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Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

1.2 Concept of the Circulatory System - Composition of Human Blood


(a) Erythrocytes

Leucocytes (White Blood Cells)

Granulocytes

Agranulocytes

(have granular cytoplasm and lobe nuclei)


nuclei are not lobed)

Neutrophils

Eosinophils

(Have clear cytoplasm and their

Basophils

How does the structure of an erythrocytes adapts its function?

Erythrocyte (red blood cells)


Biconcave disc-shaped, is small : to increase TSA/V ratio
to facilitate the gas diffusion through thin plasma
membrane
Does not have a nucleus: to have more space for great
quantity of haemoglobin
Produced in bone marrow
Lifespan = 120 days
Destroyed in spleen and liver
Contains haemoglobin; oxygen-carrying protein pigment
that gives the erythrocytes its red colour.
(b) Leucocytes

Have nuclei but do not have haemoglobin


Do not have fixed shape
Lymphocytes

Monocytes

(a) (b)..... (c).. (d).. (e)

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(c) Human Blood Vessels - The structure of human blood vessels:

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SPM 2012

8(b) Diagram 8 show two type of blood vessels, X and Y.

Diagram 8
Explain the differeces between blood vessels X and Y.

Blood vessls X
Thick, elastic, muscular

Characteristics
Structure of wall

wall to withstand high

[6 marks]

Blood vessles Y
Thin, less elastic and
less muscular wall

pressure of blood
Small lumen
High blood pressure

Saiz of lumen
Blood pressure

Large lumen
Low blood pressure

No valve

Present of valve

Have valve which


maintain one way flow
of blood

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Oxygenated blood

Blood content

(except pulmonary

Deoxygenated blood
(except pulmonary vein)

artery)
Carry oxygenated blood

Function

from heart to the tissues

Carry deoxygenated
blood from all parts of
body return to the heart

1. Diagram 3.1 shows a part of the circulatory system in human. { SBP 2007}

To heart
From heart

Blood capillaries

Diagram 3.1

(a) What happen to the blood pressure as the blood flow from P to Q.?

[1 mark]
(b) Explain why is important for P to have thick wall.

Withstand the high pressure of blood.


Thick wall have muscle can contract and relax
To control the blood flow
[2 marks]
(c) Explain how nearby muscle at Q prevent the back flow of blood.

Nearby muscles contract and relax / Squeeze the vein


Push blood to flow back towards the heart.
[2 marks]
(d) Explain how the structure of capillaries allows substances to pass from them to the
surrounding efficiently.

F: The walls of capillaries are only one cell thick, it is very thin
E1: Substances do not have very far to diffuse through them.
E2: Increase TSA/V ratio for diffusion to occur rapidly.
[3 marks]
(e) (i) Sketch a graph to show average blood pressure at P, capillaries and Q in Diagram 3.2.

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[1 mark]

Diagram 3.2.
(ii) Our normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. Explain what the figure represents.

[3 marks]

Structure of the Heart

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

The Pumping of The Heart

The position of the SA node, AV node, Bundle of His fibres, bundle branches and Purkinje fibres

The contractions of the heart are initiated and coordinated by a pacemaker.

The pacemaker is cluster of specialised heart muscle cells (cardiac muscles) that set the rate

of contraction.
The pacemaker is located in the wall of the right atrium

The pacemaker generates electrical impulses which spread rapidly over the
walls of both atria, causing the atria to contract rhythimcally.

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(a) The contraction of the heart is initiated and coordinated by a


pacemaker.
(b) The Sinoatrial (SA) node acts as a pacemaker and generates

electrical impulses

(f) The electrical impulses spread rapidly over the wall of the atria.
(g) The electrical impulses cause the atria to contract simultaneously.
(h) The contraction of the atria helps to pump blood into the

ventricles

(c) The electrical impulses reach the atrioventricular (AV) node


(d) Bundle of His Fibre and Purkinje fibre send the impulses to the

apex of the heart.


(e) The electrical impulses spread to the ventricles.

(a) The electrical impulses cause both ventricles to contract


simultaneously from the apex upwards.
(b) To pump blood out from the heart:
(i)
Deoxygenated blood is pumped through the pulmonary
(ii)

arteries to the lungs.


Oxygenated blood is pumped through the aorta to the all
parts of the body.

Pacemaker is controlled by nervous system and endocrine system:


i.
ii.

Sympathetic nerve and hormone speed up the pacemaker


Parasympathetic nerve slows down the pacemaker.

Diagram 1 shows a longitudinal section of a human heart. {N9 2011}

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

Diagram 1
(a) (i) On Diagram 1, label the following parts:
Left ventricle
Biscupid valve
Pulmonary artery

[2 marks]

(ii) Draw a series of arrows to show the flow of oxygenated blood into the heart and out of the
heart.

[1 marks]

(b) (i) State the difference between the walls of left ventricle and right ventricle.

[1 mark]
(ii) Explain the importance of the difference in (b)(i).

[2 marks]
The contractions of the cardiac muscle need not be stimulated by nerve impulses.
(c) Explain the above statement.

[1 mark]
(d) Explain what will happen to a person if the pacemaker (sinoatrial node) is impaired.

.
[2 marks]
3

Diagram 4.1 shows the action of node P on human heart.


{SBP 2010}
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan tindakan nodus P ke atas jantung manusia.

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Diagram 4.1
(a) (i) Name node P:

[1 mark]

(ii) Based on Diagram 4.1, explain the function of node P.


Berdasarkan Rajah 4.1, terangkan fungsi nodus P.

..
[3 marks]
(b) (i) State to where does blood flows in blood vessel Q and in blood vessel R.
Nyatakan arah darah yang mengalir dalam salur darah Q dan dalam salur darah R.

[1 mark]
(ii) A child with heart problem has a hole in the septum at S.
Explain how the defect affects the blood pressure in blood vessel Q.
Seorang kanak-kanak dengan masalah jantung mempunyai satu lubang pada septum di S.
Terangkan bagaimana kecacatan ini mempengaruhi tekanan darah dalam salur darah Q.

[2 marks]
(c) Diagram 4.2 (a) shows a healthy coronary artery.
Diagram 4.2 (b) shows the coronary artery of a person with cardiovascular disease. The
coronary arteries supply blood to heart muscles.
Rajah 4.2(a) menunjukkan arteri koronari yang sihat.
Rajah 4.2(b) menunjukkan arteri koronari seorang pesakit kardiovaskular.
Arteri koronari membekalkan darah ke otot-otot jantung.

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

(i)

Name deposit: .
Namakan enapan X.
[1 mark]

(ii)

Explain how the deposit X and thrombus lead to cardiovascular disease.


Terangkan bagaimana enapan X dan thrombus mengakibatkan penyakit kardiovaskular.

(iii)

..
[2 marks]
Suggest two ways to maintain a healthy heart.
Cadangkan dua cara mengekalkan kesihatan jantung.
1.
...
2.

[2 marks]

The Regulatory Mechanism of Blood Pressure

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Normal
blood

Actions of
effectors

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Organisms
Types of

Insects
Open circulatory

Fish
Closed circulatory

Amphibinas
Closed circulatory

Humans
Closed circulatory

circulatory

system

system

system

system

system
Separation of

Single
-

Double
Incomplete

Double
Complete

oxygenated and

(there is some

(there is no

deoxygenated

mixing of the

mixing of the

blood

deoxygenated

oxygenated blood

blood in the

in the ventricle)

ventricle)
Three

Four

Number of

( A single blood

chambers in the

vessel forms the

heart

hearts)

Two

The Circulatory System

Open circulatory
system
Blood is pumped directly into the body cavity

Closed circulatory
system
Blood is pumped into blood vessels.

Circulatory System in Fish, Amphibians and Humans. {SPM 2010 7(c)}

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

Explain the similarities and differences in the blood circulatory system of X and Y. [8 marks]
Sample answer:
Similarities:
Both have closed circulatory system
Both flows in blood vessels
Both have hearts which pump blood to body cells
Both have valves in veins
Blood flows in one direction only / valves prevent back flow

Differences:
X / Human
Double circulation
Blood flows through heart

Y/ Fish
single
once

twice
Has a four chambered heart two
Heart has 2 atria and 2

1, 1

ventricles
Deoxygenated blood from the
heart is pumped to the lungs

gills

Oxygenated blood is pumped

gills to body cee

from the heart to body cells

Oxygenated blood has

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

higher pressure

lower

Gases exchange occur at


the lungs

gills.
(2 similarities, 6 differences)

Double circulation {Perlis 2009}


3

Diagram 2
(a) Based on Diagram 2, what are the three components of circulatory system?
Blood, vessels and heart.
(b) Name two of the vessels labelled P, Q, R and S.
(c) Which of these vessels carry oxygenated blood?
(d) (i) Why this type of system is consider as double circulatory system?

Blood flows through the heart twice in one complete circulation.


(ii)Name the two pathways of this type of circulatory system?
Pulmonary circulatory sys and systemic cir sys.
(e) Explain one advantage of a double circulation

Prevents the mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood so


that the blood of highd concentration of oxygen is supplied to the
targeted organs.
The blood pressure is generated by the strong contration of the left
ventricle. It is to ensure that blood is been supplied to all parts of
the body .

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

1.3 Understanding the Mechanism of Blood Clotting


Diagram 9.1 and 9.2 shows the stages in blood clotting {SBP 2011}

Based on the diagram and on your biological knowledge, describe how the
mechanism of blood clotting helps to prevent infection when a wound occurs.
[10 Marks]
Sample answer:

Wall of blood vessel is broken / damage/ injured


The connective tissue in the vessel wall is exposed to blood.
Platelets stick to the collagen fibres in the connective tissue.
Then aggregation of platelets forms platelet plug.
The clumped platelet, damaged cells and clotting factors in the
plasma
Form activators known as thromboplastine
Thromboplastine, in the presence of Calcium ions and Vitamin K
Convert prothrombin into thrombin.
Thrombin catalyses the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to
insoluble fibrin
Fibrin threads form a network that mesh over the wound trapping
red blood cells
And sealing the wound
A blood clot is formed preventing further blood loss from the
vessel.

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vessel.
P14: prevent bacteria / pathogen from entering the cell through wound.

1.4 The Lymphatic System

The Formation Of Interstitial Fluid

1. When the blood flows from arteries into capillaries, there is high hydrostatic
pressure at the arterial end of the capillaries.
2. This high pressure forces some fluid out through the capillary walls into the
intercellular spaces between the cells. Once the fluid leaves the capillary walls, it is
called interstitial fluid.
3. 90% of the interstitial fluid flow back into the venous end of the capillary system
where the hydrostatic pressure is low.
4. The remain 10% of the interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic capillaries and is
called lymph.

The higher blood pressure at the arterial end forces fluid out of
the blood capillary while the lower blood pressure at the venous
5. The
Composition
Interstitial
end
allows fluidofto
re-enterfluid
the blood capillary.

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Interstitial fluid is similar to composition to blood plasma but it has no erythrocytes,


platelets or large plasma protein (albumin, globulin and fibrinogen).
6. Importance:
(a) Forms the internal environment of the body.
(b) Constantly bathes the cells, the exchange of substances between the
blood capillaries and body cells occurs.
i. Nurtrients and oxygen diffuse from the blood throug the interstitial fluid
ii.

into the body cells.


Carbon dioxide and other waste products diffuse from the body cells
through the interstitial fluid into the blood.

Structure Of The Lymphatic System

Lymphatic capillaries

Blind-end tubes located in the spaces between the cells.


The interstitial fluid which is not absorbed into the bloodstream drains into these

capillaries.
Lymph is colourless fluid. Lymph is similar in composition to blood plasma but has
no erythrocytes, platelets and large protein molecules. Lymph contains a higher
number of lymphocytes than blood.

Lymphatic vessels

Lymph capillaries unite to form larger lymphatic vessels.


Have one-way valve:
i. To ensure the continuos flow of the lymph away from the tissue.

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

ii.

To prevent the back flow.

Lymph nodes

Located at intevals along lymphatic vessels.


Produce and store lymphocytes which help to defence the body against
infections.

Lymph flow to two main lymphatic vessels;


1. Thoracic duct
It carries lymph to the left subclavian vein and back into the
bloodstream
2. Right Lymphatic Duct
Transports lymph from the right side of the head and chest into right
subclavian vein.

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

1.4 The Lymphatic System {Selangor 2010}


1

(i)

Diagram 7.2 shows part of the blood circulatory system and the lymphatic system in
human body.

Explain three differences between the composition of fluid in P and Q. [6 marks]

F1: Fluid P is red in colour, fluid Q is colourless


E1: because fluid P has haemoglobin, fluid Q does not have haemoglobin
F2: Fluid P contain red blood cell, fluid Q has no red blood cell
E2: because the red blood cells are too large to diffuse / move out of the blood
capillary ( to form interstitial fluid )
F3: Fluid P contain blood cells and blood plasma, fluid Q only contain blood plasma
without protein plasma
E3: because the protein plasma are too large to diffused out of the blood capillary
F4 : Fluid Q contain more lymphocytes , Fluid P contain less lymphocyes
E4 : because as fluid Q flows through the lymphatic nodes , lymphocyes are
produced.
(ii)

Describe the formation of fluid in Q.

[5 marks]

F : The blood / the blood capillaries has very high hydrostatic pressure

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

E1: forcing the blood plasma without the plasma proteins / erythrocytes / platelets
E2: to diffused out into the spaces between the tissues
E3: to form intestitial fluid
E4: (90% of the intestitial fluid diffused back into the blood
capillary but) 10%/small quantity of the fluid diffused
E5: into the lymphatic capillaries ( the vessels with blunt end)
E6: forming lymph/lymphatic fluid / fluid Q
E7: consisting of blood plasma without protein plasma /
contains glucose,water, amino acids, minerals, vitamins )
(iii)

Explain the importance of the lymphatic system to human.

[5 marks]

F1: maintaining the composition of blood


E1: the 10%/ small quantity of the interstitial/body fluid / blood plasma without the
protein plasma diffused back (from the lymphatic system) into the blood circulatory
system ( diffused into the right and left subclavian veins from the right lymphatic duct
and the thoracic duct )
F2: Acts as a body defence
E2: the lymphocytes which are produced in the lymphatic nodes
E3: produced antibody
E4: spleen produces phagocytes,
E5: to kill pathogens,
E6- and filters pathogen
2

Diagram 4.2 shows an individual suffering from a disease caused by the blockage of the
lymphamtic system.

(a) Name the disease elephantiasis


(b) Explain how this disease can happen.
Caused by (filarial) worms that live in the lymphatic system.
Block the lymphatic vessels.
Interstitial fluid cannot be returned to the blood circulatory system.
Oedema// tissue swelling occur.
[5 marks]

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

1.5 Role of the Circulatory System in the Bodys Defence Mechanisms {Melaka 2009}
1

(a) What is the substance injected into the blood of individual P and individual Q?

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P:.

Q:
[2 marks]
(b) State the type of immunity obtained by individual P and individual Q?
P: .
Q: ....
[2 marks]

(ii) Explain why there is a need for second and third doses for the immunization.
Immunisation is given to prevent infection from pathogens that could cause disease
like Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B, Polio, Diphtheria and German measles. (Any two)
New born are injected with vaccine to get Artificially Active Immunity.
First dose are given to induce lymphocytes to produce antibodies which are
specific against the antigens/ bacteria/ viruses.
Second and third doses are booster dose to increase the production of antibodies
at a faster rate.
Achieved immunity level / antibodies remained in the blood for a long time and
provide permanent immunity.

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

(a) Diagram 7.1 shows a body defence mechanism. {SBP 2010}

Explain the bodys response towards the entry of bacteria into the body.

[4 Marks]

(b) The graph in Diagram 7.2 shows the concentration of antibodies in the blood of two
individuals, X and Y, after given two injections of different substances

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Diagram 7.2
(i)

Explain with examples why both individuals are immuned to specific antigens [5 Marks]
Individual X is immune to tuberculosis/ TB/ chicken pox/ poliomyelitis/ polio
Individual Y is immune to tetanus/ snake venom.
Both involved in the increase in the concentration of antibodies in the blood/ body.
Above the immunity level
The antibodies attack/ neutralize specific antigens/pathogens in the body. // the active

(ii)

sites on the antibodies are specific to certain antigens.


Produce specific (immune) response.

Describe the differences between the immunity obtained by the individuals.


X is Active immunity and Y is passive immunity.
X / Active immunity

1. 7 Understanding the Transport of Substances in Plants.


leaf in Ts

[5 Marks]

Y/ Passive immunity

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stem in Ts

root in Ts

Structure of Xylem and Phloem in Relation to Transport

Xylem to carry water and minerals from the roots to the leaves where photosynthesis takes place.
Xylem consists of __________________________________________________________________.

Perforated end wall


(a) How are xylem vessels and tracheids adapted to their functions?
(i)
Both are ______________________________________ .
The end walls of the xylem vessels are open (perforated) so that the cell join end to end to form a
long continuous hollow tube that allows water to flow upwards continuously from one cell to the
next.
(ii)
The wall of the xylem vessels and tracheids are __________________________________ .
Which are impermeable to water making them strong and woody for mechanical support for the
plant.
(iii)

The walls of the xylem vessels and trachieds have small openings called _____________.
The pits allow water and mineral salts to pass sideways between the cells.

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport


(iv)

Both are ___________________ cells at maturity without protoplasm for water to flow easily.

(v)

Tracheid are longer and pointed at the ends. The end walls break down in the pits and this allows
water to pass from cell to cell.

(b) Parenchyma cells store food substances.


(c) Fibres provide support to the xylem.

Phloem is responsible for the transport of prepared organic food to the other parts of plant.
Phloem is composed of four types of cells: _____________________________________________________

(a) Sieve tubes


(i)
(ii)

(iii)

(b) Companion cells

_______________________________

(i)A normal cell with a ____________________


__________________________________.
arranged end to end.
(ii)Companion cells provide the sieve tube cells
The sieve tube is ________________. When
____________________________________.
mature, it has no nucleus and its cytoplasm
is pushed to the sides of the cells.
The end cell walls are perforated by pores to
form _________________. Long strands of
cytoplasm pass through the pores in the
sieve plates to allow substances to pass
from one cell to another.

1.8 Transport of Substances in Plants


The Transport of Organic Substances in Plant
Translocation the movement of sucrose and other organic materials from one place to another within the
plant body through the phloem.
The importance of translocation:
(a) The survival of a plant depends on the transport of organic substances.
(b) Enables sucrose, the product of photosynthesis to be stored or converted into other sugars where it reaches
its destination.
(c) Organic substances are translocated downwards from the leaves to the storage organs such as the roots and
translocated upwards from storage organs ( roots) to the growth regions such as buds.
The Transport of Water in Plants
Transpiration the loss of water in the form of water vapour through the evaporation from the
surface of plants (through stomata and lenticels) to the atmosphere.
99% of the water taken by plant is evaporated via transpiration where only 1% is used by plant
for photosynthesis and to help the cells to remain turgid.

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

The Movement of Water from the Soil to the Leaves

a. Root Pressure

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

Root pressure:
1

2
3
4
5

When the water is absorbed by root hair, _______________________________________


________________________________________________________________________
Root hair cell is hypotonic to the adjacent cell. ___________________________________
________________________________________________________________________.
Water flow through the _____________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________.
Movement of water via cell wall _______________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________.
Water move from the cytoplasm and vacuole in the endodermal cells to xylem vessels.
Mineral ions are ___________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
This creates an ___________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________.

c. Transpiration Pull

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

Transpiration Pull:
1
2
3
4
5
6

Water evaporates from _______________________________________________________


_____________________________. The air spaces become full of water vapour.
The air in the atmosphere _____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________.
Water vapour then ___________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________.
As water is lost from spongy mesophyll cell, _______________________________________
________________________________________________________.
There is a__________________________________________________________________
The _______________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________.

The Regulation of Transpiration by Stomata


1. Structure of stoma

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2. The mechanism of the opening of the stomata


During the day

During the day, photosynthesis takes places.


Glucose is produce and increases the osmotic
pressure in the guard cells.
Potassium ions (K+) are actively transported
from the epidermal cells into the guard cells.
The accumulation of potassium ions also
increases the osmotic pressure in the guard
cells
Guard cells become hypertonic. Water enters
by osmosis into from the epidermal cells into
the guard cell.
The guard cells become turgid and curve
outwards and the stomata open.

{SPM 2010}

During the night

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

Answer scheme:
The part of the stem above the ring swells / bigger than above ring
because the organic food substances / glucose accumulates at this part of the stem
Food cannot be transported below the ring / downwards
because the phloem is removed.

Answer scheme:

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport


Heat from the sunlight is absorbed by the leaves.
(Heat from the sun causes) water on (the external surface of) the mesophyll cells / leaves to
evaporate // change water to water vapour
Thus the air space is saturated with water vapour.
Outside the stomata / leaves, the air in the atmosphere is drier / has less water (vapour) than
in the leaves // The concentration of water (vapour) in the air spaces is higher than the
concentration of water (vapour) in the atmosphere.
During the day / On the hot day stimulates the opening of stomata (Reject: Hot temperature)
Water vapour in the air spaces // transpiration occurs through stomata
diffuse out through the stomata.
Water in the xylem is drawn / diffused into the mesophyll cells / leaves
to replace the water lost.
(Thus) the plant, lost heat
causes the cooling effect on the plants / reduce temperature of plant.
{SBP

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport

Form 5 Biology Chapter 1 Transport