.

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The major problem for the direct Europe - India services were congestion and delays in most
of the ports on this route (particularly in Pakistan and in some Indian ports). This resulted in
the fact that the container voyage time on such "loop" services to the final destination in India
was often longer than via the transhipment service via Colombo. However, with an
improvement in the operational performance at Indian ports, particularly in JNPT, this
situation is improving.
4.8.3.2 Transhipment Hub
A Transhipment terminal is a terminal that overwhelmingly handles transhipment cargo.
Transhipment cargo is defined as the cargo landed at the terminal and shipped out again on
another vessel without leaving the port area. The cargo is not passing the customs barrier to
the country and therefore needs no customs clearance during the transit. The need to
achieve economies of scale has given rise to the development of main line vessels (up to
8,000 TEU). With the increasing size of the container vessels, the need to upgrade and
redesign container terminals world over to handle these ships was felt. However, due to
economical, physical or other constraints, not all ports could be upgraded. This led to
containerised cargo being transhipped from smaller ports in smaller vessels to a larger port
for onward carriage in bigger vessels or what is known as feedering. The larger ports, which
upgraded to state-of-the-art container terminals with the ability to handle both main line ships
and relatively smaller ships simultaneously and with the same productivity, came to be
known as "Hub Ports". The container trade now works mainly a Hub-and-Spoke System,
the Hub being the transhipment port and the Spokes being the feeder lines network to
distribute the cargo in the region. A transhipment terminal of course also handles cargo
meant for the hinterland but this will normally be relatively minor volumes, compared to the
transhipment volumes.
Some of the key characteristics of a container / transhipment hub port are:
type of traffic: Basically the traffic is constituted of containers of standard sizes (20', 40'
etc.) for both normal and specialised use (reefer cargo, liquid chemicals, dangerous cargo
etc.).
geographic location: proximity of the transhipment hub to the main shipping route
(example: Colombo is about 8 hours deviation from the main east-west pendulum axis).
vessel sizes: the potential for any transhipment hub to succeed depends upon its ability
to handle efficiently vessels of vastly different size, configuration, and operational requirements. It is not only important to have the facilities and operating procedures to handle
main line vessels (6,000+ plus TEU) operating on a time definite schedule, but also feeder
line vessels (200 TEU common carrier) which often call well outside of their scheduled
times. The necessity to handle these vessels in parallel puts greatest emphasis achieving
high operational efficiencies across the terminal system and having sufficient buffer
storage capacity to level out irregularities in the feeder traffic. It also set benchmarks for
necessary water depth (~14 to 16 m) and berth length (~300 m) for the mainline carrier
berths.
operational efficiency: fixed travel scheduling and short time in port are competition
parameters. Therefore, a hub port is characterised by high operational efficiency. Key
operational efficiency parameters are no. of moves per hour per crane, no. of working
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hours per day (or per year), etc. 35 moves per crane per hour or an average of about 120
moves per hour per ship (4 cranes operating on the same main line vessel) is present
benchmark of the industry.
others: efficient road/rail connections to the national grid play an important role for the
import-export traffic, but are not important for the transhipment traffic. The same goes for
streamlining of customs procedures. Very efficient IT systems are also required in a
transhipment hub in order to divert and trace the containers efficiently.
4.8.3.3 Attractiveness of the Region from the Shipping Industry Point of View
Conventionally, long-term traffic trends based on past performance of shipping lines,
handling of cargo by port terminals and other trade-specific data has formed the basis of
understanding the dynamics of freight trade and forecasting the likely growth trends in
various segments. While such cargo traffic-based approaches to understanding the
dynamics of future demand for shipping and port services continue to be highly relevant, it is
increasingly realised that in a market environment marked by rapid structural and policy
changes, a number of new strategic variables are bound to enter the picture, that are not
factored into past performance of cargo traffic. Somewhat independent of pattern set by past
traffic trends, these structural and policy level changes could have a major determining
influence on shape of the things to come both with respect to shipping services and port
services. For instance, the Ministry of Shipping, Government of India, has announced
relaxation of policy on private participation in the major ports sector. As per the new
directives, the port trusts would henceforth not insist on stipulations for private entrepreneurs
to make investments in equipment within a specific timeframe. The Ministry has also asked
the Port Trusts to waive the minimum guaranteed throughput, with the change in the system
of awarding contracts from earlier system based on upfront fees and guaranteed throughput
to a revenue sharing format. While upfront fees continues to exist, the shipping ministry has
asked the Port Trusts to recover as such fee an amount "as minimum as possible" from
operators. Under the new policy guidelines, once the government selects a good, efficient
and world class private operator, it would be now up to the operator to decide how much
investment it should bring in and what equipment it wants to install and when (Source imaritime e-Newsletter Week ending February 18, 2003). Hence in order to factor in the "new
strategic variables" as per the perception of the shipping industry, interviews have been held
with main shipping lines, shipping agents, stevedoring agents etc.
4.8.3.3.1 Interviews held with key shipping lines at international level
Consultant held interviews at the following locations:

Chennai
Kochi
Mumbai
Europe

The following extracts from the interviews represent the (sample) opinions.

Annual maintenance dredging may cost up to Rs. 30 crores at Cochin Port. One
additional port in Kerala with natural deep draft is very much required.
Container imports for Tuticorin is from Colombo while exports are mostly by feeder
vessels to middle east through Mumbai / JNPT. Most of the containers handled at

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Tuticorin originate from Thiruppur, Palakkad, and Coimbatore, all of which might become
potential traffic if and when Vizhinjam Port is developed.
It is understood that P&O Ports have plans of bringing main line vessels at Mundra
Container Terminal in two years from now.
Presently there are three ports Cochin, Tuticorin and Chennai, servicing the same
hinterland of South India. Hence competition will be more in the hinterland traffic sector
for Vizhinjam.
Good reason must be made available for consumers to shift from their present port of
operations to Vizhinjam.
Good connectivity of Vizhinjam port to main railway and road network is very essential.
All those interviewed are keen on having a deep draft port at Vizhinjam so that main line
vessel can call. If the Vizhinjam Port is made for deep draft vessels so that main vessel
can call, it will be very advantageous.
Exporters/Importers would look for cost savings if and when they change their current
port of operations.

4.8.3.3.2 International Data Bank Research


For a qualitative and quantitative assessment of cargo/container potential for a new container
transhipment hub at Vizhinjam, a number of national and international publications were
referred to and Consultant's internal Data Banks consulted as listed in Annexure A.4.1.
Consultant's research has revealed the following:
1. With view to containerisation, India lacks behind global development and has good
potential for improvement.
2. With view to dedicated container terminals, India lacks behind global development.
3. Relying on India's (and other sub-continental countries) inability to get its economy and
maritime industry straightened out, inferior countries and the global shipping world have
taken advantage of it and provided the infrastructure that could and should have been
provided by / in India (and other countries of the subcontinent) in the first place.
4. Ports such as Colombo, Aden, Salalah etc. have up to now benefited from Indias
burgeoning state-run port system, which has almost, encouraged transhipment. But all of
this is beginning to change as the Indian government has realised the amount of foreign
exchange and national economic benefits lost through transhipment abroad. It now wants
to encourage more direct services (e.g. JNPT) and development of national transhipment
hubs (e.g. JNPT, Cochin and Chennai with the support of GoI, while Mundra, Vizhinjam
etc. with the initiative of respective State governments).
5. Kandla and Chennai have plans for expanding container handling business that could
take even more transhipment cargo away from competing ports (Dubai, Colombo and
Singapore).
Further, almost all competing ports have, to a varying extent, expansion works going, with
hefty investments, inter-alia to cater for rapidly increasing containerisation of Indian cargoes.

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Hence, India is in a disadvantageous situation with extraordinary circumstances that can and
will only be overcome with equally extraordinary measures that are summarised hereunder
with view to their importance:
i.

GoI declares: No more transhipment of Indian containers abroad as soon as a SWIndian container hub with the necessary feeder network (sea- or land-based) is ready
and operational.

ii. Legal and administrative framework is better or, at least, equals to those of competing
countries.
However with the view to achieving the target, the above sequence is the other way around.
4.8.3.3.3 Coastal Feeder Services
Consultant has checked up with some of the shipping / logistics companies regarding
cabotage law. They have clarified that license has to be obtained from Director General of
Shipping (DGS) for operating in a particular route of coastal shipping. DGS grants license
valid for a period of time and on a specified route. Indian flag vessels will however have
preference over foreign flag vessels in obtaining the licence. Foreign flag vessels are also
allowed coastal shipping by DGS with a special license on a particular route if there are no
Indian flag vessels operating in that route. This licenses for foreign flag vessels can be
revoked (though it is rare) in case Indian flag vessels are desirous of operating in that
particular route.
The Indian National Shipowners Association and the Indian Coastal Conference, the latter
representing Indian coastal operators have made a joint representation to the Ministry of
Shipping seeking its assistance to encourage coastal shipping. The appeal was made at the
recent Suminfra 2003, a summit conference organised by the Confederation of Indian
Industry on coastal shipping. The coastal shipping in the country is neglected compared to
other transport modes like road and railways with no incentives available for coastal shipping
operators as was available to other surface transport operators (Source: i-maritime eNewsletter Week ending March 26, 2003).
4.8.3.3.4 Conclusions: Crucial issues related to Attracting Container Transhipment Cargo
The following conclusions may be drawn to highlight the crucial issues related to attracting
container transhipment cargo to Vizhinjam.

Indian container traffic is growing rapidly and this is partly being handled in transhipment
mainly at Colombo, Dubai and Singapore. (So transhipment traffic potential exists at
Indian coast).
Some shipping lines are looking for options to let main line vessels call at Indian ports (so
the willingness of the industry to move transhipment traffic to Indian coast is there).
Availability of deep draft and nearness to main line shipping routes
Competitive tariff and services
Some of the international shipping lines presumes existence of potential for development
of container transhipment at Vizhinjam.
Opinions point to the indications that the proposed port, if adopted by a strong shipping
line in the region, will bring their own cargo. Once this has been achieved, other lines
may follow.
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4.8.3.4 Impacts of Major Maritime Developments


4.8.3.4.1 Impact of Sethusamudram Ship Canal Project
India has a peninsular coast of 3554 nautical miles and has maritime trade with various
countries of the world since time immemorial. Also shipping trade between the East and
West coasts of India is predominant since long time. But the coast of India does not have a
continuous navigation channel connecting the East and West coasts. Currently the ships
coming from the West coast of India and other western countries with destination in the East
coast of India and also in the Bangladesh, China etc. have to navigate around the Sri Lankan
Coast thereby resulting in increase of travel distances, time etc. This is due to the presence
of a sandstone reef, known as Adams Bridge, located southeast of Rameswaram near
Pamban, which connects the Talaimannar Coast of Sri Lanka.
Apart from this, ships belonging to Indian Navy need also to traverse along the Sri Lankan
Coast which is of great concern for India from defence point of view.
In order to reduce the sailing distances between the East and West coasts of India so as to
improve the navigation within the territorial waters of India, a number of proposals were
considered to cut a Ship Canal called Sethusamudram Ship Canal through Rameswaram
Island connecting Gulf of Mannar with Palk Bay. Gulf of Mannar is located south of
Rameswaram and Palk bay to the north of Rameswaram (See Figure FD0405).
The project is an ambitious project for Government of India, which will facilitate navigation of
ships along the territorial water of Tamil Nadu coast along the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay.
Due to the proposed project the distance between Cape Comorin and Visakhapatnam will be
719 nautical miles against the 1014 nautical miles, Cape Comorin and Kolkata 1098 nautical
miles against 1357 nautical miles and Cape Comorin to Chennai will be reduced to 402
nautical miles.
Currently Ministry of Surface Transport has appointed National Environmental Engineering
Research Institute (NEERI) with the task of assessing the environmental impact of the
project. Under the first phase covering 44 nautical miles, the task of dredging down to a
depth of 31 feet will be taken up.. Dredging to a depth of 35 feet will be taken up in the
second phase.
Hence if the project is implemented, it is likely to generate large benefits to India, particularly
in movement of vessels between the two coasts - east and west - paving the way for a fair
degree of coastal transportation. This will directly result in lesser sailing distances between
the two coasts. This in turn will facilitate the movement of feeder services from the proposed
Transhipment Hub at Vizhinjam to ports on the East coasts of India, which would narrow
down its disadvantage compared to Colombo in terms of sailing distance to the Indian East
coast ports and thereby improving the competitiveness of this port in comparison with its
main competitor Colombo for this traffic. Other factors equal this should result in an increase
in transhipment traffic at Vizhinjam.
4.8.3.4.2 Impact of North-South Transit Corridor
There are talks of North South Transit Corridor (NOSTRAC) connecting India, Iran and
Russia, if implemented in its right spirit should be capable of boosting containerised cargo
traffic from India (source Times Shipping Journal, February 2003).
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NOSTRAC involves multi-modal transportation creating numerous hurdles (transfer nodes)


Mumbai Bunder Abbas (Iran) via sea route, to another Iranian port of Bunder Amirabad via
rail and road, and then, through the Caspian Sea to the Astrakhan waterway transport node.
The Moscow-Volvogroad-Astrakhan-Makhachkala motorway with its extension to Azerbaijan
gives an easy access to the various Baltic markets, and forms the last stretch of the trade
corridor. Other alternatives are provided by shipping through the Russian waterways both in
northerly direction towards the White Sea and Baltic Sea and in western direction towards
the Black Sea.
On the optimistic side, ships originating from India will have its share of the exclusive rights
to this corridor and the ports of Mumbai, Nava Sheva and Kandla, along with other private
and minor ports, may potentially profit enormously. If established fully a major advantage of
the NOSTRAC will be a potential reduction in the cargo transit time and costs and also, India
and Iran will levy a royalty surcharge on each container.
The route, which relays on multi-modal transportation, is already a working route. The cargo
transit through the corridor at present is however very poor at 1,000-2,000 boxes annually.
The alternate route to reach Moscow and the nearby markets is through north Europe, and it
is more time-consuming.
The reason for the very poor utilisation of the existing route are the many major and serious
hurdles to the flow of traffic that eventually will have to be overcome in order to establish the
NOSTRAC as an efficient and competitive corridor in the future.
These issues are currently being discussed at the expert group level, formed between the
three countries. The issues include custom clearances at every border, customs charges,
legal regimes to be aligned, synchronisation of formats, container tracking, and investments
in roads, especially in Iran. Other issues regarding securing sufficient back-haul cargo from
Russia to India and marketing of services also need to be addressed before the project can
be implemented.
Due to complexity and magnitude of these concerns and the involvement of several countries
the realisation of this dream project will most probably lie many years ahead.
Since the proposed NOSTRAC would serve the international trade requirements of the
countries along the route and India which has its major traffic generating zones in the
northern western, central and eastern parts of the country, it is likely most of the cargo would
flow through ports in the northern parts of the West coast. That is, ports such as Mumbai,
JNPT, Kandla, Mundra and others would be the major nodes for this corridor. In this scenario
it is unlikely that the traffic from this corridor will first be attracted to Vizhinjam and then retransported to the northern parts of the country. As mentioned earlier, it is quite likely that
part of this traffic (finally destined for the NOSTRAC) is currently being transhipped from
Europe through Dubai to Indian ports. In such a scenario the traffic that is forecasted at
Vizhinjam is not affected. However, if a part of this corridor traffic is being transhipped from
Colombo, the traffic at Vizhinjam would reduce by that quantity as that would be attracted to
the ports in the northern parts of the West Coast following the development/implementation
of the corridor. On the other hand, the proposed port at Vizhinjam could attract additional
traffic if the traffic on this NOSTRAC has generation centres such as Bangladesh and other
eastern countries. The North South Corridor is shown in Figure FD0406.

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4.8.3.5 Transhipment Traffic Assignment Methodology for Vizhinjam


The basis of the methodology adopted for assigning the traffic to the proposed Transhipment
Hub at Vizhinjam is as presented hereinafter.
Although there are precedents of re-direction of traffic from existing to newly erected and/ or
other (competing) container hubs, they were rather erratic and too few in number and, more
so, for literally no common reason, that neither scientific nor mathematical formula can be
drawn from them and be applied to calculate a re-direction for Indian container traffic that is
presently transhipped at Colombo and other competing hubs (Salalah/Oman, Fujairah/UAE,
West Port/Malaysia, Singapore and/or else). In each case particular factors played a
dominant role: in West Port it was Malaysian legislation forcing shipping lines to call at a
Malaysian port; in the case of Salalah it was a major consortium of big players that started
business at the new terminal exclusively with their own cargo volumes. The only common
feature is that the mere construction of the port alone did not automatically attract the cargo,
but additional political, strategic, commercial, etc. efforts were the decisive factor.
Having gone through the recent publications on these issues (see literature list), Consultant
is certain and satisfied that no reputable international source, including the Institute of
Shipping Economics and Logistics (ISL), has yet come up with a scientific/mathematical
model to quantify the re-direction of container trade as required for a traffic forecast for
Vizhinjam Port Development.
However, being satisfied with the preceding research, Consultant's professional opinion
suggests it be acceptable (although with greatest caution) to forecast certain percentages
that Vizhinjam - if built - would attract from Colombo. Implicitly, however, these
"guesstimates" on possible market shares contain a number of preconditions that are
absolutely mandatory for a success of Vizhinjam Port Development (VPD). These
preconditions are the combination of all advantages that exist for the project, combined with
an optimal "business environment" for the prospective terminal operator, incl.
1. minimal investment volume by providing Govt support for external infrastructure,
Breakwater, land etc;
2. attractive terms for the concession contract, including complete freedom in all commercial
decisions (including tariff setting, number of hired personnel, free transfer of profits etc.);
3. maximal operational performance in terms of absolute work efficiency and complete
absence of labour problems;
4. an optimal network of feeder connections in terms of service quality, reliability, tariffs and
frequency etc.
This is, by the way, the approach applied in most of similar studies. It occurs, however, that
these studies are (more of less) hiding the fact that the approach is highly "fragile" and a
"guesstimate" rather than a safe prediction. However, it needs to be stressed that a statistical
or econometric model or any simulation model cannot be built. Given the existing degrees of
freedom and number of variables the outcome would pretend a mathematical exactness that
would never be better than a qualitative reasoning based on plausibility.

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4.8.3.5.1 Typical Study - Example


A quite instructive case is the recent development at Colombo port. The development of its
"Southport" had been studied and found financially, economically, technically and
environmentally viable. The studies (sponsored in 2000 - 2001 by the World Bank, ADB and
Japan Bank), by the way, had a much larger scope than that for the present VPD project.
However, according to latest information from the port authority and Sri Lankan Ministry this
project is now shelved for several years. Hence, even with the most intensive study efforts it
was not possible to predict realistic traffic volumes. Obviously the market share for
transhipment to the Indian Subcontinent is shrinking for Colombo port, due to the competitive
situation that has evolved within the past few years.
It should be noted, though, that this would not mean that Colombo would face a capacity
shortage that could be filled by a new terminal at Vizhinjam. Colombo plans to increase the
efficiency of the existing facilities and hence be capable to fully cater for the - now reduced future volumes.
4.8.3.6 Competitive advantages / weaknesses of Vizhinjam Port
4.8.3.6.1 National Ports
Theoretically, in evaluating the competitive advantages / weaknesses of Vizhinjam Port,
Indian ports handling containers such as Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Tuticorin, Cochin
(proposed Vallarpadam terminal), JNPT/Mumbai, Kandla and Mundra are to be considered.
However barring terminals such as JNPT, Mundra, Vallarpadam and Chennai, other ports
mentioned above are not considered for further evaluation for lack of concrete evidence
suggesting conversion of these ports into transhipment hubs. Hence JNPT, Mundra and
Chennai ports may be considered as representative for a transhipment hub located
respectively at West and East coasts, which also is envisaged in the national port vision.
Such development of hub ports at both West and East coast is supported by forecast of
future container traffic indicating a future sharing between West and East coast ports of 57%
and 43% as compared to the present sharing of 73% and 27%.
Hence two ports on the Indian West Coast, Mundra/JNPT and Vallarpadam as
representation of West coast developments while Chennai is representation of East Coast,
which are proposed to be developed as container transhipment hub ports, are likely to be
competitors to the proposed Vizhinjam Port. The specific advantages and weaknesses of
these ports with respect to Vizhinjam (assuming provision of state-of-the-art facilities at
Vizhinjam) are assessed while assigning appropriate share of container traffic to Vizhinjam
Port. However the perceptions of broad advantages and weaknesses of Vizhinjam Port as
observed based on the interviews are also recapitulated hereunder wherever relevant:

Advantages
Closeness of Vizhinjam to the main international shipping route is its biggest advantage.
There is a support from the State Government to implement the project through private
sector participation.

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Availability of deep-waters close to the shoreline enables less development / operational


costs due to insignificant dredging (contrary to for instance, Cochin port, that spends
about Rs. 30 crores per year on maintenance dredging).
Proposed Vizhinjam Port, being a greenfield port can trigger the integrated development
of SEZ/FTZ in the region (common for all greenfield ports).
Vizhinjam being developed with private sector participation, will have high benchmarks in
terms of operational efficiency unlike state owned ports that occasionally suffer from
inefficiencies.
Proposals from the State Government for development of quick and efficient road/rail
connectivity to Vizhinjam port is perceived as an advantage.

Weaknesses
Vizhinjam, in the past, has been known for its communal sensitiveness.
Shortage of power supply in Kerala.
Labour problems.
Long inland distances from the major container originating regions in the country (North /
West India).
Lack of backup land for port development.
Proposed Vizhinjam, being a greenfield port, no established container business
environment and no feeder lines network are in place and have to be created.
4.8.3.6.2 International Ports
Theoretically all international hub ports of the region should be considered. However, it is
assumed that a commercial balance between Colombo and other existing hubs has been
established resulting in the present traffic scenario. As Vizhinjam is located very close to
Colombo compared to other international hub ports, it may be assumed (conservatively) that
Vizhinjam is only competing with Colombo.
Competitive advantages and weakness of Vizhinjam Port vis--vis Colombo port is reviewed.

Advantages

Strategic location of Vizhinjam being in India vis--vis Colombo.

Closeness to Indian West coast ports and Pakistan

Continued civil unrest in Sri Lanka

Weakness

Distance to Indian East coast ports and Bangladesh

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Shortages of power supply in Kerala.

Labour problems in Kerala.

Legal and administrative disadvantages (refer Industrial Policy of GoK)

Proposed Vizhinjam, being a greenfield port, no established container business


environment is in place and has to be created.

4.8.3.7 Volumes attainable for Vizhinjam Port


4.8.3.7.1 Container Transhipment Terminal / Port (CTT) development scenarios
Why should containers get transhipped at a particular port can at best be answered by
considering that the benefit to the user has to be highest at a particular port where
transhipment is taking place. Benefits in this context would mean cheaper competitive costs,
better logistics, faster turn-round times, better operational efficiency, availability of deep draft,
availability of supporting business infrastructure and services etc. Also the level of legislation
and procedural complications to the planning and execution of operations play an important
role.
As mentioned earlier, a substantial share of the Indian container traffic is being transhipped
at foreign ports. The current trend of container handling in India suggests that there is a
dominance of the Western region ports. This is the rationale behind the proposed
development of new terminals/ports in Indian West Coast, particularly JNPT, Mundra and
Vallarpadam. Particularly concerning Vallarpadam, it is learnt (source I-maritime eNewsletter Week ending March 05, 2003) that Cochin Port Staff Association (CPSA) has
stated that implementation of the project would not only help the port to equip itself to
compete with other ports in the changed shipping scenario but also bring economic benefit to
the Kerala region. It was pointed out that the workers in the port had extended their support
to make this project a reality. On the other hand, workers were apprehensive about the future
of those working in the present container terminal, which is to be taken over by the private
operator.
Considering the future competitive situation for transhipment, it is assumed that Colombo
port will continue to handle a certain share of the cargo meant for India in the future as it may
maintain a competitive advantage over Vizhinjam for parts of the Indian East Coast traffic
and as it was noted earlier that transhipment traffic flows not only due to cost benefits but
also due to other factors like sailing scheduling, capacity etc. As mentioned earlier it is
estimated that the future transhipment traffic to be attracted by Vizhinjam will basically be
that diverted from Colombo, but shared in competition with the local other potential Indian
transhipment hub ports considered namely JNPT, Mundra, Vallarpadam and Chennai.
However at what critical threshold of container traffic volumes, will the strategic inflection will
start driving container traffic away from foreign ports to these new container terminal ports,
can only be determined on the basis of strategic inter-play of logistics and trade factors
underlying the future growth of container traffic volumes and how the new container terminal
operators will competitively position their service offerings.
Talking about the various container terminal ports, it is to be borne in mind that a
considerable container feeder network is to be established for creating a well functioning
hub-port with high traffic throughput. It is therefore important to be early and expedient in
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starting operations for building up the traffic and attracting enough cargo to give basis for
running the feeder network, and hereby create a real hub with spokes.
In the context of competition between the terminals, it is pertinent to mention that Drewry Intra Asian Container Trades - 2003 indicated that Sri Lanka's share of regional container
handling activity has collapsed since the late 1990s, falling from a high of 38.6% in 1997 to
28.9%, its lowest level in more than a decade, in 2001. Civil unrest and congestion at its
main container handling facilities have led to carriers withdrawing services and switching
their transhipment traffic to ports such as Port Klang and Singapore in South East Asia and
Dubai, Khor Fakkan, Fujairah and Salalah in Mid-East Gulf.
Thus the considered scenario is that the Indian container transhipment cargo today handled
through Colombo is in the future likely to be shared between the five ports Colombo,
Vallarpadam, JNPT, Mundra, Chennai and Vizhinjam in different proportions depending on
the competitive advantages and the current development plans of the respective ports.
However, if for some reasons, Vallarpadam does not develop as planned, its share of traffic
is considered to be handled by the proposed port at Vizhinjam. On the contrary, the viceversa is also true.
It may be mentioned at this point that there is a proposal for development of container
transhipment terminal at Colachel, Tamilnadu by Govt. of Tamilnadu with private sector
participation. However for assigning the traffic between the competing ports, it is assumed
that the development of Colachel as container transhipment terminal is remote if Vizhinjam
and/or Vallarpadam are developed.
4.8.3.7.2 Criteria for assigning traffic between competing ports
The foregoing discussion on crucial issues relating to attracting container transhipment traffic
to Vizhinjam and the competitive advantages / weakness of Vizhinjam may be summarised in
terms of the following criteria which could then be used for assigning the traffic between the
competing ports Colombo, Vizhinjam, Vallarpadam, Chennai and JNPT/Mundra.

a. Physical Constraints

Port capacities, minimum ship turn-around time

Maximum vessel sizes

b. Commercial Benefits
Competitive Tariffs
Development costs
Maintenance dredging costs
Route Planning (Distance of competing ports from the main shipping route)

c. Existing Business Environment Benefits


The above criteria are discussed in the following paragraphs.

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a. Physical Constraints
Port capacities
Future port capacities at the competing ports have been reviewed so as to assign the traffic
amongst the competing ports. (Table 4-19)

Table 4-19 : Future Port Capacities and Maximum Vessel Sizes


Year
2007

Future Port Capacities (million TEU)


Maximum Vessel Sizes (TEU)
Vallarpadam 1.4$

Vallarpadam 6000

Mundra 1.25 (from secondary

Vizhinjam & Mundra 7200


sources)
2012 Vallarpadam 2.2

Vallarpadam 6000

Mundra 4.0*

Vizhinjam & Mundra > 7200


2017 Vallarpadam 2.7

Vallarpadam 6000

Mundra 4.0*

Vizhinjam & Mundra > 7200


2022 Vallarpadam 3.4

Vallarpadam 6000

Mundra 4.0*

Vizhinjam & Mundra > 7200


$
(from Frederic R. Harris (India Pvt. Ltd. report on Master Plan for Development of
Cochin Port).
*
Value suggested for Mundra Port in Cargo Systems, August 2002.

It is learnt from Colombo Ports expansion plans (not considering the latest information
Chapter 5.8.3.5.1) that the future port capacity in 2007 would be 4.5 million TEU increasing
to 22.0 million TEU by year 2022. Comparing the addition of future port capacity of Colombo
to the growth of Indian container traffic reveals that Colombos expansion plans are in line
with forecasted Indian container traffic.
Chennai Container Terminal Limited, CCTL, (operated by P&O Nedlloyd) has handled about
0.4 million TEU of container traffic in year 2002-03. The port has space constraints for future
developments and suffers from poor hinterland connections.
In any case, the short-term developments about to be implemented may be assumed to
complete. However for long term developments, although port capacities as projected above
reveal their future development plans, its actual implementation is always preceded by
crucial decisions which depend upon the general development of port capacity in the region
of influence. In other words the issue of being first with the development in the region gets
advantage.
Maximum vessel sizes
The vessel sizes of the current and future have been reviewed in the context of whether or
not these ports can service main line vessels. (Table 4-19)
The following conclusions may be drawn based on maximum vessel sizes:

Due to draft restrictions at Cochin Port, the maximum size of the vessel likely to call at
the proposed Vallarpadam terminal is about 6,000 TEU.
Mundra Container Terminal and proposed Vizhinjam Port are likely to have water depths
of over 16m and thus can accommodate vessels greater that 7,200 TEU. This depth will
serve any container carrier today.
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Present dredged depth at Colombo is about 14 m at Jaye Container Terminal, but


expansion plans include deepening of harbour basin to 15m and channel to 16m water
depth.
Chennai port has a dredged channel depth of about 16.0m.

b. Commercial Benefits
Competitive tariff
Composite tariff at proposed Vizhinjam Port will depend on the following criteria:

Development costs: The overall development costs at Vizhinjam (greenfield port),


Vallarpadam and Mundra are in the decreasing order respectively
Maintenance dredging costs: The annual maintenance dredging costs at Vallarpadam is
very high compared to Vizhinjam and Mundra (See Table 4-20).

Table 4-20 : Annual Expenditure on Dredging (Rs. in Crores) incurred by Cochin Port
Trust
Port
Cochin

1994-95
9.22

1995-96
20.42

1996-97
29.18

1997-98
35.39

1998-99
37.23

1999-2000
39.39

2000-01
29.21

(Source Indian Ports Association Report 2001-2002)


Service costs:
Tariff advantage at Vizhinjam, Vallarpadam, Chennai and Mundra due to
foreign exchange savings / insurance costs as compared to Colombo
(insurance costs for feeder vessels may add up to USD 2,000 a day).
It is understood that Container berths in Vallarpadam and Mundra are located
inside the creek. Accordingly it is assumed that the length of channel required
to handle the mother vessels (draft of about 16m) of current sizes at
Vallarpadam & Mundra are comparatively more than that required at
Vizhinjam. This in turn results in higher support services (Pilotage, mooring,
tug assistance etc.) at Vallarpadam and Mundra compared to Vizhinjam.
However, compared to the costs of depreciation and servicing the credit,
these costs are not substantial (tug and pilotage advantage may add up to
10000 USD per call depending on size of the vessel).
Route planning (distance of competing ports from the main shipping route)
The deviation from the main east west shipping axis to Colombo, Vizhinjam, Vallarpadam,
Chennai and Mundra are in the increasing order respectively. Therefore attraction of mother
vessels at these respective ports is in decreasing order of preference. Hence purely
considering route planning of main line economics, Vizhinjam is best situated compared to
Vallarpadam, Chennai and Mundra.

c. Existing Business Environment Benefits


In terms of development of supporting infrastructure and a system of auxiliary services such
as shipping agents, forwarders, stevedores etc. Colombo, Vallarpadam and Mundra would
be better situated compared to Vizhinjam, at least in the initial stages.
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4.8.3.7.3 Basic Assumptions for Assigning Container Transhipment Traffic to Vizhinjam


As mentioned earlier no scientific / mathematical model exist to forecast the re-directional
transhipment traffic for Vizhinjam. Consultant is therefore left with the option of building a
rational model based on assumed pre-condition and logic. Basically, however, it is extremely
difficult to build a meaningful model for traffic estimates for Vizhinjam Port considering that
there are too many variables, fast changing correlation and difficulty in quantifying crucial
factors. As a matter of fact, the crucial issues that come forward are:

Cut-throat competition among transhipment hubs in the future


No foreign feeder network at any Indian port due to present Indian legislation
Political consensus and administrative focus towards the concept of transhipment of
Indian cargo.

The fact of the matter is that the development of a container transhipment terminal will to a
large extent depend on the individual operator / player shifting hub cargo operations from
one port to another, for instance, diversion of the order of 400,000 TEU from one port to
another, which in rational terms is difficult to quantify. Decision of such a player may not
depend on the cost aspects alone, but other reasons such as container logistics, route
planning as well as decision criteria of big players.
So the following split up of traffic between the ports should be seen as Consultants best
attempt based on the given information and cannot be taken more precise than the value of
the assumptions. The following discussions and the split up of traffic are for moderate
scenario of Indian container traffic growth.

Container traffic between India Colombo

Drewry Intra-Asian Container Trades, 2003 reports the following percentages with
regards to container transhipment at Colombo Table 4-21.

Table 4-21 : Percentage Transhipment at Colombo


Colombo
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Percentage
66.8%
72.3% 75.3% 72.1% 70.0%
68.2%
69.2%
transhipment
Drewry Intra-Asian Container Trades, 2003 reports that the container transhipment at
Colombo is of the order of 67% to 75% of the total traffic at Colombo between 1995 and
2001 which is approximately 70% on an average. It is reported in the Internet (Times
Shipping Journal) that 1 million TEU of the 1.7 million TEU of container traffic at Colombo
is generated / destined in / to India. This indicates that about 60% of Colombo Traffic are
of Indian origin. Eliminating double counting (as is the practice for transhipped cargo at
Colombo) the Indian bound cargo is of the order of 0.5 million TEU corresponding to
about 20% of the overall Indian container traffic. (single counting for movement in/out of
India) Thus on an average 10% (double counted) of the transhipped cargo at Colombo
belongs to other countries in the neighbourhood. Theoretically Vizhinjam could compete
for all the container transhipment traffic volumes handled at Colombo (20% of Indian
container traffic handled at Colombo Port plus transhipped cargo belonging to other
countries).
It is assumed that the likelihood of traffic diverting from Colombo to JNPT/Mundra Port(s)
and Chennai by main line vessels is very minimal. This is for the reason that
JNPT/Mundra and Chennai are far away from the main shipping route as compared to
Vizhinjam and Vallarpadam.

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It is assumed that Vizhinjam / Vallarpadam and Colombo continue to serve 20% of the
overall Indian container traffic as transhipment traffic in the future. This assumption is
based on the observation that capacity expansion plans of Colombo Port is in tune with
projections of Indian container traffic.
Sharing of Indian container traffic between Indian West Coast and East Coast is
considered as 73% / 27% in short term (2007), 65% / 35% in medium term (2015) and
57% / 43% in long term (2030).
It is demonstrated earlier that Vizhinjam / Vallarpadam is far more advantageous than
Colombo considering Indian West Coast bound traffic. Considering Indian East Coast
traffic, it is similarly demonstrated that Vizhinjam / Vallarpadam may compete with
Colombo for the southern 1/3 of the coastline. Based hereupon it is assumed that
balanced sharing will be:
West Coast traffic Vizhinjam / Vallarpadam 80%, Colombo retain 20%
East Coast traffic Vizhinjam / Vallarpadam 30%, Colombo retain 70%

This means that resulting balanced sharing of the Indian container traffic of 20% ("old"
Colombo share of Indian container traffic) will be:

Table 4-22 : Balanced Sharing between Colombo, Vallarpadam and Vizhinjam


Phase
wise
develop
ment

In short
term
In
medium
term
In long
term

Indian container
traffic

Colombo share

20% of 65 + 70% of
35 = 37%

Share of
total Indian
container
traffic
33% of 20% =
6.6%
37% of 20% =
7.4%

Vizhinjam +
Vallarpadam
share
Share of
total Indian
container
traffic
20-6.6 =
13.4%
20-7.4 =
12.6%

20% of 57 + 70% of
43 = 41%

41% of 20% =
8.2%

20-8.2=
11.8%

Indian
West
coast

Indian
East
coast

Share of 20% (of


"old" Colombo)
traffic

73%

27%

20% of 73 + 70% of
27 = 33%

65%

35%

57%

43%

Thus a representative average sharing of container transhipment traffic between


Colombo and Vizhinjam is taken as 7% and 13% respectively from year 2017
onwards, by which time the balanced sharing of traffic is assumed to have taken
place. In the initial years however, the share at Colombo is expected to be higher
compared to combined share of Vallarpadam and Vizhinjam since transhipment
business at Colombo is in existence for a long time.
Commercial operations at Vizhinjam and Vallarpadam are assumed to start in year 2007.
The balanced traffic scenario is assumed to build up over a few years, but with initial
share at Vizhinjam to be brought in by the shifting of minimum one major shipping line
(order of 200,000 400,000 TEU per annum).
In year 2007, the following basic sharing is assumed: Colombo 10%, Vizhinjam 4% and
Vallarpadam 6%. The share of Colombo is based on the build up of traffic at Vizhinjam /
Vallarpadam over a few initial years. The share of Vizhinjam and Vallarpadam are based

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on head start and business environment at Vallarpadam (presence of well-established


business environment in Kochi compared to Vizhinjam).
For subsequent years, Colombo will retain the balanced share of 7%. Vallarpadam traffic
share is assumed to decrease slightly as compared to Vizhinjam as it may not be able to
handle vessels of large sizes of the future over 6,000 TEU. Assumptions being that
maintenance dredging costs are prohibitively high to facilitate the handling of vessels over
6,000 TEU at Vallarpadam.
Optimistic and pessimistic scenarios will be considered.
NOTE: The assumption of Indian govt. influencing the main shipping lines to use Indian Ports
for handling Indian cargo would undoubtedly lead to substantial shift of transhipment at any
foreign competing hubs to India.

Container traffic between India Dubai


About 5% to 7% of Indian container traffic is handled at Dubai Port (Drewry Shipping
Consultant.
It is assumed that some of this traffic will be attracted to JNPT/Mundra Port (recently taken
over by P&O Ports) and not attracted to Vizhinjam or any other container terminal on the
Indian coastline.

Container traffic between India Singapore


About 8% to 10% of Indian container traffic is handled at Singapore Port (since sum total
of Indian container transhipment traffic at Colombo, Dubai and Singapore is about 35%,
(Source: Internet)).
It is assumed that some of this traffic will be attracted to Chennai but otherwise continue to
be handled at Singapore and not attracted by main line vessels to Vizhinjam or any other
container terminal on the Indian coastline.
4.8.3.7.4 Container Transhipment Forecast - Base Case
Base case is defined as sharing of container transhipment traffic at the following ports:

Colombo + Vallarpadam + Vizhinjam + JNPT/Mundra + Chennai


It may be noted that although JNPT/Mundra and Chennai are mentioned above in the
sharing of traffic, the actual split of Colombo share of Indian container traffic is performed
between the ports at Colombo, Vizhinjam and Vallarpadam.
The forecast of container traffic between ports under pessimistic, moderate and optimistic
scenarios are given below in Table 4-23, Table 4-24 and Table 4-25. The Indian container
traffic for the three scenarios are based on National Forecast mentioned in Chapter 5.6.

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Table 4-23 : Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast (Pessimistic) Base Case


Pessimistic Scenario (traffic figures are in million TEU)
Year
Indian
% Share between ports
Distribution of container traffic
container
between ports (single counting)
volumes
Colombo Vallarpadam Vizhinjam Colombo Vallarpadam Vizhinjam
2007
5.8
12%
5%
3%
0.70
0.29
0.17
2012
8.9
10%
6%
4%
0.89
0.53
0.36
2017
11.8
9%
6%
5%
1.06
0.71
0.59
2022
14.9
8%
6%
6%
1.19
0.89
0.89
2027
18.2
8%
5%
7%
1.46
0.91
1.27
2032
21.7
8%
5%
7%
1.74
1.09
1.52
2033
22.4
8%
5%
7%
1.79
1.12
1.57
Table 4-24 : Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast (Moderate) Base Case
Moderate Scenario (traffic figures are in million TEU)
Year
Indian
% Share between ports
Distribution of container traffic
container
between ports (single counting)
volumes
Colombo Vallarpadam Vizhinjam Colombo Vallarpadam Vizhinjam
2007
6.2
10%
6%
4%
0.62
0.37
0.25
2012
10.0
8%
6%
6%
0.80
0.60
0.60
2017
14.0
7%
6%
7%
0.98
0.84
0.98
2022
18.3
7%
5%
8%
1.28
0.92
1.46
2027
22.9
7%
5%
8%
1.60
1.15
1.83
2032
27.8
7%
5%
8%
1.95
1.39
2.22
2033
28.8
7%
5%
8%
2.02
1.44
2.30
Table 4-25 : Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast (Optimistic) Base Case
Optimistic Scenario (traffic figures are in million TEU)
Year
Indian
% Share between ports
Distribution of container traffic
container
between ports (single counting)
volumes
Colombo Vallarpadam Vizhinjam Colombo Vallarpadam Vizhinjam
2007
6.5
10%
6%
4%
0.65
0.39
0.25
2012
10.9
8%
6%
6%
0.87
0.65
0.60
2017
15.6
6%
6%
8%
0.94
0.94
0.98
2022
21
5%
6%
9%
1.05
1.26
1.46
2027
26.7
5%
6%
9%
1.34
1.60
1.83
2032
33.1
5%
6%
9%
1.66
1.99
2.22
2033
34.3
5%
6%
9%
1.72
2.06
2.30
4.8.4 Summary of Forecast Traffic
Summary of total traffic for Vizhinjam includes hinterland traffic and transhipment traffic for
the base case as given below in Table 4-26.

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Table 4-26: Total Traffic for Vizhinjam Port - Moderate Scenario Base Case
Year

Hinterland Traffic

Container Transhipment
Traffic (in million TEU)

2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Non-containerised Containerised cargo


general cargo (in
(in million TEU)
million tonnes)
0.45
0.01
0.60
0.02
0.97
0.02
1.41
0.03
1.87
0.04
2.40
0.05
2.48
0.06

(single counting)
0.25
0.60
0.98
1.46
1.83
2.22
2.30

Summary of container transhipment traffic under three scenarios for Vizhinjam for the base
case is presented below in Table 4-27 and shown in Figure FD0407. The traffic figures are
given in double counting, i.e. the total count of container traffic includes inbound and
outbound container traffic as is the case in all container hub ports.

Table 4-27 : Summary of Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast - Double Counting


Base Case
(traffic figures are in million TEU)

Year
2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Pessimistic
0.34
0.72
1.18
1.78
2.54
3.04
3.14

Moderate
0.50
1.20
1.96
2.92
3.66
4.45
4.60

Optimistic
0.52
1.30
2.50
3.78
4.80
5.96
6.18

An analysis is carried out to assess the likely possibility of a share of container traffic that will
be transported to/from Vizhinjam Port either by road or rail, especially for Southern Indian
peninsula which may not require feeder services. Applying the percentage shares to three
Southern Indian ports viz. Chennai, Cochin and Tuticorin, the volume of container traffic that
is likely to be originated/destined at these ports can be worked out. It may be noted that this
volume of container traffic would be evacuated at Vizhinjam by road/rail and therefore may
not need feeder services due to economies of transport. The total share of Southern Indian
Ports as can be seen from the Table 4-11 is 26.7% (Chennai 15.7%, Tuticorin 5.9% and
Cochin 5.1%). Hence assuming a share of 25% for Southern Indian Ports, the volume of
container traffic under three different scenarios is worked out as given below.

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Table 4-27 a: Container Traffic at Vizhinjam from/to South Indian Ports (movement by
road/rail - secondary hinterland traffic)
(traffic figures are in million TEU)
Year
2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Pessimistic
0.04
0.09
0.15
0.22
0.32
0.38
0.39

Moderate
0.06
0.15
0.25
0.37
0.46
0.56
0.58

Optimistic
0.07
0.16
0.31
0.47
0.60
0.74
0.77

The container transhipment volume at Vizhinjam that would require feeder services is given
below:

Table 4-27 b: Container Transhipment Traffic at Vizhinjam (movement by feeder


vessels)
(traffic figures are in million TEU)
Year
2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Pessimistic
0.26
0.53
0.88
1.34
1.91
2.28
2.35

Moderate
0.37
0.9
1.47
2.19
2.75
3.33
3.45

Optimistic
0.39
0.98
1.87
2.84
3.61
4.47
4.63

4.8.5 Upsides for Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast


An attempt is made to assess the possible upsides for container transhipment traffic in
addition to the base case. The upsides are:

Effect of no developments at Vallarpadam


Effect of Sethusamudram Ship Canal Project
Impact of Indian Legislation on Container Transhipment at Foreign Ports

Forecast of container transhipment traffic for the above upsides are presented in the
following paragraphs. The hinterland traffic component for the above upsides will be same as
that mentioned in Chapter 5.8.4. In other words, the affect of the upsides on the hinterland
traffic is negligible and hence not discussed further.

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4.8.5.1 Effect of No Development at Vallarpadam


In case if the proposed container transhipment terminal at Vallarpadam does not develop as
planned due to some reasons, its share of traffic is considered to be handled by the
proposed Vizhinjam Port.
The forecast of container traffic between ports for pessimistic, moderate and optimistic
scenarios are given below in Table 4-28, Table 4-29 and Table 4-30.

Table 4-28 : Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast (Pessimistic) Effect of No


Developments at Vallarpadam
(traffic figures are in million TEU)

Year

2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Indian
container
volumes
5.8
8.9
11.8
14.9
18.2
21.7
22.4

% Share between ports

Distribution of container traffic


between ports (single counting)
Colombo Vallarpadam Vizhinjam Colombo Vallarpadam Vizhinjam
12%
0%
8%
0.70
0.00
0.46
10%
0%
10%
0.89
0.00
0.89
9%
0%
11%
1.06
0.00
1.30
8%
0%
12%
1.19
0.00
1.79
8%
0%
12%
1.46
0.00
2.18
8%
0%
12%
1.74
0.00
2.60
8%
0%
12%
1.79
0.00
2.69

Table 4-29 : Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast (Moderate) Effect of No


Developments at Vallarpadam
(traffic figures are in million TEU)

Year

2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Indian
container
volumes
6.2
10
14
18.3
22.9
27.8
28.8

% Share between ports

Distribution of container traffic


between ports (single counting)
Colombo Vallarpadam Vizhinjam Colombo Vallarpadam Vizhinjam
10%
0%
10%
0.62
0.00
0.62
8%
0%
12%
0.80
0.00
1.20
7%
0%
13%
0.98
0.00
1.82
7%
0%
13%
1.28
0.00
2.38
7%
0%
13%
1.60
0.00
2.98
7%
0%
13%
1.95
0.00
3.61
7%
0%
13%
2.02
0.00
3.74

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Table 4-30 : Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast (Optimistic) Effect of No


Developments at Vallarpadam
(traffic figures are in million TEU)

Year

2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Indian
container
volumes
6.5
10.9
15.6
21
26.7
33.1
34.3

% Share between ports

Distribution of container traffic


between ports (single counting)
Colombo Vallarpadam Vizhinjam Colombo Vallarpadam Vizhinjam
10%
0%
10%
0.65
0.00
0.65
8%
0%
12%
0.87
0.00
1.31
6%
0%
14%
0.94
0.00
2.18
5%
0%
15%
1.05
0.00
3.15
5%
0%
15%
1.34
0.00
4.01
5%
0%
15%
1.66
0.00
4.97
5%
0%
15%
1.72
0.00
5.15

Summary forecast of container transhipment traffic in Double Counting at Vizhinjam for


pessimistic, moderate and optimistic scenarios are given below in Table 4-31 and shown in
Figure FD0408.

Table 4-31 : Summary of Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast (Double Counting)


- Effect of No Developments at Vallarpadam
(traffic figures are in million TEU)

Year
2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Pessimistic
0.93
1.78
2.60
3.58
4.37
5.21
5.38

Moderate
1.24
2.40
3.64
4.76
5.95
7.23
7.49

Optimistic
1.30
2.62
4.37
6.30
8.01
9.93
10.29

4.8.5.2 Effect of Sethusamudram Ship Canal Project


As explained in Chapter 5.8.3.4.1, with the implementation of proposed Sethusamudram
Ship Canal project, the sailing distances between the east and west coast ports will reduce
since the ships need not travel around Sri Lanka as is the case today. An attempt is made to
quantity the effect of the ship canal project on transhipment traffic at Vizhinjam as one of the
upsides.
As explained earlier, the present sharing of Indian container traffic at Colombo between the
two Indian coasts is assumed:
West Coast traffic Vizhinjam / Vallarpadam 80%, Colombo retain 20%
East Coast traffic Vizhinjam / Vallarpadam 30%, Colombo retain 70%
However if the Sethusamudram project is implemented, the sailing distances to ports on the
east coast of India from respectively Colombo and Vizhinjam will be reduced compared to
today (while there will be no changes regarding west coast port). This means a change in

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competitive situation of Vizhinjam contra Colombo for east coast traffic, while west coast
traffic sharing remains unchanged.
Taking Visakhapatnam as a representation port on the East Coast, the sailing distance from
respectively Colombo and Vizhinjam are estimated to be 635 and 735 nautical miles
respectively via Sethusamudram canal.
Despite the great uncertainty it appears reasonable however to assume that Vizhinjam will
be at least as competitive as Colombo for the east coast, suggesting as minimum a sharing
of 50% / 50%.
In other words the sharing of Indian container traffic between the two coasts would be
suggested as follows:
West Coast traffic Vizhinjam / Vallarpadam 80%, Colombo retain 20%
East Coast traffic Vizhinjam / Vallarpadam 50%, Colombo retain 50%
Hence, the revised balanced sharing between Colombo, Vallarpadam and Vizhinjam will
respectively be 6% and 14%. Thus a representative sharing of container transhipment traffic
between Colombo, Vallarpadam and Vizhinjam is taken as 6% and 14% respectively from
year 2017 onwards. For year 2032, for sake of example, it is worked out that Vizhinjam will
have container traffic of 2.5 million TEU (single counting) or expressed in double counting,
the container transhipment traffic will be 5 million TEU.
4.8.5.3 Impact of Indian Legislation on Container Transhipment at Foreign Ports
The impact of Indian legislation on Indian container transhipment traffic at foreign ports would
be that the entire 35% of container transhipment occurring currently in foreign ports will be
retained at Indian container transhipment hub ports. The most likely candidate ports for this
are Kandla, Mundra, JNPT/Mumbai, Cochin, Chennai and the proposed Vizhinjam Port. It is
assumed that the entire transhipment traffic at Colombo is shared between Vallarpadam and
Vizhinjam. Based on the above, the following % share between ports is considered as given
in Table 4-32, Table 4-33 and Table 4-34.

Table 4-32 : Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast (Pessimistic) Effect of Indian


Legislation
(traffic figures are in million TEU)

Year

2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Indian
container
volumes
5.8
8.9
11.8
14.9
18.2
21.7
22.4

% Share between ports


Vallarpadam
12%
10%
8%
8%
8%
8%
8%

Vizhinjam
8%
10%
12%
12%
12%
12%
12%

Distribution of container traffic


between
ports
(single
counting)
Vallarpadam Vizhinjam
0.70
0.46
0.89
0.89
0.94
1.42
1.19
1.79
1.46
2.18
1.74
2.60
1.79
2.69

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Table 4-33 : Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast (Moderate) Effect of Indian


Legislation
Year

2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Indian
container
volumes
6.2
10
14
18.3
22.9
27.8
28.8

% Share between ports


Vallarpadam Vizhinjam
10%
10%
8%
12%
6%
14%
6%
14%
6%
14%
6%
14%
6%
14%

(traffic figures are in million TEU)


Distribution of container traffic
between
ports
(single
counting)
Vallarpadam Vizhinjam
0.62
0.62
0.80
1.20
0.84
1.96
1.10
2.56
1.37
3.21
1.67
3.89
1.73
4.03

Table 4-34 : Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast (Optimistic) Effect of Indian


Legislation
Year

2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Indian
container
volumes
6.5
10.9
15.6
21.0
26.7
33.1
34.3

% Share between ports


Vallarpadam Vizhinjam
8%
12%
6%
14%
4%
16%
4%
16%
4%
16%
4%
16%
4%
16%

(traffic figures are in million TEU)


Distribution of container traffic
between
ports
(single
counting)
Vallarpadam Vizhinjam
0.52
0.78
0.65
1.53
0.62
2.50
0.84
3.36
1.07
4.27
1.32
5.30
1.37
5.49

Summary forecast of container transhipment traffic in Double Counting at Vizhinjam for


pessimistic, moderate and optimistic scenarios are given below in Table 4-35 and shown in
Figure FD0409.

Table 4-35 : Summary of Container Transhipment Traffic Forecast (Double Counting)


- Effect of Indian Legislation
Year
2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Pessimistic
0.93
1.78
2.83
3.58
4.37
5.21
5.38

Moderate
1.24
2.40
3.92
5.12
6.41
7.78
8.06

(traffic figures are in million TEU)


Optimistic
1.56
3.05
4.99
6.72
8.54
10.59
10.98

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Figure FD0407 : Conatainer Transhipment Traffic for Vizhinjam Port


(Base Case)

Optimistic
Moderate
Pessimistic

(Million TEUs)

7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

Year

Figure FD0408 : Conatiner Transhipment Traffic for Vizhinjam Port


(effect of no development at Vallarpadam)
10.5

(in million TEUs)

9.0
7.5
6.0

Optimistic

4.5

Moderate
Pessimistic

3.0
1.5
0.0
2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

Year

Figure FD0409 : Conatiner Transhipment Traffic for Vizhinjam Port


(effect of Indian Legislation)
10.50

(in million TEUs)

9.00
7.50
Optimistic
Moderate
Pessimistic

6.00
4.50
3.00
1.50
0.00
2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

Year

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4.9 Review of Traffic and Forecast (Addendum)


In the Phase II Detailed Feasibility and Project structuring report carried out in 2003/2004
(as given above), the Consultant adopted following methodology to arrive at realistic forecast
of traffic volumes to be handled at Vizhinjam Port for 30 years,upto 2033.

Data collection pertaining to traffic assessment and its review (1980 - 2001).
Review of current ports and maritime traffic in the region.
Conducting interviews and questionnaire survey covering liners, feeder liners and port
users.
Assessment of the future regional traffic market by commodity type.
Assessment of the future handling capacities of the competing ports.
Review of current and future competitive advantages and weaknesses of the proposed
Vizhinjam Port.
Assessing the hinterland traffic volumes for the proposed port based on the needs of
captive and major port users
Based on logistic costs, a secondary hinterland was identified from the South Indian
peninsula ports, which is likely to prefer road and rail movement of container traffic and
may not require feeder service, and traffic assessed.
Preparation of traffic demand forecast for Vizhinjam Port (for high, medium and low
economic growth rates of India and are fitted as optimistic, moderate (6% GDP) and
pessimistic scenario) respectively.

Total Indian container volume projection and the summary of traffic forecast for Vizhinjam
Port in the above traffic report are presented in Table 4-36.and Table 4-37

Table 4-36 Indian Container Traffic Projection


Year

2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Indian container volumes (in million


TEU)
Pessimistic
5.8
8.9
11.8
14.9
18.2
21.7
22.4

Moderate
6.2
10.0
14.0
18.3
22.9
27.8
28.8

Optimistic
6.5
10.9
15.6
21
26.7
33.1
34.3

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0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06

0.19
0.45
0.74
1.10
1.38
1.67
1.73

0.26
0.62
1.01
1.5
1.88
2.28
2.37

Total Container
Traffic

0.06
0.15
0.25
0.37
0.46
0.56
0.58

Mainline Vessel
(TEU)

Feeder Vessel
(TEU)

0.45
0.60
0.97
1.41
1.87
2.40
2.48

Transhipment

Secondary
Hinterland
Container
(TEU)

General Cargo (MT)


(Non-containerised)

2007
2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2033

Hinterland

Primary
Hinterland
Container
(TEU)

Year

Table 4-37 Total Traffic for Vizhinjam Port - Moderate Scenario Base Case

0.45
1.07
1.75
2.60
3.26
3.95
4.10

4.9.1 Container Traffic Present Indian Scenario


Since the time of completion of the phase II report in 2004, actual container volume handled
in Indian Major Ports is as presented in Table 4-38.

Table 4-38 Container Traffic Volume in Indian Major Ports


Year

Container Traffic
(in million TEU )

2002-03

3.4

2003-04

4.0

2004-05

4.2

2005-06

4.6

2006-07

5.4

Total container volume projected for India in earlier LTR report for the year 2007 is 5.8million
tonnes. Actual data in Table 4-38 shows in year 2007, all major ports handled about 5.4
million tonnes. That means predicted data is reasonably matching with actual situation and
containerisation in India.
4.9.2 Asian Development Bank (ADB) Projections
According to Asian Development Bank report (project No.39431, Colombo Port Expansion
Project) about 70% of containers handled in Colombo Port are transshipment containers of
which 75% are for the Indian subcontinent (ISC) market and 25% for the West African
market.

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As the main cargo to Colombo port is the containers from ISC, for forecasting Colombo
container traffic, the ADB have projected ISC container traffic and extracts from the report
are presented below.

From this table it can be seen that the ADB projections are reasonably close to the traffic
projection of earlier LTR report under optimistic scenario.
4.9.3 Updated Traffic for Vizhinjam
In the earlier traffic projection done by consultant, port operations were assumed to start by
2007. But as per the current scenario, port operations are likely to start by 2012.
Correspondingly traffic from year 2012 as presented in table below is projected for further
analysis.

Table 4-39 Vizhinjam Port Traffic Forecast (Double counting) in million TEU
Year

Pessimistic Moderate Optimistic

2012

0.53

0.80

0.87

2017

0.95

1.68

1.88

2022

1.49

2.56

3.35

2027

2.18

3.66

4.81

2032

3.03

4.45

5.95

2037

3.89

5.24

7.09

2042

4.74

6.02

8.23

Based on the above traffic forecast under moderate scenario, the detailed break-up of traffic
considered up to year 2042 as base case for financial analysis is shown in Table 2-5 below

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0.30
0.63
0.96
1.37
1.67
1.96
2.26

0.41
0.86
1.30
1.86
2.26
2.67
3.07

Total Container
Traffic

0.10
0.21
0.32
0.46
0.56
0.65
0.75

0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06

Mainline Vessel
(TEU)

Feeder Vessel
(TEU)

0.45
0.60
0.97
1.41
1.87
2.40
2.48

Transhipment

Secondary
Hinterland
Container
(TEU)

General Cargo (MT)


(Non-containerised)

2012
2017
2022
2027
2032
2037
2042

Hinterland

Primary
Hinterland
Container
(TEU)

Year

Table 4-40 Total Traffic for Vizhinjam Port - Moderate Scenario Base Case

0.71
1.49
2.26
3.23
3.93
4.63
5.33*

* Pegged at 5.30 million TEU


4.9.4 Port Capacity
Based on the earlier planning parameters, port capacity in the various phases are as shown
below.

Table 4-41 Vizhinjam Port Capacity with earlier planning


Phase

Berth
Port
Length
Capacity(
Provided mil. TEU)

Short Term

1245

1.25

Medium
Term

1900

2.38

Long term

2860

4.10

But as presented in Table 4-39, Vizhinjam port required to handle more traffic in various
phases due to updation of traffic. This additional traffic can be handled by providing
additional equipments in different phases as shown in Table 2-7 below:
Table 4-42: Additional Equipment Requirement

Sl
No.

Description

Short Term

Medium Term*)

Long Term*)

Super Post
Panamax Quay
Cranes

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Sl
No.

Description

Short Term

Medium Term*)

Long Term*)

Panamax
Cranes

12

RTGs

35

20

41

*)Equipment shown in medium and Long term are additional

Port capacity by providing additional equipments are calculated and presented in the table 28 below.
Table 4-43 Revised Port Capacity with additional Equipment
Sl
No

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Short term

Description

Container Productivity
Number of cranes
employed

Unit
Moves/
hr

Main
line

Medium Term

Feeder

Main
line

Long Term

Feede
r

Main
line

Feeder

30

25

30

25

30

25

Nos
(Moves
/hr)

120

75

120

75

120

100

Days

330

330

330

330

330

330

%
Days
hrs

60
198
20

60
198
20

70
231
20

TEU

475200

297000

554400

75
247.5
20
59400
0

75
247.5
20

Capacity per Berth


Number of Berths
Provided

70
231
20
34650
0

Sub Total Capacity


Total Capacity of Port

TEU
TEU

Productivity/ship/hr
Total Available
time/year
Berth Occupancy
Considered
Effective time
Average working hrs

nos

950400 891000
1841400

3
4
166320
13860
0
00
3049200

495000

4
6
23760 297000
00
0
5346000

In the above calculation a berth occupancy factor of 60% in the short term, 70%in the
medium term and 75% in the long term has been considered.
From the above calculation it can be seen that port capacity reaches 1.8 m TEU, 3.0 mTEU
and 5.3 m TEU respectively for short term (Phase I), medium term (Phase II ) and long term
(Phase III).
To compare the traffic forecast and the capacity provided, a traffic vs. capacity curve is
prepared and presented in Figure 2-1.

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A Comparison between Traffic forecast vs Port Capacity


9.00
Traffic (in million TEUs)

8.00

Port Capacity

7.00
6.00

Pessimistic
Moderate
Optimistic

5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00

Port Capacity

1.00
0.00
2012

2017

2022

2027

2032

2037

2042

Figure 4-1 Comparison of Vizhinjam Port capacity and Traffic forecast


From the above figure, it can be seen that moderate scenario of traffic can be handled by
planned capacity of the port with additional equipments as discussed in the previous
paragraphs. Once the traffic reaches 5.30 million port reaches its full capacity.
Benchmark capacity of the port has been reworked and presented in the table below.

Table 4-44 Vizhinjam Port Capacity with Present Planning


Phase

Berth Length
Provided in
metre

Benchmark
Capacity (TEU/m
length of
berth/year)

Port Capacity (mil.


TEU)

Short Term (Phase I )

1245

1450

1.80

Medium Term (Phase II)

1900

1580

3.00

Long Term (Phase III)

2860

1850

5.30

4.9.5 Conclusion
From the above discussion, following can be concluded:

With present planning of various elements of port, and by providing additional


equipments, moderate scenario of traffic can be handled. Further costing and financial
analysis has been carried out based on this traffic and equipments provided.

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FIGURES

CHAPTER 5
Vessel Size Analysis

Development of Vizhinjam Port with Private Sector Participation


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5 Vessel Size Analysis


5.1 General
Forecasting of optimal vessel size for planning port facilities is very vital, as it will influence
the size of the facilities itself. Further it may also be possible that vessels carrying the cargo
could be of different sizes in actual practice, as the chartering of a vessel depends upon the
availability of facilities at a particular point of time and chartering terms. Hence it is equally
important to identify the right band of probable vessel-mix that would call at the port, besides
the maximum size of vessel for which the port facility needs to be planned. While selecting
the design vessel for Vizhinjam port, reference has been drawn not only to the global
scenario and the development trends in container fleet, but also to the prevailing conditions
in the Indian ports and particularly the competing ports.

5.2 Container Vessels


Container ships are generally classified into generations, i.e. as having characteristic typical
of certain stages in container trade development and container ship building. To keep
operating costs to a minimum, the maximum utilization of these modern vessels must be
achieved. The economic feasibility of making direct calls to the ports depend on many factors
including system costs, transhipment and feeder costs, revenues and marketing factors and
not just on vessel size alone.
5.2.1 Review of World wide Container Vessels
Consultants have critically studied and analyzed present as well as future (placed on order)
worldwide container vessel fleet from Clarkson Register (April 2002) for their capacities and
numbers to select the appropriate container vessel size for Vizhinjam port. The details of
existing container vessel fleet are presented in Table 5-1 and the container vessels on order
are shown Table 5-2.
Table 5-1 : Worldwide Container Fleet
Vessel Size (TEU )
(A B)
0-500
500-1,000
1,000-1,500
1,500-2,000
2,000-2,500
2,500-3,000
3,000-3,500
3,500-4,000
4,000-4,500
4,500-5,000
5,000-5,500
5,500-6,000
6,000-6,500
6,500-7,000
7,000-7,179

Vessel sizes for B


LOA (m)
Beam (m) Draft (m)
135
21.0
8.0
160
25.0
9.0
175
27.0
10.5
188
30.0
10.5
203
30.0
11.0
260
32.2
12.0
276
32.2
12.0
294
32.3
13.0
294
32.2
13.5
276
40.0
14.0
280
40.0
14.0
283
42.8
14.0
300
40.3
14.0
347
42.8
14.5
320
42.8
14.5
Total

No. of
Vessels
458
538
494
392
233
204
146
109
110
68
38
66
36
13
16
2921

% Share
15.7
18.4
16.9
13.4
8.0
7.0
5.0
3.7
3.8
2.3
1.3
2.3
1.2
0.4
0.5
100.0
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5%

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16%

19%

15%
30%

100-500
500-1000
1000-2000
2000-3000
3000-5000
>5000

Figure 5-1 : Distribution of Worldwide Container Fleet (TEU)


The above Table 5-1 and Figure 5-1 reveal the following range of vessel sizes with their
percentage contribution in the world market:

Feeder vessels (100 -500 TEU)


16%
Feeder max vessels (500-1000 TEU)
19%
Handy vessels (1000-2000 TEU)
30%
Sub Panamax vessels (2000-3000 TEU) 15%
Panamax vessels (3000-5000 TEU)
15%
Post Panamax vessels (>5000 TEU)
5%

From the above it is observed that about 95% of container vessels are upto 5000 TEU.
Table 5-2 : Worldwide Container Fleet on Order
Vessel Size (TEU )
(A B)
400-800
800-1,200
1,200-1,600
1,600-2,200
2,200-2,400
2,400-2,800
2,800-3,200
3,200-3,600
3,600-4,110
4,100-4,400
4,400-4,800
4,800-5,200
5,200-5,600
5,600-6,000
6,000-6,400
6,400-6,800
6,800-7,200
7,200-7,600
7,600-7,731

Vessel sizes for B


LOA (m) Beam (m) Draft (m)
140
149
170
195
202
210
243
245
281
286
NA
280
280
283
NA
300
300
323
323
Total

21.5
22.7
26.0
30.2
29.8
32.2
32.2
32.2
32.2
32.2
NA
39.8
40.3
42.8
NA
40.0
42.8
42.8
42.8

7.5
7.8
9.0
10.5
11.6
11.0
NA
NA
12.5
13.0
NA
14.0
14.0
13.5
NA
14.0
14.5
14.5
14.5

No. of Vessels

% Share

41
50
19
31
11
61
20
8
11
47
25
5
11
17
19
17
7
6
6
412

10.0
12.1
4.6
7.5
2.7
14.8
4.9
1.9
2.7
11.4
6.1
1.2
2.7
4.1
4.6
4.1
1.7
1.5
1.5
100.0

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0%

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100-500

14%

500-1000
20%

1000-2000
2000-3000

28%

3000-5000
18%

>5000

Figure 5-2 : Distribution of Worldwide Container Fleet on Order (TEU)


The above Table 5-2 and Figure 5-2 reveals the following ranges of vessels sizes placed for
order with their percentage contribution in the world market:

Feeder vessels (100 -500 TEU)


0.48%
Feeder max vessels (500-1000 TEU)
14.1%
Handy vessels (1000-2000 TEU)
19.7%
Sub Panamax vessels (2000-3000 TEU) 17.8%
Panamax vessels (3000-5000 TEU)
27.9%
Post Panamax vessels (>5000 TEU)
20.2%

From the above it is observed that about 80% of container vessels are upto 5000 TEU.
5.2.2 Review of Container Vessels at Competitor Ports
5.2.2.1 Indian Ports
i.

Cochin / Vallarpadam port

It is noted that the container vessel size selected for development of International Container
Transshipment Terminal at Cochin/Vallarpadam is 6,000 TEU (fifth generation vessels) for
main/mother vessel. The feeder vessels of size 600 TEU are considered for planning
purposes.
ii.

Tuticorin Port

Deepening of channel at Tuticorin Port is done to handle vessel upto draft 12.8 m.
iii.

Jawaharlal Nehru Port

Nava Shiva International Container Terminal (NSICT) is India's first private container terminal
developed at the Jawaharlal Nehru port across the harbour from Mumbai port. With the
available water depths along the container berths at NSICT/JN port, it is possible to handle
fifth generation container vessels. It is also learnt from Drewry Shipping Consultants study
that APL and Maersk Sealand use 4,300/3,800 TEU class ships on their dedicated
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operations calling at Nava Sheva. The largest mainline container vessel called at this port
had a length of 299 m with capacity of 5,000 TEU.
iv.

Mundra Port

The draft available alongside the berth would be 18.5 m to handle container vessels of size
8000+ TEU.
v.

Chennai Port

It is noted from Drewry Shipping Consultants research that Chennai is likely to emerge as a
sub hub for the South Asia, with ships of 2,000 TEU plus shuttling to/from a range of both
local and transshipment ports within the Far East. Presently the draft available along the
existing container berths is about 12.5 m, which can accommodate vessels of size upto
4,000 TEU. But water depths of about 18.5 m are available in the navigational channel,
which could accommodate future larger and deep drafted container vessels.
5.2.2.2 Foreign Ports
i.

Colombo Port

The present water depths available at Colombo port are 15 m, which could handle the
present maximum container vessels of less than 6,000 TEU. It is understood from the
Colombo port web site that the port has deepened the harbour basin to 15 m and
navigational channel to 16 m to accommodate super post panamax container vessels.

ii.

Dubai Port

It was learnt (Dubai Ports Authority website, March 2003) that one of the largest vessels of
6,252 TEU (Maersk Kolkata) has called at Jebel Ali port. The port has the capacity to
accommodate mega container vessels of size upto 6,700 TEU. Also it was learnt that Dubai
port is deepening the navigational channel from 14 m to 17 m to cater to future larger
container vessels.
iii.

Singapore Port

With the present water depth available at Singapore Port, it is possible to handle vessels
upto about 8,000 TEU. It is learnt that the world's largest container ship with capacity of 8063
TEU (Hong Kong based Orient Overseas Container Line) made its maiden call to Port Klang
and second port is Singapore in this region capable of handling such a large vessel.
5.2.3 Future Trends for Container Vessels
5.2.3.1 Main Line Vessels
As per studies by Drewry Shipping Consultants, it is difficult to sort out trade volumes within
intra-Asian region and trying to make any meaningful assessment of slot capacity deployed
within the region is virtually impossible task. In any case the demand for slot space keeps on
rising and operators have responded by phasing in significant amounts of additional capacity.
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However it is difficult, at least with any accuracy, to calculate capacity deployed in intra-Asian
region due to the following reasons:

There is a huge number of liner operations involved (well over 200 at the end of 2001), all
with their own operating strategies and service agendas. Meanwhile, the market is
extremely volatile, with carriers entering and leaving the trade on a regular basis,
depending on prevailing market conditions.

A significant portion of the ships deployed are taken on short-term (often voyage) charter
and so tracking vessels for any length of time on particular corridors is nearly impossible.

Slots deployed are used for many different purposes, i.e. cabotage, in-house feeder
cargo, third party relay cargo as well as local import/export cargo. Moreover, the
allocations for each cargo component can vary, sometimes significantly, voyage-byvoyage. In addition, carriers are highly reluctant to divulge splits, given the commercial
sensitivity and value of such information.

There are many routes where tramp and/or semi-liner schedules form the mainstay of the
operation and where several ports are served on an inducement basis only.

There is extensive use of mainline vessels to carry load (regional) cargo as they move
through the area. However, it is impossible to give an accurate slot count as allocations
vary carrier-by-carrier, service string-by-service string, month-by month and according to
the intrinsic strength of the line-haul trade itself.

Hence, the intra-Asian trading environment is subjected to fluctuating slot counts and
capacity swings, as vessels are phased in/out of the trades and/or switched between service
strings.
(Source of above notes: Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd.: Intra-Asian Container Trades, 2003
Vessel Supply)

It is a well known fact however that with the steady development of increasingly larger
container vessels also an increase in average main line vessel sizes are seen. The trend in
maximum size of container vessels is indicated hereafter.
a. Post Panamax
Post-panamax size vessels upto the capacity of 8,000 TEU are already put into operations.
b. Suez Max
Plans are already being proposed for the construction of container vessels carrying up to
12,000 TEU, called Ultra Large Container Ships (ULCS). Draft will be around 15 m and beam
minimum 50 m.
c. Malacca Max
Within the next 15 20 years, container vessel sizes up to 18,000 TEU are planned. Beam
will be about 60 m and draft about 20 m. These vessels will not be able to pass the Suez
Canal. Due to the draft allowing these vessels just to pass the Malacca Strait, they are also
called Malacca Max.
Also it is observed from the internet that, in the 8000 TEU category, there are four plying the
seas, including the Axel and the Anna Maersk, and the Orient Overseas Container Line's
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OOCL Shenzhen and Long Beach. At present, 69 fixed orders have been placed for ships
between 7400 and 8200 TEU.

Overseas Orient Container Lines, member of the The Grand Alliance, which has a strong
presence at Northport, started the trend of deploying bigger vessel with deployment of
8,063 OOCL Shenzhen in the Europe Far East Trade in July this year 2003. This was
followed by a sister ship, 8,063 OOCL Long Beach which was deployed in the
Transpacific route since August this year. OOCL will be injecting another four mega
container ships in the SX-class series in the trade in 2004 and a further two more 8,000
TEUs carriers in 2005. OOCL has also entered an agreement with Samsung Heavy
Industries Company middle of this year for an additional two more 8,000-class series
ships to be delivered in 2006. The deliveries will bring a total of 10- SX class series ships
of more than 8,000 TEUs in the OOCL fleet. This was followed by the Hamburg shipping
company, Hapag-Lloyd which has placed orders for three 8,000 series container ships
from the Korean shipyard, Hyundai Heavy Industries. Hapag-Lloyd, a member of The
Grand Alliance, will be taking delivery of the ships in 2005 and 2006. Meanwhile
Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd (K-Line), which operates a pendulum service jointly with
Taiwanese Yang Ming Line, has also joined the race to deploy 8,000 TEUs series ship in
the long-haul trade, which might include Northport as one of the port of calls. The
Japanese carrier placed orders for four 8,120 TEUs carriers with I.H.I. Marine United Inc
and the ships are expected to be delivered in stages from the middle of 2006 to the
beginning of 2007.

Orient Overseas Container Lines OOCL Long Beach one of the worlds two largest
container ships with a capacity of more than 8,000 TEU arrived in July 25, 2003 on its
maiden call at the Port of Long Beach. The Port of Long Beach became the first facility
on the West Coast to handle a steamship with a capacity of 8,000 TEUs, one-third larger
than the more common 6,000 TEU ships during July 2003. The largest ships that Los
Angeles has handled during August 2003 are 7,200 TEUs. Still, the 8,000 TEU class
ships are expected to flood the market over the next three years, and Long Beach is
already making moves to capitalize on the trade. Steamship lines already have 61 more
ships on order, with delivery dates scheduled for 2004 through 2006. The ships cost $70
million to $80 million each and take at least 12 months to construct. The two 8,000 TEU
ships now operating primarily work routes between Asia and Europe because U.S. ports
don't have the infrastructure to handle them.

On 18 May 2003, PSA welcomed OOCL Shenzhen, the world's largest container ship at
Tanjong Pagar Terminal in Singapore. At 8,063 TEUs, the "SX" class vessel has the
largest declared capacity for containerships in the world. It is the largest container vessel
to call at PSA's container terminals.

Fact sheet on "OOCL Shenzhen"


Length : 323 metres
Speed : 25.2 knots at full load
DWT (M/T) : 100,000
Service : China Europe Express Loop
Port rotation as follows : Shanghai / Xiamen / Yantian / Hong Kong / Singapore / Suez /
Southampton / Hamburg / Rottendam / Gioia Tauro / Port Said / Port Kelang / Singapore /
Hong Kong and back to Shanghai, a round trip of 56 days.

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Lloyds Register is to class Seaspans new series of 9,200 TEU container ships, to be
built at Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI) in Korea. Seaspan has ordered four vessels,
with an option for a further four. The first ship in the series will be the largest container
ship ever constructed in the world. Seaspan was also the first container ship operator to
break the 8,000 TEU barrier, ordering five vessels of 8,100 TEU earlier this year 2003,
also classed by Lloyds Register and currently being built at SHI.

British Columbia's Seaspan group has signed a contract with South Korea's Samsung
Heavy Industries covering the construction of four 9,600TEU container ships, plus four
more on option, all to be chartered to China Shipping. The vessels, to have an overall
length of 337m (1,105.5ft) and a beam of 45.6m (149.5ft), will be the world's largest in
carrying capacity when completed in 2006/07. Each will carry one more stack of
containers across the beam, as well as taller stacks, to achieve their greater capacity
over a number of 8,000TEU ships already completed.

5.2.3.2 Feeder Vessels


The structure of services in the intra-Asia region and in the trades between the Far East/MidEast and South Asia are highly complex, principally because of the sheer number of carriers
involved.
Broadly speaking, operations are divided between dedicated and commonuser feeder
companies, combination feeder and local carriers, regional specialists and the global
heavyweights. Each sector has its own goals and service priorities, i.e. container logistics,
and each has aggressive freight rate strategies.
Feeder operation have tended to be squeezed the most in recent years, partly because
MLOs (Main Line Operators) have launched their own service on the higher volume
corridors and/ or used their large cargo volumes to secure improved deals on both the
service and rating fronts.
Direct and dedicated services are the best options, provided cargo volumes are sufficient to
support such operations. On the whole, they enable faster transit times to be offered and
enable more efficient connections to be made between service strings.
From the shippers perspective, direct and dedicated loops remove the uncertainty associated
with wayport call activities where space allocation can sometimes fluctuate widely and
where, as consequence, cargo can be rolled over onto later sailing.
Based on charter fixtures, Drewry identified a near 40% increase in average shipboard
capacity employed in the intra-Asian trade over the 1995/end-2001 period (see Table 5-3)

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Table 5-3 : Average sizes of vessels deployed on intra-Asian short sea routes
1995

Size range

<500 TEU
500 999 TEU
1,000 1,499 TEU
>1,500 TEU
Average capacity
(TEU)

No. of
Fixtures
92
113
46
9
691

2001
Share
35.4%
43.5%
17.7%
3.5%

No. of
Fixtures
88
143
89
70
957

Share
22.6%
36.7%
22.8%
17.9%

Note: Based on number of charter fixtures.


Source: Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd.
5.2.4 Recommended Size of Mainline Container Vessels
Based on the prevailing conditions at the competing ports and by keeping in view the future
trends in container vessel sizes, the following maximum size of container vessels are
considered for planning Vizhinjam port:

Upto 8,000 TEU (Short Term: 2007-2012)


Upto 10,000 TEU (Medium Term: 2012-2017)
Upto 12,000 TEU (Long Term: 2017-2032)

Given the prospects for Malacca Max size container vessels in the longer term the option for
receiving and handling such vessels should not be excluded in preparing the port
development plan for the later phases of development.
It should be mentioned that before entering into subsequent phases of development
recommended vessels sizes would have to be reassured taking actual development into
consideration.
5.2.5

Recommended Size of Feeder Container Vessels

Based on the trends in feeder container vessels, the following vessel sizes are considered
for planning Vizhinjam Port:

Upto 1,000 TEU (Short Term: 2007-2012)


Upto 1,500 TEU (Medium Term: 2012-2017)
Upto 2,000 TEU (Long Term: 2017-2032)

5.3 Dimensions of the Recommended Container Vessels


Typical dimensions of the proposed design vessels for handling containers are tabulated in
Table 5-4.

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Table 5-4 : Typical Dimensions of the Recommended Container Vessels


Container Vessel (TEU)

LOA (m)

Beam (m)

Draft (m)

Main Line Vessels (maximum size)


Short Term
8,000
Medium Term
10,000
Long Term
12,000

325
345
365

46
50
60

14.5
15.0
17.0

Feeder Vessels (average size)


Short Term
1,000
Medium Term
1,500
Long Term
2,000

160
175
188

25
27
30

9.0
10.5
10.5

The following vessel sizes with typical dimensions is considered for further planning
purposes to handle estimated general cargo at Vizhinjam port
General Cargo Vessels
(DWT)

LOA (m)

Beam (m)

Draft (m)

Short term

20,000

160

24.8

10.0

Medium term

40,000

209

30.0

12.5

209

30.0

12.5

Long term

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Development Needs and Planning
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6 Development Needs and Planning Considerations


6.1 General
In order to evaluate the conceptual layout plans for the container terminal, the first step is to
assess the facility requirements in terms of number of berths, necessary cargo handling
facilities, navigational and operational parameters, etc. The next step is to identify suitable
locations within the proposed port site where these facilities are to be developed.
The basic navigational needs for servicing the vessels are sufficient water depths and widths
in approach channel, harbour basin and berths, tranquillity conditions inside the harbour,
adequate stopping distance for vessels of largest sizes entering the harbour, sufficient water
area for easy manoeuvrability of vessels throughout the year, as well as efficient fenders and
mooring systems. Basic needs for assuring optimal (competitive) vessel turnaround avoiding
any vessel queuing time and cargo operations are adequate number and sizes of berths,
suitable cargo handling equipment and cargo transfer systems from berth to storage area
and vice versa. These aspects are dealt within the following paragraphs. For working out the
facility requirements and for defining the planning considerations, moderate scenario of traffic
forecast for the Base Case (Chapter 4) is considered.

6.2 Navigational and Operational Requirements


As a prerequisite for planning the layout of a port for the required facilities, it is essential to
set the basic criteria for the design of the various components like navigational and
operational aspects to handle different types of vessels likely to call at the port and for
loading / unloading operations. These conditions are related to the marine environmental
conditions at the location of the terminals. They comprise the following aspects:

Vessel type and dimension


Operational criteria
Protection against prevailing waves and winds
Vessel minimum speed and stopping distance

These criteria lead to:

Navigational channel dimensions


Manoeuvring area dimensions
Berthing area dimensions
Minimum vessel speed

6.2.1 Vessel type, Parcel Size and Dimensions


Detailed vessel size analysis is carried out and presented in Chapter 5 of this report. The
principal dimensions of the design vessels for different types of cargo for Vizhinjam are
summarised in Table 6-1.

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Table 6-1 : Design Vessel sizes and Dimensions


Container Vessel (TEU)

LOA (m)

Beam (m)

Draft (m)

Main Line Vessels


Short term

8,000

325

46

14.5

Medium term

10,000

345

50

15.0

Long term

12,000

365

60

17.0

Short term

1,000

160.0

25.0

9.0

Medium term

1,500

175.0

27.0

10.5

Long term

2,000

188.0

30.0

10.5

Feeder Vessels

General cargo Vessels (DWT)


Short term

20,000

160

24.8

10.0

Medium term

40,000

209

30.0

12.5

Long term

40,000

209

30.0

12.5

6.2.2 Operational Criteria


In planning port facilities for handling different types of cargoes, the operational criteria for
vessels handling and ship shore transfer of cargo need to be taken into account. Vessel
handling and/or ship shore transfer of cargo operations can be interrupted due to any one of
the following reasons:

Pilots cannot board arriving vessel due to rough sea and weather conditions.
Tugs are unable to assist in manoeuvring the vessels because of rough weather
conditions and hence mooring operations are not possible.
Motion of moored vessels is too high to continue ship shore cargo transfer operations.
Vessels have to leave the berth because of excessive mooring forces.

Also more land based reasons, such as: breakdown of crane operation due to mechanical
failure, power cut, workers suspension of work etc. must be taken into account.
These aspects are discussed in more detail hereunder:
a) Pilot Boarding
Vessels visiting the port will need the services of a pilot for safe and efficient navigation to
and from the port. A pilot will be taken from a shore-based station to the pilot boarding area
by a pilot launch. The governing criteria for a pilot boarding are the acceptable sea conditions
for the pilot launch when sailing to the pilot boarding area and when boarding the vessel. The
limiting operational wave criteria for pilot boarding is Hs = 1.5m.
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b) Tug Assistance, Ship berthing


Vessels arriving at the port need the assistance of tugs during the stopping and berthing
manoeuvre. Vessel berthing needs acceptable sea condition such that fender forces are not
exceeded and the risk of collision/damage to berth is low. Upon departure, ballast vessels
need some tug assistance to deberth and line up for departure. The operational criteria for
tug assistance are determined by the ability to fasten the tugs to the vessels and acceptable
forces in the lines. The operational limit wave criteria for tug assistance and berthing
manoeuvres of the sizes of vessels considered is equal to Hs=1.5m.
c) Ship shore cargo transfer limits
When motions of moored vessels become too great, cargo-handling operations have to
cease to prevent damage to the vessels and cargo handling equipment. Motions of moored
ships are mainly induced by waves, currents and winds.
The ship conditions for a given sea state depends on ship dimension and direction of wave
motion. The acceptable sea state conditions increase as the size of the ship increases. The
initial limit is lowest for beam sea and highest for head sea. The limiting wave height for
different directions of wave attack on ships for safe loading-unloading operations are given
below:
Type of ship

Limiting wave height Hs (m)

00 (head on or stern on)

450 - 900

General cargo

1.0

0.8

Containers

0.5

Dry bulk loading

1.5

1.0

Dry bulk unloading

1.0

0.8-1.0

1.5

1.0-1.2

1.5-2.5

1.0-1.2

Tankers:
30,000 DWT
30,000 200,000 DWT

The values refer to the heights of residual deep water waves with high periods in the range of
about 7 to 12 sec. When the wave height is exceeded, cargo-handling operations have to be
stopped.
However as per IS4651, limiting significant wave height at the container berths is 0.65m and
at turning basin is 1.2m.

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d) Survival conditions
When mooring forces become too high, vessels have to leave the berth. The conditions at
which this occurs are defined as survival conditions and are dependent on vessel size,
mainly on wave conditions. Survival criteria are generally assessed as 1.5 times the
acceptable wave height for cargo handling.
6.2.3 Protection against Waves
For providing tranquillity conditions in the harbour basin and at the berths, for smooth loading
/unloading operations, necessary protection in the form of breakwaters against predominant
wave directions may need to be provided. The alignment and length of breakwaters will be
governed by the following factors:

Predominant wave direction


Water area requirement
Number of berths requiring protection
Stopping distance for the vessel

6.2.4 Stopping Distance


The length of the protected approach channel upto the turning circle should be such as to
provide safe stopping distance for all vessels. It should be 3 to 5 times the length of the
largest vessel visiting the port.
6.2.5 Navigation Channel Dimensions
The channel alignment has to be oriented considering the following aspects:

The channel is oriented so as to avoid cross winds and currents on the ships.
The channel is aligned in a straight line as far as possible.
The channel is oriented so as to reach the deep-water contours in shortest possible
distance (this is to optimise the quantity of dredging).

The dimensions of the navigation channel to the terminal are dependent on the vessel size,
the behaviour of the vessel when sailing through the channel, the environmental maritime
conditions (winds, currents and waves) and the channel bottom conditions. Channel design
primarily involves the determination of the safe channel width and depth for the dimensions
of the design vessel.
A number of American, British and International standards are available for channel design.
However, the primary source of reference is Permanent International Association of
Navigation Congress (PIANC), International association of ports (IAPH): Approach channels
A guide for design Final report of the joint working group, June 1997.
6.2.5.1

Channel Width

The minimum width of a straight channel depends on the size and manoeuvrability of the
vessel navigating the channel, the type of channel bank, and the effects of other vessels in
the channel and the effects of wind and currents. The required width comprises three main
zones viz. manoeuvring lane, ship clearance lane and bank clearance. Additional channel
widths have to be provided for the following considerations: vessel speed, cross winds, cross

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currents, longitudinal current, significant wave height and wave length, aids to navigation,
nature of sea bottom, depth of waterway, cargo hazard level and traffic density.
The width of the channel is normally determined as multiple of the beam of the largest design
vessel which enters the port. The required width of the channel (two-way traffic) considering
all these aspects with specific reference to the environmental conditions prevailing at the
proposed site is worked out as follows:
Basic manoeuvring lane
Wind effects
Cross currents (moderate: 0.5 to 1.5 kn.)
Wave action
Aids to Navigation System
Bank Clearance (both sides sloping)
Bottom Surface
Depth of waterway
Cargo hazard level

: 3.3 B
: 0.5 B
: 0.8 B
: 0.0 B
: 0.2 B
: 1.0 B
: 0.2 B
: 0.4 B
: 0.6 B
---------7.0 B
----------

Total

The beam of the design vessel in short, medium and long terms is 46 m, 50 m and 60 m
respectively. Accordingly 320 m wide channel during short term 350 m in the medium term
and 420 m during long term is proposed for Vizhinjam port.
6.2.5.2

Channel Depth

The depth in the channel should be adequately greater than the static draughts of the
vessels using the waterway to ensure safe navigation. Generally, the depth in the channel is
determined by:

vessels loaded draught;


trim or tilt due to the loading within the holds;
ships motion due to waves, such as pitch, roll and heave;
character of the sea bottom, soft or hard;
wind influence of water level and tidal variations; and
The sinkage of the vessel due to squat or bottom suction.

Considering the above factors, the under keel clearance is taken as 15% of the draught of
the design vessel in the channel in sheltered areas, 20% in unsheltered areas.
From the above considerations, the depths required in the navigation channel at Vizhinjam
port are worked out and presented below:
Outer Channel

Short Term
Medium Term
Long Term

:
:
:

17.4 m
18.0 m
20.4 m

Inner Channel
16.7 m
17.3 m
19.6 m

6.2.6 Manoeuvring Area Dimensions


The location of the manoeuvring area or the turning basin, required to swing and berth the
vessels, is very important and its design must provide the proper configuration, the proper
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dimensions and access. The size of the manoeuvring area is a function of the length and
manoeuvrability of the vessels and the time available for executing the turning manoeuvred.
The optimum configuration of such basin would be circular.
By considering environmental conditions and the fact that vessels will be assisted by tugs,
the diameter of the turning circle is taken as 3 times maximum length of the vessel in
unsheltered areas and 2 times in sheltered areas. As per IS : 4651 (Part V) - 1980, the
minimum diameter of the turning circle should be 1.7 to 2.0 times (1.7 for protected locations
and 2.0 for exposed locations) the length of the largest vessel to be turned, where vessels
turn by free interplay of the propeller and rudder assisted by tugs. The depth is taken as
115% of the fully loaded draft of the design vessel that will use the port facilities.
The above discussion leads to the following diameter and depths (inner channel) for turning
circle for safe manoeuvring of design vessel under short, medium and long term
development proposed at Vizhinjam Port.

Short Term
Medium Term
Long Term

:
:
:

555 m diameter and 16.7 m depth


586 m diameter and 17.3 m depth
620 m diameter and 19.6 m depth

6.2.7 Dimensions Berthing Area Dimensions


The size of berthing area and the berth will depend upon the dimensions of the largest ship
and the number of ships to use the terminal. The berth layout will be affected by many
factors such as:

The size of the port basin for manoeuvring


Satisfactory arrival and departure of ships to and from the harbour
Whether the ships are equipped with stern and bow thruster
Availability of tugs, direction and magnitude of wind, waves and current.

The length of dredged area in front of the berth for ships with tug assistance should not be
less than 1.2 times the length of the largest vessel to use the berth and that without the tug
assistance not less than 1.5 times the length. The width of the dredged berth should atleast
be 1.25 times the beam of the largest vessel to use the berth.
Width of water area between the two finger piers for safe berthing and movement of vessels
between berth face and harbour basin has been kept as:

Three times the beam of the largest vessel plus 30 m (one ship berth) and
Four times the beam of the largest vessel plus 50 m (for two ship berths-ships to be
berthed in tandem)

In any case a minimum width of 250 m is recommended.

6.3 Berthing Requirements


In order to work out the berth requirements to meet the projected traffic, it is necessary to
define the following governing parameters

Vessel size/parcel size


Productivity (handling rate of commodity)
Effective working hours per day
Additional service requirements
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Available port working hours per day


Accepted levels of berth occupancy

These factors are detailed in the following paragraphs.


6.3.1 Cargo Volume
Traffic projections for Vizhinjam has been made upto the year 2032. The development of port
to handle the cargo is planned in three stages as follows:

Short Term
Medium Term
Long Term

2007 - 2012
2013 - 2017
2018 - 2032

The year wise traffic projected for Vizhinjam port is presented in Chapter 4.
6.3.2 Design Vessel Sizes / Parcel Sizes
Design vessel sizes are given in Table 6-1 while the corresponding parcel sizes are given in
Table 6-2.
6.3.3 Cargo Handling Rates
The main commodities at Vizhinjam Port are containers and general cargo. The ship-shore
cargo handling rates are selected on cost optimisation analysis which takes into
consideration reasonable ship time at port, parcel size, the derived berth occupancy factor,
relative cost of installing equipment of different rated capacities and ship time costs. The
cargo handling rates per ship-berth for containers and general cargo is presented in Table
6-2.
Table 6-2: Effective Cargo Handling Rates
Description

Short Term

Medium Term

Long term

Ship Size

8,000 TEUs

10,000 TEUs

12,000 TEUs

Parcel Size

2400TEU
(loading
&unloading)

3000
TEU 3600
TEU
(loading
(loading
&unloading)
&unloading)

Container Mainline

Allocated cranes /ship call 3

Handling rate

84
moves/h/berth

84moves/h/berth

105moves/h/berth

1000 TEUs

1500 TEUs

2000 TEUs

Feeder Berths
Ship Size

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Parcel size

Cranes
call

allocated

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600+ 600 TEU 900+ 900 TEU 1300+ 1300 TEU


(loading
(loading
(loading
&unloading)
&unloading)
&unloading)
3

36
moves/h/berth

48moves/h/berth

48moves/h/berth

Ship size

20,000DWT

40,000 DWT

40,000 DWT

Parcel size

18000t

30000t

36000t

Handling rate

300t/h

500t/h

750t/h

Handling rate

/ship 2

General Cargo

In a hub port an average of 1/3 parcel size of the mainline vessel is unloaded and loaded. It
is found for the berth occupancy calculation presented in the Annexure A.6.1 that an
average of 3 cranes is assigned per ship. This will increase to four cranes per ship. This
leads to a handling rate of 84moves/hr/berth in short term and medium term and 105
mover/hr/beth in the long term.
For a feeder ship it is assumed that about 600 TEUs are unloaded and same amount of
cargo is loaded. This will increase to 900 TEUs and 1300 TEUs in medium term and long
term.
Number of cranes allocated in the short term, medium term and long term per ship are 2, 3
and 3 respectively while the respective handling rates are 36, 48 and 48 mover/hr/berth.
6.3.4 Effective working hours per Day
In calculating the requirement of number of berths it is assumed that the new port at
Vizhinjam (like any other world class container hub port) will remain open for operations 365
days in a year and 24 hours a day. The cargo handling and ship servicing will be carried out
24 hours a day in three shifts.
The productive cargo handling hours on an average in a day when a ship is at berth,
however has been taken as 20 hrs, to account for shift changes, equipment position changes
from one hatch to the other and for any unplanned stoppages. Also the effective working
days are taken as 330 days considering the weather downtime and public holidays.
6.3.5 Turn Round Time and Time for Peripheral Activities
The turn-around time at the port include time required for actual unloading/loading operations
and time for peripheral activities. Apart from the actual time for loading / unloading cargo,
additional time is required for other activities such as berthing and de berthing of ships,
obtaining customs clearance, surveys, positioning and hook up of equipment, post operation
survey (where necessary), waiting for pilots and clearance for navigation.

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The unloading time is determined by the effective cargo handling rates, which are given
Table 6-2. The following arrival/departure times as part of the total turn-around times at the
port have been adopted for the anticipated ship handling and berthing operations.

Operation

Time (In Hours)

Piloting, arrival time

0.75

Swinging, berthing time

0.75

Connection/documentation time

1.5

Disconnection/documentation time

1.5

Deberthing time

0.75

Departure time

0.75

Total arrival / departure time

6.0

Accordingly an average of 6 hours / vessel is allowed for these activities.


6.3.6 Berth Occupancy
Berth occupancy is expressed as percentage of number of days a berth is occupied by
vessel(s) to the total number of berth days available in a year. This ratio bears a relationship
with pre berthing detention. The main consideration while planning the number of berths is to
ensure that the ratio of waiting time to service time is kept at optimum levels in order to avoid
payment of demurrage. The standards generally followed for planning of the port facilities are
indicated in Table 6-3 below. These occupancy calculations are based on an acceptable
average waiting time of 15-25% of the service time per ship.
Table 6-3: Optimal Berth Occupancy
No. of berths

Berth Occupancy (%)

40

50

55

60

65

6 or more

70

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6.3.7 Number of Berths Required


The stage wise requirements for berths are worked out taking into consideration the
throughput, parcel size, cargo handling rates etc and presented in Annexure A.6.1.
Following are the main assumptions made in the berth occupancy calculation:

Ratio between 40 and 20 containers are varying in the 50:50, 60:40, & 70:30 ratio for
short term, medium term and long term respectively.
1/3 of the parcel size of the mainline vessel is unloaded and loaded per ship call.
Additional time (arrival/departure time) required for the vessel is assumed to be 6 hrs for
all the phases.
A crane usage factor of 1, 0.9, 0.8, 0.75, 0.7, 0.65 is adopted for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 cranes
per berth.
Following container mix is assumed for berth and storage requirement calculation

Table 6-4: Container mix in short, medium and long term


Short Term
Size of Container
20'
% type of
50%
Containers
Status
F
E
Assumed % of
40% 10%
mix

Medium Term

40'
50%
F
40%

E
10%

20'
40%
F
32%

Long Term

40'
60%

E
8%

F
48%

E
12%

20'
30%
F
24%

E
6%

40'
70%
F
56%

E
14%

Container berths especially along side berths are usually described by its length rather than
number of berths. Berth length requirement for each phase is calculated below.
The number of berths required for different commodities are summarised in Table 6-5.
Table 6-5: Number of Berths/Berth Length Required
Sl. No Description
1
2
3
4
5

Short term Medium term Long term

Number of mainline berths


Number of feeder berths

2
3
4
3
4
6
@360m/berth @380m/berth @400m/berth
Berth length required for main line
720
1140
1600
vessels
@175m/berth @190m/berth @210m/berth
Berth length required for feeder vessels
525
760
1260
Total berth length
1245
1900
2860

Berth Required for General Cargo (moderate) Short term Medium term Long term
1
Number of berths
+)
+)
2
+) General cargo will be handled at feeder berths.

6.4 Cargo Handling Equipment


The installation of mechanical cargo handling equipment on ship berths and in
storage/stackyard areas for unloading/loading has been proposed to match the traffic
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demand. A summary statement listing the facilities proposed for installation in different
stages of the development is presented in Table 6-6. The handling operations are described
below:
Optimisation of the quay side cranes are done in the berth occupancy calculation presented
in Annexure A.6.1. Berth occupancy by using 2, 3, 4, 5 cranes for main line vessels and
1,2,3 cranes for feeder vessels are calculated and optimum berth occupancy and
corresponding number of cranes are selected for each phase.
Table 6-6: Summary of Cargo Handling Equipment
S.
No
1.

Cargo

Containers

Equipment Type

Rated
Capacity

Nos. (additional)
Short
Medium
Long
term
term
term

BERTH EQUIPMENT
Quay Cranes
Super Post Panamax
type
Panamax type
STACKYARD EQUIPMENT
RTGs
Toplift Trucks
Reach Stackers
Tractors
Trailers

50t

40t

40-50t
20t
50t
50t

30
10
3
55
55

20
8
2
40
40

42
10
5
60
60

Note: the number of equipment shown under medium and long term are additional.
6.4.1 Overview of Equipment selection

Rail Mounted Quay Gantry Cranes (QC) at the quay for lo-lo operation between ship and
quay,
Tractor-trailers for transfer between quay and stacking area, and
RTG's to carry out the stacking and delivery function in the storage area, to
the tractor-trailers and the road trucks.
Reach stackers for empty container handling

This provides an optimum utilisation of the limited storage area. This system is the most
common in new, high capacity terminals today. Basis of calculation of the number of
equipment are presented below:
6.4.2 Quay Cranes
In the initial phase six post Panamax quay side cranes are proposed to be provided for
mainline vessel. There will be 3 cranes to attend a vessel. This will increase to 4 cranes per
vessel in the long term. With this arrangement handling capacity will increase from
84moves/h/ship in the initial phase to 105 moves/h/ship in the final phase. Feeder vessels
will be serviced with three panamax type gantry cranes in all the phases.

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It is planned to deploy both Post Panamax (PP-QC) and Super Post Panamax cranes (SPPQC), recognising that an increasing number of the super carriers of 12000 TEU capacity,
stacking containers >20 abreast are in operation.
6.4.3

Rubber Tyred Gantry Cranes:

It is proposed to provide RTGs in the stackyard area with 1 over 5 high stacking, even with
9'6" high containers, and 1 over 6 wide stacking. As an average worldwide container terminal
RTGs are handling at 7- 8 TEU/h. This leads to a throughput of 42000 TEU per annum per
RTG.
6.4.4 Tractor-Trailers
Trailers and tractors are also been proposed for the terminal movement of containers.
The driving distance between a QC and a RTG position varies from 50 m to 600 m, all over
the yard, giving an average distance of, say, 300 m. Assuming an average speed of 15
km/hour or 250 m/minute, the average driving time should be 2-2.5min., two-ways. With 11.5 min. for loading or unloading of a container to the set, the average time per move would
be app. 6.5 minutes, or 8-9 moves per set per hour. So 5 sets are required per crane of post
Panamax type and 4 sets are required for cranes of Panamax type to cater to the productivity
of 30-35 moves/h and 20-25 moves/h respectively.
6.4.5

Top lift Trucks and Reach stackers

Top lift trucks and reach stackers are planned to provide for empty container handling and
other miscellaneous container movement.
6.4.6

General cargo

General cargo will be operated using ship-mounted cranes at the rate of 300t/h in the short
term, 500t/h in the medium term and 750t/h in the long term.

6.5 Storage Requirements


The storage yard acts as a buffer between the ship unloading system and cargo evacuation
system. Storage area must be planned so that a maximum amount of material can be stored
in a minimum area. The area required depend on several factors and it varies from cargo to
cargo. Generally it is dependent on the factors like: Ship parcel size; ship arrival distribution;
hinterland transport distribution; and ship loading and unloading rates. Generally the rate of
unloading system is higher than the rate of evacuation system. If the storage capacity is
insufficient then the ship will be waiting to unload the cargo. The UNCTAD manual on the
port development gives guidelines for storage area dimensioning as a function of annual
throughput and average parcel size. These guidelines reduce the probability of the
disruptions of the ships due to non-availability of stack yard to less than one percent.
6.5.1 Terminal Ground Slots (TGS)
In the planning of the required container yard area, the aim is to provide space sufficient to
mach the projected throughput. The required area is normally defined by the number of

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Terminal Ground Slots (TGS), this being the footprint area of a standard 20 container.
Container can then be stacked one or more high on these ground slots. The necessary TGS
is determined by number of factors.
6.5.1.1 Container Dwell Time
Average dwell time for the containers is given as time per container move over the quay.
This will vary for Full and empty containers, Import and export containers. Dwell time for
each these group are described in the following paragraphs.
Full Transhipment Containers
Transhipment containers will have inward and outward movement over the quay and
intermediate stay of 5 days in the stack for full containers. The 5 day is corresponding to
average dwell time in major container hubs.
Empty Transhipment Containers
A dwell time of 20 days, according to average figures for the industry. It is necessary to keep
containers at the stack, in order to fill empty slots at the returning vessels when available. If
too many empties accumulate a portion can be temporarily transferred to an inland container
depot.
Inland containers
Average dwell time for these containers are taken as:
Import 7days
Export 5days
Empties 20days
6.5.1.2 Surge Factor
This factor covers fluctuations in the intake of containers, periods with high traffic resulting in
concentrated accumulation of stacked containers, needing a reserve in the stacking yard,
above the normal average flow.
6.5.1.3 Utilization
This factor indicates the normally calculated degree of filling of stacks, in relation to the
stacking height fixed for a section of the stack. If the stacks are filled to a high degree it
becomes very difficult to move individual containers as there is not enough free space to put
containers at the side of the stack to get a container below.
6.5.1.4 Average Stacking Height
A stacking height of one over five for Transhipment containers and export containers are
selected. For import containers a stacking height of 4 containers are selected. For

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refrigerated container (reefer containers) the stacking will be max. 2 high, according to the
arrangement of electricity supply points.
Container mix assumed for storage area calculation for Vizhinjam Port is presented in
Table 6-7.
Table 6-7 Container Mix for Vizhinjam Port
Type of containers

%
total

of Short Term

Medium term

Long Term

Transhipment full containers

58.5

362700

587340

1330290

Transhipment Empty containers

15

93000

150600

341100

Transhipment containers reefer

1.5

9300

15060

34110

Inland container Import

9.75

60450

97890

221715

Inland containers Export

9.75

60450

97890

221715

Inland containers Empty

31000

50200

113700

Inland containers reefer

0.5

3100

5020

11370

100

620000

1004000

2274000

The calculation is:

Throughput required x surge factor


(Turns per annum = 365/dwell time) x Utilisation factor x Average stacking height

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Required ground slots for short term is worked out in the following Table 6-8.
Table 6-8 Terminal Ground Slots required for Short term
Container
Category

TEUs
a

p. Surge
factor

Turns p.a
(365/Dwll
time)

Utilisation
factor

Average
stack
height

Ground
slots
required

Transhipment
Full

362700 1.3

365/5

0.7

1845

Transhipment
Empty

93000 1.3

365/20

0.7

1893

9300 1.3

365/5

0.7

118

Inland
containers
Import

60450 1.3

365/7

0.7

538

Inland
containers
Export

60450 1.3

365/5

0.7

308

Inland
containers
Empty

31000 1.3

365/20

0.7

631

3100 1.3

365/5

0.7

39

Transhipment
container
reefer

Inland container
- reefer

5372

Total

Similarly ground slots for medium term and long term has been worked out and presented in
the Table 6-9 below
Table 6-9 Ground slots required for different phases
Phase

Short term

Medium term

Long term

Ground
slots(rounded
off)

5400

8700

19700

Container freight station area requirements have been worked out and presented in the
following Table 6-10.

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Table 6-10 Container Freight station area


Description

Short Term

Medium Term

Long Term

Container Freight station


Traffic (000TEU)

34

54

120

Area (ha)

1.8

2.8

6.8

Table 6-11 Storage Requirement for General Cargo (Cumulative)


Items

Short

Medium
Term

Term
Throughput (,000t)
Storage Demand (sq.m)

Long
Term

624

972

2379

Open

6000

9000

22000

Covered

6000

9000

22000

6.6 Port Connectivity


Details of port connectivity are given in Chapter 8.

6.7 General Lighting


General lighting of the terminal will be arranged using light towers at suitable height and
spacing. The average lighting level will be 50 Lux. Additional lighting will be provided where
required for special purposes.
As regards international practice for lighting of container terminals, the following guidelines
are typical for modern European terminals:

General lighting level at traffic and storage areas, maximum 50 Lux.


In areas where marker signs etc. on containers or supporting documents shall be read,
the level shall be around 200 Lux. This can be achieved by general lighting (e.g. in gate
areas) or by lights mounted on the truck or other vehicle.
Container cranes, yard gantries etc. will normally be furnished with strong light fixtures
lighting the work area and containers being handled. Here the lighting level will normally
be in the order of 200 Lux.

6.8 Water and Power Requirements


6.8.1 Water Requirements
One of the most important parameter in attracting cargo/vessel traffic is providing better and
efficient handling facilities including water, power, bunkering supply etc. Fresh water supply
required for port activities has been estimated based on the annual demand every year and
keeping in view the nearby source of water supply.
Requirements
Water is required at the port for the following activities:

Supply to ships
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Supply to port staff and Port users


Pollution control and fire fighting purposes
Environmental conservation and maintenance of greenery in the port
Miscellaneous

The requirement of water for the above mentioned heads is estimated and presented in the
Table 6-12.
Table 6-12: Water Requirements
S.No

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Activity

Water Requirement (m3/Day) (cumulative)


Short term

Medium term

Long term

Supply
to
ships
@100m3/shipcall
Supply to port staff and
users
Pollution control and fire
fighting purposes
Environmental
conservation and greenery
Miscellaneous

150

150

250

60

100

200

100

150

200

50

100

150

50

100

200

TOTAL

405

600

1000

Water requirement during the construction is expected to be around 100 Kilo Litres/day.
Identification of Water Source
Consultant met Chief Engineer (KWA) to discuss about the water availability to Vizhinjam
port. He conveyed that Vellayani Lake would have sufficient capacity to supply to Vizhinjam
port also. Later on it is understood from the Suprending Engineer KWA that the capacity of
Vellayani lake id 15- 20 mld. At present KWA is preparing a project report for a water supply
scheme for Vizhinjam area. Requirement for Vizhijam port can be included in this project so
that a bigger water supply scheme can be developed.
It is proposed to provide water pipelines with metered outlets for connection by flexible hoses
to ships tanks. The pipeline system will be connected to an overhead tank system to supply
water to ship at the rate of 35-50m3/h having a minimum outlet pressure of 175KN/m2
6.8.2 Power Requirements
One of the most important parameter in attracting cargo/vessel traffic is providing better and
efficient port facilities. The power required for port activities has been estimated based on the
annual demand every year and keeping in view the nearby source for power
generation/transmission.
Requirements
The electric power is required for the following port operations:

Quay cranes at the berths


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Cargo transfer system from berth to stack yard / plant


Backup area equipment
Lighting of the port
Miscellaneous

Quay side cranes will be power driven and other yard equipment will be diesel driven. Ships
at the berth will use their own generators and not be connected to land power.
The requirement of electric power for the above-mentioned activities is estimated as follows:
Table 6-13: Estimated Electrical demand (in MW)
Items

Short term

Medium term

Long term

- Super post Panamax

11

17

30

- Panamax

10

23

32

Port lighting - Yard

Port Lighting - General

Reefer connection

30*

50

75

Quay cranes

Total
*

(rounded off)

Power requirement during the construction stage is expected to be around 5 MW.


Proposed Source of Power Supply
KSEB sub station is located near Vizhinjam Fishing harbour at about 1 km from the proposed
site is identified for obtaining power supply for the proposed project. Consultants met Chief
Engingeer (Distribution), KSEB to understand availability of power to Vizhinjam harbour. He
explained that a new 110 KV line from Madurai to Trivandrum would be commissioned by
March 2004. After that KSEB will have sufficient power to supply even to Vizhinjam Harbour.
The existing substation capacity at Vizhinjam is only 66KV(18MVA) and this need to be
upgraded to 110KV sub-station. There will be some new line/upgradation of existing line for
about 20-22km.
During construction of port and subsequently operation of port, power could be drawn from
nearest KSEB substation. But in the later stages, when the power requirement is high, the
developer may consider establishing captive power generation plant within the port to meet
the power requirements.

6.9 Navigational Aids


The proposed port development involves creating an approach channel, turning circle
besides adequate harbour basin and breakwaters. These areas must be delineated by
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appropriate navigational aids. Also, it will be quite useful to establish a well marked
navigation line, by installing two navigation marks/leading light towers, one in the front near
the high water line and the other at the rear. These marks will distinctly demarcate the
channel. The height and spacing in-between the towers must be designed suitably with
adequate day marks and night leading lights, fulfilling the navigational needs of vessels
approaching the port facility. The following navigational aids are proposed at Vizhinjam Port.

Channel Marker Buoys


Fairway buoy
Turning circle buoys
Front and rear leading light towers
Breakwater Lights
Berth corner lights

More details on the above are presented in Chapter 11 of this report.

6.10 Port Craft


The port should provide pilot assistance for safe manoeuvring of ships and suitable capacity
tugs to bring vessels safely along the berths for loading and unloading operations.
Based on traffic forecast for different cargoes it is proposed to have two tugs of capacity 40 T
bollard pull each and 2 nos. 25 knots pilot launches in the short term and two additional
launches and tugs during medium & long term development at Vizhinjam port.
More details on the above are presented in Chapter 11 of this report.

6.11 Storm Water Drainage


The shore side of the Vizhinjam port is rocky mountains and so a good amount of storm
water will flow to the port container terminals. This storm water shall be disposed of as
efficiently as possible, in order to give good operational criteria for all the areas used. It is
suggested to install a peripheral garland drainage canal, connected to the harbour basin, all
the way along the rocky face behind the harbour areas, to intercept all rainwater running
down the rocky face.
A properly designed drains on entire container storage area, quay aprons and traffic lanes
will be constructed with sloping surfaces towards drainage pits and canals, conducting the
storm water directly to the harbour basin. Open pits and canals will be provided with heavy
duty galvanised steel grating designed to carry the heavy wheel loads of mobile cranes,
forklifts etc.
The sloping areas will be designed in such a way, that the storm water surge, in case of
temporary clogging of a drain pipe or canal, will only be a fraction of a meter before the
water will flow over the surface and directly towards the harbour basin over the quay edge.
In order to avoid oil contamination of the storm water led to the harbour basin, the following
design features will be applied:

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Fuel tanks will be surrounded by a spill basin and storm water collected inside the basin
will only be led to the storm water drains after inspection and testing against oil content. If
it is contaminated it will be treated accordingly.
Fuel loading areas and refuelling bays for equipment will be furnished with fuel spill
monitoring pits, from where clean storm water can be led to the drains and contaminated
water to the treatment plant.
RTG and other equipment washing areas will be furnished with drain systems leading
storm water to the ordinary storm water canals when no equipment washing takes place
and to the oily waste water tank during washing.

6.12 Sewerage and Oily Waste Water Disposal


For efficient sewage, oily waste water, and ordinary sewage water disposal, following
facilities are proposed.
.

Drainage pits in workshop areas will be connected to an oily waste water tank.
All water with oil content will be collected in the oily waste water tank and passed through
an oil separator. From here the waste oil will be brought to destruction and the water led
to the sewerage treatment system.

Ordinary waste water from toilets, bathrooms, kitchens etc. will be led to the sewerage
treatment unit.
It is proposed to install own sewage water treatment system, so a small, captive plant is
included in the project.
All the pollution control and bilge water reception facility as per MARPOL 73/78 will be
provided in the port.

6.13 Solid waste/Bilge water Reception Facility


Reception facilities for receiving and treating both solid waste and wastewater from the ships
will be provided in the port.

6.14 Buildings
Various buildings envisaged in the port complex will be as follows:

Administrative buildings including the administrative office and officers amenities, port
operational buildings/offices and the office space for major port users Maintenance buildings comprising a central workshop, functional work stations in
different port terminal/operational areas and in the central fire station.
Substations to provide distribution of power Navigational control centre, plant operational buildings, customs and security buildings,
traffic offices, medical centre and amenity buildings/conveniences.

6.15 Bunkering
Provision of fuel oil and fresh water bunkering will be made at all the berths or alternatively it
can be outsourced to other service providers with service barges.

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ANNEXURE

Annexure A.6.1

Berth Occupancy Calculation For Vizhinjam port

Scenario 1- Moderate
Description

Sl No

1 Cargo Volume (TEUs)


2 Cargo volume in number of boxes
3
4
5
6
7

Ratio between 40' and 20' containers


Vessel size (TEUs)
Parcel Size(TEUs)
Boxes handled /ship call
Number of vessels (nos)

Main line
620000
465000

Short term(2007 -2012)


Feeder
450000
337500

Main line
1000000
700000

Medium Term(2013-2017)
Feeder
730000
511000

Main line
2280000
1482000

Long Term (2018-2032)


Feeder
1670000
1085500

(50:50)
8000
7200
2400
194

1000
900
2x600
281

(60:40)
10000
9000
3000
233

1500
1350
2x900
284

(70:30)
12000
10800
3600
412

2000
1800
2x1300
418

35
20
700

20
20
400

35
20
700

20
20
400

35
20
700

20
20
400

Cargo Handling Rate


8 Boxes/hr/crane
9 Effective working hrs/day
10 Boxes/day

Cargo handling capacity (Boxes/Day)


11
12
13
14
15

Berth with 1 crane*1


Berth with 2 crane*0.9
Berth with 3 crane*0.8
Berth with 4 cranes*0.75
Berth with 5 cranes*0.7

16
17
18
19
20

Berth with 1 crane


Berth with 2 crane
Berth with 3 crane
Berth with 4 crane
Berth with 5 crane

400
720
960

1260
1680
2100
2450

400
720
960

1260
1680
2100
2450

400
720
960

1260
1680
2100
2450

Ship call Handling Time(Days)

21 Berthing/Deberthing time

0.25

22
23
24
25
26
27

417
325
270
238

Vessel Time at Port(Days/Year)


Berth with 1 crane
Berth with 2 crane
Berth with 3 crane
Berth with 4 crane
Berth with 5 crane

28 Port working days/year

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4.50
2.50
1.88

2.38
1.79
1.43
1.22

0.25

0.25

914
539
422

330

29 Berth Occupancy
30 Cranes per berth
31 Number of berths

3.00
1.67
1.25

1.90
1.43
1.14
0.98

0.25

330

0.25

1348
781
603

614
475
392
344
330

6.50
3.61
2.71

2.86
2.14
1.71
1.47

0.25

2818
1612
1235

1279
985
809
708

330

330

330

127
63
42

99
49
33

82
41
27

72
36
24

277
138
92
69
55

163
82
54
41
33

128
64
43
32
26

186
93
62

144
72
48

119
59
40

104
52
35

409
204
136
102
82

237
118
79
59
47

183
91
61
46
37

388
194
129
97

299
149
100
75
60
50

245
123
82
61
49
41
35

214
107
71
54
43
36

854
427
285
213
171
142
122
107
95

488
244
163
122
98
81
70
61
54

374
187
125
94
75
62
53
47
54

Annexure A.6.1 Berth Occupancy

CHAPTER 7
Master Plan

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7 Master Plan
7.1

General

A port development plan need to have Master Plan showing development concept and
potential plan indicating the total developmental solutions to meet the ultimate requirements.
Functionally, the port shall provide facilities to receive/despatch and handle efficiently the
projected cargo from/ to the vessels (of different sizes) that will be calling at the port in the
future. Normally, a master plan is developed for a time horizon of 15-20 years as any
prediction of cargo throughput (and the matching development requirements, in terms of port
operational needs) beyond this period may not be very accurate. The master plan need to
allow development in stages to meet the demands as they come and grow and also be
flexible to incorporate mid course modifications to be responsive to emerging scenarios as
time goes on. In the case of Vizhinjam a master plan for port development has been drawn
up to cater for the traffic build up upto the year 2032 AD, in three stages viz. short term,
medium term and long term. The port facilities are planned for Moderate Traffic Scenario, but
with a provision to cater for Optimistic scenarios of traffic projections.

7.2

Planning Considerations

7.2.1 Harbour Layout Considerations


Basic points considered for the planning of the harbour layouts are:

Bathymetry
Wave incidence
Required Tranquillity in harbour areas
Littoral Drift Management
Expansion in stages
Environmental and Social Impacts

7.2.2 Bathymetry and Sub-sea Soil Conditions


Recent Bathymetric surveys indicate that 10 m, 15 m and 20 m contours occur at 350 m,
900 m, and 1200 m respectively from the shoreline near southern side of the existing fishing
harbour. The shallow seismic survey and Geotechnical investigation results show presence
of rock at varying depths in the proposed port development area. There are some exposed
rock patches few places. These aspects guided the harbour planning, the breakwater
lengths and their alignment on principles of optimization for breakwater construction and
dredging requirements. Layout has prepared by avoiding rock dredging as far as possible.
7.2.3 Wave Incidence and Tranquillity
The nearshore wave simulations (model studies) showed that the nearshore waters off
Vizhinjam are exposed to waves from the West during the SW monsoon and SSW and S
during the NE monsoon. About five months of the year waves are from the West and North
West direction and the other seven months predominant waves are from South. Hence the
harbour layout for development will have a North breakwater extending upto 22 m depth
contour for protection against waves from the S and SW, a south breakwater extending upto
15 m depth contour for protection against waves from SE. This breakwater protection will
give the desired tranquillity conditions at the berths and vessel manoeuvring area.
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7.2.4 Littoral Drift Management


The net littoral drift on the West Coast of India is not as severe as on the East Coast.
Considering pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, the average sediment
transport is negligible along the west coast. However during monsoon season, there is a net
drift of about 0.06 million cum. per annum towards south. Due to the change in sediment
movement direction and because of the headland north of the fishery harbour, there will not
be any sediment problem near north breakwater. Sediment deposition may occur near south
breakwater during non-monsoon season and erosion during monsoon season. Exact
sediment movement near the south breakwater must be studied in the detailed study of the
project. Since channel is located at 17 to 20m contour, there will not be any sediment
problem in the channel.
7.2.5 Stages of Development
The port is planned to be developed in stages to meet the demands arising out of
progressive increase in traffic. The harbour layout has been planned for developments in the
following stages.
Short Term
Short term is again split into two stages
Short term Phase IA Development
Short term Phase IB Development
Medium Term
Long Term
It is to be noted that the port facilities have to be developed continuously over the master
plan period and the harbour layout plan drawn up for the above stages are only a milestone
in the port development plan.
7.2.6 Environmental Aspects
The harbour and port layout has been so planned as to group the facilities in such a way that
the environmental management of different types and degree of impact become area specific
and thus cost effective to provide. While planning layout, social aspects such as fishing etc.
are duly considered. The container transhipment is the main cargo to the port and some
amount of general cargo, which is segregated and located in another area.

7.3

Port Layouts

Alternative port layouts are prepared and discussed in Traffic assessment and preliminary
viability report. Alternative 1 is selected as most promising layout.

7.4

Model Studies

As a part of Master plan for the development of harbour facilities at Vizhinjam, consultants
have carried out the mathematical model studies to determine the nearshore environment,
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breakwater alignment, tranquillity conditions within the harbour basin for different alternative
harbour layouts proposed in the previous chapter.
The basic input data for these studies are offshore wave data obtained from the British Met
Office, UK and the bathymetry data collected during field surveys and Investigations in
November 2002. The analysis of offshore wave data, methodology and results of the
mathematical studies of various aspects are presented in the following sections.
7.4.1 Objectives of the Study
The Objectives of the model studies are to carryout:

Analysis of offshore wave characteristics and determine normal and extreme conditions.
Near Shore Wave (NSW) simulations to establish the near shore wave climate for normal
and extreme conditions.
Wave tranquillity modelling to determine the tranquillity conditions in the harbour basin
and berth locations.

Results
Model simulations were carried out for various alternate layouts considering the various
wave-approaching angles. The wave climate of the area, nearshore wave characteristics and
wave tranquillity for selected layouts are described in following subsections.
7.4.2 Offshore Wave Climate
7.4.2.1 Normal Conditions
The wave rose diagram, shows that the predominant directions are South (32.5%), West
(14.5%), SSW (12.6%), WNW (8.9%) and WSW (5.9%), which covers 74.4% of the wave
climate. The percentage of waves with significant wave height less 1m, 2mand 3.0m are
16%, 76% and 99% respectively. Over 73% of the resultant wave periods are between 5 to
7s, while long period waves with resultant period greater than 9s occur only in the non
monsoon period November-April, though their annual percentage of occurrence is less than
1%.
During the South West Monsoon (June to September), the predominant directions are W,
WNW, WSW and South. The maximum significant wave height during monsoon is 4.2 m.
During non-monsoon the predominant wave directions are S, SSE and SSW and the
maximum significant wave height is 3.4 m. The short term offshore wave characteristics
corresponding to 0.5, 1.0, 5 year return periods, which were obtained from the wave height
exceedence diagrams, are presented in Table 7.1 below.
Table 7.1 Short term Wave Height Statistics in deep water
Predominant
directions
SSE
S
SSW
WSW

Return periods
0.5 year (Hs)

1 year (Hs)

5 year (Hs)

2.2 m
2.8 m
2.9 m
2.9 m

2.3 m
3.0 m
3.1 m
3.1 m

2.4 m
3.2 m
3.4 m
3.5 m

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W
WNW

3.3 m
3.2 m

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3.6 m
3.4 m

3.8 m
4.0 m

From the above discussion it is clear that over 75% of the deep water wave climate is
governed by waves from the six predominant directions. Likewise the deep water significant
wave height is less than 2.0m for more than 75% of the waves and the resultant wave
periods is less than 7s for over 87% of the waves.
7.4.2.2 Cyclones and Depressions
A total of 182 storms & depressions have occurred in the southern Arabian Sea during the
153 years period (1842-1995). The frequency of storms is higher during the pre-monsoon
(Apr-May) and Most Monsoon seasons (October to December) with the maximum number
occurring in November. Normally storms within a distance of 300 Km only would have a
significant influence on the wind and waves at a particular location. Hence all the storms that
have passed within 300 Km from Vizhinjam are presented in Table 7.2.
Table 7.2 Monthly distribution of Storms and Hurricanes during 1847-1995
No of Storms / Hurricanes
between Latitude 5-12 N and
Longitude 65-80E

No of Storms / Hurricanes
passing within 300 km of
Vizhinjam

January

February
March
April
May
June
July
August

1
2
9
26
9
0
0

0
1
1
1
0
0
0

September
October
November
December
All Months

5
36
80
36
182

1
7
23
15
44

Month

7.4.2.3 Extreme Wave Conditions


The design wave parameters to be used in the preliminary design of harbour facilities have
been obtained by extrapolating the deep water wave data from the BMO discussed above, to
the desired return periods. The deep water wave rose diagram shows that the predominant
directions during monsoon are S, SSW, WSW, W, and WNW. Hence extreme value analysis
has been carried out for deep water waves from these directions and the results of this
analysis are presented in Table 7.3 below.
Table 7.3 Extreme Significant Wave Heights (m) for various directions (m)
Predominant
directions
S
SSW

Return periods
10 years

50 years

100 years

3.3
3.8

3.6
5.3

3.8
6.3
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WSW
W
WNW

3.8
4.0
4.4

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4.7
4.4
5.4

5.5
4.6
5.9

7.4.3 NSW Simulations


7.4.3.1 Normal conditions
The NSW simulation results for normal waves for one-year return period for the six
predominant directions. The wave parameters were extracted at 15, 20, and 25m depths and
presented in Table 7.4. These wave parameters are further used as inputs in wave
tranquillity modelling. The results show that there is only a small reduction in the significant
wave height at 20 and 25m water depths, while that at 15m water depth is significant.
Likewise the change in mean wave direction is also not appreciable indicating that deep
water waves while propagating to shallower depths up to 15m are not significantly affected
by refraction and dissipation.
7.4.3.2 Extreme conditions
The NSW simulation results for 100-year return period for the three critical directions viz.
SSW, WSW and WNW are carried out. The wave parameters from NSW simulation results
were extracted at 15, 20, and 25m water depths along the proposed location of breakwaters
for the layout with south opening, which are directly exposed to waves from the open ocean.
The extracted results for extreme wave conditions (100year return period) at various water
depths along the trunk and head portion of the breakwaters are presented in Table 7.5. The
results show that the critical wave direction, which results in maximum wave heights at the
location of the proposed breakwaters, is SSW. The design significant wave height for the
trunk portion of the proposed breakwaters in 6.3m, while that for the head portion is 6.0m,
while the mean wave period is 10s.

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Table 7.4 Significant Wave Height & Mean wave direction at 15,20 & 25 m water depth at the proposed location
Direction
SSE (157.5)

S (180)

SSW(202.5)

WSW(247.5)

W(270)

WNW(292.5)

% Occurrence Return Period


(yr)
9.6

32.5

12.6

5.9

14.5

8.8

Hs (m)
(Deep)

Hs(m)
(15 m)

MWD(deg N)
(15m)

Hs(m)
(20 m)

MWD (deg N) Hs(m) MWD (Deg N)


(20m)
(25 m)
(25m)

0.5 year

2.2

1.97

165.04

1.95

162.24

2.04

160.12

1 year

2.3

2.06

165.45

2.12

160.38

2.03

162.65

5 year

2.4

2.15

165.86

2.11

163.07

2.21

160.64

0.5 year

2.8

2.64

186.32

2.58

183.81

2.70

182.16

1 year

2.85

187.02

2.75

184.49

2.89

182.61

5 year

3.2

3.03

186.79

2.94

184.26

3.08

182.46

0.5 year

2.9

2.64

206.4

2.66

204.8

2.76

204.0

1 year

3.1

2.82

206.5

2.84

204.9

2.95

204.1

5 year

3.4

3.12

207

3.06

201.5

3.23

204.5

0.5 year

2.9

2.61

245.42

2.69

246.22

2.74

246.84

1 year

3.1

2.80

245.54

2.88

246.32

2.94

246.90

5 year

3.5

3.16

245.54

3.25

246.32

3.32

246.90

0.5 year

3.3

2.90

264.70

3.00

266.60

3.12

268.28

1 year

3.6

3.13

263.44

3.22

265.57

3.36

267.51

5 year

3.8

3.29

262.81

3.38

265.05

3.52

267.09

0.5 year

3.2

2.35

280.94

2.95

286.31

3.06

289.94

1 year

3.4

2.48

280.31

3.12

285.85

3.24

289.63

5 year

4.0

3.00

274.98

3.75

281.65

3.87

286.31

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Table 7.5 Near shore wave characteristics at different locations of breakwater


(TR= 100 yr)
Offshore wave characteristics
Hs (m)

Tm (s)

Location

Dir (deg N)

Near shore wave


characteristics
Hs (m)

Tm (s)

Dir (deg N)

NBW
5.9

8.8

292.5

Trunk 15m

4.4

8.8

266.2

(WNW)

Trunk 23m

5.6

8.8

275.5

Head 21m

5.2

8.8

277.2

4.7

8.8

265.4

SBW
Head 13m
NBW
5.5

10.0

247.5

Trunk 15m

5.4

10.0

241.0

(WSW)

Trunk 23m

5.5

10.0

243.8

Head 21m

5.2

10.0

244.2

5.0

10.0

241.9

SBW
Head 13m
NBW
6.3

10.0

202.5

Trunk 15m

6.0

10

208.4

(SSW)

Trunk 23m

6.3

10

206.4

Head 21m

6.2

10

207.5

6.0

10

209.1

SBW
Head 13m
7.4.4 Wave Tranquillity Simulation
7.4.4.1 BW simulations
Considering the orientation of breakwaters, the predominant deep water waves that could
propagate into the harbour area are waves approaching from SSE followed by waves S, and
SSW. These three directions account for 55% of all deep water waves that approach the
coast throughout the year. Based on the wave data extracted from the NSW simulations as
described in section 10.5.4, irregular waves corresponding to a return period of 0.1 year and
1 year, were generated within the model. The BW simulations were carried out for the
following cases:
Short term
Case (I): 3400m long northern breakwater without southern breakwater.
Case (II): 3400m long northern breakwater with southern breakwater immediate to the
berths.

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Long term
Case (III): 4350m long northern breakwater with southern breakwater.
Short Term
Case (I): 3400m long northern breakwater without southern breakwater.
The wave tranquillity simulation results for return period 0.1 and 1-year situation showed that
the berths are directly exposed to the waves from SSE and S. Waves from the SSE
penetrate deep into the harbour and the wave heights at the berths are more than 1.5m for I
in 1-year situation. The wave heights at berth locations exceed the acceptable operational
wave heights even for 1 in 0.1 year wave situation. Hence when the offshore significant wave
height exceeds the 1 in 0.1 year situation for waves from SSE, S and SSW, it would result in
operational downtime at the berths, which is not acceptable. Therefore, it is appropriate to
consider a southern breakwater next to the berths, to prevent the waves from S and SSE
from directly entering the harbour basin.
Case (II): 3400m long northern breakwater with southern breakwater immediate to the
berths.
The bathymetry used in the simulations for this layout is presented in Figure FD0701. The
significant wave height and wave pattern for the three directions i.e. SSE, S and SSW
corresponding to 0.1, 1.0 and 1.0 situations are simulated and presented in draft report. Here
the tranquillity condition for the directions S and SSE is presented in Figure FD0702 and
FD0703. The results of the simulation pertaining to 1 in 0.1 year situation for SSE waves
showed that the wave heights at berths are within the required operational limits. Hence if the
incident waves from SSE, exceed the 1 in 0.1 year situation, this will result in operational
wave downtime at the berths. The average wave downtime for this situation is estimated to
be 3.6 days per year, which would not affect the operations in the port significantly.
The water surface elevations after the warm up period for waves from the SSE during the
simulation period at berths and turning circle are presented in Figure FD0704. It can be
seen that the maximum wave height at the berths is less than 0.3m while that in the turning
circle is close to 0.4m.
Long term
Case (III): 4350m long northern breakwater with southern breakwater.
The bathymetry used in the simulations for long-term development is presented in Figure FD
0705
. The significant wave height and wave pattern for the three directions SSE, S and SSW for
the 0.1, 1.0 and 1.0 year return periods simulations are presented in the previous draft report
Here the case of S and SSE is sited in Figure FD0706 and FD0707. The results for these
waves for a 1 in 0.1-year situation the wave conditions inside the harbour and berths are
within acceptable limits. The wave downtime for the long-term harbour development is similar
to the short-term development i.e., 3.7 days in a year.

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The water surface elevations at the berths and turning circle for waves from the SSE is
presented in Figure FD0708. The maximum wave height at the berths and the turning circle
in this case is less than 0.5m.
Conclusions for long term layout
As in the case of the short term development the wave tranquility simulations showed that
the tranquillity at the berths and turning circle is within acceptable limits for waves from SSW
and S even for the 1 in 1 year situation, while for waves from the SSE, tranquil conditions
prevail at the berths only for the 1 in 0.1 year situation. The estimated average downtime for
the layout corresponding to the long-term development of this Alternative is 3.6 days per
year, which is acceptable from a wave tranquility point of view.

7.5

Master Plan

Detailed masterplan layout is prepared for Vizhinjam Port and shown in Drawing no.
DDG001. Master plan layout is prepared for the moderate scenario of Option1 of traffic
forecast by considering all planning parameters defined earlier in the chapter. A stage wise
development of Vizhinjam Port is shown in Figure FD0709.
7.5.1 Berthing Requirements:
Cargo wise berthing requirements, vessel sizes and dredged depths considered in the
master plan are summarised below:
Table 7-6 : Berthing requirements
S.No.

Type of Berth

Number
of berths

Berth
length

Ship Size
(TEU/DWT)

Dredged
Depth (m)

Container
Mainline

1600

12,000

-18.7

Container - Feeder

1260

2,000

-11.6

General Cargo

460

40,000

-13.8

7.5.2 Breakwaters
Two Breakwaters have been proposed one on south side and the other on north side to
provide tranquillity in the harbour area for safe cargo handling operations.
North Breakwater

4650m Long, extending from shore to -22m depth contour.

South Breakwater

450m Long, extending from shore to -15m contour.

7.5.3 Approach Channel and Turning Circle


Dimensions of the approach channel and turning circle required for the design vessel has
been worked out and the details are presented below.

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Approach Channel:
Length

: 4250m

Width

Dredged Depth

: -20.4m (outer channel)

420m

: -19.6 (Inner Channel)


Turing Circle
Diameter

: 620m

Dredged Depth

: -19.6m

Surveys conducted at the project location showed that there are some rock patches in the
area. Selected port layout is superimposed on the rock/hard laterite contour to understand
the dredgeability of the material and is presented in the Figure FD0710. This shows that the
hard rock/ laterite strata are present about 3-4m below the depth contour. Analysis is carried
out to fix location of the berthing face, which will give required storage area with minimum
cost of breakwater and dredging (rock dredging). Any rock dredging in the long term can be
avoided by providing berthing face at 15m contour but by increase in breakwater cost.
Placing berthing face behind -13m contour result in heavy rock dredging and reduction in
storage area. Analysis shows that berthing face at 13m contour will give required storage
area at the same time this will avoid any rock dredging during short term and medium term.
There will be small rock dredging in the long term. Berthing face at -13m contour is found as
optimal solution, where small rock dredging in the final phase instead of increasing
breakwater cost from short term.
In the master plan layout the North breakwater is extending upto 22m contour and dredged
depth of channel provided are as follows:
Inner approach channel

-19.6

Outer approach channel

-20.4

Total length of approach channel 4.25 km, almost parallel to the shoreline.
A harbour arm is provided at the northern end of the harbour to accommodate feeder
vessels. This arm will have a width of 200m and will accommodate four feeder vessels.
Stage wise layouts are shown in Figure FD0711(a), FD0711(b), FD0712 for Short termStage I, Short term and medium term development respectively.

7.6

Tranquillity Study for Fishing Harbour

A tranquillity study has been carried out find the effect of proposed North breakwater of
Vizhinjam port on the Fishing harbour entrance. Detailed description of this study is
presented in the Annexure A.7.1.

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Results of analysis proves that the wave penetration in the harbour is more due to waves
from WSW direction than the other directions. The maximum wave heights outside the
harbour and at the entrance are 3.2 and 0.87m respectively. The results also show that
construction of the north breakwater does not affect the tranquillity condition at the entrance
to the fishing harbour as the wave conditions at the entrance are much lower compared to
those outside the entrance now prevalent.

7.7

Land Use Plan

The land use plan has been prepared after identifying the requirement of land for various port
related activities of the proposed Vizhinjam Port. While preparing the land use plan, the
extent and limits of surrounding developments, development needs of infrastructure facility,
easy land access to port site, cargo handling facilities, hazards and environment and safety
requirements etc. have been given due consideration.
Landuse plan has been prepared assuming that there is no land available at the port location
as immediate back up. Berth line is formed about 400 m to 600m away from the shoreline
and the area between the shoreline and berth is reclaimed.
Total reclaimed area in the short term will be 82 ha and in the medium term will be 109ha
and for long term is 162 ha. In this planned terminal area are 17 ha, 27 ha and 60 ha
respectively.
Detailed land use plan has been prepared for the Vizhinjam Port backup area and shown in
Drawing No. DDG001.
Stage-wise land use plan is shown in Figures FD0713 and FD0714 respectively for short,
and medium term development.
Following area is earmarked for different activities.
Container yard
Following ground slots are provided in the immediate backup area covering an area of 20ha
in the short term, 30ha in the medium term, and 65ha in the long term.
Description

No. of slots

Stacking height

Maximum
capacity TEU

Terminal Area I

2880

One over Five

14400

Terminal Area II

1332

One over Four

5328

Terminal Area III

720

One over Four

2880

Empty stacks

1000

One over Seven

7000

Short term

Total Dry
capacity

container 5932

29608

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200

One over One

400

Terminal Area I

5040

One over Five

25200

Terminal Area II

1332

One over Four

2880

Terminal Area III

1560

One over Four

6240

Empty stacks

1500

One over Seven

10500

Medium term

Total Dry
capacity

container 9432

Reefer containers

44820

300

One over One

600

Terminal Area I

12714

One over Five

63570

Terminal Area II

2052

One over Four

8208

Terminal Area III

3030

One over Four

12120

Empty stacks

2000

One over Seven

14000

Long term

Total Dry
capacity

container 19842

Reefer containers

650

98220

One over One

1300

Reefer Containers
It is proposed to provide 353nos, 577nos and 1302nos power outlets for reefers in the short
term , medium term and long term respectively.
Area R1
200 Rated @220V. 3 phase 50Hz.
200 rated @ 440V.3phase 50Hz
Area R2
200 Rated @220V. 3 phase 50Hz.
Area R3
300 Rated @220V. 3 phase 50Hz.

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402 rated @ 440V.3phase 50Hz.


Container Freight Station
It is proposed to construct Four container freight station as follows:
CFS1: 220x80m (17600sq.m)
CFS2: 150X80 (12000sq. m)
CFS3: 210X80 ( 16800 sq. m)
CFS4: 210X80 ( 16800 sq. m)
Total = 63200sq.m
Empty Container Depot (ECD)
Empty container deport of 5ha area is provided. This is attached with 1500sq. m repair
facility and also equipped with modern container handling equipment.
Total area :

5ha

Total stacking capacity:

14000TEU

Total ground slots:

2000slots

Truck & Trailer Holding Area (THA)


Truck holding area (THA) is about 5 ha and can accommodate about 300 trucks and trailers.
Inbound traffic is directed to this parking area and released in batches to minimise traffic
congestion within the terminal area. This ensures that the vehicles are allowed into the
terminal approximate the number leaving the terminal at any time.

Chassis Parking Area


This is located adjacent to the THA with a total of about one hectare area. It can
accommodate about 72 chassis. This will be paved with concrete blocks and fenced around.

7.8

Immediate / Short Term Development

Various elements of the short-term development plan are detailed in the following
paragraphs:
Immediate or short term development is again divided into two parts:
Short term - First stage development (Phase IA).
Sort term - Second stage development (Phase IB).

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7.8.1 Capacity Calculation


In the Phase IA development only two mainline berths and one feeder berths are proposed.
One mainline berth will be used as dedicated berth for mainline vessels and other mainline
berth will be used for mainline and feeder vessels. When it is used for feeder vessels, two
feeder vessel can be accommodated together in this berth. Feeder berths will be dedicated
for feeder vessels. With this provision of two mainline berths and one feeder berth, cargo
handling capacity of the port is calculated and presented in the following Table 7-7.
Table 7-7 Capacity Calculation
Sl No. Description
Unit
Mainline Feeder
1 Cargo Volume
TEUs
465000 337500
2 Cargo volume in number of boxes
Nos
348750 253125
3 Ratio between 40' and 20' containers
(50:50)
4 Vessel size
TEUs
8000
1000
5 Parcel Size
TEUs
7200
900
6 Boxes handled /ship call
Nos
2400
1200
7 Number of vessels (nos)
Nos
145
211
8 Cargo handling Rate
Moves/day
1680
720
9 Ships handling time at berth
Days
1.43
1.67
10 Additional time for
berthing
and Days
0.25
0.25
deberthing
11 Total Service time/ship
Days
1.68
1.92
12 Total Service time/Year
Days
243.9
404.3
13 Number of Berths Provided
Nos
1.35
2.3
14 Berthdays Available
Days
445
759
15 Berth Occupancy
%
55
53
7.8.2 Berthing Facilities
Berths are required for handling various types of cargo. Dimensions of the berths are
planned as per the vessel sizes and cargo handling equipment requirements.
Consultant has studied various berthing structure such as sheet pile wall, piled structure,
block wall construction etc. Model studies showed that the vertical wall structures are
causing some harbour resonance especially in the master plan layout. So it is proposed to
provide piled berth structure with stone-pitched slope beach underneath to avoid any wave
reflection. It is proposed to provide a block wall construction behind the berth to protect
reclaimed soil. Cost effective designs have been given due importance at all stages of the
project development. Details of berths required for short term/immediate developments is
presented in Table 7-8.

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Table 7-8: Berthing Facilities For Immediate / Short Term Development


S.No.

Type of Berth

No. of Berths

Ship
Size
(DWT)

-Main 8000 TEU

Berth length

Phase
IA

Phase
IB

Phase
IA

Phase
IB

Dred
ged
Depth
(m)

2*)

720

720*)

-16.0

Container
line

Container -Feeder

1000TEU

3*)

175

525*)

-10.0

Port
(tugboats)

40t/20t
(bollard
pull)

5*)

150

150*)

-6.0

Craft

*) Number of Berth and Berth length are cumulative for II stage.


In the short term it is planned to provide all mainline berths parallel to the shoreline on the
main berthing line and feeder berths are proposed to be provided on the dock arm and on
the pier formed along North breakwater. Mainline berths are proposed to be dredged upto
16.0m depth. Major portion of the feeder berth and general cargo berths are on 10m or
more water depth so dredging requirement for feeder berths is very minimal.
Berthing Structure
Two types of berthing structures are possible: quay wall type berths, constructed of either
concrete block work or sheet pile and open piled berths. Simulation studies showed
development of harbour resonance/standing waves, if berths are provided with a vertical wall
structure. Therefore any structure with a vertical face such as sheet pile or block work in front
of the berth is not recommended. This leads to the selection of the open type of structure,
namely piled structure. Present selected structure consists of piled construction with pile
sockets into the rock. The width of the structure is proposed be 40m, considering the quay
crane rail spacing of 30.48m. The storage yard on reclaimed fill is contiguous on the rear of
the berth. In order to retain the fill required for the storage area, there is a need for a
retaining wall at the rear side of the piled structure. Recent sea bottom survey results
indicate presence of rock/hard laterite 3-4m below the seabed. Under such circumstances a
sheet pile type retaining wall are not possible. Therefore it is proposed to provide a block wall
construction behind the berth, which will retain this reclaimed soil. Stone pitching will protect
slope below the berth, which will be on a 1:2 slope.
Open space/storage yard will be paved with concrete blocks, flexible bituminous or rigid
concrete pavements as follows:
All container storage yard
Access road and gate access

Pre-cast concrete interlocking block pavement


-

Asphalt paving

Access around buildings and truck parking -

concrete pavement

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Design specification for berthing structure and container yard is presented in the Annexure
A.7.2
Detailed Figures have been prepared for various types of berths as mentioned below:
Figure FD0715

Typical arrangement of Main line and Feeder berths

7.8.3 Container Quay


The berths are arranged as a continuous, linear quay, with crane rails running all along the
quay length, even if it is, over the years, extended to several thousand metres in length. The
power supply to the cranes is normally arranged with a cable duct along the quay front
where the cranes can connect their cables. The crane has a long cable on a cable drum,
which automatically winds up or unwinds the cable when the crane moves along the quay.
The continuous crane rails are essential in order to optimise the use of all cranes,
concentrating them on a ship or at a quay section, which needs a speedy loading/unloading
effort.
The area between the legs of the crane is used for longitudinal traffic (tractor-trailer
movement) along the quay. Behind the rear legs, normally the hatch covers from the ships
are stored during the stay in port. This area, directly reachable by the crane, is also used for
emergency stacking of containers, if the unloading from ship is quicker than the transfer from
quayside to stacking area. It can also be used if it is necessary to temporarily discharge
some containers in order to reach some containers below, which has not been conveniently
placed during the loading of the vessel.
The width of the quay apron, where no long term stacking of goods etc. may take place,
should be around 60m wide, and the rail gauge of the cranes is often around 30m. Behind
the berths, ideally the stacking areas are located, extending up to 300 or 400m inland.
7.8.4 General Cargo berth
In the short term development general cargo will be handled in container feeder berths. In
the long term development two dedicated general cargo berth of 20m wide will be
constructed. Ship mounted cranes are proposed to be used for the unloading of the general
cargo. The cargo that is unloaded in the general cargo may be shifted to the transit sheds or
open storage area near the berth.
7.8.5 Breakwaters
The layout of the proposed port to be developed at Vizhinjam consists of two breakwaters.
North breakwater would be 3200m long in the Phase I, which will be increased by 1390m
further in the final phase. A south breakwater is provided in the medium term, extending from
shore to ()15m contour, basically to protect harbour from diffracted SE waves.
Another South breakwater will be required in the short term at the location shown in the
Figure FD0716. This breakwater will act as a protection against waves from SE as well as a
barrier for reclamation. Portion of this breakwater extending to the harbour (about 250m) will
re removed in the medium term to make the quay line continuous, which is necessary for the
easy movement of cranes between berths for flexibility of operation.

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North breakwater is connected to the shoreline about 150m away from the fishing harbour
extent upto ()22m contour in the short term. This 3.2km long North breakwater would be
adequate for providing tranquil conditions in the channel, berth and turning circle and to
provide adequate stopping distance.
Location and alignment of south and north breakwater is principally based on the following
five criteria:

Storage area requirement.

To avoid rock dredging

Stopping distance for safe passage of design vessels.

Tranquillity conditions throughout the year in the port basin.

Scope for future expansion of the port facilities

The slowing down and stopping length required within the port boundaries is determined by
the entrance speed of large ships, the time required to tie up the tugboats and to
manoeuvring vessels into position. Based on mathematical model studies carried out as part
of port planning, the location (and alignment) of breakwater is designed to avoid disturbance
in port basin.
The preliminary cross sections of the breakwaters at various water depths are presented in
(Figure FD0716). In shallower waters (15m) the crest level would be +7.0m and in deeper
waters (-22m) it is increased to +8.00 m above C.D. This would reduce overtopping by waves
during the monsoon and moderate cyclonic disturbances, like depressions. The primary layer
in shallow waters shall be a single layer Coreloc units of volume 6.2 m3, while in deeper
waters a single layer of 8.5 m3 Coreloc have to be provided on a slope of 1:1.33. The rear
side armour in both cases shall be rock armour of size 2-7 tons. Design basis of breakwater
is given in the Annexure A.7.3.
7.8.6 Quarry Locations
Consultant met Director, Mining and Geology Department, GoK at Trivandrum to discuss the
availability of rocks and quarries in and around Trivandrum District. Consultant requested for
data and maps regarding availability of the rock in Trivandrum district. It is understood that at
present the Dept. does not have any documents or maps showing the potential quarry
resources of the area. It is learnt that these maps showing locations of different quarries are
under preparation and it might take about one year to complete the mapping.
Consultant visited Neerolly Quarry near Vizhinjam town (Figure 7-1). This is a Govt. owned
quarry and has got a problem of a High school being nearby (Figure 7-2). This quarry is
spread over an area of 7 ha.

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Figure 7-1 Neerolly Quarry

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Figure 7-2 High School near Neerolly Quarry

Figure 7-3 Vellar Quarry


Consultant visited another Govt. quarry (Vellar quarry- Figure 7-3) adjacent to the Neerolly
quarry. This is spread over an area of 3 ha.
These two quarries will yield a volume of approximately 0.5 million m3 of stones. These two
were being used as a source of stones for construction of fishing harbour breakwater at
Vizhinjam. Later, due to labour problems in these two quarry sites, the stones are presently
not being used. It is understood that the labour problems are still persisting at these quarries.
It is also assessed that the stone quantities at these two quarries are not sufficient to meet
the requirement of breakwater construction at Vizhinjam Port.
Consultant visited the quarry site at Attingal which is about 35 km north of Trivandrum
(Figure 7-4). It is seen that an area of 3.5 acre approved quarry has a height of about 1015m high.
Location of this quarry is given in Figure FD0717.

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Figure 7-4 Attingal Quarry


Adjacent to this quarry site there is a hill of rock (Figure 7-5) spread over an area of about
20acre with a height of 150m. This quarry will yield a volume of approximately 8 million m3 of
stones. It is

Figure 7-5 Hill of rock near Attingal Quarry

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seen that there are other quarries also near by this quarry. It is estimated that the quantity
assessed for the proposed breakwater construction at Vizhinjam Port could be sourced from
these quarries at Attingal. It is estimated that the lorry transport distance from this quarry site
at Attingal to proposed Vizhinjam port will be about 55km along the road.
Consultant also travelled to the seacoast nearby Attingal quarry to explore the possibility of
transporting the stones by barges to Vizhinjam. Consultant visited Varkala to Muthalapuzhi
harbour area. Muthalapuzhi harbour is in a river mouth and 40% work of the breakwater
construction is completed. A 150m long berth construction is under progress on the righthand side of the harbour. This area is at present a well-protected area having large water
area. These breakwaters were being constructed with 2-3 tonne stones from the Attingal
quarry. Transportation of stones from Attingal quarry to Muthalapuzhi harbour (which is
approximately 20km apart) seems a feasible option. Construction of temporary arrangement
for loading barges in the left bank of river at Muthalapuzhi harbour may reduce the road
distance by around 3-4km. Hence it is felt that Muthalapuzhi harbour with a temporary
arrangement on the left bank or using the present berth which is under construction on the
right bank may be the best option for transporting the stones from Attingal to the proposed
Vizhinjam port.
7.8.7 Equipment
Details of various equipment required stage wise are presented in Chapter 6. Equipment
required for the short term development are summarised below and typical sections are
shown in Figure FD0715.
Table 7-9 : Summary of Cargo Handling Equipment
S.
No

Cargo

Equipment Type

1.

Containers

BERTH EQUIPMENT

Rated
Capacity

Sort term
Phase
Phase IB *)
IA

Quay Cranes
Post Panamax type
Panamax type

50t
40t

6
2

6
6

40-50t

20

30

Toplift Trucks

20t

10

Reach Stackers

50t

38

55

50t

38

55

STACKYARD EQUIPMENT
RTGs

Prime Movers
Trailers

*) Number of equipment for II stage are cumulative.

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A. QUAY CRANES
A brief specification of the quay cranes are given below.
DESCRIPTION
Maximum Lift Load (kN)
Track Rail Centers (mm)
Distance from waterside rail center to fender's face
(mm)
Maximum Outreach from Waterside Rail Center (m)
(Under Operating Conditions)
Minimum Back reach from Land side Rail Center (m)
Lifting Height under Spreader above Water Side Rail
(m)
Depth of Lower to Bottom of Spreader from Waterside
Rail (m)
Height of Land side Rail above Waterside Rail (mm)
Minimum Height under Portal Cross Beam (m)
Clearance between Portal legs to allow passage of a
container (m)

PANAMAX
400
30,000
3500

Post PANAMAX
500
30,000
3500

40

55

12
34

12
35

16

16

270
13
17

270
13
17

MINIMUM OPERATIONAL SPEEDS


DESCRIPTION
Hoist speed(m/min)
Trolly speed (m/min)

PANAMAX
60/120
150

Post PANAMAX
75/150
180

B. RUBBER TYRED GANTRY CRANE (RTG)


Lifting capacity under spreader:
Wide: 1 over 6

50 tonnes high

Container sizes to be handled:

I.S.O. 20' 40' 45'

Clearance under twist locks of spreader:

over

(9'6"high containers)

18 metres

Span of track: 23.70 metres


SPEEDS
Trolley Speed 75m/min
Hoist Speed - 25/130 m/min
Crane Speed 25/130 m/min

C. Reach Stackers
These are primarily used to handle empty containers. These are equipped with20/40ft
telescopic spreaders. They have a stacking capacity of upto seven containers high.

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7.8.8 Storage Facilities


Storage area provided for various stages of development have been identified and presented
in Section 7.7.
7.8.9 Dredging & Reclamation
The navigational channel, harbour basin and berths will have varying dredged depths
depending upon the vessels to be serviced in different areas. Dredging layout for the short
term development is shown in Figure FD0718. A cutter suction dredger method and
pumping dredged material into the reclamation area is found to be the best option for
dredging.
Design Basis for dredging and reclamation is given in the Annexure A.7.4
7.8.10 Berths
For handling of mainline container vessel of 8000TEU vessels a design depth of 16.0 m CD
is proposed at the berths. Berths are provided at -13m contours so a dredging of 3.0m is
required at the berth location. Feeder berths are located between 9.0 to 13m contour. So
a partial dredging will be required at feeder berths. General cargo berth is located at 14.0m
contour and hence dredging will not be required at this berth.
7.8.11 Turning Circle
The water area in the basin in front of the berths will have a 650 m dia. turning circle with a
design dredged depth of 16.7m CD. Turning circle is provided between 15m and 20m
contours. So only a partial dredging is required for turning circle.
7.8.12 Approach Channel
The North breakwater is terminated at 22m contour and proposed alignment of the
approach channel lies between -17 and -20m contours. Design depth required for the
channel is -16.7m. So there is no dredging envisaged in the approach channel. Length of
approach channel provided is about 1300m with a width of 325m. This theoretical approach
channel ends at breakwater tip and there is no necessity of an outer approach channel. This
saves time in moving a vessel through a long approach channel.
7.8.13 Navigational Aids
The proposed short term port development involves creating a turning circle besides
adequate harbour basin and breakwaters. Even though there is no approach channel
required, these areas must be delineated by appropriate navigational aids. Also, it will be
quite useful to establish a well marked navigation line, by installing two navigation
marks/leading light towers, one in the front near the high water line and the other at the rear.
These marks will distinctly demarcate the channel. The height and spacing in-between the
towers must be designed suitably with adequate day marks and night leading lights, fulfilling
the navigational needs of vessels approaching the port facility.
Location and details of navigational aids are shown in Figure FD0719.

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A brief description of the proposed navigational aids are summarised below:


Channel marking buoys-2 Nos

Star board size (1 Nos) :


Conical buoy,
painted green,
light flash green every 5 seconds,
visibility 3 nautical miles

Port-hand side buoys (1 Nos):


rectangular/square buoy,
painted red,
light flash red every 5 seconds,

visibility 3 nautical miles

Turning circle lighting buoys- 2 Nos


Spherical buoy
painted orange
2 light flash every 10 seconds.
Rear leading light tower-1 No:
Steel/concrete tower,
about 18m height (to design),
painted Black and white horizontal bands,
quick flash light white
visibility 12 to 15 nautical miles
Front leading light tower: 1 No:
Steel/concrete tower,
about 10m height (to design),
red/white horizontal bands,
long flashing white every 5 seconds
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Signal station
A terminal control building will be built near the shoreline. This will also serve as shorebased signal station to regulate the movement of vessels by qualified marine staff.
Ship to shore communication
To start with, 2-VHF sets of 25km range and 8-walkie-talkie sets of 10km range will be
adequate. Radar also may be provided.
Light house
It may not be required to construct an exclusive lighthouse for the proposed facility. The
existing lighthouse at Fishing harbour appears adequate for guiding the ships calling at
Vizhinjam port.
7.8.14 Port Craft
Tugs
To handle the proposed vessel sizes in the short term development, it will be necessary to
have two tugs of about 40t to 60t bollard pull, with fire-fighting arrangements, to act as a fire
float in case of any emergency. Also, the tug shall have the pollution control equipment on
board.
Launches
It is proposed to provide the following launches in the short term development:
Pilot Launch

1no (25 knots)

Survey Launch

1 no. (10 Knots)

Bilge Barge

1 no.

7.8.15 Terminal Road and Railway Facility


A four lane road is proposed inside the port for easy in and out movement of containers.
This will connect all part of the terminal. There will be separate road from the entrance of the
road to the Administrative building and common area. A railway line is proposed in the
terminal with adequate escape lines in the long term.
7.8.16 Container Security Operations
The health of the world economy today depends on an efficient, reliable global freight
transportation system. Recent events (US led war against and occupation of Iraq and
continuing terrorist assaults between Israel and Palestine as well as US warnings against,
interalia, Syria, Iran, North Korea) have heightened concerns that the international freight
system is vulnerable to exploitation or disruption by criminal and terrorist groups. To partially
address this concerns, the United States Customs Service announced the Container Security
Initiative (CSI) in early 2002. Although the US is currently the only importer that has

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developed an initiative for distributed container inspections, other nations will follow. In
general world demand for increased security in the intermodal container system is growing.
Us Initiative include:
1.

SOLAS-amendments

2.

CSI

3.

Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (CT-PAT)

These US-initiatives were approved and agreed upon by the so-called G8 states, the EU
member states and the IMO.
The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS)
Except for the CT-PAT, the ISPS incorporates and supersedes all other port- and shipping
related (anti terror) security legislation and measures as soon as it comes into force on 01
July 04.
Basically, it is divided into 2 parts, namely
-

provides for mandatory requirements

contains guidance for compliance with "A".

In essence, the ISPS is a risk management activity that consists of three essential
components:
1. Identification and evaluation of important assets and infrastructure that are critical to the
port facility as well as those areas or structures that, if damaged, could cause significant
loss of life or damage to the port facility's economy or environment;
2. Identification of actual threats to those critical assets and infrastructure in order to
prioritise security measures;
3. Assessment of vulnerability of the port facility by identifying or, in the case of a greenfield
port, avoiding weaknesses in physical security, structural integrity, protection systems,
procedural policies, communication systems, transportation infrastructure, utilities and
other areas within a port facility that may be a likely (terrorist) target.
The Code addresses requirements for
-

ships and ship owners

port facilities.

Under both it includes "monitoring the activities of people and cargo" and under "port facility"
the "contracting government" has to ensure compliance for each port facility within its territory
that "serves ships engaged on international voyages".

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Whereas it might be possible for GoK to join the CT-PAT without GoI-involvement, this is not
the case with / for the ISPS Code since it is an IMO convention and, as such, subject to GoI
ratification and implementation. Taking for granted that India will endorse the ISPS, the code
provides that
"Contracting Government can designate or establish 'Designated Authorities' within
Government to undertake their security duties and allow 'Recognised Security
Organisations' to carry out certain work with respect to port facilities, but the final
decision on the acceptance and approval of this should be given by the Contracting
Government or the 'Designated Authority'".
(The Consultant wishes to understand that 'Designated Authorities' includes delegation of
GoI's related security duties to Indian coastal states, as it is done e.g. in Germany. However,
GoK will have to verify this with GoI.)
Fact is that VPD must fulfil all ISPS-requirements as a prerequisite (to many others) for
entering the market.
In the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code(ISPS) practices
-

In the so called industrialised countries, upto 10% of incoming containers are


inspected;

- In Islamic, predominately Arab countries, 100% of countries are (to be)


inspected.

Any inspection done so far focussed on, in this sequence,


1. Verification of contents for verification of custom dues
2. Avoidance/detection of undeclared goods
3. Detection of import of(prohibited) alcohol (Islamic/Arab countries)
4. Avoidance/detection of attempted smuggle of alcohol, cigarettes, drugs, arms,
ammunition, prohibited literature/magazine etc.
System
Some 6 years ago, the US-based firm Science Application International Corporation
(SAIC), an all employee owned company of 40,000, developed two Vehicle And Cargo
Inspection Systems (VACIS):
- VACIS I
truck mounted, mobile unit for random checks in different locations of any container
terminal or elsewhere;
- VACIS II
a stationary facility for inspection of as many containers as desired by the competent
authorities (customs, border guards, immigration, health etc.)
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Both systems use the same technology,


- gamma- (instead) of x-ray for screening
- software to generate images for comparison with manifests and identification of
contrabands and aliens.
The systems underwent, extremely successful, 4 years testing by US-customs and other
authorities, including health, food and drugs, and is now available to the world market
(befriended states only).
Lately, also Heimann offers container screening facilities, albeit still on its x-ray basis
that is considered rather dangerous to health (which the gamma-ray is not).
In addition, PRC has also come up with an x-ray product. Russia is said to have
developed a container screening system of which technical details are not yet disclosed
(or known to the Consultant) and other (US) firms are following suit.
Facilities
Assuming that GoI does not object to US-approved technology, the Consultant suggests to
include in the RFP gamma-ray container screening equipment.
Number of Screening Units:
1.

One stationary unit is able to screen 150,000 units per annum.

2.

One mobile unit is able to do the same number minus time needed to travel from one
location to another plus 10 resp. 5 minutes for each mobilisation resp. de-mobilisation.

3.

Considering that private sector development of Vizhinjam Port will not pay (or be
attractive / financially rewarding) for an annual throughput below 1.5 Mio TEU and
assuming that GoI / GoK agree to join CT-PAT and numbers of transhipped containers
might and, over time, will already have received ISPS-clearance before they hit
Vizhinjam Port, the Consultant assumes that planning should allow for

Short term:

1 mobile plus 1 stationary unit;

Medium term: 1 mobile plus 2 stationary units;


Long term:

2 mobile plus 3 stationary units;

Space Requirements:
-

length

27 m, width

12 m

Since a 40' container is scanned in 10 seconds but imaging and checking takes 2 to 3
minutes, holding areas / lanes must be provided for on the entry and exit side of the unit for
some 20 container carrying vehicles (trailers, lorries or else). In addition, space should be
allowed on the exit side for visual inspection of containers that produce non-match images.

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Total area requirements, hence, add up to some 2,000 sqm (incl. a small, say 60 sqm
operations room /building).
7.8.17 Pollution Control Facilities
The handling of containers does not pose any major pollution problem in the port. It is
proposed to provide pollution control facilities as per MARPOL 73 / 78.
7.8.18 Water Supply
Refer 6.8.1 in Chapter 6.
7.8.19 Power Supply
Refer 6.8.2 in Chapter 6.
7.8.20 Buildings
Space in a container terminal is almost always at a premium and as great an area as
possible must be developed to operational activities. However, the terminal requires well
planned and located buildings to maximise the efficiency of the operation. The buildings
normally required will include:
Administration building
Accommodating functions such as management, Marketing, Accounting, Human resources,
Operations plus third parties such as ships agents and customs.
A multi-storied building is planned for Vizhinjam container terminal with 40m length and 25m
wide. Ground floor of the building will be constructed in the short term, Fist floor in the
medium term and Second floor in the Long term. Building will be located at the entrance of
the terminal. This is separated from the terminal defined by customs as bonded area,
allowing free movement of employees and visitors.
Workshop
This building will be 60m X 20m in size suitable for all equipment repair and servicing which
may include provision for large plat such as reach stackers and straddle carriers. This will
have separate bays for accessing high bays and low bays. This will also include service pits,
overhead travelling cranes, Office, spare part store and wash rooms.
Canteen and Amenities
A separate canteen for administrative staff near administrative building and another canteen
for terminal staff has been provided.
Container Freight Station
As explained in section 7.7
Verification Building

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This building is for customs for unpacking of selected containers as and when required.
Container security initiative with scanning facility will be attached with this building.
Gatehouse
Gates at the entrance to the terminal allow the important checking and control of all the traffic
in and out. It is proposed to provide 3 gates in the short term and 4 gate in the medium term
and 6 gates in the long term. Gates will consist of individual cabins in channels to allow
several vehicles to book in or out at once. A roof provide whether protection and a walkway
arrangement allows inspection of the top of containers if required. Separate area is provided
as truck queuing area.
Pre-reception building
A pre-reception building is provided . This will allow paper work to be inspected and
approved by customs, shipping agents (and posibly the terminal operator) prior to proceeding
to main gate. This procedure will avoid situation where vehicles at the gate with paperwork
problems hold up others.
Services
A modern container terminal requires a wide range of services in order to function efficiently.
The design and specification of these elements is important not only in terms of the resulting
construction cost of the facility but also in terms of day-to-day running costs.
Electrical Sub-station
An area of 50mx50m is demarcated for this purpose. This will accommodate all transformers
and switch board.
Electrical Cabling
The most important electrical supply route is between the sub-station and the quay cranes.
Cable will be laid along an underground conduits. In addition to quay cranes, the supply must
serve lighting towers, refrigerated container points and all buildings.
7.8.21 Bunkering
Provision of fuel oil and fresh water bunkering will be made at all the berths.
7.8.22 Drainage and Sewerage System
Refer 6.11 and 6.12 in chapter 6.

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FIGURES

50

100

150

200

250

N
2'
2

76
5
9'
E

23
'N

Checked : PNA

Designed: JKP

(Grid spacing 10meter)

100

200
300
400
(Grid spacing 10 meter)

N
1'
2

500

N
0'
2

RP026 Figure FD0701 BW Bathymetry for Alt 1 - Short term


Harbour Layout

Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala

Date:
07/04/04

C1021119

5 - 10
05
-2.5 0
-5 - -2.5
-7.5 -5
-10 - -7.5
-12.5 - -10
-15 - -12.5
-17.5 - -15
-20 - -17.5
-22.5 - -20
-25 - -22.5
Below -25

Water Depth (m)

8
2

Surface Elevation

3'
N

(Grid spacing 10 meter)

250

200

150

76
100

9'

'N

'N

20

21
8

22

'N

50

0
0

100

200

300
(Grid spacing 10 meter)

400

500

1.8 - 2
1.6 - 1.8
1.4 - 1.6
1.2 - 1.4
1 - 1.2
0.8 - 1
0.6 - 0.8
0.4 - 0.6
0.2 - 0.4
0 - 0.2
-0.2 - 0
-0.4 - -0.2
-0.6 - -0.4
-0.8 - -0.6
-1 - -0.8
-1.2 - -1
-1.4 - -1.2
-1.6 - -1.4
-1.8 - -1.6
-2 - -1.8
Below -2

01/01/90 12:30:00

8
2
3
'N

(Grid spacing 10meter)

250

200
Wave ht Coeff

150

76
100

9'

'N
20
8

22

21

'N

'N

50

0
0

100

200

300
(Grid spacing 10 meter)

400

Above 0.9
0.8 - 0.9
0.7 - 0.8
0.6 - 0.7
0.5 - 0.6
0.4 - 0.5
0.3 - 0.4
0.2 - 0.3
0.1 - 0.2
0 - 0.1
Below 0

500

01/01/90 12:30:00

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala

Designed: JKP
Checked : PNA

Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port

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RP026 Figure FD0702 Wave crest pattern and wave height


coefficient Short term S direction, Hs = 2.89 m, Tp = 10.4 s
Rp = 1 yr.

Date:
07/04/04

8
2
3'
N

(Grid spacing 10meter)

250

200
Surface elevation

150

76
100

9'

'N
20
8

22

21

'N

'N

50

0
0

100

200

300
(Grid spacing 10 meter)

400

0.8 - 1
0.6 - 0.8
0.4 - 0.6
0.2 - 0.4
0 - 0.2
-0.2 - 0
-0.4 - -0.2
-0.6 - -0.4
-0.8 - -0.6
-1 - -0.8
Below -1

500

01/01/90 12:30:00

8
2
3
'N

(Grid spacing 10meter)

250

200
Wave ht Coeff

150

76
100

9'

'N
20
8

22

21

'N

'N

50

0
0

100

200

300
(Grid spacing 10 meter)

400

Above 0.9
0.8 - 0.9
0.7 - 0.8
0.6 - 0.7
0.5 - 0.6
0.4 - 0.5
0.3 - 0.4
0.2 - 0.3
0.1 - 0.2
0 - 0.1
Below 0

500

01/01/90 12:30:00

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala

Designed: JKP
Checked : PNA

Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port

C1021119

RP026 Figure FD0703 Wave crest pattern and wave height


coefficient Short term - SSE direction, Hs = 1.6 m, Tp = 8.6
s, Rp = 0.1 yr

Date:
07/04/04

Water surface elevation (m)

Offshore (Water surface elevation outside harbour)


1.0

0.0

-1.0

12:10
1990-01-01

12:15

12:20

12:25

12:30

12:25

12:30

12:25

12:30

12:25

12:30

12:25

12:30

Time

Berth 1
0.20
0.10
0.00
-0.10
-0.20
12:10
1990-01-01

12:15

12:20
Time

Berth 5
0.20
0.10
0.00
-0.10
-0.20
12:10
1990-01-01

12:15

12:20
Time

Berth 7
0.20
0.10
0.00
-0.10
-0.20
12:10
1990-01-01

12:15

12:20

Turning Circle
0.40
0.20
0.00
-0.20
-0.40
12:10
1990-01-01

12:15

12:20
Time

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala

Designed: JKP
Checked : PNA

Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port

C1021119

RP026 Figure FD0704 Water surface elevation at berth1, 5, 7 and turning circle WNW Direction Short

Date:
07/04/04

term .Hs = 2.6m Tp = 9.29 s, Tr = 0.1 yr

Checked : PNA

'N

9'
E

2
2

Designed: JKP

50

100

76

'N

150

200

250

23

(Grid spacing 10meter)

100

'N

200
300
400
(Grid spacing 10 meter)

1
2

500

0
2

'N

RP 026 Figure FD0705 BW Bathymetry for Alt 1 - Long term


Harbour Layout

Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala

Date:
07/04/04

C1021119

5 - 10
05
-2.5 0
-5 - -2.5
-7.5 -5
-10 - -7.5
-12.5 - -10
-15 - -12.5
-17.5 - -15
-20 - -17.5
-22.5 - -20
-25 - -22.5
Below -25

Water Depth (m)

Surface Elevation

2
3
'N

(Grid spacing 10 meter)

250

200

150

76
100

9'

'N
20
8

22

21

'N

'N

50

0
0

100

200

300
(Grid spacing 10 meter)

400

500

1.8 - 2
1.6 - 1.8
1.4 - 1.6
1.2 - 1.4
1 - 1.2
0.8 - 1
0.6 - 0.8
0.4 - 0.6
0.2 - 0.4
0 - 0.2
-0.2 - 0
-0.4 - -0.2
-0.6 - -0.4
-0.8 - -0.6
-1 - -0.8
-1.2 - -1
-1.4 - -1.2
-1.6 - -1.4
-1.8 - -1.6
-2 - -1.8
Below -2

01/01/90 12:30:00

8
2
3
'N

(Grid spacing 10meter)

250

200
Wave ht. Coeff.

150

76
100

9'

20
8

22

21

'N

'N

'N

50

0
0

100

200

300
(Grid spacing 10 meter)

400

Above 0.9
0.8 - 0.9
0.7 - 0.8
0.6 - 0.7
0.5 - 0.6
0.4 - 0.5
0.3 - 0.4
0.2 - 0.3
0.1 - 0.2
0 - 0.1
Below 0

500

01/01/90 12:30:00

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala


Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port
Designed: JKP
Checked : PNA

RP026 Figure FD0706 Wave crest pattern and wave height


coefficient Long term - S direction , Hs = 2.89 m, Tp = 10.4 s,
Tp =1 yr

Project No.
C1021119
Date:
30/08/03

8
2
3'
N

(Grid spacing 10 meter)

250

200
Surface Elevation

150

76
100

9'

'N
8

20

'N
21
8

22

'N

50

0
0

100

200

300
(Grid spacing 10 meter)

400

0.8 - 1
0.6 - 0.8
0.4 - 0.6
0.2 - 0.4
0 - 0.2
-0.2 - 0
-0.4 - -0.2
-0.6 - -0.4
-0.8 - -0.6
-1 - -0.8
Below -1

500

01/01/90 12:30:00

8
2
3'
N

(Grid spacing 10meter)

250

200
Wave ht Coeff

150

76
100

9'

'N
20
8

22

21

'N

'N

50

0
0

100

200

300
(Grid spacing 10 meter)

400

Above 0.9
0.8 - 0.9
0.7 - 0.8
0.6 - 0.7
0.5 - 0.6
0.4 - 0.5
0.3 - 0.4
0.2 - 0.3
0.1 - 0.2
0 - 0.1
Below 0

500

01/01/90 12:30:00

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala


Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port
Designed: JKP
Checked : PNA

RP 026 Figure FD0707 Wave crest pattern and wave height


coefficient Long term - SSE direction , Hs = 1.6 m, Tp = 8.6 s,
Tp = 0.1 yr

C1021119
Date:
07/04/04

Water Surface Elevation (m)

Surface Elevation (m) [m]

Offshore (Water Surface Elevation outside harbour)


1.0

0.0

-1.0

12:10
1990-01-01

12:15

12:20

12:25

12:30

12:25

12:30

12:25

12:30

12:25

12:30

12:25

12:30

Time

Berth 2
0.20
0.10
0.00
-0.10
-0.20
12:10
1990-01-01

12:15

12:20
Time

Berth 10
0.20
0.10
0.00
-0.10
-0.20
12:10
1990-01-01

12:15

12:20
Time

Berth 11
0.20
0.10
0.00
-0.10
-0.20
12:10
1990-01-01

12:15

12:20
Time

Turning Circle
0.40
0.20
0.00
-0.20
-0.40
12:10
1990-01-01

12:15

12:20
Time

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala


Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port
Designed: JKP
Checked : PNA

RP026 Figure FD0708 Water surface elevation at berth1, 2 and turning circle SSE Direction Long term
Hs = 1.6m Tp = 8.6 s, Tr = 0.1 yr

C1021119
Date:
07/04/04

ANNEXURE

Development of Vizhinjam Port with Private Sector Participation


Techno-Commercial Feasibility Report

A.7.1

C1021119
RP026 rev. 0

Tranquillity Study for Fishing Harbour

As part of the development of harbour facilities at Vizhinjam, two breakwaters namely north
and south have been proposed at Vizhinjam, wherein the initial portion of the north
breakwater is approximately 150m south of the existing fishing harbour at Vizhinjam. At the
time of submission of the draft report, the distance was arrived at taking into account the
effect of the proposed breakwater on the tranquillity conditions at the entrance to the fishing
harbour using empirical relationships. However, GoK has requested LTR to carry out detailed
mathematical model simulations to assess the wave tranquillity at the entrance to the fishing
harbour, though these are not part of the contract for consultancy services for the present
assignment. In this section the input wave conditions, methodology and results of the
tranquillity studies of various aspects are presented.
To assess the wave tranquillity at the entrance to the fishing harbour, Boussinesq Wave
(BW) module of MIKE21 software is used. This BW module considers the effects of shoaling,
refraction, diffraction of waves at the breakwater heads, and partial reflection and
transmission through breakwaters.

A.7.1.1

Bathymetry

An area of about 3.5km x 3km is selected from the general bathymetry as shown in Figure
FDA711 for the tranquillity studies. The grid spacing of 10m is chosen based on the stability
criterion of the model. The bathymetry used for the BW simulations is shown in Figure
FDA712. An artificial land is introduced within the proposed harbour, as this area has no
influence on the wave propagation inside the harbour. Partial reflection and transmission at
the breakwaters is modelled by specifying the corresponding porosity value assuming
reflection of 40% for all directions, and the effect of bottom friction is also included in the
simulations. Water surface elevation of 1.2m (MHWS) is chosen for simulations.
A.7.1.1.1

Incident Wave Conditions and simulations

From the orientation of breakwaters of fishing harbour, the predominant deep water waves
that could affect the tranquillity at the entrance to the fishing harbour are waves approaching
from WSW, West and WNW directions which covers 30% of the climate. The fishing harbour
area is sheltered by the northern breakwater from the rest of the directional waves namely
SSE, S and SSW and it would only improve tranquillity conditions at the entrance to the
fishing harbour. Therefore, it is appropriate to generate the waves from directions viz. WNW,
W and WSW to examine the tranquillity conditions inside the Fishing harbour. The details of
wave height and period of the waves from these directions corresponding to 1-year return
period are presented in the Table A.7.1-1.
Directional irregular waves confirming to Pierson Moskowitz (PM) spectrum with
corresponding significant wave height, peak period and direction were used to define
offshore wave conditions in the simulations. The BW simulations for the three directions have
been carried out for one hour, the wave parameters within the harbour were computed after
a warm up period of 10 minutes. The basic results from these simulations are surface
elevation, wave height and wave disturbance coefficient (ratio of the wave height at particular
grid point to the incident wave height). The wave disturbance coefficient and the wave

A.7.1 Tranquillity Study for Fishing Harbour


Page 1

Development of Vizhinjam Port with Private Sector Participation


Techno-Commercial Feasibility Report

C1021119
RP026 rev. 0

heights extracted from results of the simulations at a point outside the fishing harbour and at
the point at the entrance to the fishing harbour are shown in Table A.7.1-1.
Table A.7.1-1 Wave Characteristics used at the boundary for Tranquillity simulations

A.7.1.1.2

Wave direction

Significant Wave Wave period (sec)


Height (m)

WNW

3.1

6.5

West

3.3

7.0

WSW

3.4

6.6

BW results

The wave crest pattern and height coefficients corresponding to each direction are shown in
Figures FDA713 to FDA715. The time series of surface elevation outside and at the
entrance to the fishing harbour for each direction is presented in Figures FDA716, FDA717
and FDA718. The significant wave height at these two locations obtained using the wave
height coefficients extracted from the simulations and the deep-water significant wave height
are presented in Table A.7.1-2. Variation of wave height coefficient outside the harbour and
at the entrance to the fishing harbour for the whole simulation period is shown in Figure
FDA719. After the warm-up period the coefficient is almost constant throughout the
simulation period, indicating that there is no increase in wave height at the entrance of the
fishing harbour with time, due to the reflection of waves from the proposed north breakwater.
Table A.7.1-2 Wave height coefficient and max wave height from BW simulations
Wave Height Coefficient

Significant wave height (m)

Outside the
Harbour

At
the
entrance of
the harbour

Outside the
Harbour

At the
entrance of
the harbour

WNW

0.62

0.10

1.92

0.31

West

0.84

0.18

2.8

0.59

WSW

0.96

0.26

3.2

0.87

Wave
direction

A.7.1.1.2.1

WN W waves

The wave crest pattern and wave disturbance coefficient due to WNW waves is shown in
Figure FDA713. The wave penetration inside the harbour caused by these waves is lesser
than that of other predominant wave directions The wave height outside and at the entrance
of the fishing harbour are 1.92 and 0.31m respectively.

A.7.1 Tranquillity Study for Fishing Harbour


Page 2

Development of Vizhinjam Port with Private Sector Participation


Techno-Commercial Feasibility Report

A.7.1.1.2.2

C1021119
RP026 rev. 0

West waves

The wave crest pattern and wave height coefficient due to West waves is shown in Figure
FDA714. The wave disturbance caused by these waves is lesser than the WSW waves and
the wave height coefficients outside and at the entrance of harbour are 0.84, 0.18. The
maximum wave heights at the corresponding locations are 2.8 and 0.59m.
A.7.1.1.2.3

WSW Waves

From the Figure FDA715 it can be seen that the maximum wave height coefficients at the
entrance and outside the fishing harbour are 0.96 and 0.26 respectively. From the Table
A.7.1-2, it can be seen that the WSW waves penetration into the fishing harbour is more than
that of waves from other direction due to the direct approach of these waves from deep water
towards the fishing harbour and the enhanced diffraction of these waves at the head of the
northern breakwater of fishing harbour. The maximum wave heights simulated outside and at
the entrance of fishing harbour are 3.2 and 0.87m respectively.
A.7.1.1.3

Conclusions

From the BW results it can be concluded that the wave penetration in the harbour is more
due to waves from WSW direction than the other directions. The maximum wave heights
outside the harbour and at the entrance are 3.2 and 0.87m respectively. The results also
show that construction of the north breakwater does not adversely affect the tranquillity
condition at the entrance to the fishing harbour as the wave conditions at the entrance are
much lower compared to those outside the entrance.

A.7.1 Tranquillity Study for Fishing Harbour


Page 3

50

Checked : PNA

Designed: BVS

100

150

200

250

300

350

76 54 E

(Grid spacing 25meter)

400

100

200

300
400
(Grid spacing 25 meter)

76 58' E

76 56' E

500

RP026 Fig: FDA711 General Bathymetry

Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala

8 20' N

8 22' N

8 24' N

77 0' E

450

600

77 2' E

Date: 07/04/04

C1021119

Above -15
-20 - -15
-25 - -20
-30 - -25
-35 - -30
-40 - -35
-45 - -40
-50 - -45
Below -50

Water Depth (m )

50

100

150

200

Checked : PNA

'
59

76

100

150
200
(Grid spacing 10 meter)

250

300

RP026 Fig: FDA712 Bathymetry used for BW simulations

Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala

50

'N
23

Designed: BVS

(Grid spacing 10meter)

250

Date: 07/04/04

C1021119

Water depth (m)


5 - 10
0- 5
-3 - 0
-5 - -3
-10 - -5
-15 - -10
-20 - -15
-25 - -20
-30 - -25
-35 - -30
Below -35

'N
23
8

200

150

100

'E
59

76

(Grid spacing 10meter)

250

50

50

100
150
200
250
(Grid spacing 10 meter)
12/08/03 13:00:00

Wave height (m)


1.8 - 2
1.6 - 1.8
1.4 - 1.6
1.2 - 1.4
1 - 1.2
0.8 - 1
0.6 - 0.8
0.4 - 0.6
0.2 - 0.4
0 - 0.2
-0.2 - 0
-0.4 - -0.2
-0.6 - -0.4
-0.8 - -0.6
-1 - -0.8
-1.2 - -1
-1.4 - -1.2
-1.6 - -1.4
-1.8 - -1.6
-2 - -1.8
Below -2

300

7
'N
23
8

1 - Out side FH
2 - Entrance of FH

200

150
1
100

'E
59

76

(Grid spacing 10meter)

250

50

50

100
150
200
250
(Grid spacing 10 meter)
12/08/03 13:00:00

Wave coeff
0.9 - 1
0.8 - 0.9
0.7 - 0.8
0.6 - 0.7
0.5 - 0.6
0.4 - 0.5
0.3 - 0.4
0.2 - 0.3
0.1 - 0.2
0 - 0.1
Below 0

300

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala


Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port
Designed: BVS
Checked : PNA

RP026 Fig: FDA713 Wave crest pattern and wave height

coefficient - WNW direction , Hs = 3.1m, Tp = 6.5 s

C1021119
Date:
07/04/04

'N
23
8

200

150

100

E
9'
5
6
7

(Grid spacing 10meter)

250

50

50

100
150
200
250
(Grid spacing 10 meter)
12/08/03 13:00:00

Wave height (m)


1.8 - 2
1.6 - 1.8
1.4 - 1.6
1.2 - 1.4
1 - 1.2
0.8 - 1
0.6 - 0.8
0.4 - 0.6
0.2 - 0.4
0 - 0.2
-0.2 - 0
-0.4 - -0.2
-0.6 - -0.4
-0.8 - -0.6
-1 - -0.8
-1.2 - -1
-1.4 - -1.2
-1.6 - -1.4
-1.8 - -1.6
-2 - -1.8
Below -2

300

7
'N
23
8

1 - Out side FH
2 - Entrance of FH

200

150
1
100

E
9'
5
6
7

(Grid spacing 10meter)

250

50

50

100
150
200
250
(Grid spacing 10 meter)
12/08/03 13:00:00

Wave Coeff
0.9 - 1
0.8 - 0.9
0.7 - 0.8
0.6 - 0.7
0.5 - 0.6
0.4 - 0.5
0.3 - 0.4
0.2 - 0.3
0.1 - 0.2
0 - 0.1
Below 0

300

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala


Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port
Designed: BVS
Checked : PNA

RP026 Fig: FDA714 Wave crest pattern and wave height

coefficient - West direction , Hs = 3.3m, Tp = 7.0 s

C1021119
Date:
07/04/04

'N
23
8

200

150

100

E
9'
5
6
7

(Grid spacing 10meter)

250

50

50

100
150
200
250
(Grid spacing 10 meter)
12/08/03 13:00:00

300

'N
23
8

Wave height (m)


1.8 - 2
1.6 - 1.8
1.4 - 1.6
1.2 - 1.4
1 - 1.2
0.8 - 1
0.6 - 0.8
0.4 - 0.6
0.2 - 0.4
0 - 0.2
-0.2 - 0
-0.4 - -0.2
-0.6 - -0.4
-0.8 - -0.6
-1 - -0.8
-1.2 - -1
-1.4 - -1.2
-1.6 - -1.4
-1.8 - -1.6
-2 - -1.8
Below -2

1 - Out side FH
2 - Entrance of FH

200

150
1
100

'E
59

76

(Grid spacing 10meter)

250

50

50

100
150
200
250
(Grid spacing 10 meter)
12/08/03 13:00:00

Wave Coeff
0.9 - 1
0.8 - 0.9
0.7 - 0.8
0.6 - 0.7
0.5 - 0.6
0.4 - 0.5
0.3 - 0.4
0.2 - 0.3
0.1 - 0.2
0 - 0.1
Below 0

300

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala


Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port
Designed: BVS
Checked : PNA

RP026 Fig: FDA715 Wave crest pattern and wave height

coefficient - WSW direction , Hs = 3.4 m, Tp = 6.6 s

C1021119
Date:
07/04/04

Surface elevation [m]

Boundary
2.0

0.0

-2.0
12:20
2003-12-08

12:30

12:40

12:50

13:00

12:50

13:00

12:50

13:00

Surface elevation [m]

Outside the harbour


2.0

0.0

-2.0
12:20
2003-12-08

12:30

12:40

Surface elevation [m]

Entrance to the fishing harbour


2.0

0.0

-2.0
12:20
2003-12-08

12:30

12:40

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala


Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port
Designed: BVS
Checked : PNA

RP026 Fig: FDA716 Water surface elevation - WNW

direction , Hs = 3.4 m, Tp = 6.6 s

C1021119
Date:
07/04/04

Surface elevation [m]

Boundary
2.0

0.0

-2.0
12:20
2003-12-08

12:30

12:40

12:50

13:00

12:50

13:00

12:50

13:00

Surface elevation [m]

Outside the harbour


2.0

0.0

-2.0
12:20
2003-12-08

12:30

12:40

Surface elevation [m]

Entrance to the fishing harbour


2.0

0.0

-2.0
12:20
2003-12-08

12:30

12:40

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala


Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port
Designed: BVS
Checked : PNA

RP026 Fig: FDA717 Water surface elevation - West direction

Hs = 3.4 m, Tp = 6.6 s

C1021119
Date:
07/04/04

Surface elevation [m]

Boundary
2.0

0.0

-2.0
12:20
2003-12-08

12:30

12:40

12:50

13:00

12:50

13:00

12:50

13:00

Surface elevation [m]

Outside the Fishing harbour


2.0

0.0

-2.0
12:20
2003-12-08

12:30

12:40

Surface elevation [m]

Entrance to the Fishing harbour


2.0

0.0

-2.0
12:20
2003-12-08

12:30

12:40

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala


Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port
Designed: BVS
Checked : PNA

RP026 Fig: FDA718 Water surface elevation - WSW

direction , Hs = 3.4 m, Tp = 6.6 s

C1021119
Date:
07/04/04

Outside the FH
[()]
Entrance to the FH [()]

WNW

1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00

12:10
2003-12-08

12:20

Outside the FH
[()]
Entrance to the FH [()]

12:30

12:40

12:50

13:00

12:40

12:50

13:00

12:40

12:50

13:00

West

1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00

12:10
2003-12-08

12:20

Outside the FH
[()]
Entrance to the FH [()]

12:30

WSW

1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00

12:10
2003-12-08

12:20

12:30

Client: Department of Ports, Govt. of Kerala


Project: Development of Vizhinjam Port
Designed: BVS
Checked : PNA

RP026 Fig: FD A719 Wave height coefficients - WNW, West

and WSW directions

C1021119
Date:
07/04/04

ANNEXURE

Development of Vizhinjam Port with Private Sector Participation


Techno-Commercial Feasibility Report

C1021119
RP026 rev. 0

A.7.2.1 Details of Berthing Structure


A.7.2.1.1

Wharf

The 720 m long and 40 m wide wharf for main line berths is proposed in 10 modular units,
each unit of 72m length. The superstructure is proposed to cater for RMQC crane rails
placed at 30.4m c/c to cater to super post Panamax cranes. The crane rails are supported
by crane beams, which are in turn supported on large diameter piled foundations.
The final phase dredged depth in front of the berth is -18.7m CD while the initial phase
dredged depth is -16.0m CD. The berthing structure has to cater to design vessel size of
12,000 TEU (144,000 DWT) (LOA 365m; beam 60m and draft 17m) requiring a dredged
depth of -18.7m CD under long term development. The wharf is designed to be of precast
concrete composite construction.

A.7.2.1.2

Block Wall

The block wall is made of precast concrete units of varying sizes. The wall is placed on a
rock mound. Rock filter with a slope of 1:1 is provided behind the block wall, before
placement of the reclamation fill.

A.7.2.1.3

Container Yard

The container yard is paved with 100mm thick concrete paved blocks, The sub grade
below the paved blocks consist of stone base, lean concrete and sand bed. The internal
roads may be of asphalt or with paved blocks. The yard shall have a suitable drainage
system to drain the run-off from the area. Run-off from the area around parking, workshop,
fuel station etc. shall be treated to separate the oil from it before discharge into the storm
water drainage system.

A.7.2.2

Environmental Conditions

A.7.2.2.1

Met - Ocean data

A.7.2.2.1.1

Rainfall

Maximum monthly rainfall is 300 mm during monsoon period.


A.7.2.2.1.2

Humidity

The maximum relative humidity at the site is 99%.


A.7.2.2.1.3

Temperature

The minimum and maximum temperatures are 10 0 C and 45 0 C respectively.

A.7.2.1 Details of Berthing Structure


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Wind

Basic wind speed of 39 m/sec is considered, as per provisions of IS 8751987 for this region.
However maximum wind speed during operation shall be 26 m/sec.
A.7.2.2.1.5

Tide

The tidal levels at the Vizhinjam Port are presented in Table A.7.2. 2.1.
Table A.7.2. 2.1 Tidal levels
Levels

Height in meters
( With respect to CD)

A.7.2.2.1.6

HHWS

(+) 1.01

MHHW

(+) 0.84

MLHW

(+) 0.66

MHLW

(+) 0.43

MLLW

(+) 0.26

LLWS

(+) 0.08

Waves

Design operating wave height inside the harbour is taken as 0.5m with a wave period varying
from 8 to 12 seconds.
A.7.2.2.1.7

Currents

Current velocity inside the harbour is insignificant.

A.7.2.2.2

Seismicity

Vizhinjam falls under Zone III as per the seismic map of India shown in IS:1893(Part1)-2002.

A.7.2.2.3

Sub Soil Conditions

The soil stratum near the berth consists of loose to dense sand of thickness 5 m with
increasing SPT N values with depth. The N values range from 7 at shallow depth to 62 at
deeper depths. Hard rock is encountered below this sand layer. The observed bedrock is
moderately weathered at surface and rapidly grades into sound rock as depth increases.
The thickness of the weathered rock varies from 2 m to 3 m. It is seen from the petrography
tests that the encountered rock is Khondolite. The texture of this rock is coarse grained inter
granular and dark greyish black in colour. The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of the
hard rock is about 7.0 MPa. Based on observed SPT N values, the relative densities of
these soils typically range between loose to dense. Some of the engineering and physical
properties of the encountered sandy soil are mentioned below.
Sand content
Silt and Clay content

: >80 %
: <20 %
A.7.2.2 Environmental Conditions
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Soil Classification as per IS


Relative density
Angle of frictional resistance,

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: SP
: loose to dense
: 30 to 35 degrees.

A.7.2.3 Structural Design Parameters


A.7.2.3.1

Size of Design Vessel

The size of Design vessel for the design of berth structure will be 144,000 DWT.

A.7.2.3.2

Loading Standards

The suggested loading standards to be adopted for designing and construction of the berths
are indicated below:
The berthing structures are to be designed for the loads specified in the Bureau of Indian
Standards for Ports and Harbours, IS 4651 (1989).

A.7.2.3.3

Dead Loads

The following unit weights are used in the design to assess dead loads, i.e. permanent loads
due to self-weight of the structure and permanent equipment.
Reinforced Concrete:

25.0 kN/m 3

Structural Steel:

78.5 kN/m 3 + 10% for connection details

Seawater density:

10.3 kN/m3

A.7.2.3.4

Live Loads and Super Imposed Loads

The various live and superimposed loads to be considered are as follows:

Container Storage load of 5 kN/sq.m

IRC Class AA / Class 70R Vehicle loading of IRC: 6

Quay crane wheel load under service condition and wind condition as per manufacturers
specifications.

Concentrated point corresponding to the container handling equipment such as mobile


cranes, forklifts and trucks as per manufacturers specifications.

A.7.2.3.5

Berthing Loads

Berthing loads are calculated, as per IS 4651 (Part III) -1989.


Design Vessel Size

144,000 DWT (12,000TEU)

Length

365.0 m

Beam

60.0 m
A.7.2.3 Structural Design Parameters
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Draft

17.0 m

Approach Velocity

0.15 m/sec

Angle of approach

10

A.7.2.3.6

Wave Loads

Design operating wave height inside the harbour is taken as 0.5m with a wave period varying
from 8 to 12 seconds. Wave loads on piles will be calculated using Morrison Equation, which
is described in the Shore Protection Manual.

A.7.2.3.7

Current Loads

Current loads are not considered since the current velocity inside the harbour is very less.

A.7.2.3.8

Wind Loads

The wind loads on the structures shall be calculated for a basic wind speed of 39 m/sec, as
per provisions of IS 8751987 for this region. However maximum wind speed during
operation shall be 26 m/sec.

A.7.2.3.9

Mooring Forces

The design wind speed for calculating mooring force has been considered as 26 m/sec, as
this is the limit beyond which the vessel has to leave the berth. The mooring force shall be
calculated as per IS 4651(Part III). As per IS 4651, the mooring force works out to be 125T.

A.7.2.3.10 Seismic Loads


The design value for the horizontal seismic coefficient h shall be computed as per IS:1893
2002 as explained below:
Ah

= (Z*I*Sa)/(2*R*g)

Where
Ah

Design horizontal seismic coefficient

Zone factor

Importance factor depending on the functional use of structure

Response reduction factor

Sa/g

Average response acceleration coefficient

Vizhinjam falls under Zone III as per the seismic map of India shown in IS: 1893 2002.
Importance factor of 1.5 has been considered for this structure.

A.7.2.3.11 Load Combinations


Table A.7.2. 3.1 Load combinations are taken as per IS: 4651-Part (IV)-1989.

A.7.2.3 Structural Design Parameters


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LOAD COMBINATIONS
Limit state of
Service

Type of Loading

Limit State of Collapse

Sl.
No

Load
Description

Dead Load

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.2 0.9

Live Load

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.2 0.9

Berthing Force

1.0 1.0

Mooring Force

Seismic Force

II

III

IV

VI

VII

VIII IX

1.0 1.0

1.5 1.5
1.5 1.5

Transverse

1.5 1.5

Longitudinal
Transverse 1.0

1.0

1.0 1.0 1.2

1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0

Current Forces
Longitudinal

XIII XIV

1.5

Longitudinal

XII

1.5

Transverse

Wind Forces
(Nonoperational)

XI

Wave
(Operational)

1.0

Transverse 1.0
Longitudinal

1.0
1.0

1.0

1.2
1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0
1.0 1.0

1.0

1.0 1.0

A.7.2.4 Material Properties


A.7.2.4.1

Reinforced Concrete

The grade of concrete for substructure (piles)

M 35

Precast

M 35

Cast-in-situ

M 35

The grade of concrete for all superstructure

A.7.2.4.2

Reinforcement Steel

The Reinforcement steel shall be of corrosion resistant steel (CRS) of Fe 500 grade or
Fe 415 grade.

A.7.2.4 Material Properties


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Structural Steel

Yield Strength value of all steelwork shall be considered as 350 N/mm 2 or 250 N/mm2.

A.7.2.5 Design Codes


The following design codes will be the principle ones used in the various elements of the
design:

A.7.2.5.1

Indian Standards for Ports and Harbours

1. IS 4651 (Part I) 1974

Code of Practice for Planning and Design of Ports and


Harbours (Part I Site Investigations)

2. IS 4651 (Part II) 1989

Code of Practice for Planning and Design of Ports and


Harbours (Part II Earth Pressures)

3. IS 4651 (Part III) 1974 :

Code of Practice for Planning and Design of Ports and


Harbours (Part III Loading)

4. IS 4651 (Part IV) 1974 :

Code of Practice for Planning and Design of Ports and


Harbours (Part IV General Design Considerations)

5. IS 4651 (Part V) 1980 :

Code of Practice for Planning and Design of Ports and


Harbours (Part V - Layout and functional requirements)

6. IS 9527 (Part I) 1981

Code of Practice for Planning and Design of Ports and


Harbours Structures (Part 1- Concrete Monoliths)

7. IS 9527 (Part III) 1983

Code of Practice for Planning and Design of Ports and


Harbours Structures (Part III - Sheet Pile Walls)

8. IS 9527 (Part V) 1989

Code of Practice for Planning and Design of Ports and


Harbours Structures (Part V - Open Pile Structure)

9. IS 9527 (Part VI) 1989 :

Code of Practice for Planning and Design of Ports and


Harbours Structures (Part VI - Block Work)

10. IS 10020 (Part IV) 1981 :

Code of Practice for Planning and Design of Ports and


Harbours Structures (Part IV Slipway)

A.7.2.5.2

Standards for Roads, Bridges, Reinforced Concrete etc.

1. IRC - 6(1966)

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road


Bridges, Section II Loads and Stresses

2. IS 2911

Code of practice for design and construction of Pile


Construction

A.7.2.5 Design Codes


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3. IS 1893(1984)

Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures

4. IS 875(1987)

Code of Practice for Design Loads

5. IS 800(1984)

Code of Practice for General Construction and Steel

6. IS 456(2000)

Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete

7. IRC 21(1987)

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road


Bridges Section HI Cement Concrete Plain and Reinforced

8. IRC 22(1986)

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges


Section V] Composite Construction for Road Bridges

A.7.2.5.3

International Standards for Ports and Harbours

1. BS 6349

Parts 1 to 7

2. BS 8002

British Standard Code of Practice for Maritime


Structures.

Code of practice for Earth Retaining Structures

3. Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan 1980


-

The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan

4. Manual on the Use of Rock in Coastal and Shoreline Engineering - 1991


-

Construction Industry

Research and

Information Association Special

Publication- 83 (1991)
5. British Ports Association (1983) -Design of Heavy Duty Pavements for Ports
6. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1984) - Shore Protection Manual

A.7.2.5.4

Electrical Equipment and Installations

The Standards / Guidelines issued by the following organisations may be followed:


1. NEC

National Electrical Code

2. NEMA

National Electrical Manufacturers Association

3. ANSI

American National Standard Institute

4. IEC

International Electro Technical Commission

5. IS

Indian Standard

A.7.2.5 Design Codes


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American Petroleum Institute

A.7.2.6 Particular Design Conditions


A.7.2.6.1

Marine growth

A marine growth of 50 mm thick on the circumference of the piles can be considered for the
area of action while accessing the wave / current forces.

A.7.2.6.2

Scour allowance

A nominal scour of 2.0m is assumed for the pile design in the erodible bed strata.

A.7.2.6.3

Pile safety factors

Factor of safety values of 2.5 in compression and 3.0 in tension will be applied for the pile
design.

A.7.2.6.4

Levels

The levels for the proposed berth are as follows:


Design deck level

: (+) 5.00 m CD

Design dredge level

: (-) 18.70 m CD

HWS

: (+) 1.01 m CD

A.7.2.7 Preliminary Design Results


Structural analysis has been performed for the berthing structure using STAAD-Pro software.
Based on the analysis results, preliminary design has been carried out as per standards and
codes mentioned earlier. Results of the design are presented below:
The wharf is designed to be of precast concrete composite construction. It consists of
precast transverse and longitudinal beams with an in-situ deck all supported on piles. The
piles in this arrangement are bored cast in situ piles 1300 mm dia. under the crane rails and
1200 mm dia. for all other rows. Piles are proposed to be taken to hard rock strata and
socketed about 2m in it. Suitable wharf furniture like fenders, bollards and ladders are
provided in the structure. Rock protection is provided on the dredged slope below the berth
bed for the entire length of the wharf.

A.7.2.6 Particular Design Conditions


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Breakwater Design Basis

A.7.3.1 General
As part of the development of harbour facilities at Vizhinjam port two breakwaters namely
North and South have been proposed. The design criteria adopted and details of the cross
sections of North and South breakwaters are presented in the following paragraphs.

A.7.3.2 Breakwater Layout & Design Basis


The final layout of the breakwater is chosen based on the planning parameters, existing site
conditions and from the requirement of tranquillity conditions that is to be maintained inside
the harbour for the predominant wave and wind directions prevailing at the site. The finalised
layout consists of North and South breakwaters with Southeast opening. The North
breakwater starts from shore and extends upto -22m contour for a length of about 3300m in
short term and will be further extended to 1350m in the long term while the South breakwater
starts from shore and extends upto -15m contour for a length of about 450m.

A.7.3.3 Design water levels


The water levels at the site with respect to CD are as follows:
HHWS

+1.01

MHHW

+0.84

MLHW

+0.66

MSL

+0.55

MHLW

+0.43

MLLW

+0.26

Assuming a storm surge of +2m above HHWS during the storm the design water level is
+3.0m.

A.7.3.4 Design wave height


From the extreme wave data analysis presented in Chapter 7 (Table 7.3) the critical wave
direction, which results in maximum wave heights at the location of the proposed
breakwaters, is SSW. The design significant wave height for the proposed breakwaters at
23m water depth is 6.3m, and at 15m water depth it is 6.0m. The mean wave period in this
direction is 10s. These parameters are considered in the design of the breakwater cross
sections.

A.7.3 Breakwater Design Basis


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A.7.3.5 Design Procedure


A.7.3.5.1

Breakwater

3.5.1.1 Armour layer


Core-Loc units are proposed in the armour layer of the breakwater as the required rock sizes
for the design waves are in the range of 15-20 tonnes. The Core-Loc unit size corresponding
to a significant wave height of 6.3m at 23m-water depth is 8.5m3 according to the standard
design formula (Ref.3). However these units are stable upto a Hs of 7.5m. Likewise for a
significant wave height of 6.0m at 15m-water depth the unit size is 6.2 m3, which are stable
upto Hs of 6.7m. This armour layer is extended upto one significant wave height below the
MLLW at all the water depths. Below this level the core is protected by the under layer till the
seabed level.
The armour slope is generally determined by the type of armour unit, soil conditions and for
the Core-Loc units the recommended slope of 4/3 is used.
3.5.1.2 Rear side Armour unit
As the breakwater is designed for over-topping during design storm event, the harbour side
of the breakwater is protected with the rock armour units of 2 to 7 T, in 3/2 slope.
3.5.1.3 Armor layer thickness
Artificial armour unit Core-Loc of 6.2 cum is placed in single layer with 2.8m thickness on
seaside in 15m water depth and in 23m depth they are placed in single layer with 3.1m
thickness. The thickness of randomly placed rear side armour layer is designed to contain
two rocks, and a thickness of 2Dn50 corresponding to 2.4m is provided, where Dn50 is the
nominal size of the rock.
3.5.1.4 Under layer
Under layer is provided to act as a filter between primary layer and core, to prevent the
escape of core material through the armour units and to protect the core material from
moderate storms during construction. It helps in dissipating wave energy passing through the
armour layer and provides a stable bed for the armour layer. The weight of these individual
units and thickness of under layer corresponding to the Core-Loc size of 8.5m3 is 1.3-2.9 T
with a layer thickness of 2.2m and the same for 6.2m3 Core-Loc units is 1-2.1 T with a layer
thickness is 1.7m.
3.5.1.5 Crest width and Elevation
The crest width depends greatly on the degree of allowable overtopping. The minimum crest
width should be equal to the combined widths of three armour units.
In 15m-water depth, three Core-Loc units are provided in the crest that covers a width of 5m.
At the end of these units, for better interlocking of these units and for stability of these units a
concrete crest structure of 4.75m wide is provided. In 23m-water depth the crest width of
5.7m is provided. The proposed breakwater is of overtopping type, and is designed to allow
only the permissible amount of overtopping discharge without causing damage to the crest
A.7.3 Breakwater Design Basis
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and rear side armour units. Accordingly the crest elevation is fixed at +8.0m at 23m water
depth and at +7.0m in 15m-water depths.
3.5.1.6 Core
The ideal function of core of the breakwater is to prevent transmission of waves through the
breakwater into the harbour area. In addition to this the core material has to withstand some
amount of wave action during construction. Considering these the core material is chosen as
0-1000 kg of quarry run for breakwater. Ideally, the percentage of fines below 1 kg should
not be more than 1% of the total mass and the material between 1 and 10 kg should be
between 5% and 10% of total mass (Ref. 2).
3.5.1.7 Toe berm width and height
To avoid the settlement of the armour layer, a toe berm of width of 5 armour units and height
of 2 armour units is provided both on sea and lee side. Stability of the toe berm was checked,
for the low water level and design wave conditions and the damage is within the acceptable
limits.
3.5.1.8 Stone Filter and bedding layer
A 1m thick stone filter comprising of 1060 kg stones is provided between the gravel filter
and the overlaying rock of the toe berm on either side. A 10-100mm thick gravel filter is
provided as a bedding layer for the entire length of the breakwater.
A.7.3.5.2

References

1. British Standards Institution (1991). British Standard Code of practice for Maritime
structures, Part 7. Guide to the design and construction of breakwaters BS 6349:Part 7:
1991, British Standards Institution, London.
2. Van der Meer, J.W. (1993). Conceptual design of rubble mound breakwaters Delft
Hydraulics Publication No.483, Delft Hydraulics Laboratory, Netherlands.
3. Melby A.J. and G.F. Turk (1997). Core-Loc concrete armour units. Technical report
CHL-97-4. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment station.

A.7.3 Breakwater Design Basis


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Design Basis Dredging and Reclamation

A.7.4.1 Dredging and Reclamation Quantities


The dredging and reclamation quantities are given below (ref enclosed drawing):
Phases
Initial Phase Development

Reclamation
Area (in ha)
Volume (million cu.m)
97
11.5

Dredging
Volume (cu.m)
11.2*

About 1 million cum dredging is envisaged in the harbour for initial phase development and
11.2 million cum. for final phase development. However since the quantity required for
reclamation purposes in initial phase is 11.5 million cum, it is proposed that dredging for final
phase development may be carried out initially to meet the initial phase reclamation
quantities. The channel and berth pockets may be dredged to meet this requirement. The
initial and final dredged depths in front of the berths are 16.0m and 18.7m CD. Field
surveys such as bathymetric survey, sub-soil seismic profiling and marine borehole
investigations are carried out the port site (results of marine borehole investigations is given
below).

A.7.4.2 Typical Properties of Soil:


The soil strata near the turning circle consists of loose to dense sand of thickness 5 m with
increasing SPT N values with depth. The N values range from 7 at shallow depth to 62 at
deeper depths. The soil profile in the channel consists of loose to dense sand. The observed
SPT N values are in the range of 13 at shallow depth and to refusal in deeper depths in sand
deposit. Thickness of the sand deposit along the channel is 3 m. Hard rock is encountered
below this sand layer. The observed bedrock is moderately weathered at surface and rapidly
grades into sound rock as depth increases. The thickness of the weathered rock varies from
2 m to 3 m. It is seen from the petrography tests that the encountered rock is Khondolite. The
texture of this rock is coarse grained inter granular and dark greyish black in colour.
It is seen from the borehole profiles that the soil encountered in the turning circle and along
the channel is predominantly sandy in nature. Sand or silty sand is observed in the area
down to the weathered rock/hard rock level. Based on observed SPT N values, the relative
densities of these soils typically range between loose to dense. Some of the engineering and
physical properties of the encountered sandy soil are mentioned below.
Sand content

: >80 %

Silt and Clay content

: <20 %

Soil Classification as per IS

: SP

Relative density

: loose to dense

Angle of frictional resistance,

: 30 to 35 degrees

A.7.4 Design Basis Dredging and Reclamation


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CHAPTER 8
Port Hinterland Connectivity

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8 Port Hinterland Connectivity


8.1 Existing Road & Rail Network in the Region
The major road / rail networks in the project region are the National Highway No 47
(connecting Salem - Kanyakumari) and the Southern railway BG line (Thiruvanthapuram Nagercoil) and are located around 8-10 km NE of the proposed port site. The nearest
settlements through which the above networks are traversing are Neyyattinkara and
Balaramapuram.
National Highway 47 which connects Salem to Kanyakumari passes through Coimbatore
(Tamil Nadu) Palakkad, Thrissur, Kochi, Kollam, Alappuzha, Thiruvanthapuram (Kerala) and
Nagercoil (Tamil Nadu). Further, it is connected to Chennai and rest of the Country through
N.H.17, NH 46 and NH 45. As a part of the Prime Ministers National Highways Development
Programme, some stretches between Salem and Kochi are identified for strengthening and
widening to four / six lane standard. Further to that the National Highway connecting
Kanyakumari to Thiruvananthapuram is also proposed to be included in the PM - BJP four
laning programme recently announced by the Prime Minister.
The Broad Gauge Line of Southern Railway connecting Thiruvananthapuram - Nagercoil Kannyakumari is the major rail network in the project region. The railway line runs NorthSouth and connects to Mumbai through Konkan Railway. The rail line connects southern
parts of Tamilnadu through Nagercoil and Madurai as well as to the north west region of
Tamilnadu through Palakkad and Coimbatore. Indian Railways have a major division in
Thiruvananthapuram and the goods Yard is located at Veli, which is on the northern part of
Thiruvananthapuram. At present, the rail line is a single line between Thiruvananthapuram
and Kanyakumari. Beyond Thiruvananthapuram towards north, the rail is in double line up to
Kayamkulam and further north upto Cochin the rail doubling work is in progress. After Cochin
the trunk route to Chennai has double line track. Electrification of rail track between Cochin
and Thiruvananthapuram is in progress.
8.1.1 NH 47 Bypass
To Bypass Thiruvanthapuram, Neyyattinkara, Balaramapuram, Parassala and other small
settlements, National Highways division proposed a bypass to the western side of the
existing National Highway between Kazhakottam and Parassala with a have a total length of
44.25 km.
The total bypass is divided into two phases, Phase I is from Kazhakottom to Kovalam, which
is having a length of 22.63 km, is already completed. Phase II section connecting Kovalam to
Parassala has a length of 21.62 km with a RoW of 46m and is further subdivided into the
three segments.
The PWD, NH division marked the alignment on the ground and completed the land
acquisition between Kovalam and Mukkola (3.27 km). The second stretch 8.74 km, extending
upto, Kanjiramkulam has also been demarcated with pillars and funds for land acquisition
already allotted for the same. The stretch from Kanjirakulam to Parasala is also been
identified.

8 Port Hinterland Connectivity


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Figure FD0801 shows the alignment of proposed bypass along with other major road
network.

8.2 External Road /Road Connectivity


8.2.1 Need for the Connectivity
The proposed port is mainly intended as Container Transhipment Hub and the cargo from
the hinterland is marginal. It is estimated that around 2.5 million tonnes of cargo will be
distributed to the hinterland through road and by rail, which will be subsequently increased
with the corresponding phases of the Port Development.
8.2.2 Alignment Options
The consultants carried out detailed map studies and identified various alignment options for
connecting the proposed port to the nearest national road / rail network through map studies.
The consultants referred the Topomaps, Landuse plans and satellite imageries including
Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) of the region.
On analysis of the terrain characteristics of the region, it was observed that the eastern and
the southern parts of the Thiruvananthapuram city is generally undulating and as it reaches
further towards the south near Kovalam and Vizhinjam the terrain is more steeper near the
coastal area. The terrain is generally flat in the northern part of Thiruvananthapuram.
Moreover, the existing NH and Railway line are running close to the coastline in the northern
part of Thiruvananthapuram City. Towards the southern part of the city the rail and the road
corridors are moving away from the coastline which pose a major challenge in providing
connectivity to both National rail and road network from the proposed port location.
Keeping in view the terrain characteristics, landuse pattern and the CRZ in the region,
alignment options have been identified. The identified alignments options are reviewed with
the terrain characteristics, CRZ, land use. Two options for linkage connections from
proposed port to National Highway and Railway Line are proposed as short term and long
term development.
8.2.3 Reconnaissance Survey
On completion of the map studies, the Consultants team comprising of Road Expert, Rail
Expert, Environmental & Social Experts along with the Port Planning Expert carried out a
detailed reconnaissance survey along the identified options. The team studied the terrain and
the existing roads connecting to the project site.
The land abutting the proposed port location is having relatively very high elevation with
respect to mean sea level on the eastern part. Due to high cliffs, the existing roads leading to
the proposed port vicinity have also steep gradients. These roads are having poor geometric
and are below the acceptable limits. Any new alignments directly to the east of the proposed
port are not considered as they will have steep gradients and sharp curves, much below the
acceptable standards for the port connection and also Coastal Regulation Zone Implications.
The team visited the NH47 Bypass between Kovalam and Kanjirakulam. The proposed
Bypass is located at a distance of 4 km North from the proposed port location.

8 Port Hinterland Connectivity


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Based on the outcome of the reconnaissance survey and map studies, the following
alignment options are finalised for connecting the port viz.

Option 1- Access from the North Breakwaters (short term development)

Option 2- Access from the South Breakwaters (long term development)

An overall layout showing the alignment options corresponding to different phases in the
project development are shown Figure FD0802. Further the above two options have been
appreciated on Technical, Environmental and Social Fronts and the details of the same are
discussed in the following sections.
8.2.4 Compatibility with Coastal Regulation Zone
As per the Coastal Regulation Zoning land reclamation, bunding or disturbing the natural
course of sea water except those required for construction or modernisation or expansion of
ports, harbours, jetties, wharves, quays, slipways, bridges and sea links and for other
facilities that are essential for activities permissible under the notification or for prevention of
sandbar.

On review of Coastal Zone Management Plan (CZMP) of the region, it is observed that a
stretch between the proposed north breakwater & south breakwater of fishing harbour
has been classified as sensitive zone 50m zone from HTL as it is prone to erosion.
Also the stretch near the proposed Southern Breakwater (long term development) also
falls under the 50m sensitive zone

Given the above, it can be said that construction of link between proposed port and the
fishing harbour is a permissible activity as the proposed link is a main operational criteria for
the proposed port. Keeping this in view, it is decided to connect the alignment diagonally
from the proposed north breakwater to the south breakwaters without disturbing the CRZ.

8.3

Access from North Breakwaters Short Term Development

8.3.1 Alignment Description


Keeping in view the terrain, activities at the fishing harbour and the Coastal Regulation
Zoning, an elevated corridor is proposed from the Northern Breakwaters to the Nh47 Bypass
meeting point (NE of Mukkola Junction). A map showing the alignment is enclosed as Figure
FD0802. The coastal stretch identified for the port extends between Vizhinjam and Chowara
beach (near Adamalathurai) and starts 150m south from the Vizhinjam Fishing Harbour
(southern breakwaters). The stretch of the alignment between the North breakwater and the
Mukkola River (near Kottapuram) is a Greenfield stretch and thereafter the alignment runs
along the Vizhinjam - Mukkola Road and meets the NH47 Bypass meeting point 100m NE of
Mukkola Junction.
The road stretch between Vizhinjam to Mukkola is steep and meandering and will be difficult
for the multi axle vehicles to negotiate the gradient with heavy loads. Geometric
improvements are needed for this stretch of the road with minimum land acquisition. At
present, a small bypass connecting the Kovalam - Vizhinjam road and Vizhinjam - Mukkola
road near Petrol pump is under development.
The existing road connecting Mukkola to Balaramapuram is generally flat when compared to
that road connecting from Vizhinjam to Mukkola. Geometric improvements are need for this
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stretch of the road with minimum land acquition and within the available Right of Way (RoW).
Due to the difficulty in the terrain in the north and insignificant inland cargo movement,
railway link was not considered in this option.
At Mukkola the existing road meets the proposed National highway bypass and further, this
corridor can be extended upto NH47 at Balaramapuram by Strengthening and widening of
the Mukkola and Balaramapuram Section (around 7km). Until the NH47 Bypass is
constructed, the vehicles could use Mukkola - Balaramapuram Road. Meanwhile to facilitate
movement of goods from port through railway, a separate railway transit yard is proposed
near Balarampuram Railway Station. For providing this yard it is estimated that 15 hectares
of land would need to be acquired by the side of the existing railway track near
Balaramapuram railway station. Cargo from the port could be transported to this transit yard
through the proposed road connection from port to Balarampuram railway station.
8.3.1.1 Critical Stretches in the Alignment
The critical areas in the corridor are:

North Break waters to Petrol Pump on Vizhinjam - Mukkola Road (Section A-B)
Petrol Pump on Vizhinjam - Mukkkola road to Mukkola Junction (Section B-C)

North Breakwaters to Mukkola Road


The access from the North Breakwater upto the
Fishing harbour has to be meticulously planned. The
alignment cannot be taken along the rock cliff (near
Kottapuram area) as this zone comes under the sensitive
zone as per the CZMP of the area (prepared by the
CESS).
A small pocket beach between the southern
breakwater of the fishing harbour and the proposed north
breakwaters. This beach is currently being used by few
fishermen belonging to Kottarpuram village and the fishing activity is mainly through
Shorsien method, which requires beachfront. Apart
from this few traditional crafts are also noticed on the
beach.
There are commercial activities near the fishing harbour
hence the corridor is planned with minimal / no
disturbance to the communities. This portion of the road
is proposed to be elevated from the southern breakwater
upto Vizhinjam - Mukkola road. This elevated section will
not interrupt the present activities of the Vizhinjam harbour.

Petrol Pump to Mukkola Junction (via Thaneermukham)


Geometrical improvements are needed between Petrol
Pump and Thaneermukham Junction which will involve
some land acquisition resulting in relocation
Commercial establishments were noticed at the
Mukkola Junction (Y Junction). In addition, there is a huge
banyan tree located in the centre of the Junction. It was
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also observed that the junction has heavy pedestrian movement.


Development of the corridor might relocate / disturb some of the commercial
establishments.

8.3.1.2 Rehabilitation and Resettlement Issues


In this options there is a possibility of R&R issues cropping up. The following table broadly
presents the likely R&R issues in this stretch.
S.No

Stretch /Area

No of structures likely to be disturbed

Section A-B
to

Fishing

Around 4 structures could be disturbed due to the


corridor development in this stretch. Out of the 4
structures, two are semi pucca in nature. These houses
are located along the drain abutting the fishing harbour
road.

1.

North Breakwater
Harbour Road

2.

Fishing Harbour Road - Mukkola


Road

Vacant Patch of Land

3.

Mukkola Road - Petrol Pump

Geometric improvements are needed which may affect


around 4 structures, 2 structures (commercial) located
south of the bridge will get affected including a small
pocket of land. Further one pucca house (partially) and
a Kutcha house (fully) will get affected just before the
meeting point at proposed new road near the petrol
pump.

Section B-C
4.

Petrol Pump to Thaneermukham


Junction

This stretch has sharp curves and requires geometrical


improvements. Semi pucca structures / kutcha
structures around 10 are observed, north of road which
may fully / partially get disturbed due to the geometric
improvements.

5.

Thaneermukham
Junction

Mukkola

Residential / commercial developments are observed on


either side of the road until Mukkola junction. Ribbon
development of structures is observed on either side of
the road in this stretch. The RoW is varying between
10-14m and the carriageway width is 7m with no paved
shoulders. Geometric improvements in this stretch will
not involve significant land acquisition. There are about
30 structures noticed on either side of the road, which
met fully or partially affected.

6.

Mukkola Junction to NH47 Bypass


point

Y junction with heavy pedestrian movement. There are


about two shopping complexes (each housing five to six
shops) and two pucca houses may get disturbed due to
the road widening.

to

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8.3.1.3 Details of Land Holdings


The survey numbers, which fall under the influence area (100m on either side) of the
proposed alignment, are listed in the table below. The exact no of survey no and the
buildings affected can only be estimated after detailed engineering (topo survey) is
undertaken and is shown in Figure FD 0804.
Road Stretch
Section A -B
North Breakwater - Petrol
Pump
Section B -C
Petrol Pump to Mukkola
Junction - Bypass meeting
point

Survey Number

Remarks

201,203,205,198,200,196,140 (on the left side)


250,255,206,209,214,215,216,213,
117,218,212

194,179,193,192,191,186,190,345,343,344,342,
433 (Left side)
217,218,219,223, 220,211,239, 240,256, 238,
224, 243, 237,225,223,227,228, 229, 230, 231,
232, 233, 337, 339, 335, 334, 336, 340, 311,
3212,313,341,623,621,616,618
(Right Side)

Survey Numbers 206 &


207 are observed to be
vacant and may belong
to Church lands (as per
the block 17 map)
All the land holdings
except 226 are private
lands

Source : Village Block Maps, Thiruvananthapuram obtained through DoP

8.4 Access from South Breakwater - Long term Development


8.4.1 Description of the Corridor
The access proposed from the southern breakwater (future development) is shown in Figure
FD0803. The corridor takes off from the southern breakwater, crosses the Karichal River,
runs SE of Kanjirakulam, crosses NH 47 NW of Neyyattinkara and ends at Neyyattinkara
Railway station. It is a combined corridor comprising of Road & Rail having a length of
around 6.6 Km until the NH47 Bypass Meeting point (south of Kanjirakulam Jn). From the
NH47 Bypass, it is a single corridor (only rail link) upto Neyyattinkara .The corridor traverses
through moderate to densely populated areas and may result in some relocation issues due
to land acquisition. The configuration of road - rail corridor is given in Figure FD0804.
A maximum gradient of 2% and the minimum radius of curvature of 300m is considered for
the new road cum rail corridor from port to the railway line. Total width of 40-m right of way
is considered up to the NH Bypass. The right of way for rail is considered as 16 m for two
broad gauge lines. Initially single line rail connectivity may be provided which can be doubled
as the traffic increases. The final formation width will be based on the actual cutting and
filling required for the proposed alignment. The corridor is divided into three sections (Figure
FD0803) and the description of the same is as follows:
Section D-E- South Breakwaters to Poovar Road

The initial stretch of 2.6 Km traverses along the Gothambu road, East of Adamalthurai
road on a flat ground.
Just before the Karichal river, the corridor takes a turn towards NE, crosses the small
backwaters /kayal (Karichal river) of Adamalthurai (Figure FD0803), Poovar Admalathurai road and crosses the Karichal River in Skew.
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This corridor is planned to be elevated and will enable access to the tourists visiting
Chowara Beach and the fishing communities using Adamalthurai Beach.

Section E-F - Poovar Road - NH47 Bypass Point

After crossing the Karichal River, the corridor crosses the Mukkola -Poovar Road and
traverses west of Kochupally, Marathukonam villages.
The corridor crosses the Pulivilla - Kanjirakulam Road north of Chavadi intersection. Near
the intersection Point, Kanjirakulam Panchayat office is located.
After crossing the Pulivilla road , it crosses the Kanjirakulam - Poovar road near south of
the Municipal ground, traverses further and meets the NH47 Bypass point near
Nellakurichi village (2kms South of Kanjirakulam junction)
The corridor from the Poovar -Mukkola road crossing to NH 47Bypass meeting point is
undulating in nature and development of road /rail corridor will involve large amounts of
cutting and filling.

Section F-G - NH 47 Bypass to Neyyattinkara Railway Station


After reaching the NH bypass, the road traffic can follow the bypass alignment and could
reach Parasala in the south and Kazhakuttam in the north to reach NH 47. Hence, from this
point until Neyyattinkara, only rail link is envisaged. The rail link is planned west of the
Pazhayakada - Neyyattinkara Road

At the bypass point, the rail line can be grade separated. It further runs towards east
parallel to Pazhayakada - Neyyattinkara road. The terrain along the rail corridor is
undulating and might involve cutting and filling
Near Olathani, the proposed alignment crosses Olathani - Kodungavila road where the
alignment runs along coconut groves
The rail corridor crosses the Olattani-Kodunguvally road, NW of Olattani Junction and
runs west of the Olattani -Neyyattinkara Road and crosses the NH47, 3km West of
Neyyattinkara, near Municipal stadium and ends at Neyyattinkara railway station.
The rail alignment will cross the existing NH between Balaramapuram and Neyyattinkara
by grade separation and reach the south of the railway line near Neyyattinkara Station.

8.4.2 Critical Areas in the Corridor


The critical areas in the corridor are Chowara Beach and the Gothambu Road. The details on
the areas are listed below:
Chowara Beach

Chowara beach is located near the proposed


southern breakwater. Currently the beach is being
used by the tourists visiting the resorts
(Somatheeram, Travancore Heritage etc.) for
recreation and sunbathing. In addition the beach is
also visited by local populace who come to the
Kottukal Temple.

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Development of the road /rail corridor from the


southern breakwater along the beach can
cause impact on the tourists /visitors in the
beach.
Further, a church constructed on a small hillock
is noticed in the beach, which needs to be
taken care while developing the corridor.
In addition, while planning the corridor, the CRZ
regulation in this area shall also be considered.
These aspects need to be taken into consideration while planning the corridor from the
southern breakwater and it should be seen that there should not be any loss to the
beachfront.

Gothambu Road

The most critical stretch in this corridor is the Adamalthurai beach. Adamalthurai is a
fishing village and the activity is concentrated along the beach. Shorsien method of
fishing is practised along the Admalathurai beach. The fishing communities who use the
Adamalthurai beach cross the Gothambu Road and reach beach. Adamalthurai is a
thickly populated village, developed between the lateritic cliff and the seacoast.
The Gothambu Road is kutcha road between the Beachfront and the Admalathurai
village. The proposed corridor traverses along the Gothambu Road. Hence the alignment
/ corridor is planned along the Gothambu road to avoid major Rehabilitation and
Resettlement Issues.

Due to the fishing activities on the beach, there will be frequent crossing by the fishing
communities, which could result into accidents and some social tensions. The proposed
corridor could also attract resistance from the fishing communities as they might have
apprehension of their livelihood getting affected.

In light of the above, the corridor in Section D- E is planned on elevated section which will
give an access to the fishermen using Admalathurai beach and hence cause no disturbance
the fishing activities. The elevated portion of the corridor can be 30 m wide for
accommodating road & rail formations with provision of footpath on one side and crash
barriers.

8.5 Preliminary Block Cost Estimates


The block cost estimates for developing the road and rail connection from the proposed port
is given below (the cost estimates are within + 20% range).
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8.5.1 Initial Phase Cost


8.5.1.1 Option One - Access through North end of Proposed Port

Cost of elevated road including land acquisition from port to


Petrol pump (1.2 km)

Rs. 23 Crores

Cost of road improvements from petrol pump to bypass - 1.8 km

Rs. 2 Crores

Cost of land acquisition (18m RoW), widening and improvement


of Mukkola Balaramapuram (7 km)

Rs. 7 Crores

Cost of Construction Road overlaying and providing paved


shoulders up to National highway (10 km)

Rs. 9 Crores
Rs. 41 Crores

Total Road Cost


8.5.1.2 Rail transit yard near the existing railway track

Rs. 10 Crores

Cost of Land acquisition near the existing railway track (15 Ha)

Cost of Transit facility near Balaramapuram railway station


Total Rail Cost for Transit facility
Total Road + Rail Cost in Initial Phase

Rs. 6 Crores
Rs. 16 Crores
Rs. 57 Crores

8.5.2 Long Term Cost


8.5.2.1 Option Two - Access through South end of Proposed Port

Cost of Land acquisition for 25 m wide Road Corridor upto NH


bypass near Kanjiramkulam junction (6.6 km)

Rs 11Crores

Cost of elevated road (2.6 km)

Rs. 47 crores

Cost of at grade road upto NH Bypass (4 km)


Total Road Cost

Rs 10 Crores
Rs. 68 Crores

8.5.2.2 Rail connection through south end

Cost of additional land acquisition for 16 m wide Rail Corridor from Rs. 7 Crores
south breakwater of proposed port to NH bypass near
Kanjiramkulam Junction (6.6 km)

Cost of elevated rail (2.6 km)

Cost of land acquisition for 16 m wide Rail Corridor from NH bypass Rs. 7 Crores
near Kanjiramkulam junction to existing rail line at Neyyatinkara (7.0
km)

Rs. 52 Crores

Cost of Construction of Rail from port to National Railway line at Rs. 44 Crores
Neyyatinkara (13.6 km)
Total Rail Cost
Rs. 110 Crores
Total Road + Rail Cost in Long Term
Rs. 178 Crores

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FIGURES

CHAPTER 9
Environmental and Social Impacts

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9 Environmental and Social Impacts


9.1 General
All developmental activities are associated with varying potential impacts on the
environmental and social attributes of the region. The proposed development of Vizhinjam
Port may also result in environmental and social impacts. To assess the impacts on
environment from development of Vizhinjam Port, studies will be required.
To address the above Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment (REIA) Study is carried out
as part of the Phase I report.
In this chapter, a brief summary of REIA study is presented covering the following:

Baseline environmental status


Environmental and social impacts
Environmental Management Plan

9.2 REIA Study


The REIA Study is carried out in a format suitable for seeking No Objection Certificate /
Consent for Establishment (NOC / CFE) from the statutory authorities based on the proposed
developmental activities discussed in the various other chapters of this report. The details of
the objective, scope and methodology of REIA Study are briefly presented below.
9.2.1 Objective
The objective of the
necessary information
(VPPA) and carrying
prospective developer
the project.

assessment is to elaborate the task of collecting and presenting


on environmental and social features of Vizhinjam Port Project Area
out Rapid EIA Study of the proposed project that will assist the
to understand the critical environmental and social issues related to

9.2.2 Scope
The scope of the REIA Study is:

To collect and review the past reports / secondary data


To establish the baseline environmental and social conditions
To assess the environmental and social impacts on the offshore and onshore
environment, and on socio-economic conditions due to the development of the proposed
Vizhinjam Port
To prepare an Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
Technical Assistance to Government of Kerala (GoK) while seeking approvals from
Kerala State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB).

9.2.3 Methodology
The REIA study was carried out as per the environmental guidelines, for ports and harbours
projects, issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF). A study area of 10 km
radius with Vizhinjam Port as centre was delineated for the study. The study was carried out
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during the months of April May 2003. A map showing the REIA study area is enclosed as
Figure FD0901. The REIA study is carried out covering the following tasks:

Baseline environmental data generation


Assessment of environmental and social impacts
Preparation of Environmental Management Plan

The baseline environmental status of the study area is established through primary field
surveys for marine and terrestrial environments. The marine environmental attributes
monitored are marine water quality, sediment quality and marine ecology. The terrestrial
environmental parameters monitored are meteorology, air quality, noise levels, groundwater
quality and soils. The land environment is studied through interpretation of satellite imageries
and secondary data on socio-economic aspects was collected.
The environmental impacts are assessed based on the proposed activities in construction
phase and operation phase of Vizhinjam Port. Based on the assessed impacts, an
Environmental Management Action Plan is prepared for the construction phase and
operation phase of Vizhinjam Port.

9.3 Baseline Environmental Status


9.3.1 Physical Conditions
9.3.1.1 Topography
The coastal stretch of the study area in which the proposed Vizhinjam Port site falls is
predominantly rocky in the southern portion between Kovalam and Pulinkudi. Except the
beaches, the terrain in the entire study area is undulating with small hillocks and valleys.
9.3.1.2 Land Use / Land Cover
Based on the interpretation of IRS 1-D, LIS-III and PAN Satellite imageries, procured from
National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), using remote sensing applications the landuse /
land cover in the study area was mapped. The predominant landuse in the study area is
under plantations (about 74%) followed by area under built-up land in towns / villages (15%).
Land use / land cover map is shown in Figure FD0902.
9.3.1.3 Sea Area Features
The salient sea area features are as follows:

No significant fishing zones are reported in the immediate vicinity of the proposed
Vizhinjam Port area.
Spawning is reported along the Vizhinjam coast during the months of May to July.
However, conditions favouring spawning such as estuarine zones or river mouths or
mudbanks are not present in the coastal stretch under consideration for development of
Vizhinjam Port. Hence, it can be assumed that the spawning reported is not occurring at
Vizhinjam Port area.
There are no mangrove vegetation observed in the coastal stretch identified for the
development of the Vizhinjam Port.

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The near shore habitats in the study area are Kovalam, Vizhinjam (north and south)
Panathura, Puthiyarnoor, Pallam, Pulivilla, Adimaluthurai, Chowara, Kollamcode,
Parathaiyoor, Poovar, Karumkulam and Kochuthara.
The coastal stretch in which Vizhinjam Port is being contemplated is devoid of sand
dunes and dune vegetation.
Traditional fishermen travel upto a distance of 5-10 km inside the sea for fishing and still
farther in mechanised trawlers. They do not follow any specific navigation routes and
keep changing the routes depending on season, traditional beliefs and hunch.

9.3.2 Compatibility with Coastal Regulation Zone


Based on a review of the Coastal Zone Management Plan (CZMP) for the State of Kerala,
including the coastal stretch under consideration for development of Vizhinjam Port,
prepared by Centre Earth Science Studies (CESS) the following can be inferred:

The area earmarked for development of Vizhinjam Port falls partially under the Vizhinjam
Beemapalli coastal stretch and partially under Pulinkudi Poozhiyur coastal stretch of
the CZMP of Thiruvananthapuram district.
The entire stretch between Poozhiyur Pulinkudi, in which the southern end of the port
site falls, is classified as CRZ III except for a small area adjoining the laterite cliff zone
(0.063 sq. km) which is classified as CRZ I considering its susceptibility to slumping and
its outstanding natural beauty.
The stretch between Vizhinjam Beemapalli, in which the remaining major portion of the
port site falls, is a complex coast comprising of rocky areas, laterite cliffs, pocket
beaches, barrier beaches and open beaches. The laterite cliffs are observed between
Mulloor and south of Vizhinjam Fishery Harbour. The entire stretch between Mulloor and
Pachalloor is classified as CRZ III except for laterite cliff area between Mulloor and
Vizhinjam, in which the proposed port site falls, is classified as area of outstanding
beauty and hence, a 50 m zone was demarcated as CRZ I.

Based on the CRZ Notification issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), it
can be concluded that the development of Vizhinjam Port is a permissible activity in the CRZ
areas, as it requires waterfront for development.
9.3.3 HTL / LTL Demarcation
Based on topographic survey, shoreline profiling is carried out and the levels are reduced to
CD. The high and low tide levels are estimated using tidal data of Thiruvananthapuram. The
values for HTL and LTL are 1.20m and 0.10m respectively.
9.3.4 Marine Environment
Marine environmental sampling is carried out in and around the proposed Vizhinjam Port
area, at eight locations for water quality and at six locations for sediment quality and plankton
content.
9.3.4.1 Marine Water Quality
The Vizhinjam coastal waters are alkaline in nature with pH varying from 7.9 to 8.2 and with
temperatures varying between 23C and 28C. The salinity is ranging between 31.7 ppt and
32.7 ppt and Turbidity is < 5 NTU at all the sampling locations. DO values recorded at all the
sampling locations were found to be varying between 2.8 mg/l and 5.3 mg/l with low levels
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recorded in the bottom samples. The BOD and COD levels reported at all the sampling
locations are <1 mg/l and 2-3 mg/l respectively indicating clean coastal waters. The Nitrates
are ranging between 3.3 mg/l and 4.2 mg/l. The sample collected near the Karichal River
showed high nitrate concentrations among all the samples and the reason could be attributed
to possible human intervention into the river waters. Chlorides were found to be ranging
between 19331 mg/l and 20081 mg/l and the sulphates between 2685 mg/l and 2983 mg/l.
The Total Phosphates in all the water samples varied between 0.05 mg/l and 0.08 mg/l. The
heavy metal concentrations in all the samples at all locations are found to be in trace
amounts. Total coliform and the faecal coliform count was not reported at all the sampling
locations. Based on the above, it may be inferred that the coastal water quality is free from
any significant pollution.
9.3.4.2 Marine Biology
About 42 algal species of phytoplanktons were recorded from the sampling locations, all of
which belongs to Class Bacillariophyceae.
About 9 species of zooplanktons and 8 larval forms were recorded from the sampling
locations. The zooplanktons were mainly Protozoans, Coelentrates and Crustaceans of
which the Crustaceans were found in large numbers at all locations. Among the larval forms,
Naupli larvae were found in almost all locations except at one location. The Shannon
Weavers Diversity Index varied between 0.6 and 1.
Generally, the presence and / or the level of Chlorophyll-a is considered to be an indicator of
the biomass and the Chlorophyll concentrations at all the sampling locations ranged from 2
to 4 mg/m 3.
In general, the marine biology of the coast is diverse.
9.3.4.3 Sediment Quality
In the sediments, pH was observed to be similar at all locations and in the alkaline range. Oil
and grease concentrations were found to be less than 1 mg/kg at all locations. Heavy metals
were found only in trace amounts at all sampling locations and Cd concentration was found
at negligible level (<0.1 mg/kg) at all locations except at location S2 where the concentration
of Cd was found to be 0.3 mg/kg. Based on the above, it may be inferred that the sediment
quality is free from any significant pollution.
9.3.4.4 Benthic Communities
The major, micro and macro benthic faunal groups, observed at all the locations, comprised
of Protozoans, Nematodes, Diatoms, Gastropods, Lamellibranchs, Bivalves. Among the
macro benthos, Bivalves were abundant at all locations.
9.3.5 Terrestrial Environment
Baseline terrestrial environmental status was established through primary surveys for
attributes such as meteorology, ambient air quality, noise levels, groundwater quality and soil
quality. The data on flora and fauna was compiled from secondary sources.

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9.3.5.1 Meteorological Conditions


The project region experiences a tropical humid climate with oppressive summers. The
period between March to May is hot with the maximum temperatures shooting upto 330 C.
This is followed by south-west monsoon from June to September and north-east monsoon
between October to December. The maximum wind speeds are observed in the month of
August and the maximum relative humidity in the month of June.
The meteorological parameters were observed during the study period by installing a
weather station near Vizhinjam. The maximum and minimum temperatures observed, during
the study period, are 35C and 23C, respectively. The maximum and minimum relative
humidity recorded during the study period is 92% and 61%, respectively. The number of
rainy days reported during the study period is 6 with a rainfall of 36 mm. The maximum wind
speed recorded during the study period is 32.4 km/hr. The predominant winds were
observed from N (11.3%) followed by SSE (11%) and SE (9.7%). Calm conditions prevailed
for 6.6% of the total time.
9.3.5.2 Air Environment
The ambient air quality was monitored at 6 locations viz., Vizhinjam, Pulinkudi, Muttakad,
Punnamad, Balarampuram and Nellimudu. The maximum concentrations of RPM (62 g/m 3),
SPM (143 g/m 3), SO2 (9 g/m 3), NOx (15 g/m 3) and CO (< 1 pmm) were observed to be
within the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) prescribed limits of 100 g/m 3, 200 g/m 3,
80 g/m 3, 80 g/m 3 and 2 ppm, respectively. The maximum concentrations of SPM and RPM
were observed at Balaramapuram and minimum concentrations at Pulinkudi. The maximum
concentrations of SO2 and NOx were observed at Balaramapuram and minimum
concentration were observed at Pulinkudi. The relatively higher particulate matter and
gaseous pollutant levels at Balaramapuram could be attributed to the intensive commercial
activities at the monitoring location owing to its proximity to NH47. The ambient air quality in
the study area is well within the National Ambient Air Quality Standards due to the presence
of vast green cover and absence of significant industrialisation.
9.3.5.3 Noise Levels
Noise levels were monitored at eight locations viz. Vizhinjam, Mulloor, Balaramapuram,
Mukkola, Muttakad, Punnamad, Cheruvetturkonam and Nellimudu. The day equivalent (L eq
Day) and night equivalent (L eq Night) noise levels at all the monitoring locations are within the
CPCB stipulated limits of 55 dB(A) and 45 dB(A). Among all the locations, the maximum L eq
Day is 53 dB(A) and maximum Leq Night is 40 dB(A) at Vizhinjam and Balarampuram,
respectively. Despite intensive commercial activities at both these locations, the noise levels
are still within the limits and could be attributed to the extensive green cover in the region,
which in turn is attenuating the excessive noise levels.
9.3.5.4 Ground Water Quality
Ground water was sampled at six locations viz. Vizhinjam, Muttakad, Cheruvetturkonam,
Pulivilla, Balaramapuram and Nellimudu. pH is ranging between 7.2 to 8.2. The samples
collected from Cheruvetturkonam, Vizhinjam and Balaramapuram depicted alkaline nature
(pH of 8.2.). TDS is ranging from 36 mg/l to 238 mg/l with highest value observed at
Vizhinjam. Total hardness is in the range of 0 to 86 mg/l with highest value observed at
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Vizhinjam. Total alkalinity was observed to be in the range of 12 mg/l to 96 mg/l. The
concentrations of all heavy metals like Cadmium, Nickel, Arsenic, Chromium, Mercury, Lead,
Copper and Zinc were observed to be below the permissible limits.
In the current study, it is observed that the Calcium concentrations are ranging from 14 mg/l
to 74 mg/l and Magnesium levels are between 2 mg/l and 22 mg/l. This high Ca/Mg ratio
confirms absence of saline water intrusion in the groundwater aquifers. Except at Muttakad
and Pulivilla, in all the other samples Total Alkalinity (TA) and Total Hardness (TH) ratio is
found to be >1 suggesting no salt-water intrusion into the groundwater aquifers. Regarding
the Muttakad and Pulivilla, the TA/TH ratio was observed to be slightly less than 1 indicating
seawater intrusion.
9.3.5.5 Soil Quality
Soil samples were collected at five locations viz., Vizhinjam, Muttakad, Cheruvetturkonam,
Nellimudu and Karamkulam. The pH of the soil ranges from 5 to 6.7 indicating slightly acidic
in nature. Electrical Conductivity was found to be in the range of 50 mhos/cm to 92
mhos/cm and the Cationic Exchange Capacity was in the range of 10.5 3 meq/100 gm to
18.3 meq/100 gm. The Sodium Absorption Ratio was observed in the range of 0.61 to 1.82.
The Nitrogen content of the soil was observed to be 208 mg/ kg to 794 mg/ kg of the soil.
The Total Phosphates level was observed to be in the range of 301 mg/ kg to 2016 mg/kg of
the soil. The chloride level ranges from 9.2 mg/ kg to 34.3 mg/kg. Cadmium concentration
was less than 0.1 mg/kg. But other heavy metals like Copper range from 3.5 mg/ kg to 20
mg/kg and Manganese range from 38 mg/ kg to 91 mg/kg. Zinc values were observed to
range from 19 mg/ kg to 51-mg/ kg and Chromium values range from 5 mg/ kg to 134 mg/kg.
Based on the above, it may be inferred that the soil quality is reasonably good and free from
any pollution.
9.3.5.6 Flora
The entire land in the study area except the narrow stretch of beach is settlements and under
coconut cultivation (Cocus nucifera). Inter cropping is practised in coconut plantation with a
variety of crops such as vegetables, spices and other economically important plants. The
native species are found within homesteads and hedges. None of the plants are rare or
endangered. The salt tolerant Scaevola sericea is found on rock crevices, which is subjected
to constant salt spray.
9.3.5.7 Fauna
The common lowland fauna found here includes rodents, reptiles and amphibians. The
avifauna includes cosmopolitan birds generally found throughout the countryside. In
beaches and near shore waters, occasional presence of sea birds is noticed. A few
migratory birds are reported from Vellayani Kayal near Kovalam. Large flocks of migratory
ducks like Garganey and Pintail are also reported from within and nearby the wetlands of
Vellayani besides the common species of birds. The density of the avifauna is very low
along the Kovalam Beach.
No rare and endangered biota is observed in the area.

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Socio-Economic Conditions

The socio-economic conditions depicting the demographic profile, occupational pattern and
the infrastructure facilities were assessed by a survey and compilation of data collected from
the office of Directorate of Census Operations, District Census Handbook of
Thiruvananthapuram, Department of Fisheries and Department of Tourism.
9.3.6.1 Socio-Economic Survey
There are 27 habitations / villages within the study area. A socio-economic survey is carried
out with proportionate representative sampling, by sub-dividing the study area into three
zones viz., very core zone (0 2 km), core zone (2 5 km) and buffer zone (5 10 km).
These zones are shown in Figure FD0903. The findings of the survey are:

The area under study is predominantly constituted of Backward Castes (68%). The
number of female-headed households is 11% and this has both social and economical
implications. The religious composition of the area is 51% Hindus, 40% Christians, 6%
Muslims and rest others. At the same time, the castes involved are quite varied.
Consequently, the social dynamics that emerges may be difficult to predict.
There is concentration of Christians and Muslims in certain areas. The coastal belt is
inhabited by fishermen living in clusters (mainly Muslims and Christians). Communal riots
and brawls with regard to fishing had once been very frequent and nowadays, it is still a
periodic phenomenon. Majority of the people are natives and have deep attachment to
the location. Two third of the respondents (67%) are natives of the area.
The sex ratio in favour of male (especially in the 6-12 years) is indicative of the poor
health status and gender bias of the community. However, at the same time it must be
pointed out that in the Christian fishermen community, women have a dominant role in
the management of the family.
The important occupational pattern observed in the study area are mostly fishing,
agriculture, skilled / unskilled workers. Of the total, fishing communities represent 39%,
agriculture based 20% and household industrial category as 14%. Fishing and Agriculture
are seasonal activities and the populations involved in these occupations are facing
financial crisis.
To an impoverished group, it is interesting to note that the developmental priorities are
first water and sanitation, followed by better health care and promotion of industrial and
other development including port comes third.

9.3.6.2 Fishing Activity in VPPA Vicinity


The fishing villages in the vicinity of the proposed Vizhinjam Port area are Vizhinjam South,
Vizhinjam North, Adilamulathurai, Chowara, Palem, Pulivilla, Puthiathura, Karumkulam,
Kochuthara, Poovar, South Kollemcode and Parathayioor. Out of the all fishing villages,
Vizhinjam and Adamaluthurai are located within the immediate vicinity. Adamaluthurai village
is located 1.2 km from south breakwater. The fishermen of Adamaluthurai are using the
beachfront as the landing place for their fishing crafts. As part of the recommendation of the
committee constituted for setting up of landing centres for traditional fishermen, which were
subsequently sanctioned by Government of India in 1993 94, two landing centres were
constructed in Vizhinjam North and Vizhinjam South.
Most of the fishing villages still follow the traditional method of fishing using catamarans
although some of the fishermans are having wooden boats with outboard engines. These
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engines are having very high-speed acceleration capacity. Few fishermen have launchers
with which they are capable of fishing at very deep-sea areas, several kilometers away from
shore. Other than this, the Long Lining fishing is also observed in the area where a fishing
net with long leads is cast in the open sea (perhaps 100-200 m into the sea). The group
divides itself into two at the shoreline and each group pulls the fishing net lead towards
themselves and gradually close the net as it approached the shore.
The fishing activity extends upto 8 months on an average in a year. Generally fishermen
were advised not to catch fish during monsoon period. The coast guards were set in action to
prevent them from fishing. During the monsoon period the fishermen are engaged in some
other labour work.
The fishing craft used by the fishermen are of three types viz. Catamarans, Wooden boats
with onboard engine and launches (this craft is huge enough to catch big fishes and in large
quantity).
9.3.6.3 Tourism
Tourism is one of the most promising sectors in Kerala concerning employment and revenue
generation. Tourism in Kerala thrives on natural resources, lush western ghats, the wetlands,
backwaters and the beaches. The project district, Thiruvananthapuram, is one of the
important tourism destinations in Kerala. Tourism in the district is concentrated on the hilly
areas and coastal areas. Ponmudi is one of the important destination in the hilly areas.
For the tourism along the coastal stretches, the area south of Thiruvananthapuram is an
important tourism destination. The coastal stretch between Kovalam and Pulinkudi is termed
as areas of outstanding beauty due to hillocks covered with coconut plantations. Kovalam,
one of the internationally renowned tourism destinations is located in this stretch which is
instrumental in triggering the local revenue and employment potential.
Kovalam is located north of the Proposed Port site. Apart from Kovalam, about 8-10 resorts
have come up all along the lateritic stretch between Mulloor Adamalathurai on the hills
which are promoting health tourism. Coconut Bay, Somatheeram Resorts are some of the
important resorts located in this stretch.
In addition, island resorts have been developed in the Neyyar backwaters near Poovar
village which is located south of the proposed port.
Some of the places of interest, within a radius of 10 km from the project area, are:

Puvar South Wide beach and backwater, about 9 km from Vizhinjam


Pulinkudi Kovalam Rocky cliff, extensive stable beach
Kottukal Vizhinjam Bhagavathy Temple, about 4km from Vizhinjam

9.4 Environmental and Social Impacts


This chapter presents the various impacts on the environmental and social attributes, which
are likely to arise due to the development of Vizhinjam Port. Both beneficial (positive) and
potential negative impacts are envisaged due to the construction and operation of the
Vizhinjam Port. The environmental and social impacts are assessed for each activity involved
in the construction and operation phases of Vizhinjam Port.

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9.4.1 Vizhinjam Port Activities


To appreciate the impact vis--vis port construction and operation, the major activities
involved during construction and operation of Vizhinjam Port is presented below:

Marine-side activities
- Capital dredging
- Reclamation for backup area
- Construction of breakwaters
- Construction of cargo berths and container stacking area
- Installation of cargo handling equipment
- Movement of ships visiting / calling at the port
- Movement of tugs and port crafts
- Cargo handling

Land-side activities
- Development of external infrastructure (water, power and hinterland connectivity
road / rail network)
- Inland cargo movement

9.4.2 Environmental Impacts Construction Phase


The environmental attributes which are likely be affected during the construction phase of the
Vizhinjam Port are:
9.4.2.1 Impacts on Sea Water Quality and Marine Biology
Construction activities such as capital dredging, reclamation and construction of breakwaters
would increase the turbidity due to suspended sediment directly impacting the seawater
quality and would result in indirect impacts on marine biology. Aqueous discharges such as
oily wastes, sanitary wastes, sullage from the dredgers, barges and workboats involved in
capital dredging, reclamation and construction of breakwaters would impact the seawater
quality and marine biology. However, there is no capital dredging involved in development of
Phase I of Vizhinjam Port. Underwater noise and turmoil from operation of diesel engines of
dredgers, barges and workboats and the activities such as capital dredging, reclamation and
construction of breakwaters would result in moderate impacts on marine biology. However,
as the sources are mobile, the impacts are expected not to be significant and would be
localised to the construction areas and limited to the construction period.
9.4.2.2 Impacts on Beach Profile, Seabed and Benthos
Beach Profile
Along the West Coast of India, in which the Vizhinjam Port site falls, the littoral drift is almost
absent and sediment transport is negligible. Further, there are no beaches in the project
area. The only pocket beach towards north, between the northern breakwater of proposed
Vizhinjam Port and Vizhinjam Fishery Harbour, is proposed to be left as a no-development
zone. Based on the proposed planning of no-development of the only beach zone and
absence of littoral drift, it is anticipated that there will be no impact on the beach profile.

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Seabed and Benthos


The capital dredging, reclamation and construction of breakwaters will result in disturbance
to the bottom sediments resulting in destruction of the habitats except mobile faunal species,
increase in turbidity and uptake of pollutants into the sediments. However, there is no capital
dredging involved during development of Phase I of Vizhinjam Port. There are no reported
sensitive marine ecosystems in the Vizhinjam Port area. The use of capital dredged material
and additional material sourced by dredging offshore for reclamation is not expected to result
in significant impacts as the marine environment surveys indicated absence of any significant
pollution in the sediments.
The impacts can be broadly categorised as:

Input of substances into water column


Disturbances of substances and biota
Uptake of pollutants

Input of Substances into Water Column


During the dredging, reclamation and construction of breakwater, there would be transfer of
substances from sediment to the water column. The presence of high concentrations of
particles in water column especially turbidity would result in impacts. However, the impacts
would be dependent on various factors like the duration of the activities, season, ecological
value of the area, etc.
The dredging, reclamation and construction of breakwater will create turbid conditions in
which the benthic communities suffocate as they pump water to meet their food / oxygen
requirements. Further, there might be direct damage to the sensitive tissues due to physical
contact with the particles. The sensitivity of many benthic communities to particles is
dependent on normal and changed situations. Many organisms especially at larval stages
do not survive or show retarded development due to sedimentation of finely divided material
even much after cessation of operations.
The indirect effects due to the large volumes of the suspended matter might result in
reduction of light penetration affecting the primary production causing a weaker link for whole
tropic chain. In addition, if light is prevented reaching the bottom area for a longer period denitrification may be reduced substantially, as a consequence of the lack of oxygen production
in the sediment.
Also during dredging, reclamation and construction of breakwater, oxygen-demanding
compounds, nutrients and toxic compounds from sediments come into water column. Since
the concentrations of these are normally much higher in pore water than in water column,
oxygen demanding compounds will cause a drop in oxygen concentration, at times even to
anoxic conditions. The nutrients may stimulate primary production (when light and
temperature are sufficient) and may cause eutrophication problems when released in
favourable conditions.
Disturbance of Substances and Biota
The disturbance of bottom sediments involving organic matter and nutrients will, in general,
cause a higher oxygen penetration into sediment during the dredging operations. The shift
may be apparent for specific species. Also some future generations of species may be lost
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owing to the removal of fish-eggs or sediment-bound larval stages. The changes may be
short term, long term or even permanent depending upon the extent of operations.
Uptake of Pollutants
The pollutants present in sediments can be broadly classified into heavy metals and organic
micro-pollutants. In particulate state, heavy metals may occur either in an adsorbed or a
precipitated mode and cannot be taken up directly by organisms (unless by ingestion of
particles) and thus the toxicity is reduced as long as the particulate state is preserved.
The impacts arising due to exchange / release of heavy metals into the water column or
uptake of heavy metals by the benthic communities will be insignificant in nature as the
heavy metal concentrations recorded from the seabed in proposed Vizhinjam Port area are
negligible.
The impacts due to the increased turbidity are temporary in nature. However, settling of
suspended material in the water column might mildly impact the benthic organisms. On the
sea bottom of the project area, there are no valuable marine ecosystems reported.
There are possible ways to improve / maintain environmental quality during the dredging like
adhering to measures such as timing (season), dredging methods and selection of dredgers.
Certain system indicators like turbidity should be considered, as it is an important indicator
for controlling the impacts on the aquatic environment. Limiting turbidity during dredging will
negate the impacts on the aquatic environment to a large extent. Also, as the project area
does not consist of any fishing grounds / spawning areas, significant impacts are not
envisaged on the marine biota due to the dredging.
The marine benthic biota of the coast are, in general, subjected to variations in turbidity as a
regular phenomena and are expected to withstand localised increased turbidity induced by
sediment heaps as a result of dredging and reclamation.
9.4.2.3 Impacts on Coastal Regulation Zone
As per the Coastal Zone Management Plan (CZMP) of Kerala, the coastal stretch in which
the proposed Vizhinjam Port site is located is classified as CRZ III except for small areas
adjoining the lateritic cliff zone, which is designated as CRZ I. The planning, construction
and operation of Vizhinjam Port, which is a permissible activity under CRZ, would fully take
into consideration the lateritic cliff portions designated as CRZ I and would exclude the same
from all construction. Further, this area would be designated as no-development zone
(secluded / prohibited area) to regulate and ensure that this area remains undisturbed.
9.4.2.4 Impacts on Environmental Aesthetics / Visual Impacts
The lateritic cliff zone along the coastal stretch in which Vizhinjam Port is proposed to be
developed is designated as CRZ I considering its susceptibility to slumping and its
outstanding natural beauty. It will be attempted to plan and develop the Vizhinjam Port in a
manner such that it is compatible (seamlessly integrates), to the extent possible, with the
landscape of the region and does not scar the environmental aesthetics of the coast or result
in visual impacts.

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9.4.2.5 Impacts on Atmosphere


Air Quality
During activities such as dredging, reclamation, construction of breakwaters, cargo berths
and container stacking area, emissions from diesel run engines of dredgers, barges and
workboats might contribute to localised deterioration of air quality. The fugitive dust
suspension and exhaust emissions from diesel engines of operating construction machinery
would contribute to deterioration in air quality. However, the impacts due to these activities
are short-term in nature and will cease on completion of the construction. The cliff abutting
the Vizhinjam Port area would act as a barrier preventing transport of pollutants landward.
Further, measures such as sprinkling of water in susceptible areas and enforcement of
control norms for exhaust emissions will be adopted to mitigate the impacts.
Noise Levels
During dredging, reclamation and construction of breakwaters, the operation of diesel
engines of dredgers, barges, workboats, etc. contribute to increased ambient noise levels.
Further, the construction machinery used during the construction of the cargo berths and
container stacking area would also impact the background noise levels. These impacts from
increased noise levels would be felt on the villagers of Vizhinjam due to their close proximity
to the port site. The presence of the hills immediately behind the Vizhinjam Port area would
reduce the noise impacts by preventing dissemination landward. Use of protective gears and
rotation of personnel would be adopted to largely mitigate the impacts on operating
personnel from exposure to noise levels beyond threshold limits, if any. Low noise equipment
and mufflers / enclosures would be used to limit the excess noise levels.
9.4.2.6 Impacts on Water Use
It is proposed to use water from Neyyar River / Vellayani Lake to meet the water demand of
100 m 3/day during construction of Vizhinjam Port. Vellayani Lake located about 5 km to the
north-east of the proposed Vizhinjam Port site and possess good amount of potable water. If
the water from Neyyar is tapped from a point very close to the confluence of the river to the
sea, there would be very few downstream users and it is expected that there would be no
impacts on the prevailing water use. Presently, Neyyatinkara and Parassala municipalities
are drawing water from Neyyar River. As Kerala is blessed with heavy rainfall of about 2,000
mm to 2,500 mm a year, it is expected that there will be sufficient (or surplus) water in
Neyyar River or Vellayani Lake to meet the water demands. However, studies will be carried
out to ensure that there are no impacts on prevailing water use and necessary approvals
from competent authorities will be obtained prior to construction of the port.
9.4.2.7 Impacts from Quarrying
The material for construction of breakwaters and reclamation would be sourced only from
approved quarries such as Vellar quarry in Venganoor, Neetoly quarry near Thiruvallam and
those to the south of the proposed Vizhinjam Port site. As the predominant portion of
construction material is proposed to be sourced from existing approved quarries, no
significant impacts are envisaged from quarrying operations as compared to a new quarry
site. The impacts from the quarries, in the form of impacts on air quality and noise, would be
felt on Venganoor, Thiruvallam and other villages adjoining quarry sites. However, these
impacts would be localised and limited to the quarrying period.
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9.4.2.8 Impacts from Transportation of Construction Material


The proposed quarries located towards the north of the proposed site for Vizhinjam Port are
accessible by a well-connected road and in close proximity to the proposed construction
areas. Impacts would result from movement of vehicles transporting the quarry material, as
presently the traffic is moderately dense along the Vizhinjam Thiruvananthapuram road.
The other quarries located to the south of the Vizhinjam Port site are also connected but by a
narrow road and with less traffic. However, if this road were to be used as haulage road for
transportation of quarry material, it would require improvements in the form of strengthening
and widening to mitigate the transportation impacts. The additional truck movements will
contribute to further increase in traffic density along the access roads from the quarry to the
proposed Vizhinjam Port site, which in turn would result in deterioration of air quality, risks of
road accidents and increase in ambient noise levels. Measures such as regulating truck
movement during off peak hours, periodic maintenance of trucks, water sprinkling along
unpaved sections would mitigate the impacts due to the transportation of the quarry
materials.
If the road link is developed before the construction of Vizhinjam Port, the transportation of
construction material would result in lesser impacts as it would ensure that there is no strain
on the existing road network. However, transportation of construction material along the
southern access road would have impact on the Adimalathurai village through which the
alignment traverses. The impacts from transportation of construction material from northern
access road would be felt on Vizhinjam and Mukkola villages.
In case the road link is not in place before construction of Vizhinjam Port, transportation of
construction material along the existing road network connecting the proposed port site, near
Vizhinjam Fishery Harbour, to Balaramapuram on NH 47 via Mukkola, the impacts would be
felt on Mukkola and Uchakkadu villages. In either case, the impacts would be in the form of
increased air pollution from exhaust emissions and fugitive dust suspension, increased noise
levels and traffic congestion. These impacts will be more pronounced if the construction
material is transported along the existing network compared to the new road link. If the
existing road network is proposed to be used for haulage of quarry material or transportation
of construction material, it would require improvements such as strengthening and widening.
9.4.2.9 Impacts from Construction of Road / Rail Linkage
The proposed road / rail linkage would result in loss of prevailing landuse along the
alignment. During the construction, there would be fugitive dust suspension and exhaust
emissions from construction machinery, which would impact the villages adjoining the
alignments. Further, the construction activity and construction machinery would contribute to
the increased noise levels, which would again be felt on the above villages. To minimise the
impacts, water sprinkling of construction areas and limiting exhaust emissions (air and noise)
through control norms will be adopted.
9.4.2.10

Impacts from Laying of Water Pipeline

No significant impacts are envisaged from pipeline laying operations, as standard and simple
trenching and back-filling methods will be adopted. However, there might be temporary
hardships to the local populace due to temporary walkways, during construction at road
crossing, etc. The pipeline alignment from the river intake point is likely to be along the
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existing road network to minimise impacts from land acquisition. However, there would be
impacts on traffic plying on these roads, during laying of pipeline (or pipeline construction),
from construction activities leading to traffic congestion. This may result in mild impacts in the
form of deterioration of air quality and increased noise levels.
The pipeline would require ROU of about 10 m. The impacts from temporary ROU acquisition
for pipeline laying would be mild, as the land acquisition involved would be very less and the
land would be transferred back to the landowners after construction. However, to mitigate
these impacts the landowners will be suitably compensated.
9.4.3

Social Impacts Construction Phase

9.4.3.1 Impacts from Land Acquisition


The proposed site for Vizhinjam Port construction is in the offshore waters. The backup area
is proposed to be developed by reclamation of offshore area. Hence, no land acquisition is
involved in the Vizhinjam Port development. However, land acquisition may be involved
along the proposed road / rail linkage from Vizhinjam Port to national road / rail networks i.e.
road connection to NH 47 and rail link to Trivandrum Nagercoil Southern Railway Main
Line. The southern access road and rail link would entail land acquisition in Adimalathurai
village. For developing the road / rail linkage, land acquisition may be involved, which will be
amicably settled resulting in no significant impacts. From the above, it may be inferred that
there will be no impacts from Vizhinjam Port development as it entails no land acquisition
except for the hinterland connectivity.
9.4.3.2 Impacts from Worker Camps
The construction of Vizhinjam Port would require a large work force, about few hundreds.
Worker camps will be provided for the construction personnel. To ensure that there is no
strain on the existing infrastructure, the worker camps will be self-sufficient and would not
rely on any local resource. This would also ensure that there is no conflict with the local
population. Further, the worker camps will be located away from the coast and habitations.
To mitigate the impacts, particularly health hazards, sanitation facilities will be provided.
9.4.3.3 Impacts on Vizhinjam Fishery Harbour
The Vizhinjam Fishery Harbour is located adjacent, towards north, to the proposed Vizhinjam
Port site. To ensure that impacts from port construction are curtailed, a buffer of 150 m is
proposed between the proposed port and fishery harbour. This buffer zone, which is a pocket
beach, will be a no-development zone. Further, the proposed northern breakwater in the
long term would have both positive and negative potential impacts.
The northern breakwater will enable regulation of port construction and restrict the activities,
which will ensure the objective of not impacting upon the fishery harbour. Further, the
breakwater is likely to enhance the tranquil conditions inside the fishery harbour, which will
ease the berthing of fishing crafts inside the harbour. These are all positive impacts from the
construction of northern breakwater.
The negative impacts will result from the fishing crafts having to circumnavigate the northern
breakwater unlike the existing conditions. Though the proposed port will slightly hinder the
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free movement of fishing crafts it would not be an obstruction to the Vizhinjam Fishery
Harbour. Barring this impact, no other significant impacts are envisaged. There would be
increased vessel activity (movement of barges and workboats) during construction of
northern breakwater near Vizhinjam Fishery Harbour, which would result in mild impacts.
Consultative exercises were held with the local fishermen, to take them into confidence
regarding the proposed construction of Vizhinjam Port.
9.4.3.4 Impacts on Fishing and Fishing Communities
The fishermen of Vizhinjam coast do not engage in near shore fishing but travel deep inside
the sea for fishing. There are no fish landing centres / stations in the coastal stretch being
proposed for construction of Vizhinjam Port. Hence, no impacts are envisaged from the
proposed construction of Vizhinjam Port, as there is no conflict of interests between the port
and fishing communities.
9.4.3.5 Impacts on Tourism
The waterfront where the proposed port is being planned is extending between Vizhinjam
Fishery Harbour on the north and Chowara cliffs on the south. As mentioned earlier, Mulloor
village falling within this stretch has few resorts located on the laterite cliffs. Currently, the
tourists visiting these resorts are using the small beachfront in Mulloor for recreational
purposes. There might be visual impacts during the construction phase of the project, which
can disturb the tourists. However, these impacts are temporary and will be localised and will
cease after construction.
Also, no significant impacts are envisaged, except from transportation of quarry material, on
Kovalam as all the construction activities are extending southwards still farther away from
Kovalam. As the Vellar and Thiruvallam quarry are located on the same road as Kovalam,
impacts on tourism at Kovalam are expected from transportation of quarry material. This
road is presently having medium to dense traffic. However, the impacts will be limited to the
construction period of breakwaters. Further, to mitigate the impacts on tourism at Kovalam,
the transportation of material from these quarries would be scheduled only during the night
time to relieve the road of congestion from increased traffic.
9.4.3.6 Impacts on Employment Potential
At the time of capital dredging, reclamation, construction of breakwaters, cargo berths and
container stacking, there would be requirement of large number of skilled and unskilled
labour. During this period it is anticipated that about few hundreds of workers of all types may
be involved. There will be other establishments catering to the needs of the construction of
the port that will also employ a substantial number to the extent of few hundreds of persons
mostly unskilled and semiskilled.
9.4.3.7 Impacts from Induced Development
Induced development will be witnessed through development of makeshift commercial
establishments, which will impact on the aesthetics in the region. However, beneficial
impacts are envisaged in the form of indirect employment opportunities.

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In addition, makeshift commercial establishments such as hotels, grocery shops, etc. would
also spring up raising the income levels of the local populace and also provide indirect
employment opportunities.
The construction phase would require skilled and unskilled labour specialised for port
construction. This will create a need for residential facilities for the migrant workers and the
nearby areas, particularly Vizhinjam would be impacted due to the additional need. Also,
there would be a stress on the existing infrastructure levels.
9.4.4

Environmental Impacts Operation Phase

9.4.4.1 Impacts from Port Operations


Aqueous Discharges in Harbour Basin
During the operation phase there will be continuos movement of cargo vessels, port crafts
round the clock. Due to the cargo vessels there is a possibility of aqueous discharges such
as dumping of ship wastes (sullage) / sewage, bilge water, solid wastes if not regulated.
There may be accidental spills during transfer from the ships, which will impact the sea water
and sediment quality in the harbour basin. However, to preclude these impacts on seawater
quality and in turn on the sediment quality, it is proposed to enforce preventive control
measures such as prohibiting all aqueous discharges. In addition, land-based sources of
pollution such as runoffs from the port operational areas waste water and sewage from the
port facilities and effluent discharges would also effect the marine water and sediment
qualities in the harbour basin.
The wastewater generation during the operation phase will be mostly sewage, floor washings
from the container stacking area, cargo storage areas, ships wastes etc. The wastewater
generation is estimated to be around 70% of the water consumption. The liquid waste will be
collected through a collection network and the same will be treated in a sewage treatment
plant. Options such as recycling of wastewater for the domestic usage and green belt will be
explored in order to minimise the water requirements.
However, the impacts need to be contained as the pollutant might be carried out to
elsewhere affecting the marine ecology. The pollution of the harbour basin will be averted
through providing necessary pollution control facilities as per the guidelines.
Pollution from Cargo Handling
At Vizhinjam Port, there will be handling of import / export containers, general and break bulk
cargoes. Further, the cargo to be handled is predominately in containers, which is a clean
cargo. No spills are expected from general cargo, which will be predominantly in bagged
form. The cargo handling will include loading and unloading from the vessels, movement
using prime movers / trailers of containers to stacking yards and further transhipment. Due
to cargo handling, the attributes that would be impacted are air quality and increased noise
levels. No significant air quality impacts are envisaged directly from cargo handling activity
but are expected from the exhaust emissions of cargo handling equipment such as cranes,
mobile prime movers, forklifts, trailers, tractors etc. The noise impacts would result from the
cargo handling equipment and other pneumatic cargo handling equipment. The presence of

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cliffs immediately behind the proposed back up area, where all the cargo will be handled, is
expected to act as a barrier preventing transport of both air and noise pollutants landward.
However, in case of accidental spills, impacts are envisaged on air quality and seawater
quality. To minimise the impacts on seawater quality spills will be recovered.
9.4.4.2 Impacts from Inland Cargo Movement
If the road / rail links are developed before commencement of port operations, there would
be less impacts from inland cargo movement. In this case the impacts from air and noise
pollution would be felt on Adimalathurai village if the southern access road is developed and
on Vizhinjam and Mukkola if the northern access road is developed.
If the road link is not in place before the port operations commence, there would be more
pronounced impacts as the inland cargo movement will be along the existing dense traffic
road networks and would create traffic congestion and also increase the risk of accidents.
These impacts would be felt on Vizhinjam and Mukkola villages.
9.4.4.3 Impacts on Water Use
The water requirement estimated for the Vizhinjam Port in the first phase is 430 m 3/day,
which is proposed to be drawn from Neyyar River or Vellayani Lake. No significant impacts
are envisaged as previously stated in Impacts on Water Use in construction phase. Further,
no bore wells will be sunk to meet the water requirements for the Vizhinjam Port, as the
same may result in salt-water intrusion due to the proximity of the coast. Therefore, it may be
concluded that the water requirements of the Vizhinjam Port will not affect the users in the
region and also the groundwater resources.
9.4.4.4 Impacts from Maintenance Dredging
During the operation phase, based on the prevailing littoral drift and consequential sediment
transport which is estimated to be insignificant, it is expected that there will be no
requirement for maintenance dredging in the Approach Channel (Inner and Outer Navigation
Channel), Turning Circle, Berthing Areas. Hence, no impacts are envisaged, as there is likely
to be no maintenance dredging. The maintenance dredging to maintain the required draft,
even if necessitated, would be a very small quantity and would not result in any significant
impact. The impacts from the maintenance dredged material would be dependent on the
quality of sediment which in turn is dependent on the pollution control facilities adopted by
the port. As at the proposed Vizhinjam Port pollution control facilities are being proposed, the
sediment quality is expected to be non-polluted and hence no impacts are envisaged. The
maintenance dredged material during the initial phase would be used for reclamation for the
next phase construction after analysing the dredged material for pollutant levels. Based on
the baseline marine environment survey, the marine sediment quality depicts no perceptible
pollution and hence, is expected not to result in any significant impacts when used for
reclamation. The excess maintenance dredged material not used for reclamation or
maintenance dredged material after the final phase construction of Vizhinjam Port would be
disposed at suitable spoil grounds which will be identified based on mathematical modelling
studies.

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Social Impacts Operation Phase

9.4.5.1 Impacts on Land Use Pattern


The landuse pattern in the vicinity of the Vizhinjam Port is characterised by predominantly
plantations followed by residential and commercial areas.
During the operation of the Vizhinjam Port, changes in landuse pattern will be observed.
There will be demand for housing and infrastructure facilities, which may lead to uncontrolled
growth. The Vizhinjam, Mulloor, Pulinkudi and Chowara areas will expand resulting in
demand for additional infrastructure facilities.
Mixed residential pattern would be developed in the residential areas. Also, there would be
development of commercial areas along the roads leading to the Vizhinjam Port, which
indirectly contributes to development of unauthorised structures and squatters, thereby
reducing the effective lane width of the access road leading to traffic congestion.
As the proposed construction of Vizhinjam Port is being conceived as an integral part of
Thiruvananthapuram Capital Region Programme the planning authorities of the region have
to draft the development controls to regulate the landuse changes to ensure sustainable
development.
9.4.5.2 Impacts on Population Growth
The operation phase of Vizhinjam Port is likely to attract significant migrant population to the
region / area, which will exert / create strain on the existing infrastructure levels and also on
the social fabric of Vizhinjam and its adjoining villages. There will be an increase in demand
for transportation services, utilities etc. In this potential scenario, it is suggested that the
planning authorities should take into consideration the population growth due to the
Vizhinjam Port, as it is an integral part of Thiruvananthapuram Capital Region Programme,
and accordingly frame the development control rules for the region to ensure sustainable
development.
9.4.5.3 Impacts on Vizhinjam Fishery Harbour
There would not be any significant impacts from proposed Vizhinjam Port operations on
Vizhinjam Fishery Harbour. The northern breakwater will enable regulation of port
development and restrict the activities, which will ensure the objective of not impacting upon
the Vizhinjam Fishery Harbour.
The negative impacts will result from the fishing crafts having to circumnavigate the northern
breakwater during the long term perspective unlike the existing conditions. Though the
proposed port will slightly hinder the free movement of fishing crafts it would not be an
obstruction to the Vizhinjam Fishery Harbour. Barring this impact, no other significant
impacts are envisaged. There would be increased vessel activity (movement of ships calling
at the port), which would result in mild impacts. However, to mitigate these impacts channel
marker buoys, navigational aids such as beacons etc. will be provided.
To substantiate the statement that the proposed Vizhinjam Port would not cause significant
negative impacts on the Vizhinjam Fishery Harbour and to the contrary would benefit the

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same, the best examples are the thriving fishery harbours near Cochin Port, Visakhapatnam
Port and Mumbai Port.
There would be continued consultative exercises with the local fishermen to mitigate any
potential impacts during operation of Vizhinjam Port.
9.4.5.4 Impacts on Tourism
As stated that the Development of the Vizhinjam Port will not have any adverse impact on
the tourism potential of the area especially on the resorts. The Port developmental activities
are confined to the waterfront and there is no disturbance to hill side resorts. Given this, it
can be concluded that there will not be any need for relocating the resorts in the Mulloor
Area. It can be noted here that while developing the layout for the port development, a 50 m
gap has been left between the high tide line and planned port boundary as no development
area. In addition a green belt is planned all along the boundary of the port which will further
enhance the aesthetics of the region. Given this background, it can be concluded that there
will not be any impact on the functions of the resorts since the resorts are not getting
disturbed due to the development and operation of port.
Since the port is planned for handling clean cargo (containers) and will be developed to
match the highly aesthetic surrounding landscape, there will not be any adverse visual
impact due to the port operation.
On the contrary, there might be beneficial impacts on the tourism sector due to the
development of the Port. Vizhinjam is principally being planned in line with Port of Singapore,
Port of Dubai etc. which also have state-of-the-art facilities for cruise liners thereby being
instrumental in triggering the tourism potential of the respective countries. It is not uncommon
world over to provide facilities for cruise liners within a container cargo port where the level of
pollution is minimum compared to dry bulk port. Keeping these in view, Consultant proposes
to develop passenger terminal at Vizhinjam Port in such a manner that the operations of
container handling are not affected. The berthing facilities for passenger vessels would be
planned at a berth which is away from the container berths. Moreover the draft requirements
within the harbour for the cruise vessels are relatively low compared to the design vessel
size for a container vessel. Hence without losing focus on the primary business of Vizhinjam
Port viz. container transhipment, a provision is also made in the master plan for handling
cruise vessels and development of other associated facilities required for servicing
passengers.
One of the important tourist spots in India, Lakshwadeep islands located on the West Coast
of India is close to Thiruvanthapuram. Currently the tourists visiting these Islands are
travelling by air from Thiruvanthapuram. It is noted that vessels plying between
Lakshwadeep and Thiruvanthapuram are involved in transhipping domestic cargo from
Thiruvanthapuram to Lakshwadeep and use berthing facilities at Vizhinjam fishing harbour.
Once Vizhinjam Port is developed, regular services between the two destinations can be
started. In addition there are possibilities of emerging tourism circuit between various tourist
destinations such as ThiruvananthapuramColombo, ThiruvananthapuramMaldives,
Cochin-Colombo via Thiruvananthapuram etc. Therefore it is firmly believed that one of the
several positive aspects of Vizhinjam Port is that the state-of-the-art passenger terminal
facilities will catapult increased arrival / use of tourists by sea and boost the tourism in the
region.
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9.4.5.5 Impacts on Employment Potential


The Vizhinjam Port is proposed to be developed in 3 stages in the Years 2007, 2012 and
2017, respectively. This development has both positive and negative impacts. The positive
impacts are the rise of income levels, enhancement in local economy, development of
infrastructure, etc.; and the negative impacts would be haphazard and uncontrolled growth,
strain on infrastructure, etc.
The construction and operation of the Vizhinjam Port will open up new avenues of
development through creation of direct and indirect employment opportunities and the project
region will experience significant growth. This would result in substantial population growth
and the need for basic infrastructure increases along with the port development.
The indirect employment potential will be created due to the establishment of service
providers / port-based facilities considering that Vizhinjam Port will be a transhipment hub.
Though, at present, no major industrial projects are on the anvil, it is likely that development
of a world-class port at Vizhinjam is bound to attract investors.
The proposed Vizhinjam Port is likely to create direct employment potential to a tune of 150
persons in the first stage of operations (in 2007) with an indirect employment potential of few
hundreds persons. The indirect employment potential exists from port-based industries or
service / facility providers like ship repairers, commercial establishments, stevedoring
companies, shipping agents, clearing and forwarding agents, ship chandlers, logistics
providers, etc.
The low direct employment potential is because Vizhinjam Port is being planned on the lines
of modern world-class ports, with sophisticated and highly mechanised operations,
predominantly handling container cargo.
Perusal of the population growth and the employment potential due to the construction and
operation of the Vizhinjam Port suggest that there is a great need for developing new areas,
upgradation of the infrastructure in order to keep the quality of life and human use values.
Further there is an immediate need for framing development control rules for the Vizhinjam
Port Project Area to contain the haphazard and uncontrolled growth.
9.4.6

Beneficial Impacts

While potential negative impacts are expected from Vizhinjam Port, the proposed
development will bring a plethora of benefits, significant of which are listed below:

Benefits to fishermen because of improved infrastructure levels particularly the road


connectivity, which would facilitate faster movement of the perishable goods such as fish
products to new / farther and profitable markets. This would be a positive impact on the
economy of fishing communities in the region.
Vizhinjam Fishery Harbour will flourish in similar lines as fishery harbours co-located / in
the immediate vicinity of Ports at Cochin, Visakhapatnam, Mumbai etc.
Fish processing units / chilling units are likely to be set up. This would pave way for
exporting to other states and other countries. There would be scope for exporting fish
products through port, earning higher profits and in the process earning the dearer
foreign exchange for the country.

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Enhancement in the economy of the Vizhinjam region, Thiruvananthapuram District and


Kerala State through direct and indirect taxes.
Substantial positive impact on the socio-economic profile of the region, both in terms of
overall employment and in skill development of the local workforce.
Development of infrastructure in the region
Development of new growth centres
Opening up a new era of investments into the State of Kerala and boosting the
confidence of the investors.
Prior to the construction of Vizhinjam Port, entire external infrastructure such as road / rail
connectivity, power and water will be provided without straining the existing levels. The
infrastructure facilities of the region will, thus, be enhanced.
The proposed major industrial projects in the region will be benefited with the operation of
Vizhinjam Port.
There would be a positive impact on the tourism sector as cruise liners can call at the
Vizhinjam Port.

9.5

Environmental Management Plan

An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is an implementation plan which consists of


mitigation measures, monitoring program and institutional arrangements to be adopted
during the construction and operation phases of Vizhinjam Port to minimise the adverse
environmental and social impacts. The plan also includes the actions to be taken to
implement the mitigation measures. The budgetary estimate for Environmental Monitoring
Program, during the construction and operation phases is also included.
9.5.1 Mitigation Measures Construction Phase
The environmental impacts associated with the development phase result from capital
dredging, reclamation, construction of breakwaters, construction of cargo berths and
container stacking area, quarrying, transportation of construction material and development
of external infrastructure such as road / rail linkage and pipeline for water supply. The
impacts will be on the marine, terrestrial and socio-economic environments. The mitigation
measures for each of the activities, which are exerting impacts on the environment, are
presented in the following paragraphs.
9.5.1.1 Capital Dredging, Reclamation and Construction of Breakwaters
The measures proposed to be adopted for mitigation of the impacts are:

Interaction with local fishing communities through the fishing co-operatives / unions,
community leaders; and through direct contacts and informal talks with fishermen, will be
held so that they are made aware of the construction of the port.
These interactions would be in continuation to the Public Information Consultation (PIC)
exercises carried out during this study. These focus group interactions will ensure to be a
forum for the Department of Ports, Government of Kerala to appreciate the concerns of
public and clear apprehensions, if any. Pursuant to this activity, any specific remedial
measures not already envisaged will be undertaken paving way for winning social
confidence and co-operation of the local populace.
Local fishermen in Vizhinjam will be informed, through informal focus group interactions /
discussions, about the construction so that they avoid the area in and around the
immediate vicinity.
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The construction zones would be demarcated by installing marker buoys along with
display / signboards prohibiting movement of fishermen, limited to the construction
period, in and around the construction limits. The signboards will be in Malayalam and
other vernacular language.
Mitigation measures like provision of silt screens, cessation of operations intermittently
for reducing turbidity levels will be adopted. The construction operations, if possible, will
be limited to daytime to provide recuperation time at night and to reduce the turbidity
levels.
The turbidity at the dredged site will be minimised through adoption of less intrusive
dredging procedures, provision of silt curtains, and the timing of the dredging activity.
It will be ensured that the barges / work boats have appropriate system (slop tanks) for
collection of liquid / solid waste generated on board and it is transferred on shore for
treatment and disposal regularly. No wastes will be discharged into the sea throughout
operations.
Extreme precaution was taken during the planning stage to ensure that there is no
disturbance to adjacent properties / habitations. If this is warranted, then the same would
be restored with consent from the affected people / persons.
Keeping in view the base line data generated prior to commencement of operations,
normal annual fluctuations, extent and duration of operations, the services of a marine
biologist will be engaged, if required for recommending mitigation measures during
construction.
During construction, it will be ensured that the operational area is limited to bare
minimum so that the impacted zone is minimal.
Extreme precaution will be taken not to hurt the sentiments and cultural interests of the
local fishermen.
Ambient noise levels will be monitored during offshore operations. The monitoring
program will cover all hours of operation. During operations, the high noise prone
operations will be identified through monitoring and such activities will be regulated to the
daytime and noise attenuation measures such as mufflers / enclosures will be provided
so that noise limits stipulated by Central Pollution Control Board are not exceeded at the
nearest habitations. Protective gear like earplugs, if necessary, will be provided to
operating personnel exposed to noise levels beyond limits stipulated by Central Pollution
Control Board. Rotation of personnel may also be considered.
Propellers of barges, diesel driven engines of workboats will be well-maintained and will
meet emission norms of diesel vehicles. The Pollution Under Control Certificates (for CO)
for all deployed equipment / vehicles driven by diesel and / or petrol or any other forms of
hydrocarbons will be checked. The certificates will be revalidated once in a month and
emission tests will be conducted on site.
Seawater quality monitoring program will be initiated with special emphasis on turbidity
and will commence at least one week prior to start of capital dredging, reclamation or
construction of breakwaters, and will continue throughout the operations. The monitoring
prior to commencement of operations would generate baseline data using which the
construction activity can be regulated. The seawater quality will be monitored on daily
basis and will cover physico-chemical, heavy metals and biological parameters. Turbidity
will be monitored thrice a day covering the complete working shift.
Currently there are no standards in India for turbidity levels. Keeping this in view, during
construction, it will be attempted to meet the Operational and Performance Standards for
Turbidity (OPST) standards.

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Periodic monitoring of ground water will be initiated in Pulinkudi and Mulloor to check the
incidence of salt-water intrusion due to the dredging, if any. Ground water quality
monitoring will commence one week prior to start of dredging.
Submarine conditions during the dredging period would be inspected by divers and a
photographic / videographic record would be maintained.
Prior to the commencement of dredging, a Dredging Management Programme will be
prepared and implemented.

9.5.1.2 Construction of Cargo Berths and Container Stacking Area


The following measures would be adhered to mitigate the impacts:

The emissions from diesel driven construction equipment, machinery, dozers etc. will
conform to the emission norms stipulated by the Kerala State Pollution Control Board /
CPCB / MoEF. All construction equipments will have valid Pollution Under Control
Certificates which will be revalidated every month.
The construction equipment deployed would be provided with suitable mufflers /
enclosures to reduce noise levels. Further, construction workers who are likely to be
exposed to high noise levels beyond threshold limits will be provided with protective
gears like earplugs, muffs etc. Also, rotation of construction personnel will be considered.
The equipment deployed for construction will have appropriate monitoring and control
facilities, which are functional all throughout the operations.
During the movement of vehicles on the unpaved roads in the construction areas, water
will be sprinkled to minimise suspension of dust.
Water will be sourced from Neyyar River / Vellayani Lake and no bore wells will be dug.

9.5.1.3 Quarrying
To mitigate the impacts from quarrying the following are proposed to be adopted:

The quarrying will be done from approved quarries to minimise impacts.


The quarry operations will be restricted to daytime to reduce the impacts from increased
noise and will be minimised to reach the threshold levels stipulated by Central Pollution
Control Board (CPCB) at the nearest habitations.
Ambient air quality monitoring will be carried out once in a month in and around the
quarry sites and based on the results the quarrying operations will be carried out.
The noise level prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) will be strictly
followed during the quarry operation. The personnel who are likely to get exposed to
noise levels beyond threshold limits will be provided with protective gears like earplugs,
muffs, etc. Rotation of personnel would also be considered. Ambient noise levels will be
monitored twice in a month.

9.5.1.4 Transportation of Construction Material


The measures proposed to be adopted to mitigate impacts from transportation of
construction material are as follows:

Traffic density studies will be initiated along the access roads to assess the current traffic
density and plan the trips to reduce congestion as well as the risk of accidents.
The proposed routes for transportation of construction material will be decided taking into
account the traffic on the existing road network i.e. on NH 47 and access road to the
project site via Mukkola and movement of construction material to the project site will be
regulated to minimise congestion.
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The construction material movement will be planned during non-peak hours, if possible,
to reduce traffic congestion from increased traffic during transportation to the project site.
The proposed road link to Vizhinjam Port would be constructed before development of
Vizhinjam Port to minimise impacts from transportation of construction materials.
The exhaust emissions from all transportation vehicles will conform to the norms
stipulated by the Kerala State Pollution Control Committee / CPCB / MoEF and will have
valid Pollution Under Control Certificates which will be revalidated every month.
The noise emissions from all transportation vehicles will conform to the norms stipulated
by the Kerala State Pollution Control Board / CPCB / MoEF.
The proposed vehicular movements will be regulated such that noise levels generated
from transportation will be minimised to the threshold noise levels stipulated by Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for daytime at the nearest habitations.
The construction material will be brought in covered trucks to minimise air borne (or
suspension of) particulates and spills.

9.5.1.5 Construction of Road / Rail Linkage


To mitigate the impacts from construction of road / rail linkage, the following are proposed to
be adopted:

Prior to construction, the landowners whose land might have to be acquired will be
suitably compensated as per the prevailing market value to mitigate the social impacts.
Water tankers with suitable sprinkling arrangement will be deployed to suppress fugitive
dust, suspended during construction, along the unpaved portions.
The emissions from diesel driven construction equipments, machinery, dozers etc. will
conform to the emission norms stipulated by the Kerala State Pollution Control Board /
CPCB / MoEF and will have valid Pollution Under Control Certificates which will be
revalidated every month.
The noise levels generated by construction activities and equipment will be minimised
such that the threshold noise levels stipulated by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
for daytime not exceeded at the nearby villages. The construction equipment deployed
would be provided with suitable mufflers / enclosures to reduce noise levels.

9.5.1.6 Laying of Water Pipeline


The measures proposed to be adopted to mitigate impacts from laying of pipeline are as
follows:

Prior to construction of pipeline, the landowners whose land will be temporarily acquired
will be suitably compensated as per the prevailing market value to mitigate the social
impacts.
The pipeline alignment will be demarcated on the ground and display / signboards will be
installed indicating the construction and installation of pipeline. The signboards will be
both in Malayalam and other vernacular language.
Care will be taken not to disturb any existing utilities, if any detected, during the
construction of pipeline. The same will be restored, if unavoidable.
Mechanised pipeline construction equipment will be deployed so that the whole
construction activities are completed as fast as possible. This would prevent resentment
and unrest in the local population due to prolonged operations and disturbance thereof.
The noise levels generated by construction activities and equipment will be minimised
such that the threshold noise levels stipulated by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
for daytime at the nearest habitations and are not exceeded. The construction equipment
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deployed would be provided with suitable mufflers / enclosures to reduce noise levels.
Further, construction workers who are likely to be exposed to high noise levels beyond
threshold limits will be provided with protective gears like earplugs, muffs etc. Also,
rotation of construction personnel will be considered.
9.5.1.7 Construction Yards
The measures proposed to be adopted to mitigate impacts from construction yards are as
follows:

Water tankers with suitable sprinkling arrangement will be deployed to suppress airborne
dust in the construction yards and from movement of construction equipment.
Run-offs from construction yards will be not allowed to drain into the sea and would be
collected.

9.5.1.8 Hazardous Material Storage


During construction there will be requirement of hazardous materials such as weld gases,
fuels (diesel / petrol), lubricants, etc. To minimise the accidental risks from these hazardous
material storage and handling, the following are proposed:

Material such as welding gas, fuel for operation of tugs, barges, paints will be stored in
designated places as per the norms specified for Industrial Safety.
The storage areas will be fenced / barricaded in order to restrict the movement of the
local communities / grazing cattle.
Extreme precaution will be taken to avoid spillage or leakage of diesel, oils and lubes. To
reduce the impacts from spills or leaks occur during fuel loading / unloading, the fuelling
operations will be done only at designated and paved surfaces in the construction yard.
Spills / leaks, if any, will be recovered.

9.5.1.9 Worker Camps


There will be a large scale requirement of skilled and unskilled labours during the
development phase of the Vizhinjam Port. Majority of the labours will be sub contracted.
The construction period will span around 24 months and worker camps will be set up for the
unskilled labourers in the vicinity of the proposed Vizhinjam Port site. The following aspects
would be taken into consideration before setting up the worker camps:

The worker camps will not be set-up close to Vizhinjam village.


The camps will be adequately equipped with all the necessary facilities / amenities such
as water supply, power supply, waste water collection, solid waste collection and
sanitation.
The domestic wastes generated from the camps will be disposed at approved disposal
sites.

9.5.1.10

Induced Development

The development phase of the Vizhinjam Port will result in induced development through
development of slums, makeshift commercial establishments indirectly affecting the
neighbouring communities and also contributing to the haphazard growth. As development of
Vizhinjam Port is proposed as an integral part of Thiruvananthapuram Regional Programme,
the regional planning authorities should prevent any unplanned growth by drafting

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developmental controls and regulate / implement / enforce the same to preclude / minimise
impacts from induced development.
9.5.2

Mitigation Measures Operation Phase

The Vizhinjam Port is planned as a Container Transhipment Hub / Port. The other cargo will
be general / break bulk cargo. As the proposed cargo to be handled is a clean cargo no
significant impacts are envisaged. However, aqueous discharges and inland cargo
movement will result in impacts.
9.5.2.1 Port Operations
Aqueous Discharges
Aqueous discharges resulting in marine pollution in the harbour basin would occur from the
following:

Operations on the quay areas


Cargo storage areas
Wastewater and sewage
Runoffs containing oil spills
Ship wastes and bilge water
Sewage from nearby areas
Accidental cargo spills

The measures proposed to be adopted to mitigate the impacts from the discharge of sewage,
ship waste, oil spills, runoffs from operational areas, etc. are as follows:

All the operational areas will be connected with a network of liquid waste collection
corridor comprising of storm water, oily wastes, and sewage collection pipelines.
The berth and terminals will be designed sloping landward for collection of the runoffs
into the sewage collection network.
Oily wastes that are generated from the mechanical areas of the port will be collected in
the effluent network and further treated.
Ships / vessels calling at the Vizhinjam Port would be prohibited from dumping the
wastes / bilge water during the berthing period.
Vizhinjam Port would be equipped with all modern pollution control mechanism to contain
the marine pollution from the port operational areas. Pollution control facilities would be
designed with a possibility of recycling the wastes especially the treated effluents.

Cargo Handling
During the handling (loading and unloading operations) of various types of cargoes there is a
significant increase in air pollution and noise levels. In addition to these impacts, in the event
of accidental spills, impacts are envisaged on seawater quality and sediment. To mitigate
these impacts, measures proposed are discussed in the following paragraphs:

The cargo handling equipment such as quay / mobile cranes, RTG, forklifts, trailers, etc.,
particularly pneumatic, would be provided with noise attenuation measures such as
providing mufflers / enclosures.
It would be ensured that the exhaust emissions from cargo handling equipment such as
mobile cranes, prime movers, forklifts, trailers, etc. meet the stipulated norms to reduce
air pollution.
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Spills occurring from leaky containers and bagged general cargo, resulting in air and
water pollution, will be recovered.
The presence of cliff immediately behind the cargo handling areas act as a barrier and
prevents transport of pollutants landward.

9.5.2.2 Maintenance Dredging


Based on the prevailing littoral drift and consequential sediment transport, which is estimated
to be insignificant and presence of natural water depths in most part of the harbour, it is
expected that there will be no requirement for maintenance dredging in the Approach
Channel (Inner and Outer Navigation Channel), Turning Circle, Berthing Areas. Hence, there
is likely to be no maintenance dredging. In case maintenance dredging is required, the
following measures will be adopted to minimise the impacts:

The maintenance-dredged material during the initial phase would be used for reclamation
for the next phase development after analysing the dredged material for pollutant levels.
The excess maintenance dredged material not used for reclamation or maintenance
dredged material after the final phase development of Vizhinjam Port would be disposed
at designated spoil grounds.

9.5.2.3 Inland Cargo Movement


If the proposed road / rail links are developed before commencement of port operations, it
would mitigate the impacts from inland cargo movement to a significant extent compared to
the transportation of cargo along the existing road networks. The measures to be adopted for
mitigating the impacts are as follows:

Traffic density studies along the existing road network covering all the roads leading to
Vizhinjam Port.
It is known that the southern road link planned for connecting the Vizhinjam Port partially
traverses through Adimalathurai villages and northern road link through Vizhinjam and
Mukkola. Keeping this in view, patrolling needs to be carried out to check for
unauthorised parking with close co-operation of the local authorities.
Avenue plantation would be developed, along the access roads, to reduce the impacts of
air and noise pollution on the adjoining villages. This activity would be taken up during the
developmental phase of the Vizhinjam Port and once the commercial operations start
there would be a good green belt in place to improve the air quality and attenuate the
excessive noise levels due to the cargo movement.
All the vehicles involved in transhipment of cargo, susceptible to be air borne or liable for
fugitive suspension, would be covered adequately with tarpaulins in order to protect the
road users from the wind blown dusts.
The vehicles involved in transportation would be checked periodically to ensure that
emissions are within the permissible limits.
The port vehicles that are involved in the cargo transhipment would be equipped with
Pollution Under Control (PUC) Certificates.

9.5.2.4 Solid Waste Management


As solid waste disposal is not being currently practised, Vizhinjam and the coastal areas are
susceptible to pollution. A site is already identified by Thiruvananthapuram Corporation and
acquired by Vizhinjam Grama Panchayat for solid waste disposal. This site is about 3 km
from the proposed Vizhinjam port site and solid wastes generated during Vizhinjam Port
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operations are proposed to be disposed at this site. The solid wastes generated would be
segregated as bio-degradable and non-degradable. It would be attempted to recycle the nondegrading wastes.
9.5.2.5 Hazardous Material Management
Vehicles for transportation of cargo, equipments used in the port for loading and unloading of
cargo, vessels calling at the port etc. will require fuel oils, POL products, lube oils, etc.
Bunkering for fuel oil will be provided at the port.
The following sections present a broad hazardous materials management plan for the
operation phase of the Vizhinjam Port, which would need to be detailed, to minimise the risks
from storage and handling of hazardous materials. The components to be considered in the
plan are:

Screening of the materials


Hazardous materials management program
Community involvement and awareness

Screening of the Materials


This is the first step in the hazardous materials management program. The screening will
involve formulating hazard materials table, which include substance code, threshold quantity,
class, description etc. to produce a summary with the following information:

Material Quantities (Daily / Weekly / Monthly)


Characteristics
Hazard level (low to high)
Threshold quantity

Hazardous Materials Management Program


The hazardous materials management program is a comprehensive system that sets out
written policies and procedures to implement the program, assigns responsibilities for
implementing the program and provides training, monitoring, recording and performance of
the system. Also, it provides a system for periodic evaluation such as compliance audits in
meeting the objective of the program. The components of the program are:
Management Actions
The management actions will include monitoring of workers health and safety, training
needs, record keeping and reporting.
Preventive Measures
The objective of the preventive measures is to develop and implement the procedures to
prevent accidents in the unforeseen conditions.
Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan
This is one of the important tools in the hazardous materials management program. The plan
will include preparedness and responsive principles, communication with local authorities,

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medical aspects, emergency response, incident reporting and investigation, record keeping
and emergency response training.
It is suggested that a detailed hazardous materials management program be prepared and
implemented during the operation phase of the Vizhinjam Port.
9.5.2.6 Disaster Management Plan
The cargo proposed to be handled at Vizhinjam Port is mostly non-hazardous in nature.
However, to meet any eventuality and to combat hazards from port operations, Disaster
Management Plan is a pre-requisite. The Disaster Management Plan will list out the
necessary Emergency Response Procedures along with an organisational framework. This
section presents a broad outline of the plan and a detailed plan would have to be prepared
for the Operation Phase of the port.
Emergency Response Procedures
Contingency plans backed up by adequate and well-maintained equipment; detailed
procedures and personnel trained are essential in combating various hazards anticipated
from the port operations. The Port Developer would prepare a contingency plan broadly
covering the following:

A database of the available resources (regional, national and international groups) so that
it can be used in contacting the groups, involved in disaster management, in the event of
any spillage depending on the magnitude.
Identification of sites for disposal of contaminated debris.
Identify the specialised equipment and plan for procurement, deployment and
maintenance.
Training for the personnel.
Establishment of an authority and framing of responsibilities of individuals in the event of
any spills / hazards.

Community Involvement and Awareness


The nearest settlements to the Vizhinjam Port are Vizhinjam, Mulloor and Pulinkudi and it is
necessary to appraise the local communities about the activities involved in the development
and operation of the project. The following information would be listed in the project site:

Providing general information on the nature and extent of offsite affects in the event of
unforeseen circumstances.
Details of the safety measures to be adopted in tackling the hazards in the event of any
disaster.
Involving the community members and developing awareness in them regarding
emergency preparedness and disaster management.
Record keeping.

9.5.2.7 Green Belt Development Plan


Greenbelt is proposed to be developed to mitigate the impacts and enhance the quality of
environment and improve the aesthetics as follows:

Greenbelt development is proposed along the entire boundary of the Vizhinjam Port. In
addition tree cover will be developed within the port areas wherever feasible.
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The greenbelt development would be varying between 7 10 m width.


The tree species for the greenbelt development would be native species and will be in
line with the local ecology.
Possibilities for utilising treated effluent for the greenbelt requirements will be explored
thereby contributing to the reduction in water usage.

9.5.2.8 Population Influx due to Vizhinjam Port


The operation of Vizhinjam Port will exert significant changes on the landuse pattern in the
surroundings through population influx and from induced development resulting in creation of
employment potential and development of commercial establishments. This activity if not
planned and developed will create chaos affecting the integrity of the port and would not be
sustainable development.
The following measures are / shall be taken into consideration, which will be useful in
restricting the development:

As development of Vizhinjam Port is proposed as an integral part of Thiruvananthapuram


Regional Programme, the regional planning authorities should prevent any unplanned
growth by drafting developmental controls and regulate / implement / enforce the same to
preclude / minimise impacts from induced development.
The Port Developer, in consultation with the local authorities, would monitor all the
developments in and around the Vizhinjam Port.

9.5.2.9 Training of Personnel


To ensure that the port operates safely and to manage the emergencies, the following is
proposed:

The personnel involved in the operation of the port would be trained for identification of
various hazards, methods to combat responsiveness to emergency preparedness etc.
Further, the personnel involved in handling of cargo would be trained for handling oil /
chemicals spills, fire fighting methods etc.

9.5.3

Environmental Monitoring

The mitigation measures suggested in the preceding sections require environmental


monitoring of air quality, noise levels, seawater, sediment, groundwater quality during the
development and operation phase of the Vizhinjam Port. Offshore and onshore
environmental surveys will be carried out to meet the monitoring requirements. The
monitoring requirements would be carried out through sub-contracting the assignment to an
approved agency with capabilities to undertake monitoring of onshore and offshore
environmental surveys.
The environmental attributes are to be monitored during the construction and operation
phase of the Vizhinjam Port at various locations in the study area as per standard
methodologies and at specific frequencies for marine water quality, particularly turbidity
during construction, plankton content, sediment quality, benthos, ambient air quality, noise
levels, groundwater quality and soil quality.

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9.5.3.1 Institutional Mechanism


The effective implementation and close supervision of the environmental monitoring
programme would negate the environmental impacts, which are likely to arise due to the
development and operation phase of Vizhinjam Port. This could be achieved only through a
suitable institutional mechanism. A broad institutional mechanism responsible for the
implementation of the mitigation measures is presented below:
Developer of
Vizhinjam Port

Environment
Management Unit

Independent Agency
for
Environmental
Monitoring

EPC Contractor

Environmental Officer
(Full-time)

The implementation of the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) will be responsibility of


the proposed Developer of the Vizhinjam Port. The Port Developer would see that the
environmental monitoring works are included in the EPC contracts. The EPC contractor
would appoint a full time Environmental Officer to monitor the mitigation measures and keep
a daily record of the same.
The responsibilities of the Environmental Officer would include day to day recording of
mitigation measures; planning and execution of environmental monitoring; review of the
report submitted by the monitoring agencies; comparing the results with baseline; checking
the level of compliance of results with respective standards; recommending corrective
measures, if necessitated; preparation of monthly progress reports and documenting all the
activities.
The Environmental Officer of the EPC Contractor would report the monitoring programme to
the Environmental Management Unit of the Port Developer.
The Environment Management Unit of the Port Developer would also carry out
environmental monitoring on random basis through an independent agency, other than the
EPC contractors agency, to check the monitoring results being reported. The port
Developer would appoint advisors / experts, if required, to review the monitoring results and
provide recommendations during the construction and operation phases.
9.5.3.2 Reporting Procedure
The Environmental Officer of the EPC Contractor will supervise all the environmental
monitoring operations and document the test results on a monthly basis in the form of
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progress reports. The report would include results of the environmental monitoring programs,
actions carried out with respect to the results of monitoring as prepared and implemented.
The reports would be submitted to the Port Developer, which the Developer in turn would
submit to KSPCB. Implementation Schedule and Cost Estimation for Environmental
Monitoring
9.5.3.3 Implementation Schedule
The development of Vizhinjam Port is likely to commence in 2007 and prior to that
implementation of EMP would commence.
9.5.3.4 Cost Estimation for Environmental Monitoring
The annual budgetary estimates for environmental monitoring during the construction and
operation phase of Vizhinjam Port are about Rs. 5 million and Rs. 1.4 million respectively

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FIGURES

CHAPTER 10
Risk Analysis and Legal Review

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10 Risk Analysis & Legal Review


10.1 Risk Analysis
10.1.1 General
Privatisation drive in India, in the last 10 years has increased widely. The nature of
privatisation might be varying from full privatisation of public entities to the transfer of
management from public to private, passing through various forms of concession type
agreements, with all variants like BOT, BOOT, BOO etc. The typical characteristics of an
Infrastructure project are initial large fund outlay and long gestation period. The funding
typically comes through equity and debt. The project typically involves huge upfront cost and
the revenue build up is slow in the beginning but builds up over time. This means that the
equity investors would have to wait for longer periods, typically 25 to 30 years to earn
adequate returns on their initial investments. Funds coming through debt also have to be of
such long tenure. Investors also need to tap long tenure debt funds from Multilateral
Agencies to supplement the local debt which are having maximum tenure of around 15
years.
Financing of such projects on a commercial basis is time consuming as it involves
negotiation between various parties for contractual agreements. Successful formulation of
the project involves the appropriate demarcation and allocation of risks to the various
stakeholders in the project. Clarity in allocation is essential to avoid confusion in the financing
and implementation of the project.
Risk is the chance of an event occurring, which cause project circumstances to differ from
those assumed when forecasting benefits and cost. The quality of the risk analysis
(management) undertaken by those who commission infrastructure projects and those
bidding to deliver on these projects, often determines whether the project proceeds or not.
The management of risk requires a well-planned, organised approach within an agreed
framework. The Australia New Zealand standard on risk management identifies five major
steps in the process:
1) Establish the context
2) Identify the risks
3) Analyse or assess the risks
4) Evaluate the risks
5) Treat or mitigate those risks
10.1.2 Exit and Compensation Clauses
The Developer should have the right to terminate the Concession Agreement under certain
events including Force Majeure and Event of Default on the part of Government. Also, there
should be suitable compensation under these events which would not only cover the
outstanding debt but also give some return on the investment to the Developer.

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10.1.3 Risk Management


A typical infrastructure project faces several risks throughout the project period. A project
faces risk at various stages of development, the construction phase, the start-up phase and
the operating phase. This chapter identifies risks to all three partners of the project i.e.
project sponsors, project lenders and equity investors/operators. Risk management process
is addressed in three stages.
Stage 1 is the Risk categorisation stage where those concerned will identify various risks and
categorise them into various types. Stage 2 will enumerate different kinds of risks under each
category based on the phase of project development. Those concerned will - to the extent
possible - qualify and quantify the risk element involved as also its probable impact on the
project. Stage 3 will look at the risk mitigation measures and identify the party responsible for
this risk (mitigation) and the instrument(s) through which this could be achieved.
10.1.4 Risk Categorisation
In a typical PPP (Public Private Partnership) project, the project elements include acquisition,
construction, operation, maintenance and financing. The project is exposed to risks at each
of these stages. For purpose of clarity and ease, the project risks are broadly classified into
categories, during the construction phase, the start-up phase, the operating phase and
potential risks throughout the project period. VPD-risks are broadly grouped into 11
categories:
Construction Phase Risk

Start Up and Operating

Risks throughout Project

Phase Risk

Period

1) Technical

5) Revenue risk

8) Legal

2) Social & environmental

6) Right to collect/ fix tariffs

9) Financial

3) Statutory clearances

7) Infrastructure
connection, accessibility

10) Force majeure


11) Insurable

4) Commercial, contractual &


procurement
a)

Selecting EPC contractor

b)

Availability of materials
and equipment

c)

Construction quality

d)

Timely completion

e)

Construction costs

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10.1.5 Risk Analysis


Risk analysis involves examining all sources of risk to all project stakeholders. It necessitates
identification of the exact risk source so that an analysis can be made later of the likelihood,
consequence and importance of it. Risks that can occur during the various project stages
under each risk category are described below:
Risk Category

Description of Risks

1) Technical

2)

3)

4)

Social & environmental

Statutory clearances

Commercial,

contractual

&

procurement

5)

6)

7)

Revenue

Right to collect/ fix tariffs

Infrastructure
accessibility

connection

&

Design/ development sub-optimal

Site geology unsuitable

Performance targets uncertain

Land acquisition for port and connectivity


insufficient/unclear

Rehabilitation/ resettlement unaccounted for

Official approvals/
withheld

right to start project work/operations (after


construction) delayed/withheld

Selection of EPC contractor difficult

Availability of materials & equipment unsure

Construction quality unguaranteed

Cost overrun

Time overrun

Vulnerability in traffic

Cost/price sensitivity / freedom to fix tariffs


challenged

Impact on revenue potentially severe

Right to collect tariff denied

Right to adjust tariffs according to the market


denied

Reliance on GoK/GoI (Railways, State PWD,


NHAI, Concor etc.)

clearances

delayed

or

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Description of Risks
-

Impact on revenue severe

Feasibility of operations jeopardised

8) Legal

Repudiation of contract

9) Financial

Financial structuring

Fund mobilisation

Interest rate

Foreign currency

Non Political Force Majeure

Political force majeure

Change in laws

Casualty

Third part liability

Workmens compensation

10) Force majeure

11) Insurance

10.1.5.1

Qualitative Risk Analysis

The key factors in assessing risk are:

the likelihood of its occurrence


the impact of the risk, if it occurs

The probability of a risk occurring and the magnitude of its impact are used in evaluating risk
exposure. This exercise can be undertaken by use of qualitative methods and quantitative
methods.
Risks can have an impact on either the cost and/or revenues of the project. Based on
professional opinion derived from past experience of the Consultants, the risk factors are
categorised as major, medium or minor, while the probability of the event is categorised
as high, medium or low.
A summary of the qualitative analysis of the risk categories is as follows:

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Potential Risks

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Nature/ Cause of Risk

Risk Factor

Probability

Medium

Low

Medium

Low

port

Medium

Medium

Obtaining approvals and


clearances from authorities

Medium

Low

Right to start project work/


operations
(after
construction) in time as per
schedules

Medium

Low

Time overrun

Major

Medium

Cost overrun

Major

Medium

Vulnerability in traffic

Major

Low

Price sensitivity

Major

Low

IMPACT ON THE PROJECT COST


Technical

Social & environmental

Design/development risk Design fault in tender


specifications/Contractors
design fault
Non
achievement
performance targets

Land

acquisition

for

of

connectivity

Statutory clearances

Commercial, contractual and Procurement

IMPACT ON REVENUES
Revenue risk

Right to fix tariff

Right to revise tariffs

Major

Medium

Right to collect tariffs

Right to collect tariffs

Major

Low

Financial

Interest rate

Medium

Low

Foreign currency

Major

Low

Non-political force majeure

Minor

Low

Change in laws

Major

Medium

Force majeure

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Potential Risks

Insurance

Nature/ Cause of Risk

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Risk Factor

Probability

Political force majeure

Medium

Low

Casualty

Medium

Low

Third party liability

Medium

Low

Workmens compensation

Medium

Low

10.1.6 Risk Mitigation


A well-planned and structured infrastructure project ought to deliver value that optimises the
project benefits (for the community at large) and the project returns (for the project owners).
It can only do this if all risks associated with the project are properly identified, assessed and
managed. Risk mitigation is a proven tool to reduce exposure to risks. Effective risk
mitigation inherently increases the likelihood of achieving (or bettering) the projects base
case scenario. Different techniques of risk mitigation include:

risk reduction
risk spreading

One way of risk reduction is to take out a cover against the risk of adverse foreign currency
movements in the forward market. The cost of taking this cover has to be less than the
potential loss that could occur if the value of the foreign currency moves adversely. Thus
there would be a net benefit, resulting in risk reduction. Risk can be transferred from one
party to another through the medium of contract. All non-commercial risks can be passed on
and be covered by insurers.
Hereinafter various risk mitigation measures are discussed:
10.1.6.1

Technical Risks

Risk:
Technical risks are of two types, External technical risks and Internal technical risks. External
technical risks include hidden underground caves, presence of hard rock within the proposed
harbour area, non suitability of dredged material etc. Internal technical risks include project
design risk making it inadequate to handle the proposed task satisfactorily or design defects
and latent defects that may limit the desired performance targets.
Mitigation:
For VPD, risks were mitigated by rigorous engineering studies during the feasibility stage.
State-of the art-criteria and technology were applied. As a matter of risk mitigation to the
Consultant and its Client (GoK), the RfP should oblige bidders to assume all related
responsibility. In turn, the successful bidder may pass to the EPC-contractor all responsibility
for design, procurement, construction, completion and commissioning of the project based on
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his design capabilities. The Construction contract should incorporate suitable clauses to
cover testing, acceptance, rejection and penalties for inadequate performance.
The Government shall appoint (independent) Proof Consultants for design verification and
approval, construction supervision so as to see that the Construction Contractor adopts all
technical procedures and methods to complete the work on time. The Proof Consultants shall
ensure that any variation in the assumptions or results from the design basis, which has an
impact on the project design are detected and corrective measures applied.
The Equity Investors should demand a Performance Bond from EPC-contractor and a
Warranty Bond for post construction defects (hidden damages)
Instrument: Concession Agreement/ Construction Contract
Allocation: Equity Investor (EPC-Contractor)
10.1.6.2

Social and Environmental Risks

Risk:
Same as any other infrastructure project, Greenfield ports can and normally do have
environmental and social impacts. For the present project, land acquisition is not envisaged
for port construction per se since the entire land will be reclaimed from the sea.
The environmental attributes which are likely be affected during the construction phase of the
Vizhinjam Port are impacts on: Sea Water Quality and Marine Biology, Beach Profile,
Seabed and Benthos, Coastal Regulation Zone, Environmental Aesthetics / Visual Impacts,
Atmosphere, Water Use, Quarrying, Transportation of Construction Material, Construction of
Road / Rail Linkage, Laying of Water Pipeline, Port Operations, Inland Cargo Movement,
Water Use and Maintenance Dredging.
Mitigation:
There is no social risk as mentioned above.
An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is an implementation plan which consists of
mitigation measures, monitoring program and institutional arrangements to be adopted
during the construction and operation phases of Vizhinjam Port to minimise the adverse
environmental and social impacts. The plan also includes the actions to be taken to
implement the mitigation measures. REIA studies are completed and submitted to KSPCB
for obtaining Consent For Establishment (CFE). Grantor (i.e. GoK) will facilitate in obtaining
the same.
Instrument Concession Agreement
Allocation Special Purpose Vehicle / Grantor.

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Statutory Clearances Risk

Risk
Failure to obtain statutory clearances pertaining to implementation of the project, would
cause delay in start-up of construction and operation of the port.
Mitigation:
It is very necessary that major milestones be defined well in advance, i.e. in the Concession
Agreement, so as to avoid any ambiguity and shedding of responsibilities by either party at a
later date. The Consultants recommend that the Concession Agreement prescribe time
frame from the commencement date [date of transfer of the land/ water front and other
existing infrastructure facilities by the Government to the Concessionaire] for the
Concessionaire to file application for various statutory clearances. Getting statutory
clearances shall be the sole responsibility of the Concessionaire. However, wherever
possible the Government assists in obtaining clearances. But it shall not be responsible for
any slippages due to non-compliance of necessary stipulations by the Concessionaire. The
Concession Agreement shall stipulate the maximum number of days from the
commencement date or from the date of application filing by the Concessionaire, whichever
is later, within which the Government shall exercise all statutory clearances within its
authority.
Instrument Concession Agreement
Allocation Special Purpose Vehicle
10.1.6.4

Commercial, Contractual & Procurement Risk

Selection of EPC Contractor(s)


Risk
The degree to which Construction risks can be reduced depends largely on the quality of the
construction contractor(s). It is essential that construction contractors possess the technical,
managerial, and financial capabilities to assure completion of the project in the contracted
quality, within the contractual time and budget, i.e. neither cost- nor time overruns.
Mitigation:
This may be accomplished by pre-qualifying construction contractors and carefully reviewing
their past records on similar projects. It is essential that only contractors with prior
construction experience in such complex projects are pre-qualified to bid for this contract.
Liquidated damages provisions in the construction contract(s) are a second line of defense.
Securing performance, completion and warranted guarantees from the EPC contractor
provides further mitigation.

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Construction Quality
Risk
Poor technical quality also affects performance. A facility operating at less than contracted
capacity, for example, can have severe effects on the Concessionaires ability to meet
obligations. Risks emanating from sub-optimal designs could be extremely serious.
Mitigation:
This risk is substantially mitigated by having a strong engineering, procurement, and
construction (EPC) contract, which must have a fixed price and a firm completion date
(delays in commercial operation will cause default). In other words, a strong turnkey contract
is required. Proof Consultants may be appointed by the Government to review plans and
design submitted by the EPC Contractor and for selective inspection of construction for
acceptance of constructed facilities. The Cost of the Proof Consultants shall be borne by the
Special Purpose Vehicle.
Availability of materials and equipment
Risk
The risk of unavailability of materials or equipment for project construction or operation exists
in developing countries like India. The price and time necessary to manufacture or transport
the relevant material can dramatically affect the projects viability.
Mitigation:
In projects of such magnitude, normally major activities like EPC are outsourced. The
contract agreements with these service providers should address this issue. No price
escalations or project completion extensions should be allowed except under force majeure
conditions. The agreements must also provide for performance guarantees. The EPC
contractors are expected to do their own due diligence on availability before bidding.
Moreover, the Consultants have arrived at the Project cost estimates after considering the
conditions of availability (in the vicinity as also the price).
Cost Overrun
Risk
Construction cost exceed estimates for various reasons including inaccurate engineering and
plans, escalation in labour and building material cost in excess of calculations, and problems
with project start-up. This may render the project financially unviable and would require an
extension in the Concession Period to achieve the desired return.
Mitigation:
Cost overrun risk is best handled through a fixed-price and fixed-term construction contract.
The risk has been significantly mitigated in the project development phase by conducting
detailed engineering surveys and investigations. In addition to this, the Equity Investor is
expected to do his own due diligence in the cost estimates. Sufficient time is to be provided
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to the Bidders from the date of purchase of tender documents to the date of submission of
tender documents.
Risk Time Overrun
The completion risk relates to the need to complete the project on time, within budget and in
accordance with the specifications for the quantity and quality of projected output. It may also
affect the scheduled flow of project revenues.
Mitigation:
Primarily 4 techniques for reducing the time overrun risk are available:
a) Construction contract
b) Commercial insurance
c) Controlling payment of construction loan funds
d) Cost overrun support by Equity Investors
a.

Construction contract

Project finance lenders expect most of the completion risk to be absorbed by an


experienced, reliable and well-capitalised contractor through a fixed price, "turnkey"
construction contract. Often called engineering, procurement and construction ("EPC")
contracts, these agreements oblige the contractor to complete the project so that it is capable
of meeting pre-set performance criteria by a designated date in return for a fixed price.
Regardless of the quality of the EPC contract, lenders will also expect the contractor to
provide additional security in the form of both:

third party guarantees (e.g. performance bonds, bank guarantees or standby letters of
credit).
liquidated damages.

The contractor could face 2 types of liquidated damages that affect the bankability of the
project:

b.

The first are delay damages to compensate the Special Purpose Vehicle for the cost
(mainly financing cost) incurred if the project is not completed by a specified date.
The second are performance damages (so-called "buy-down" damages) payable if the
project fails to meet certain pre-determined output or performance criteria. "Buy-down"
damages are typically calculated to compensate the Special Purpose Vehicle for the
present value of the revenues lost due to poor project performance. Lenders typically
require these "buy-down" damages to be used to pre-pay a portion of the project debt, so
that the debt is essentially "re-sized" to match the lower revenues expected from the
project.
Commercial Insurance

In addition to an adequate EPC contract, using commercial insurance also mitigates


completion risk. Insurance coverage is a critical mechanism to control cost due to physical
damage to the project facilities and other delays during construction. Although a broad range
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of insurance is available, project-related insurance is expensive. Minimum insurance


requirements are, therefore, one of the most heavily negotiated parts in a project finance
transaction. The Concession Agreement to stipulate the requirement of Insurance by the
Equity Investors.
c.

Control of Construction Funds

To reduce the opportunity for misuse or mismanagement of construction loan proceeds, the
financing contracts are typically structured so that loans are paid only as phases of
construction are completed. Independent Proof Consultants certify the completion of each
phase in writing before additional loan proceeds are made available. In case the Government
is supporting the project through a Government Grant, the Concession Agreement to
stipulate the release of funds in congruence with the actual progress of the Project, as
certified by the Proof Consultants.
d.

Cost Overrun Support

Cost overrun agreements with the Equity Investors are structured to require the Equity
Investors to inject money into the project to fund cash shortfalls. Money can be provided in
the form of additional equity or a subordinated loan.
Instrument EPC Contract, Financing Document and Insurance
Allocation Special Purpose Vehicle, EPC Contractor, Lenders and Insurance company
10.1.6.5

Revenue Risk

Risk:
Revenue risk is critical. This is mainly due to vulnerability in traffic, price sensitivity and
inherent fluctuations in the world and local economy including composition of import/export,
changes in shipping trends, global alliances among liners, and its resultant impact on traffic.
The traffic forecasts therefore have high probability for error. Viability of the project depends
on adequate traffic and the revenues generated by virtue of it. Any shortfall in the traffic
volume would adversely affect the viability of the project.
Mitigation:
Consultants, who are reputed in this field, have made the traffic projections. Traffic estimates
are based on sound assessment and assumptions. In pursuance of perfection, the
Consultants have had interviews with key shipping lines in the Industry, conducted
international data bank research, studied physical constraints at competing ports, mapped
commercial benefits such as competitive tariff and route planning / existing business
environment benefits. Various possible growth scenarios (pessimistic, moderate and
optimistic) have been considered and finally traffic figures based on moderate estimates
have been made. This shall reduce the risk to a considerable extent. The Concession
Agreement to stipulate a Debt service reserve to be maintained by the Equity Investors to
avoid any debt servicing crisis in the initial years.
Instrument Nil

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Allocation Special Purpose Vehicle


10.1.6.6

Right to Collect/ Fix Tariff

Risk:
The Special Purpose Vehicle that would operate the Port should have the right to collect and
retain appropriate charges from the (end) users of the facility. The Concessionaire should
have the right to fix own tariff for all Port services intended to be offered by it. It should also
have the right to revise its tariff periodically so as to beat the impact of inflation as also to
achieve or better its target IRR.
Mitigation:
Ports in India are legally classified as Major Ports and Minor ports. Major ports are governed
by the Central Government for India, while the Minor ports are governed by the respective
State Governments. Major ports are governed by the regulations of Tariff Authority for fixing/
revising tariffs for various services offered by the Major Ports. Sine the proposed port is a
Minor port, it shall be governed by the policies mooted by the State Government of Kerala.
As per the present policy initiated by the State Government of Kerala, Port operators would
be free to set their own tariffs for their port services based on market forces.
The issuance of notification by the State Government of Kerala called as say award order,
conveying the decision of GoK to enter into an agreement for implementation of the Project
on Build, Own, Operate and Transfer (BOOT) basis, is a precursor to the signing of the
Concession Agreement. The Concession Agreement shall note the right of the Port Operator
to collect tariff for the services provided as also right to revise the tariff periodically without
any Government intervention. (Undue use of this right by the Port Operator is not expected
due to market forces, i.e. competing facilities available for (the end) users providing the same
services.) In the event there is any change in policy by the GoK restricting the right to the
Port Operator to revise/ collects the tariffs, this would be deemed a severe breach of
contract.
Instrument: Concession Agreement
Allocation Special Purpose Vehicle
10.1.6.7

Infrastructure connection and accessibility

Risk:
Studies are carried out to identify various alignment options for connecting the proposed port
to the nearest national road / rail network. In these options there is a possibility of R&R
issues cropping up.
Land acquisition will be involved for providing port connectivity in the form of external road
and rail linkages. Lobbying of groups can lead to jacking up of the land acquisition process
making the cost unviable. Community and environmental groups can raise valid and strong
protests.

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Mitigation:
The observations made in the Social Impact Assessment (SIA) report and the Rehabilitation
and Relocation (R & R) report should be strictly adhered to. Consultants have made detailed
assessment in their report after discussion with the authorities concerned. The identification
of land required for port connectivity has been assessed and notified to the government. The
Concession Agreement shall have suitable covenants to ensure that Grantor complies with
its respective obligation for implementation of road and rail connectivity corridor.
Instrument Concession Agreement (State Support Agreement)
Allocation Grantor
10.1.6.8

Legal Risk

Risk
In order for the port to be operated as a transshipment hub, it would be critical for the private
investor to ascertain that the GoK has the powers under the laws of India to develop the
Vizhinjam port as a transshipment port.
There are, per se, no prohibitions under the Indian regulatory framework from State
Governments developing and administering transshipment ports. However, transshipment
hubs the world over operate on certain basic premises, without which the very business
model of such ports would fail, and in as much as there are constraints under Indian laws
with respect to such fundamental aspects of transshipment hubs, private investors may find
the business model of the Vizhinjam port unviable.
While the IPA primarily confers the powers of management of the minor ports to the state
governments on the Department of Ports, the Policy has sought to create another body
called the Apex Body. However, it is not very clear from the Policy as to what the Apex Body
is exactly going to do or what its relation to the Department of Ports would be.
Mitigation:
The IPA (Indian Ports Act) gives full freedom to the State Governments to determine the
tariffs and port dues with respect to all minor ports, as also to make rules and regulations in
this regard.
GoK has not made any specific rules or regulations in connection with tariff fixation for minor
ports within the State of Kerala. However, the draft Ports Policy formulated by GoK (which is
yet to be announced formally), provides that with a view to incentivise private sector
participation in the ports sector in Kerala, private port operators who are granted concessions
would be given the absolute freedom to determine tariffs as per market forces.
In order to give more comfort and incentive to private operators, GoK should urge the State
Legislature to exercise the legislative competence it has been conferred by Art. 246 of the
Constitution of India to enact statutes that are conducive to private sector participation for all
minor ports in the State of Kerala. The GoK has currently made several promises to private
investors through its draft Policy, which are aimed at attracting investment interest from the

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private sector. However, these promises would mean little to the investors unless the same
are given legal force and effect.
GoK should create a single authority which would have the function and powers of
streamlining the approval procurement process as also other functions relating to developer
selection, de-bottlenecking etc. similar to the Infrastructure Authority in Andhra Pradesh.
Instrument: GoK Policy and Concession Agreement (State Support Agreement)
Allocation: Special Purpose Vehicle and Grantor
10.1.6.9

Repudiation of Contract

Risk
Contract repudiation is designed to cover circumstances where the host government or one
of its agencies avoids its obligations under a project contract. In projects where the host
government undertakes significant responsibilities, the failure of the government to perform
its obligations may render the project a failure and cause compensation payments of
preferred bidder against government.
Mitigation:
In the Concession Agreement, fair termination, compensation and buy-out provisions shall be
provided so as to guarantee total reimbursement of outstanding debt and equity returns, if
the government causes any repudiation.
Instrument: Concession Agreement
Allocation: Grantor, Special Purpose Vehicle, Equity holder
10.1.6.10

Financial Risk

Risk:
These include the risks related to maturity of debt, their structure, interest rate risk, foreign
currency risk, fund mobilization risk etc. A drastic change in the interest rate profile will affect
the debt servicing capability of the project through project cash flows. In cases where the
project is funded by long term debt with floating rate, any adverse movement of interest rate
would create financial stress on the project. The project revenues must exceed the debt
servicing level since it has to be viable. The debt serving level must therefore match the
revenue flows into the project. Foreign currency risk in case of external funding for the
project is extremely important, especially if the domestic currency is volatile. Devaluation of
the Indian currency exposes a project to reduced revenues and can have a severe impact on
the rate of return and, ultimately, on the ability to service project debt. These risks can render
a project virtually impossible to finance.
Also, the tariff for certain port services like transhipment are usually charged in US$;
however, the operations cost are usually in local currency. Thus there is a revenue-cost
mismatch during the operations of the port.

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Mitigation:
The Concessionaire should have a proper mix of debt and equity (financial structuring) as
also the optimum mix of foreign currency and local currency funds. The Concessionaire
should go for an optimal mix of fixed rate and floating rate interest instruments. For the
floating interest rate portion, the Concessionaire could seek an interest rate cap contract, so
as to cap the risk at certain level. The Concessionaire could also enter into currency swap
agreements for the foreign currency debt portion, to take care of currency fluctuations.
The Consultants have done Sensitivity Analysis of the various scenarios discussed above.
The extent of impact on the project viability and the project returns has been discussed
separately in the Chapter on Financial Analysis, in the Sensitivity Analysis section. This
analysis helps the project planner to know in advance the exact impact on the project
viability/ Project returns and plan accordingly.
Any viability gap should be met by the Government of Kerala to attract investment into the
port.
Instrument:

Concession agreement and Financial Documents

Allocation: Special Purpose Vehicle, Lenders and Grantor


10.1.6.11

Force Majeure

Risk:
The legal doctrine of force majeure excuses contractual performance by the parties
confronted by unexpected events beyond their control. In project finance, it is critical to
analyse the force majeure events, because they can severely disrupt an established risk
allocation scheme, if they permit a particular party to avoid its contractual obligation.
Since many types of force majeure are unpredictable, they cannot be mitigated effectively.
Therefore, the allocation of force majeure responsibility is fundamental to a coherent project
finance structure and the subject of intense negotiation among the parties.
Although force majeure protection is available to contracting parties by operation of law in
most countries, the scope of protection can generally be enlarged or narrowed by agreement
between the parties. Lenders prefer a narrower definition of force majeure and often require
Equity Investors to cover any remaining force majeure risk not absorbed by the other project
participants. In allocating force majeure risks, Equity Investors and lenders frequently divide
force majeure into "natural" force majeure events or non political events (i.e., natural
catastrophes such as earthquakes) and "political" force majeure events. Political risks could
include two major risks. One is the imposition of new laws and tax structure or withdrawal of
tax holidays, which might affect the financial viability of the Concessionaire. Any restriction
on repatriation of profits for International Equity Investors might pose a serious threat.
Second risk is that of termination of the Concession Agreement by politically motivated
events like re-nationalization of privatised assets or change of policy by the Government may
affect the project.

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Mitigation:
The lenders normally assume the risk of "natural" force majeure events using insurance
coverage for protection, and Equity Investors seek help from the host government in
addressing "political" force majeure events.
Natural force majeure risks are caused by natural disasters or accidents such as fires, flood,
storms, or earthquakes. These risks can generally be mitigated through commercial
insurance.
The Special Purpose Vehicle is responsible for obtaining and paying for the necessary
insurance coverage, which should be comprehensive throughout the construction and
operation phases of the project. It should cover not only any asset loss such as construction
risk but also business interruption, including loss of revenues for delays in plant operations
caused by natural disasters. Furthermore, the insurance should cover at least six months to
one year of debt service and fixed cost (depending on investors and lenders requirements).
The ability to obtain insurance and account for it in the proposal is crucial to securing project
financing and a good indicator of the developer's standing.
Political violence risks include war, revolution, sabotage and other forms of civil strife. The
Concessionaire may insure as many force majeure events as possible. For the remainder,
provisions can be made in the Concession Agreement that both sides obligations stand
suspended until the force majeure event is remedied, with both sides using best efforts to
remedy the event within a given time frame. In some cases, the project agreements can be
terminated if the force majeure event is such that it cannot be remedied within a reasonable
time period. This needs to be suitably covered in the concession agreement.
Instrument: Concession Agreement
Allocation: Special Purpose Vehicle and Grantor.

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Technical

Commercial,
Contractual
procurement

Social

&

Environmental

Regional
Development
Hinterland
connectivity

Force Majeure

Political

Statutory
Clearance

Typical Risks

Risk Matrix
Probability

Design/ development sub-optimal


Site geology unsuitable
Performance targets uncertain
Non Political Force Majeure
Change in laws
Reliance on GoK/GoI (Railways,
State PWD, NHAI, Concor etc.)
Impact on revenue severe
Feasibility
of
operations
jeopardised
Land acquisition for port and
connectivity insufficient/unclear
Rehabilitation/
resettlement
unaccounted for
Land acquisition for port and
connectivity insufficient/unclear
Rehabilitation/
resettlement
unaccounted for
Selection of EPC contractor
difficult
Availability
of
materials
&
equipment unsure
Construction quality unguaranteed
Cost overrun
of

of

Refer 10.1.6.4
Analysis

Refer 10.1.6.2
Analysis

Refer 10.1.6.2
Analysis

of

of

of

Refer 10.1.6.11 of
Analysis
Refer 10.1.6.7 of
Analysis

Refer 10.1.6.8
Analysis
Refer 10.1.6.1
Analysis

Responsibility
Allocation
Concessionaire

Risk EPC Contractor,


Financing
Document,
Insurance

Risk Concession
Agreement

Risk Concession
Agreement

Concessionaire,
EPC Contractor,
Lenders,
Insurance
Company

Concessionaire
Grantor

Concessionaire
Grantor

Risk Concession
Concessionaire /
Agreement
Grantor
Risk Concession
Equity Investor /
Agreement / EPC EPC Contarctor
Contractor
Risk Concession
Concessionaire /
Agreement
Grantor
Risk Concession
Grantor
Agreement

Risks Quantified &


Instrument
Mitigation Plan
Refer 10.1.6.3 of Risk Concession
Analysis
Agreement

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Medium

Low

Medium

Low

Low / Medium

Low

Official approvals/ clearances Medium


delayed or withheld
right
to
start
project
work/operations
(after
construction) delayed/withheld
Political force majeure
Low

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Operation
Maintenance

Typical Risks

Time overrun

Instrument

Responsibility
Allocation

Operator not adhering to O&M Agreement / Concessionaire


Performance
Standards Concession
Operator
specified in Concession Agreement
Agreement.
Selection of operator is key
to mitigate risk. Also, O&M
agreement should have
clauses, which would make
the Operator responsible for
meeting
Performance
Standard as stipulated in
Concession Agreement.

Risks Quantified &


Mitigation Plan

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Probability

& Poor Performance Standard resulting Low


in:
- Pre-berthing delays
- Unavailability of equipment

Trigger points

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10.2 Legal Review


10.2.1 Power of GoK to Grant the Concession
10.2.1.1

The Constitution of India

The ports in India can be divided into two main categories, namely major ports and minor
ports. Article 246 of the Constitution of India apportions the areas of legislative competence
between the Central Government and the State Governments. The Seventh Schedule to the
Constitution of India contains three lists, namely, the Union List, State List and Concurrent
List. Article 246 provides that as regards matters specified in the Union List, the Parliament
alone would have the competence to legislate upon them. As regards matters specified in the
State List, the respective State Legislatures alone would have the competence to legislate
upon them with respect to each state. As regards matters specified in the Concurrent List,
both the Parliament and the State Legislatures have the competence to legislate upon them.
However, Article 254 provides that in the event of a repugnancy between any State
legislation and Parliamentary legislation relating to any matter set out in the Concurrent List,
the Parliamentary legislation would prevail to the extent of such repugnancy.
Entry 27 of the Union List covers major ports and therefore, only the Parliament is competent
to legislate upon matters relating to major ports. Minor ports on the other hand, are covered
in Entry 31 of the Concurrent List, which means that to the extent the same is not repugnant
to any Parliamentary law relating to minor ports, the States could formulate their own
legislations and delegated legislations. Therefore, one major preliminary exercise that the
GoK needs to embark on prior to finalizing the parameters of private sector participation in
ports in the State of Kerala is to identify possible de-bottlenecking and enabling legislative
measures that would enhance private sector interest in the sector.
As of date, there are two legislations enacted by the Parliament, which regulate ports,
namely the Indian Ports Act, 1908 (IPA) and the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963 (MPTA). The
IPA is the primary legislation that governs functioning and other activities of both the major
and minor ports in India. The MPTA, on the other hand, is applicable only to the major ports,
and therefore, we have excluded analysis on the MPTA from this memorandum.
The term minor port has not as such, been defined in law. However, since Vizhinjam has
not been declared a major port under the IPA, it would fall under the Concurrent List,
meaning that the GoK could take such legislative measures as it deems appropriate, to
facilitate Private Sector Participation (PSP) in the Project, as long as such measures are
not inconsistent with any provisions of the IPA.
10.2.1.2

The Indian Ports Act, 1908

Under the IPA, the bulk of the powers of administration of minor ports have been bestowed
on the State Government, and the Central Government has very limited powers over
administration of minor ports. Accordingly, the GoK has the power to:

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(i)

limit the areas of the port which may include piers, jetties, landing places, wharves,
quays, docks and other works made on behalf of the public for convenience etc. from
the purview of the IPA or withdraw the application of the IPA itself;1

(ii)

alter the limits of any port; 2

(iii)

make rules relating to a number of technical and operational aspects of ports;3

(iv)

levy port dues on vessels entering the port;4

(v)

determine the fee for pilotage and other services required to be charged by the ports; 5

(vi)

appoint and direct some officer or body of persons for the collection of port dues and
charges and also expend such receipts; 6

(vii)

group any number of minor ports for the purpose of ease in audit and maintain a
common port fund for expenses to be incurred on ports; 7 and

(viii)

appoint the Conservator. The Conservator has inter alia, the following powers:

to remove obstructions within limits of the port, including any lawful obstruction; 8 and
to board any vessel and enter buildings if he suspects any offence against the IPA has
been or is going to be committed. 9

As can be seen, in the context of the Project, much of the powers of administration and
management of the Vizhinjam Port are vested with the GoK, which could be delegated by the
GoK in turn, to such person or party as it deems fit. Consequently, the implication of this is
that the GoK effectively has the powers under the IPA, to grant a concession to private
parties to build and operate the port on terms to be determined by the GoK.
10.2.2 Draft port policy of GoK
In furtherance of its powers conferred by the IPA, the GoK has formulated a draft Policy for
Development of Port Infrastructure and Navigation in the State of Kerala ("Policy") that
purports to provide a framework for coordinated development of ports and related industry by
encouraging substantial private participation in ports, support services and other
infrastructure in intermediate and minor ports in the state.
The GoK, having identified the development and revenue potential on the basis of draft,
general maritime conditions, minimal burden on the existing infrastructure and the natural
environment, proximity and easy connectivity to the hinterland transport and utility
infrastructure and promotion of regional development has decided to initially focus on seven
ports, of which the port of Vizhinjam is one.
1

Section 4(2) and (3) of the IPA.


Section 5(1) of the IPA.
3
Section 6(1)(a) of the IPA.
4
Section 33 of the IPA.
5
Section 35 of the IPA.
6
Section 36 of the IPA.
7
Section 37 of the IPA.
8
Sections 7-10 and 12 of the IPA.
9
Section 15 of the IPA.
2

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The following are the salient features of the Policy:


10.2.2.1

Objectives

The Policy seeks to achieve the following broad objectives, namely:

invite and encourage PSP in ports, support services and other infrastructure;
increase State of Kerala's share in India's maritime trade;
facilitate achievement of optimal multi-modal transport and logistic chain outcomes by
establishing an efficient and commercially viable waterway transport system;
promote port based and maritime industries;
ensure protection of environmental and coastal zones.
Institutional Framework10:
The Policy proposes a formalized institutional structure, consisting of an Apex Body, a
Nodal Agency and a Secretariat, to oversee the development of ports in the State.
The Apex Body, consisting of a Chairman11, a Convenor 12, four Members 13 and other
invitees 14, is entrusted with monitoring the activities of the various government
departments/organizations towards early and smooth fulfillment of the Policys objectives.
The Directorate of Ports, as the Nodal Agency, shall liaise and coordinate with Customs,
Immigration and Health Authorities and other departments and agencies of both Central
& State Governments.
The Department of Ports functioning as the Secretariat, is the apex body in the State to
develop, maintain, oversee, supervise and undertake periodic reviews of the State Port
Policy, and shall:

coordinate overall development of ports sector in the state;


discharge the statutory functions of the Port Conservator;
facilitate requisite legislation and necessary regulatory framework;
create enabling environment to attract private sector investment ;
co-ordinate marketing and promotional activities;
create, maintain / update a comprehensive database relating to the port sector and
ensure dissemination of reliable data in the desired time frame and in a user-friendly
format to various stakeholders;
co-ordinate with other agencies & public bodies, unions & trade associations etc.;
prepare a master plan for development of ports, which provides a scheme for
development of various ports, based on assessment of sector potential, upgradation/modernization required for the existing ports and identification of the necessary

10

See Annexure A.10.1 for schematic representation of the institutional framework proposed by the
Policy.
11
Secretary to Govt. (Ports).
12
Director of Ports.
13
Chief Engineer, Harbour Engineering Department; Director of Fisheries; Chief Hydrographer;
Managing Director, Kerala State Maritime Development Corporation Limited.
14
Officials, advisors and/or technical experts as necessary.
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road, rail and inland waterways linkages, identification of multi-purpose/specific-purpose


port locations; 15
coordinate with all concerned Central and State Government departments, agencies and
other bodies to facilitate and encourage private sector participation, including
development of appropriate rail and road linkages, water and power supply, port-based
and maritime industries, tourism, waterways ;
arrange Techno-Economic Feasibility studies, Environment and Social Impact
Assessment (ESIA) studies;
prepare Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R&R) plans and Detailed Project Reports;
carry out initial dredging in specific cases;
prepare, review and update / modify model selection documents including bidding
documents, concession agreement and other related contracts to facilitate award of
projects on a Build - Operate - Transfer (BOT) basis or a variant thereof, e.g. BOO(T)
Build, Operate, Own, (Transfer) and also determine the criterion / criteria for selection of
private sector participants;
take up and complete development work on identified projects in a time bound manner
leading to selection of private sector participants for specific facilities or purposes
(services);
select private sector participants through an open, transparent and fair selection process
(preferably through a competitive bidding process);
grant and execute the relevant concessions and other agreements;
assume the role of stakeholder, including equity participation in projects as and when
necessary;
facilitate acquisition of land, planning for development of land available around project
locations and transfer of the same to the project either on direct payment/equity or lease,
based on project requirements and GoK regulations;
grant necessary approvals for implementation of specific projects and help obtain
statutory clearances till award of license/concession;
take steps as may become necessary to facilitate bankability of the project;
take any other steps as may become necessary from time to time for the successful
implementation of this Policy;
monitor and supervise the conduct of the Concessionaires to ensure that:
the Concessionaire's obligations stipulated in the concession agreement and other
agreements are fulfilled;
users receive services commensurate with international standards;
non-discriminatory use of project facilities by the Concessionaires;
environment protection guidelines are complied with, including regular environmental
audits.

As can be seen, the Department of Ports has been given a very wide range of powers and
responsibilities in connection with facilitating and monitoring private sector participation ports
in the State of Kerala.
Private Sector Investment
The GoK seeks to invite substantial private sector investment into various segments namely,

15

The Master Plan shall be reviewed periodically, latest every 5 years and will be made available to
the public on its preparation.
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leasing / using existing port facilities;


development of other facilities, such as:
multi-purpose jetties / berths and jetties / berths for specific commodities;
container terminals, bulk, break-bulk cargo berths;
marinas and other facilities required for the purpose of tourism and travel such as
amusement parks, port-site tourism complexes and water sports facilities;
distribution parks;
port-related industries; 16
maritime industries; 17
support infrastructure; 18
port services, such as
lighterage;
pilotage and towage services;
mooring - unmooring services;
dredging and maintenance of channels;
dry-docking, shipbuilding and ship repair facilities;
passenger amenities;
warehouses, container freight stations, inland terminals, tank farms and
other storage facilities;
bunkering facilities;
cranes and other material handling equipment.

Selection of Private Sector Participants


The Policy moots selection of the Concessionaire preferably through an open competitive
bidding using a transparent and fair process, though in specific cases other methodologies
such as Suo-motu Bids and Swiss Challenge approach may be employed.
The Policy mandates that any bidding procedure and norms for bid evaluation be finalized
and conveyed to the bidders prior to the start of the bidding process and that competent
bidders be short-listed on technical and financial capabilities. The Policy requires that the
final selection of the Concessionaire be done on the basis of best technical offer & economic
return of the investment.
Concession Agreement
Private sector participants may be awarded concession agreements on a BOT basis 19
including design, engineering, financing, procurement, construction, operation and

16

The GoK proposes to provide an attractive investment climate for setting up of industries including
simplification of rules and procedures and fiscal incentives to new industrial units.
17
The GoK seeks to encourage establishment of export oriented port based industries such as by
extending existing tax concessions available in the industrial policy of the State.
18
State highways including bridges on state highways for connection to minor ports with right to collect
toll for sufficient periods to recoup investment and earn profit margin, dedicated IT backbone, captive
power plants.
19

Build Own Operate Transfer (BOOT), Build and Transfer (BT), Build Transfer and Operate (BTO),
Management Contract, Rehabilitate Operate and Transfer (ROT), Service Contract, Supply, Operate
and Transfer (SOT), Joint Venture (JV).
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maintenance and transfer to Grantor at the end of the concession period which shall initially
be for a period of thirty years.
The Policy suggests that the concession agreement should provide sufficient safeguards to
lenders against force majeure and termination events, suitable rights of substitution and stepin rights on occurrence of pre-specified events, escrow arrangements and direct agreement
between Grantor and the lenders and that Concessionaires are allowed to charge assets to
senior lenders as security for loans taken.
The Policy proposes that existing State Government infrastructure related to ports be made
available to the Concessionaire on mutually acceptable terms.
The Policy empowers the GoK to take any additional steps that it deems fit to facilitate
financing of projects on commercial terms.
Within the provisions of the concession agreements, the Concessionaire is free to fix tariffs
for services (to be) offered to users of his facility. The Concessionaire is also unrestricted in
determining its employee policies under the Policy.
Where the concession relates to making substantial investments in existing ports, the
Concessionaire