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The law enforcement activity in Mongolia is carried out by the National Police Agency

(Mongolian: , Arvan Tavnii Tsagdaa, meaning Preventive Soldiers). The force


is responsible for maintaining law and order and preventing crime throughout Mongolia. The police was
created in 1965 and has its headquarters in the capital Ulaanbaatar.[1]
The mandate of police is to implement state policy on crime fighting and maintaining public order, to
carry out police duties throughout Mongolia and manage services provided at local level, to develop
policy on firearms (shooting techniques, special equipment, and associated needs) and on human
resources, training and methods for improving knowledge and skills, protecting the rights and legal
interests of police officers, organizing police work in keeping with Mongolias Constitution, to inform the
President of Mongolia, the Head of the Parliament, the Prime Minister and government members about
emerging crime trends, methods for fighting crime and public order issues and to make suggestions as
to how to most effectively address them and to develop relations with national and international
organizations.[1] Interpol has an office within the Mongolian Police.[1]
According to some scholars, the Mongolian police does practise torture and degrading treatments. [2]
Organization[edit]
The National Police Agency depends on the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs. It is headed by a
Commissioner General assisted by several Deputy Commissioners General; a First Deputy
Commissioner General also exists. Under the Deputy Commissioners General there are ten central
departments: Administration, Finance and Logistic, Criminal Police, Investigations, Inquiry, Traffic
Police, Information and Research and Public Order Departments, as well as the Communications
Division and the Police Academy. The Police is assisted by the Directorate of the Internal Troops. [3] The
Directorate of the Internal Troops, established in 1995, is placed under the command of the
Commissioner General. However, it is not fully clear what Ministry has the ultimate control of it. [4]
Below the central level, there are Police Departments and Divisions in the 21 provinces and in
Ulaanbaatar, further subdivided into Divisions, Units, Sections. [3]
National Police Agency of Mongolia

National police parade


The National Police Agency of Mongolia is called Arvan Tavnii Tsagdaa, meaning Preventive
Soldiers. Created in 1965 and with its headquarters in the capital Ulaanbaatar, the force is responsible
for maintaining law and order and preventing crime throughout Mongolia.
Mandate

Implement state policy on crime fighting and maintaining public order;

Carry out police duties throughout Mongolia and manage services provided at local level;

Develop policy on firearms (shooting techniques, special equipment, and associated needs);

Develop policy on human resources, training and methods for improving knowledge and skills;

Protect the rights and legal interests of police officers;

Organize police work in keeping with Mongolias Constitution;

Inform the President of Mongolia, the Head of the Parliament, the Prime Minister and
government members about emerging crime trends, methods for fighting crime and public
order issues. Make suggestions as to how to most effectively address them;

Develop relations with national and international organizations.

Mongolia Listeni/moli/ (Mongolian:


[Monggol Ulus] in Mongolian script; [Mongol Uls] in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked
sovereign state in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer
Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is bordered by China to the
south and Russia to the north. While it does not share a border with Kazakhstan, Mongolia is separated
from Kazakhstan by only 36.76 kilometres (22.84 mi).

At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the 19th largest and the most sparsely
populated fully sovereign country in the world, with a population of around 3 million people. It is also
the world's second-largest landlocked country. The country contains very little arable land, as much of
its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the
south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population.

Approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic; horse culture is still integral. The
majority of its population are Buddhists. The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam
is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs. The majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol
ethnicity, although Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the
west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in
regional economic and trade groups.[13]

The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu,
the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol
Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan
conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to
Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan
and Tumen Zasagt Khan.

In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchufounded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century. By the early 1900s, almost
one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks.[14][15] After the collapse of the Qing
dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence from the Qing dynasty, and in 1921 established de
facto independence from the Republic of China. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control
of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People's
Republic was declared as a Soviet satellite state.[16] After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989,
Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990. This led to a multi-party
system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.
Mongolia maintained both prison camps and correctional or educational colonies in the 1980s. There
also were detention camps for minor offenders, designed to rehabilitate them by "socially useful labor."
Such labor included town-improvement projects: cleaning the street, and repairing buildings. Those

performing this labor received neither wages nor food; they purchased their food or depended on their
families to provide it. Local jails existed for brief detentions (twenty-four hours or less) of intoxicated
persons and those awaiting indictment.
He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire
and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he started the Mongol invasions that conquered most of
Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and
Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by wholesale
massacres of the civilian populations especially in the Khwarazmian and Western Xia controlled
lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and
China.

Before Genghis Khan died, he assigned gedei Khan as his successor and split his empire into
khanates among his sons and grandsons.[6] He died in 1227 after defeating the Western Xia. He was
buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia.[7] His descendants extended the Mongol Empire
across most of Eurasia by conquering or creating vassal states in all of modern-day China, Korea, the
Caucasus, Central Asia, and substantial portions of modern Eastern Europe, Russia, and Southwest
Asia. Many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations. As a
result, Genghis Khan and his empire have a fearsome reputation in local histories.[8]

Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways.
He decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing system. He also practiced
meritocracy and encouraged religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire while unifying the nomadic
tribes of Northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia.[9]