You are on page 1of 103

TRANSFORMERS

Chapter 2

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

CHAPTER CONTENT

Prof. Adel Gastli

2.1

Introduction

2.2

Construction & Principle of Operation

2.3

Practical Transformer

2.4

Equivalent Circuit Parameters

2.5

Multi-secondary windings

2.6

Autotransformer

2.7

Voltage Regulation

2.8

Efficiency

2.9

Three-Phase Transformer

2.10

Per-Unit System
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1

Introduction

2.2

Construction & Principle of Operation

2.3

Practical Transformer

2.4

Equivalent Circuit Parameters

2.5

Multi-secondary windings

2.6

Autotransformer

2.7

Voltage Regulation

2.8 Efficiency

2.9 Three-Phase Transformer


2.10

Prof. Adel Gastli

Per-Unit System

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

Introduction
A transformer is an electrical device
that transfers ac energy from one
electrical circuit to another by
magnetic coupling but without any
moving parts.
Its action is based on the laws of
electromagnetic induction.
There is no electrical connection between
primary and secondary (except for one
case).
There is no change in frequency.
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

Introduction
The ac power is transferred from primary to
secondary through magnetic flux.

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

Introduction
They are rugged and durable in
construction.
They have High efficiency as well as 99%.
Transformers alone cannot do the following:
Convert DC to AC or vice versa
Change the voltage or current of DC
Change the frequency (the "cycles") of AC.

However, transformers are components of


the systems that can perform all these
functions.
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

Introduction

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

Introduction
Transmission Transformer

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

Introduction
Distribution Transformer
220 KV 5 KV

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

Introduction

11 KV 415V

Service Transformer
Prof. Adel Gastli

Circuit Transformer
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

10

CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1

Introduction

2.2

Construction & Principle of Operation

2.3

Practical Transformer

2.4

Equivalent Circuit Parameters

2.5

Multi-secondary windings

2.6

Autotransformer

2.7

Voltage Regulation

2.8 Efficiency

2.9 Three-Phase Transformer


2.10

Prof. Adel Gastli

Per-Unit System

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

11

Basic Components
Iron Core
Primary
winding
connected
to the
source

Insulated
Copper Wire
Secondary
winding
connected to
the load

Both coils are electrically separated but magnetically


linked through a low reluctance path (Iron Core)
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

12

Basic Components
Laminated iron
core is used to
reduce eddy
current loss

Insulated
copper wire

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

13

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

14

How does it work?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZjwzpoCiF8A
8:41
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

15

The Two-Winding Theory

i1

v1

a
+

e1

_
b

Primary

d
e1 N1
dt

N1

N2

c
+
e
_ 2
d

Secondary

d
e2 N 2
dt

If the flux varies sinusoidally, m sin t


then, e1 N1 m cos t
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

16

The Two-Winding Theory


e1 and e2 are in time phase because they are

produced by the same flux.


m

N1 m 2f
E1

m N1
2
2

i1
v1

4.44 f m N1

a
+

e1

_
b

N1

N2

c
+
e
_ 2
d

E1 and E2 are root-meansquare values

E2 4.44 f m N 2
E1 N1

a turns ratio
E2 N 2

Voltages are in phase (no phase shift)


Voltage magnitudes vary with turns ratio.
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

17

Ideal Transformer
Ideal Transformer
r1 r2 0 (winding resistances)
No leakage flux and core losses are negligible
(high permeability) exciting current 0

i1
v1

e1

d
v1 e1 N1
dt

N1

N2

c S
+
e_2 v2
d

Load

d
v2 e2 N 2
dt

v1 e1 N1

a (turns ratio or transformer ratio)
v2 e2 N 2
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

18

Ideal Transformer
Power conservation

S1 S 2
*
1
*
2

I
E2

E1
I

EI E I
*
1 1

*
2 2

(Complex vectors)

i1
v1

I1 E2 N 2

I 2 E1 N1

e1

N2

N1

c S i2
+
e_2 v2 Load
d

N1 I 1 N 2 I 2
Conservation of mmf

Currents are in phase.


Current ratio is opposite to the voltage ratio
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

19

Impedance Transfer
I1

I1

I2

V1

V2

Z2

V1

Z1

N1 N2

V2
Secondary impedance Z 2
I2
V1 aV2
2 V2
Primary impedance Z1
a
a2Z2
I1 I 2 / a
I2
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

20

Impedance Transfer
Secondary impedance is transferred to the primary side
I1

Z Z1 a Z 2
'
2

I1

I2

V1

V2

Z2

V1

Z2

N1 N2

Primary impedance is transferred to the secondary side

Z1
Z Z2 2
a
'
1

This impedance transfer is very useful because it eliminates


magnetically coupled circuit and transforms it into an
electrical circuit and thereby simplifies the circuit.
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

21

CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1

Introduction

2.2

Construction & Principle of Operation

2.3

Practical Transformer

2.4

Equivalent Circuit Parameters

2.5

Multi-secondary windings

2.6

Autotransformer

2.7

Voltage Regulation

2.8 Efficiency

2.9 Three-Phase Transformer


2.10

Prof. Adel Gastli

Per-Unit System

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

22

Practical Transformer: Equivalent Circuit


m
R1

I1

I2
l1

V1

N1
R1

R2

l2

N1: N2

I1 Xl1

V2

N2
Xl2 I2 R2

V1

V2

Primary
winding

Magnetic
Core

Secondary
winding

R1 & R2: the resistance of the primary and secondary winding


Xl1 & Xl2: the leakage reactance of the primary and secondary winding
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

23

Practical Transformer: Equivalent Circuit


X l1 X 1 2fLl1
N1 l1
Ll1
I1

Leakage inductance of winding 1

X l 2 X 2 2fLl 2
Ll 2

Prof. Adel Gastli

Leakage reactance of winding 1

Leakage reactance of winding 2

N 2 l 2
Leakage inductance of winding 2
I2
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

24

Practical Transformer: Equivalent Circuit


In practice, Im is required to establish flux m in the core.
=> This effect can be represented by a magnetizing
inductance Lm or magnetizing reactance Xm.
The core loss can be represented by a resistance Rc.
X1

R1

V1

I1

I1

I2

Ic1

Im1

Rc1

Xm1

X2

N1: N2
E1

E2

R2
I2

V2

Ideal Transformer
Primary winding

Magnetic Core

Secondary winding

A practical transformer is equivalent to an ideal transformer


+ external impedances that represent imperfections of an
actual transformer.
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

25

Practical Transformer: Equivalent Circuit


X1

R1
V1

I1

Ic1
Rc1

N1: N2

I2

I1

Im1

E1

Xm1

V1 E1 I1 R1 jX 1

X2
I2

E2

Ideal Transformer

V1 E2

V2

E2 V2 I 2 ( R2 jX 2 )

N1
I1 R1 jX 1
N2

N1
V1 V2 I 2 ( R2 jX 2 )
I1 R1 jX 1
N2
N
N
V1 V2 1 I 2 1
N 2
N2
Prof. Adel Gastli

R2

N1
but I 2 I 2
N2

( R2 jX 2 ) I1 R1 jX 1

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

26

Practical Transformer: Equivalent Circuit


2
N

N1
1
( R2 jX 2 ) I1 R1 jX 1
V1 V2
I 2
N 2

N2

Considering:

N1

R2 R2
N2

and

N1

X 2 X 2
N2

V1 V2 I 2 ( R2 jX 2 ) I1 R1 jX 1

V1 I1 R1 jX 1 I 2 ( R2 jX 2 ) V2
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

27

Practical Transformer: Equivalent Circuit

V1 I1 R1 jX 1 I 2 ( R2 jX 2 ) V2
X1

R1
I1
V1

X2

I2
Ic1

I1

Rc1

Im1
Xm1

R2

I2

I2
V2

V2

E1=E2

N1: N2
X1

R1
I1
V1

Prof. Adel Gastli

X2

I2
I1

Ic1
Rc1

Im1
Xm1

R2
I2

E1=E2

V2

Z2
Load

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

E1 E2' aE2
V2' aV2
I 2' I 2 / a
X 2' a 2 X 2
R2' a 2 R2
28

Approximate Equivalent Circuit


X1

R1
I1
V1

X2

I2
I1
Im1

Ic1
Rc1

Xm1

R2
I2

Z2 Load

V2

E1=E2

If I1 R1 and I1 X 1 are very small compared to V1 | E1 || V1 |


Shunt branch can be moved to the supply terminal
R1
I1

Ic1

V1 R
c1

Prof. Adel Gastli

I1

Im1
Xm1

R2

X1

X2

Xeq1

Req1
Zeq1

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

I2

V2

29

Approximate Equivalent Circuit


R1
I1

Ic1

V1 R
c1

I1

Im1
Xm1

X1

R2

X2

Xeq1

Req1
Zeq1

I2

V2

I 1 is also very small compared to I1


I 1 5% I1 it' s possible to remove the shunt branch.
Xeq1 I
2

I1 Req1
V1

Prof. Adel Gastli

Zeq1

V2

Transformer
Approximate
Equivalent Circuit
Referred to Primary

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

30

Approximate Equivalent Circuit


Referred to Primary
Xeq1 I
2

I1 Req1
V1

V2

Zeq1

Referred to Secondary
Xeq2 I2

I1 Req2
V1

Prof. Adel Gastli

Zeq2

Req 2

Req1

X eq 2

V2

R2 R1'

a2
X eq1

X 2 X 1'

a2
V1
'
V1
, I1' I 2 aI1
a

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

31

Analysis of Transformer
X eq

Req

V1
I '2 X eq

I '2 Req
Prof. Adel Gastli

'
I1 I 2

V2'

V1 V2' I 2' Req jX eq

'
I2

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

32

Analysis of Transformer
X eq

Req

Lagging power factor

V1

V1 V2' I 2' Req j I 2' X eq

'
I1 I 2

V1
I '2 Z eq

V2'

V2'

I '2 X eq

I '2 Req

I '2
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

33

Analysis of Transformer
X eq

Req

Leading power factor

V1

'
'
'
V1 V2 I 2 Req j I 2 X eq

I '2

V1

V2'

I '2 X eq

I '2 Z eq

V2'

Prof. Adel Gastli

'
I1 I 2

I '2 Req

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

34

Transformer Rating and Name Plate


Rated voltage: The device can continuously operate at the
rated voltage without being damaged due to insulation
failure
Rated current: The device can continuously operate at the
rated current without being damaged due to thermal
destruction

10kVA
1100/110 Volts

Prof. Adel Gastli

The transformer is a step-down transformer


which has two windings one rated for 1100V
an the other one for 110V. Thus,
a = 1100/110 = 10 = turns ratio
Each winding is designed for 10 kVA.
The current rating for high-voltage winding is
10000/1100 = 9.09 A
The current rating for lower-voltage winding
is 10000/110 = 90.9 A
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

35

Polarity

Polarity marked with either dots


or signs

Current entering identical terminals


produce fluxes in the same direction
Thus e12 and e34 are in phase.

Polarity can be determined


by experiment as follows

If V13V12+V34 then 1 and 4 identical


If V13 V12-V34 then 1 and 3 identical
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

36

CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1

Introduction

2.2

Construction & Principle of Operation

2.3

Practical Transformer

2.4

Equivalent Circuit Parameters

2.5

Multi-secondary windings

2.6

Autotransformer

2.7

Voltage Regulation

2.8 Efficiency

2.9 Three-Phase Transformer


2.10

Prof. Adel Gastli

Per-Unit System

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

37

Equivalent Circuit Parameters


No-Load test (Open-Circuit Test)
A

Voc2
Rc1
Poc

I c1

I m1 I oc2 I c21

Voc
X m1
I m1
Prof. Adel Gastli

V1

Voc
Rc1

I1
Ic1
Rc1

I1
Im1
Xm1

Poc I ocVoc cos( o )


or

Poc
cos( o )
I ocVoc

I c I oc cos( o )
I m I oc sin( o )
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

V1
Rc
IC
V1
Xm
Im
38

Equivalent Circuit Parameters


Short-Circuit Test
A

Vsc

V
sc
I sc

X eq

Zeq

Psc
cos( sc )
I sc Vsc

Psc
Req 2
I sc
Z eq

Xeq

Isc Req

or
2
eq

2
eq

Vsc
Z sc
I sc
Req Z sc cos( sc )
X eq Z sc sin( sc )

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

39

Equivalent Circuit Parameters


R1 a 2 R2 Req1 & X 1 a 2 X 2 X eq

The primary resistance R1 can be measured directly, and


knowing a, R2 can be found.
R2

Req1 R1
a2

The leakage reactance is assumed to be divided equally


between the two windings,
X1 X
'
2

Prof. Adel Gastli

X eq
2

X 2'
X2 2
a

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

40

Example 2.1:

The equivalent circuit impedances of a 20kVA, 8000/240 V,


60-Hz transformer are to be determined. The open-circuit and the short-circuit
tests were performed on the primary side of the transformer, and the following
data were taken:
__________________________________________
Open-circuit test
Short-circuit test
(on primary)
(on primary)
__________________________________________
vNL =8000 V
Vsc= 489 V
INL= 0.214 A
Isc = 2.5 A
PNL= 400 W
Psc = 240 W
__________________________________________

Find the impedances of the approximate equivalent circuit referred to the


primary side, and sketch that circuit.

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

41

I1

Solution 2.1:
From No-Load Test Results

V1

Ic1

I1

Rc1

Im1
Xm1

PNL
400
cos( NL )

0.234 lagging
VNL I NL 8000 0.214

I c1 I NL cos NL 0.214 0.234 0.05 A

sin( NL ) 1 cos 2 NL 0.972

I m1 I NL sin( NL ) 0.214 0.972 0.208 A


VNL 8000
Rc1

160k
I c1 0.05
Prof. Adel Gastli

VNL 8000
X m1

38.5k
I m1 0.208

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

42

Solution 2.1:
From Short-Circuit Test Results

Isc
Vsc

Psc
I sc2
V
Z eq sc
I sc
2
2
X eq Z eq
Req

Xeq

Req

Req

Zeq

489 V
Z eq
195.6
2 .5 A

240 W
Req
38.4
2
2.5 A

X eq 195.6 38.4 192


2

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

43

Solution 2.1:

Approximate Equivalent Circuit


Req 38.4

X eq 192

Rc1 160k

192

38.4

I1
V1

Prof. Adel Gastli

Ic1

160k

I1

Im1

X m1 38.5k

I2

38.5k

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

V2

44

CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1

Introduction

2.2

Construction & Principle of Operation

2.3

Practical Transformer

2.4

Equivalent Circuit Parameters

2.5

Multi-secondary windings

2.6

Autotransformer

2.7

Voltage Regulation

2.8 Efficiency

2.9 Three-Phase Transformer


2.10

Prof. Adel Gastli

Per-Unit System

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

45

Multi-Secondary Windings

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

46

Multi-Secondary Windings
I3

I1
E1

N3

E3

I2

N1
N2

E2

E1 N1

E2 N 2
E1 N1

E3 N 3

Primary

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

47

Multi-Secondary Windings
Current ratio: superposition

I12
E1

I2

N1
N2

N2
I12 I 2
N1

E2

Primary

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

48

Multi-Secondary Windings
Current ratio: superposition
I3

I13
E1

N3

E3

N1

N3
I13 I 3
N1

Primary

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

49

Multi-Secondary Windings
Current ratio: superposition

I3

N3

I1
E1

E3
I2

N1
N2

E2

I1 I12 I13
N3
N2
I2
I3
N1
N1
I 1 N1 I 2 N 2 I 3 N 3

Primary

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

50

Multi-Secondary Windings
Power
I3
N3

I1
E1

E3
I2

N1
N2

E2

S1 S 2 S 3

Primary

EI E I EI
*
1 1

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

*
2 2

*
3 3
51

CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1

Introduction

2.2

Construction & Principle of Operation

2.3

Practical Transformer

2.4

Equivalent Circuit Parameters

2.5

Multi-secondary windings

2.6

Autotransformer

2.7

Voltage Regulation

2.8 Efficiency

2.9 Three-Phase Transformer


2.10

Prof. Adel Gastli

Per-Unit System

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

52

Autotransformer
I1

V1

1
FU ( N1 N 2 ) I1 1 N1 I1
I1 1

U
L
I2 a
N
FL N 2 ( I1 I 2 ) 1 I 2 I1

I2

N1

N2
I1 -I2

V2

V1 N1

a
V2 N 2

Same as a two-winding
Transformer

Advantages:

Prof. Adel Gastli

Lower leakage reactances


Lower losses
Lower exciting current
Increased kVA rating
Variable voltage output

Disadvantage:

The direct electric connection


between the primary and
secondary sides.

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

53

Autotransformer
I1

V1

A1
E1

I2

B1
N1

E2

N2

V2

A2
B2

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

54

Autotransformer
Is

Voltage and current

A1

N1

I load I1 I 2

Prof. Adel Gastli

Iload

A2

V1

V1 E1 E2

I1

E1

E2

N2

B1

I2

V2

B2

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

55

Autotransformer
Power
+
E1
-

I1
N1

I2
N2

Is
+
E2

E1

I1
Iload

A2

V1

S A E1I1 E2 I 2

N1

A1

E2

N2

B1

I2

V2

B2

S B V1I s V2 I load
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

56

Autotransformer
Power

S B V1 I s ( E1 E2 ) I1 E1 I1 E2 I1
S B S A E2 I1

SB S A
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

57

VARIAC: Variable Autotransformer


Z

Is

N3
Y

N1

Sliding
terminal

I1

Iload

V1
N2
Prof. Adel Gastli

I2

V2

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

58

VARIAC: Variable AutoTransformer


Z

VARIAC: Output Voltage


At X

Vload

Is

N2
Vs
N1 N 2

N3
Y

N1

V1

At Y Vload Vs
At Z

Vload

Sliding
terminal

I1

N1 N 2
Vs
N1 N 2

Iload
X

N2

I2

V2

N1 N 2 N 3
Vs
N1 N 2

The VARIAC can adjust the load voltage from zero to greater
than the supply voltage.
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

59

CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1

Introduction

2.2

Construction & Principle of Operation

2.3

Practical Transformer

2.4

Equivalent Circuit Parameters

2.5

Multi-secondary windings

2.6

Autotransformer

2.7

Voltage Regulation

2.8 Efficiency

2.9 Three-Phase Transformer


2.10

Prof. Adel Gastli

Per-Unit System

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

60

Voltage Regulation
Voltage regulation is the ability of a system to provide near
constant voltage over a wide range of load conditions.
Zeq

V1

V2

Voltage regulation

Transformer

V1
2

V2
I2

Locus of
V1

I2Zeq1
I2Req1

2 is the angle of the load impedance


Prof. Adel Gastli

Load

I2Xeq1

| V | NL | V | L
| V |L

Referred to
Primary

| V2' | NL | V2' | L
Voltage regulation
| V2' | L
| V2' | NL | V1 |

| V1 | | V2' |L
Voltage regulation
| V2' |L

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

61

CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1

Introduction

2.2

Construction & Principle of Operation

2.3

Practical Transformer

2.4

Equivalent Circuit Parameters

2.5

Multi-secondary windings

2.6

Autotransformer

2.7

Voltage Regulation

2.8

Efficiency

2.9 Three-Phase Transformer


2.10

Prof. Adel Gastli

Per-Unit System

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

62

Efficiency
Pout
Pout
Pout

Pin Pout Plosses Pout Pc Pcu

Pout V2 I 2 cos 2
Pcu I12 R1 I 22 R2 I12 Req1 I 22 Req 2
Pc I c21 Rc

V2 I 2 cos 2

F ( I 2 , cos 2 )
2
2
V2 I 2 cos 2 I c1Rc I 2 Req 2
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

63

Maximum Efficiency
Constant V2 and 2

V2 I 2 cos 2
F ( I 2 , cos 2 )
2
2
V2 I 2 cos 2 I c1Rc I 2 Req 2

d
0 Pc I 22 Req 2
dI 2

Core loss = Copper loss

Constant V2 and I2
d
0 2 0 cos 2 1
d 2

Resistive load
100.0

Maximum efficiency occurs when


the load power factor is unity and
load current is such that copper loss
equals core loss.

% Efficiency

98.0
96.0
94.0
92.0

I2

90.0

I 2 ( rated )

0
Prof. Adel Gastli

PF = 1.0
PF = 0.8
PF = 0.6

0.2

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0
64

All-Day (or Energy) Efficiency


Distribution transformer
all-day efficiency

AD

energy output over 24 hours

energy input over 24 hours


energy output over 24 hours

energy output over 24 hours losses over 24 hours

Distribution transformer is designed for maximum efficiency


occurring at the average output power.
Power transformer is designed for maximum efficiency occurring
during rated output power.
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

65

Example 2.2:

A 15kVA 2300/230-V transformer is to be tested to determine its


excitation branch components, its series impedances, and its voltage regulation. The
following test data have been taken from the primary side of the transformer:
___________________________________________________
Open-circuit test
Short-circuit lest
___________________________________________________
Voc =2300 V
Vsc=47 V
Ioc= 0.21 A
Isc =6.0 A
Poc=50 W
Psc =160 W
___________________________________________________
The data have been taken by using the connections shown in the primary side.
a) Find the equivalent circuit of this transformer referred to the high-voltage side.
b) Find the equivalent circuit of this transformer referred to the low-voltage side.
c) Calculate the full-load voltage regulation at 0.8 lagging power factor, 1.0 power factor,
and at 0.8 leading power factor using the exact equation for Vp
d) Perform the same three calculations, using the approximate equation for Vp. How close
are the approximate answers to the exact answers?
e) What is the efficiency of the transformer at full load with a power factor of 0.8 lagging?

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

66

Solution
(a) From the open-circuit test data, the elements of the
excitation branch referred to the primary are
determined as follows:

POC

2
2
VOC
VOC
2300 2

Rc

105.8 k
Rc
POC
50

VOC
2300
I c1

0.0217 A
Rc 105,800
2
I m1 I OC
I c21 0.212 0.0217 2 0.2089 A

VOC
2300
X m1

11 k
I m1 0.2089
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

67

From the short-circuit test data1 the short-circuit impedance


angle is:

PSC 160
PSC I Req1 Req1 2 2 4.45
I SC
6
VSC 47
Z SC

7.833
I SC
6
2
SC

2
X eq1 Z SC
Req2 1 7.8332 4.452 6.45

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

68

(b) To find the equivalent circuit referred to the lowvoltage side, it is simply necessary to divide the
impedance by a2 .
Since a =Np/Ns =10, the resulting values are:

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

69

(c) I S ,rated

S rated 15,000 VA

65.2 A
Vs ,rated
230 V

o
At PF=0.8 lagging, current I s 62.5 36.9 A

Vp
a

Vs Req 2 jX eq 2 Is
230 0o 0.0445 j 0.0645 65.2 36.9o
234.84 j1.62
234.85 0.4o V

The resulting voltage regulation:

234.85 230
VR
100% 2.1%
230

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

70

At PF=1, current

Vp
a

I s 65.2 0o A

Vs Req 2 jX eq 2 Is
230 0o 0.0445 j 0.0645 65.2 0o
232.9 j 4.21
232.94 1.04o V

The resulting voltage regulation:

232.94 230
VR
100% 1.28%
230
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

71

o
At PF=0.8 leading, current I s 62.5 36.9 A

Vp
a

Vs Req 2 jX eq 2 Is
230 0o 0.0445 j 0.0645 65.2 36.9o
229.80 j 5.10
229.85 1.27 o V

The resulting voltage regulation:

229.85 230
VR
100% 0.062%
230
Each of these three phasor diagrams are shown in next slide.
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

72

Vp
a

234.9 0.4o V

Vs 230 0o V
I s 65.2 36.9o A

Vp
a

jX eq 2 I s 4.21 53.1o V

Req 2 I s 2.9 36.9o V

232.9 1.04o V

jX eq 2 I s 4.21 90o V
Vs 230 0o V

I s 65.2 0 A
o

I s 65.2 36.9o A

Vp
a

229.8 1.27 o V

Vs 230 0o V

Prof. Adel Gastli

Req 2 I s 2.9 0o V

jX eq 2 I s 4.21 126.9o V

Req 2 I s 2.9 36.9o V

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

73

(e) The efficiency at full load 0.8 power factor lagging:

Vp
a

234.85 0.4o V

I s 62.5 36.9o A
Pout 15,000 0.8 12,000 W

Pcu 62.52 0.0445 173.83 W

V
P
c

p / a

Rc / a 2

234.852

52.1 W
1058

Pin Pout Pcu Pc 12000 173.83 52.1 12,225.93 W


Pout
12000

100 98.15%
Pin 12225.93
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

74

CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1

Introduction

2.2

Construction & Principle of Operation

2.3

Practical Transformer

2.4

Equivalent Circuit Parameters

2.5

Multi-secondary windings

2.6

Autotransformer

2.7

Voltage Regulation

2.8 Efficiency

2.9 Three-Phase Transformer


2.10

Prof. Adel Gastli

Per-Unit System
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

75

Three-Phase Transformers
Y - D
I

N1:N2

a 3I

V
N1
3
N2

aI

V
a 3

Y - D

Commonly used to step down a high


voltage to a lower voltage. The neutral
point on the high-voltage side can be
grounded, which is desirable in most cases.
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

76

aI
3

D - Y

V
a

N2

V
I
3

N1

V
I
3

N2

aI
3

V
a

One transformer can be removed for repair


and remaining two can continue to deliver
three-phase power at reduced rating 58%.
This is known as open-delta or V connection.
Prof. Adel Gastli

aI

aI

N1

Commonly used to step up


voltage.

Y - Y

D - D

3V
a

V
N1
3

N2

V
3a

V
a

Rarely used because of problems


with the exciting current and
induced voltages.

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

77

Phase Shift
Y - D

VAB leads Vab by 30o

D - Y

VAB lags Vab by 30o

D - D

No phase shift

Y - Y

No phase shift

A
Vc

VAB

VAN
VCN

VBN

Va=Vab

Vb

B
VAB
30o

b
Va Vab

VAN

-VBN
VBN
VCN

Vca
Vc

Vb

Vbc

This phase shift in Y-D and D-Y connections can be used


advantageously in some applications
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

78

Single-Phase Equivalent Circuit

If the 3 transformers are


practically identical.
If the source and load are
balanced.

The voltages and currents in one


phase are the same as those in
others phases, except that there is a
phase displacement of 120o.

A single-phase equivalent circuit


can be conveniently obtained if all
sources, transformer windings, and
load impedances are considered to
be Y-connected.

Analysis of one phase is sufficient


to determine the variables in the
two sides of the transformer.

Xeq1

I1 Req1

V1

Prof. Adel Gastli

Zeq1

I2
V2

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

79

I
3aI

N1

aI

N2 V / 3a
ZL

ZL
3

ZL
3

ZL
3

V
3

I
V
3a

N1 : N 2 / 3
Prof. Adel Gastli

3aI

V
3a

V
3

3aI

V
3a

ZL
3

a'

ZL
3

ZL
3

ZL
3

V
V/ 3

3a
V / 3a V / 3a

Turn ration of equivalent Y-Y transformer


Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

80

Open-Delta or V Connection
A

Pab Vab I a cos(30 )


Pbc Vbc I a cos(30 )

Ia

If we let:

| Vab || Vbc | V (rated voltage)

Ib

| I a || I c | I (rated current)

0 for resitive load

b
Ic

Vab

VAB

Van
30o

Vcb

Ia

Total power without fault:

Vcn

PD 3VI

30o
VBC

Vca
Vbn

VCD

Ia

Prof. Adel Gastli

Pv Pab Pbc 2VI cos 30o

Vbc

Pv 2 cos 30o

0.58
PD
3

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

82

Three-Phase Transformer on a Common Magnetic Core


a
c

c
a

a
b

A
a

B
b

C
c

a b c 0

Advantages:
Weighs less
Cost less
Requires less space

Disadvantages:
Magnetic current imbalance
If one phase is broken the
whole transformer must be
removed

Magnetic paths of legs A and C are longer than that of B => magnetic current imbalance.
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

83

How does it Work?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vh_aCAHThTQ
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

5:47
84

How does it Work?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i4eyG99jC1c
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

1:25
85

CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1

Introduction

2.2

Construction & Principle of Operation

2.3

Practical Transformer

2.4

Equivalent Circuit Parameters

2.5

Multi-secondary windings

2.6

Autotransformer

2.7

Voltage Regulation

2.8 Efficiency

2.9 Three-Phase Transformer


2.10

Prof. Adel Gastli

Per-Unit System
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

86

Per-Unit System
Computation using the actual values of
parameters may be time-consuming.
However, if the quantities are expressed in
a per-unit (pu) system, computations are
much simplified.
The pu quantity is define as:

Actual Quatity
Quatity in pu
Base Value of Quantity

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

87

Per-Unit System
The advantages of using the per-unit
system:
The parameters fall in a narrow
numerical range; this
simplifies
computations and makes it possible to
check the correctness of the computed
values.
It makes it unnecessary to refer
quantities on the high or low side of
transformers.

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

88

Per-Unit System (cont.)


To establish a per-unit system it is necessary to
select power and voltage base values as follows:
Pbase = Sbase= rated volt amper (VA) ,

Vbase= rated voltage (V).

Then base current and base impedance can


be calculated as follows:
Z eq1
S basse
Z eq1, pu
I base
Z base1
Vbase
2
Z eq 2
Vbase Vbase
Z eq 2, pu
Z base

I base Sbase
Z base 2
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

89

Per-Unit System (cont.)


Z eq 2, pu

Z eq 2
Z base 2

( Z eq1 a 2 )
2

( Z base1 a )

Z eq1
Z base1

Z eq1, pu

The per-unit impedance is the same


referred to either side of the transformer

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

90

Per-Unit System (cont.)


Full Load Copper Losses
2
P

I
The full load copper losses is : cuFL
1FL Req1

( PcuFL ) pu

In per unit value

I12FL Req1
Pbase

I12FL Req1
VbaseI base

since I1FL = Ibase , therefore

( PcuFL ) pu

2
I base
Req1

VbaseI base

I baseReq1
Vbase

Req1 Req1

( Req1 ) PU
Vbase Z base
I base

Hence the transformer resistance in per unit form also


represents the full load copper losses in per unit form.
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

91

Per-Unit System for 3 phase transformer


S1 ,base

S base

I ,base

S1 ,base
V ,base

I ,base

I L ,base

Z base
Prof. Adel Gastli

,base

S1 ,base

S base

3V ,base

Sbase

3VL ,base

3V ,base

Z base

Sbase

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

92

EXAMPLE: A 50-kVA
13,800/208-V -Y distribution
transformer has a resistance of 1% and a reactance of 7%
per unit.
a) What is the transformers phase impedance referred
to the high-voltage side?
b) Calculate this transformer's voltage regulation at full
load and 0.8 PF lagging, using the calculated highside impedance.
c) Calculate this transformer's voltage regulation under
the same conditions, using the per-unit system.

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

93

Solution

3V ,base

a) The base impedance is:

Z base

Sbase

313,800

11,426
50,000
2

The per-unit impedance of the transformer is:

Z eq , pu 0.01 j 0.07 pu
So the high-side impedance in ohms is

Z eq Z eq , pu Z base 0.01 j 0.07 11,426 114.2 j800


b) To calculate the voltage regulation of a three-phase transformer bank,
determine the voltage regulation of any single transformer in the bank.
The voltages on a single transformer are phase voltage, so

VR

Prof. Adel Gastli

VP aVS
aVS

100%

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

94

Solution
The rated transformer phase voltage on the primary is 13,800V, so the
rated phase current on the primary is given by:
S
I
3V
The rated apparent power is S=50kVA, so:
50,000
I
1.208 A
313,800
The rated phase voltage on the secondary of the transformer is:

208 / 3 V
When referred to the high-voltage side of the transformer, this voltage
becomes:
V'S aVS 13,800 V
Assume that the transformer secondary is operating at rated voltage and
current, and find the resulting primary phase voltage:

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

95

50,000
I
1.208 A
313,800

Solution
VP aVS Req I jX eq I

PF 0.8 lagging -36.87o

VP 13,800 0o V 114.2 1.208 - 36.87 o A j800 1.208 - 36.87 o A


13,800 138 36.87 o 966.4 53.13o
13,800 110.4 j82.8 579.8 j 773.1
14,490 j 690.3
14,506 2.73o V
Therefore: VR

VP aVS
aVS

14,506 13,800
100%
100 5.1%
13,800

1 0o V
c) In the per-unit system, the output voltage and current are:
1 36.87 o A
Therefore, the input voltage is:

VP. pu 1 0o 0.01 1 36.87 o j 0.07 1 36.87 o


1 0.008 - j0.006 0.042 j0.056
1.051 1.0
1.05 j 0.05 1.051 2.73o
VR
100% 5.1%
1 .0
Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

96

EXAMPLE: Three single-phase, 50 kVA, 2300/230 V, 60 Hz


transformers are connected to form a 3-phase, 4000/230 V
transformer bank.
The equivalent impedance of each transformer referred to
low voltage is Zeq1=0.012 + j0.016 .
The 3-phase transformer supplies a 3-phase, 120 kVA, 230
V, 0.85 PF (lagging) load.
a) Draw a schematic diagram showing the transformer
connection.
b) Determine the transformer winding currents.
c) Determine the primary voltage (line-to-line)
required.
d) Determine the voltage regulation.

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

97

Solution
(a) The connection diagram is shown below. The high-voltage windings
are to be connected in wye so that the primary can be connected to
the 4000 V supply. The low-voltage winding is connected in delta to
form a 230V system for the load.

VLp 3V1
3 2300
3984 V

(b)

2300
10
230

4000 V

I s 301.24
S
120,000
I

173.92 A
Is

301.24 A 2
3
3
3Vs
3 230

I 2 173.92
I1
17.39 A
a
10

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

98

(c) Computation can be carried on a per-phase basis as follows.


Z eq1 (0.012 j 0.016) 10 2
1.2 j1.6

cos 1 0.85 31.8o

The primary equivalent circuit is:

V1 2300 0o 17.39 31.8o 1.2 j1.6

The primary line-to-line voltage:

(d)

Prof. Adel Gastli

VR

V1 2332.4 V

3 V1 4039.8 V

2332.4 2300
100% 1.41%
2300

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

99

EXAMPLE: A Three-phase , 230 V, 27 kVA, 0.9 PF (lag) load


is supplied by three 10 kVA, 1330/230 V, 60 Hz
transformers connected in Y- by means of a common 3phase feeder whose impedance is 0.003+j0.015 per
phase.
The transformers are supplied from a 3-phase source
through a 3-phase feeder whose impedance is 0.8+j5.0
per phase.
The equivalent impedance of one transformer referred to
the low-voltage side is 0.12+j0.25 .
Determine the required supply voltage if the load voltage
is 230 V.

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

100

Solution
The circuit of the system is:

The equivalent circuit of the individual transformer referred


to the high-voltage side is
2

ReqH jX eqH

1330

0.12 j 0.25 4.01 j8.36


230

The turns ratio of the equivalent Y-Y bank is


a'
Prof. Adel Gastli

3 1300
10
230

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

101

The single-phase equivalent circuit of the system is:

All the impedances from the primary side can be transferred to the
secondary side and combined with the feeder impedance on the
secondary side as:
0.80 4.01 0.003 0.051

5 8.36
R
X
0.015 0.149
2
10 2
10

230 o
VL
0 133 0 o
3

27 103
IL
67.67 A
3 133

L cos 1 0.9 25.8o


Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

102

The phase supply voltage referred to secondary is:


Vs' 133 0o 67.67 25.8o 0.051 j 0.149
133 0o 10.6571 45.3o
140.7 3.1o

The actual phase supply voltage is:

Vs a 'V 10 140.7 1407 V


'
s

The line-to-line supply voltage is: 1407 3 2437 V


Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

103

HOME EXERCISE
Find the equivalent Y-Y transformer ratio
for the following 3-phase winding
connections:
D-Y
Y-Y
D-D

Prof. Adel Gastli

Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers

104