Chapter 2
CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1
Introduction
2.2
2.3
Practical Transformer
2.4
2.5
Multisecondary windings
2.6
Autotransformer
2.7
Voltage Regulation
2.8
Efficiency
2.9
ThreePhase Transformer
2.10
PerUnit System
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers
CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1
Introduction
2.2
2.3
Practical Transformer
2.4
2.5
Multisecondary windings
2.6
Autotransformer
2.7
Voltage Regulation
2.8 Efficiency
PerUnit System
Introduction
A transformer is an electrical device
that transfers ac energy from one
electrical circuit to another by
magnetic coupling but without any
moving parts.
Its action is based on the laws of
electromagnetic induction.
There is no electrical connection between
primary and secondary (except for one
case).
There is no change in frequency.
Prof. Adel Gastli
Introduction
The ac power is transferred from primary to
secondary through magnetic flux.
Introduction
They are rugged and durable in
construction.
They have High efficiency as well as 99%.
Transformers alone cannot do the following:
Convert DC to AC or vice versa
Change the voltage or current of DC
Change the frequency (the "cycles") of AC.
Introduction
Introduction
Transmission Transformer
Introduction
Distribution Transformer
220 KV 5 KV
Introduction
11 KV 415V
Service Transformer
Prof. Adel Gastli
Circuit Transformer
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers
10
CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1
Introduction
2.2
2.3
Practical Transformer
2.4
2.5
Multisecondary windings
2.6
Autotransformer
2.7
Voltage Regulation
2.8 Efficiency
PerUnit System
11
Basic Components
Iron Core
Primary
winding
connected
to the
source
Insulated
Copper Wire
Secondary
winding
connected to
the load
12
Basic Components
Laminated iron
core is used to
reduce eddy
current loss
Insulated
copper wire
13
14
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZjwzpoCiF8A
8:41
Prof. Adel Gastli
15
i1
v1
a
+
e1
_
b
Primary
d
e1 N1
dt
N1
N2
c
+
e
_ 2
d
Secondary
d
e2 N 2
dt
16
N1 m 2f
E1
m N1
2
2
i1
v1
4.44 f m N1
a
+
e1
_
b
N1
N2
c
+
e
_ 2
d
E2 4.44 f m N 2
E1 N1
a turns ratio
E2 N 2
17
Ideal Transformer
Ideal Transformer
r1 r2 0 (winding resistances)
No leakage flux and core losses are negligible
(high permeability) exciting current 0
i1
v1
e1
d
v1 e1 N1
dt
N1
N2
c S
+
e_2 v2
d
Load
d
v2 e2 N 2
dt
v1 e1 N1
a (turns ratio or transformer ratio)
v2 e2 N 2
Prof. Adel Gastli
18
Ideal Transformer
Power conservation
S1 S 2
*
1
*
2
I
E2
E1
I
EI E I
*
1 1
*
2 2
(Complex vectors)
i1
v1
I1 E2 N 2
I 2 E1 N1
e1
N2
N1
c S i2
+
e_2 v2 Load
d
N1 I 1 N 2 I 2
Conservation of mmf
19
Impedance Transfer
I1
I1
I2
V1
V2
Z2
V1
Z1
N1 N2
V2
Secondary impedance Z 2
I2
V1 aV2
2 V2
Primary impedance Z1
a
a2Z2
I1 I 2 / a
I2
Prof. Adel Gastli
20
Impedance Transfer
Secondary impedance is transferred to the primary side
I1
Z Z1 a Z 2
'
2
I1
I2
V1
V2
Z2
V1
Z2
N1 N2
Z1
Z Z2 2
a
'
1
21
CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1
Introduction
2.2
2.3
Practical Transformer
2.4
2.5
Multisecondary windings
2.6
Autotransformer
2.7
Voltage Regulation
2.8 Efficiency
PerUnit System
22
I1
I2
l1
V1
N1
R1
R2
l2
N1: N2
I1 Xl1
V2
N2
Xl2 I2 R2
V1
V2
Primary
winding
Magnetic
Core
Secondary
winding
23
X l 2 X 2 2fLl 2
Ll 2
N 2 l 2
Leakage inductance of winding 2
I2
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers
24
R1
V1
I1
I1
I2
Ic1
Im1
Rc1
Xm1
X2
N1: N2
E1
E2
R2
I2
V2
Ideal Transformer
Primary winding
Magnetic Core
Secondary winding
25
R1
V1
I1
Ic1
Rc1
N1: N2
I2
I1
Im1
E1
Xm1
V1 E1 I1 R1 jX 1
X2
I2
E2
Ideal Transformer
V1 E2
V2
E2 V2 I 2 ( R2 jX 2 )
N1
I1 R1 jX 1
N2
N1
V1 V2 I 2 ( R2 jX 2 )
I1 R1 jX 1
N2
N
N
V1 V2 1 I 2 1
N 2
N2
Prof. Adel Gastli
R2
N1
but I 2 I 2
N2
( R2 jX 2 ) I1 R1 jX 1
26
N1
1
( R2 jX 2 ) I1 R1 jX 1
V1 V2
I 2
N 2
N2
Considering:
N1
R2 R2
N2
and
N1
X 2 X 2
N2
V1 V2 I 2 ( R2 jX 2 ) I1 R1 jX 1
V1 I1 R1 jX 1 I 2 ( R2 jX 2 ) V2
Prof. Adel Gastli
27
V1 I1 R1 jX 1 I 2 ( R2 jX 2 ) V2
X1
R1
I1
V1
X2
I2
Ic1
I1
Rc1
Im1
Xm1
R2
I2
I2
V2
V2
E1=E2
N1: N2
X1
R1
I1
V1
X2
I2
I1
Ic1
Rc1
Im1
Xm1
R2
I2
E1=E2
V2
Z2
Load
E1 E2' aE2
V2' aV2
I 2' I 2 / a
X 2' a 2 X 2
R2' a 2 R2
28
R1
I1
V1
X2
I2
I1
Im1
Ic1
Rc1
Xm1
R2
I2
Z2 Load
V2
E1=E2
Ic1
V1 R
c1
I1
Im1
Xm1
R2
X1
X2
Xeq1
Req1
Zeq1
I2
V2
29
Ic1
V1 R
c1
I1
Im1
Xm1
X1
R2
X2
Xeq1
Req1
Zeq1
I2
V2
I1 Req1
V1
Zeq1
V2
Transformer
Approximate
Equivalent Circuit
Referred to Primary
30
I1 Req1
V1
V2
Zeq1
Referred to Secondary
Xeq2 I2
I1 Req2
V1
Zeq2
Req 2
Req1
X eq 2
V2
R2 R1'
a2
X eq1
X 2 X 1'
a2
V1
'
V1
, I1' I 2 aI1
a
31
Analysis of Transformer
X eq
Req
V1
I '2 X eq
I '2 Req
Prof. Adel Gastli
'
I1 I 2
V2'
'
I2
32
Analysis of Transformer
X eq
Req
V1
'
I1 I 2
V1
I '2 Z eq
V2'
V2'
I '2 X eq
I '2 Req
I '2
Prof. Adel Gastli
33
Analysis of Transformer
X eq
Req
V1
'
'
'
V1 V2 I 2 Req j I 2 X eq
I '2
V1
V2'
I '2 X eq
I '2 Z eq
V2'
'
I1 I 2
I '2 Req
34
10kVA
1100/110 Volts
35
Polarity
36
CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1
Introduction
2.2
2.3
Practical Transformer
2.4
2.5
Multisecondary windings
2.6
Autotransformer
2.7
Voltage Regulation
2.8 Efficiency
PerUnit System
37
Voc2
Rc1
Poc
I c1
I m1 I oc2 I c21
Voc
X m1
I m1
Prof. Adel Gastli
V1
Voc
Rc1
I1
Ic1
Rc1
I1
Im1
Xm1
Poc
cos( o )
I ocVoc
I c I oc cos( o )
I m I oc sin( o )
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers
V1
Rc
IC
V1
Xm
Im
38
Vsc
V
sc
I sc
X eq
Zeq
Psc
cos( sc )
I sc Vsc
Psc
Req 2
I sc
Z eq
Xeq
Isc Req
or
2
eq
2
eq
Vsc
Z sc
I sc
Req Z sc cos( sc )
X eq Z sc sin( sc )
39
Req1 R1
a2
X eq
2
X 2'
X2 2
a
40
Example 2.1:
41
I1
Solution 2.1:
From NoLoad Test Results
V1
Ic1
I1
Rc1
Im1
Xm1
PNL
400
cos( NL )
0.234 lagging
VNL I NL 8000 0.214
160k
I c1 0.05
Prof. Adel Gastli
VNL 8000
X m1
38.5k
I m1 0.208
42
Solution 2.1:
From ShortCircuit Test Results
Isc
Vsc
Psc
I sc2
V
Z eq sc
I sc
2
2
X eq Z eq
Req
Xeq
Req
Req
Zeq
489 V
Z eq
195.6
2 .5 A
240 W
Req
38.4
2
2.5 A
43
Solution 2.1:
X eq 192
Rc1 160k
192
38.4
I1
V1
Ic1
160k
I1
Im1
X m1 38.5k
I2
38.5k
V2
44
CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1
Introduction
2.2
2.3
Practical Transformer
2.4
2.5
Multisecondary windings
2.6
Autotransformer
2.7
Voltage Regulation
2.8 Efficiency
PerUnit System
45
MultiSecondary Windings
46
MultiSecondary Windings
I3
I1
E1
N3
E3
I2
N1
N2
E2
E1 N1
E2 N 2
E1 N1
E3 N 3
Primary
47
MultiSecondary Windings
Current ratio: superposition
I12
E1
I2
N1
N2
N2
I12 I 2
N1
E2
Primary
48
MultiSecondary Windings
Current ratio: superposition
I3
I13
E1
N3
E3
N1
N3
I13 I 3
N1
Primary
49
MultiSecondary Windings
Current ratio: superposition
I3
N3
I1
E1
E3
I2
N1
N2
E2
I1 I12 I13
N3
N2
I2
I3
N1
N1
I 1 N1 I 2 N 2 I 3 N 3
Primary
50
MultiSecondary Windings
Power
I3
N3
I1
E1
E3
I2
N1
N2
E2
S1 S 2 S 3
Primary
EI E I EI
*
1 1
*
2 2
*
3 3
51
CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1
Introduction
2.2
2.3
Practical Transformer
2.4
2.5
Multisecondary windings
2.6
Autotransformer
2.7
Voltage Regulation
2.8 Efficiency
PerUnit System
52
Autotransformer
I1
V1
1
FU ( N1 N 2 ) I1 1 N1 I1
I1 1
U
L
I2 a
N
FL N 2 ( I1 I 2 ) 1 I 2 I1
I2
N1
N2
I1 I2
V2
V1 N1
a
V2 N 2
Same as a twowinding
Transformer
Advantages:
Disadvantage:
53
Autotransformer
I1
V1
A1
E1
I2
B1
N1
E2
N2
V2
A2
B2
54
Autotransformer
Is
A1
N1
I load I1 I 2
Iload
A2
V1
V1 E1 E2
I1
E1
E2
N2
B1
I2
V2
B2
55
Autotransformer
Power
+
E1

I1
N1
I2
N2
Is
+
E2
E1
I1
Iload
A2
V1
S A E1I1 E2 I 2
N1
A1
E2
N2
B1
I2
V2
B2
S B V1I s V2 I load
Prof. Adel Gastli
56
Autotransformer
Power
S B V1 I s ( E1 E2 ) I1 E1 I1 E2 I1
S B S A E2 I1
SB S A
Prof. Adel Gastli
57
Is
N3
Y
N1
Sliding
terminal
I1
Iload
V1
N2
Prof. Adel Gastli
I2
V2
58
Vload
Is
N2
Vs
N1 N 2
N3
Y
N1
V1
At Y Vload Vs
At Z
Vload
Sliding
terminal
I1
N1 N 2
Vs
N1 N 2
Iload
X
N2
I2
V2
N1 N 2 N 3
Vs
N1 N 2
The VARIAC can adjust the load voltage from zero to greater
than the supply voltage.
Prof. Adel Gastli
59
CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1
Introduction
2.2
2.3
Practical Transformer
2.4
2.5
Multisecondary windings
2.6
Autotransformer
2.7
Voltage Regulation
2.8 Efficiency
PerUnit System
60
Voltage Regulation
Voltage regulation is the ability of a system to provide near
constant voltage over a wide range of load conditions.
Zeq
V1
V2
Voltage regulation
Transformer
V1
2
V2
I2
Locus of
V1
I2Zeq1
I2Req1
Load
I2Xeq1
 V  NL  V  L
 V L
Referred to
Primary
 V2'  NL  V2'  L
Voltage regulation
 V2'  L
 V2'  NL  V1 
 V1   V2' L
Voltage regulation
 V2' L
61
CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1
Introduction
2.2
2.3
Practical Transformer
2.4
2.5
Multisecondary windings
2.6
Autotransformer
2.7
Voltage Regulation
2.8
Efficiency
PerUnit System
62
Efficiency
Pout
Pout
Pout
Pout V2 I 2 cos 2
Pcu I12 R1 I 22 R2 I12 Req1 I 22 Req 2
Pc I c21 Rc
V2 I 2 cos 2
F ( I 2 , cos 2 )
2
2
V2 I 2 cos 2 I c1Rc I 2 Req 2
Prof. Adel Gastli
63
Maximum Efficiency
Constant V2 and 2
V2 I 2 cos 2
F ( I 2 , cos 2 )
2
2
V2 I 2 cos 2 I c1Rc I 2 Req 2
d
0 Pc I 22 Req 2
dI 2
Constant V2 and I2
d
0 2 0 cos 2 1
d 2
Resistive load
100.0
% Efficiency
98.0
96.0
94.0
92.0
I2
90.0
I 2 ( rated )
0
Prof. Adel Gastli
PF = 1.0
PF = 0.8
PF = 0.6
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
64
AD
65
Example 2.2:
66
Solution
(a) From the opencircuit test data, the elements of the
excitation branch referred to the primary are
determined as follows:
POC
2
2
VOC
VOC
2300 2
Rc
105.8 k
Rc
POC
50
VOC
2300
I c1
0.0217 A
Rc 105,800
2
I m1 I OC
I c21 0.212 0.0217 2 0.2089 A
VOC
2300
X m1
11 k
I m1 0.2089
Prof. Adel Gastli
67
PSC 160
PSC I Req1 Req1 2 2 4.45
I SC
6
VSC 47
Z SC
7.833
I SC
6
2
SC
2
X eq1 Z SC
Req2 1 7.8332 4.452 6.45
68
(b) To find the equivalent circuit referred to the lowvoltage side, it is simply necessary to divide the
impedance by a2 .
Since a =Np/Ns =10, the resulting values are:
69
(c) I S ,rated
S rated 15,000 VA
65.2 A
Vs ,rated
230 V
o
At PF=0.8 lagging, current I s 62.5 36.9 A
Vp
a
Vs Req 2 jX eq 2 Is
230 0o 0.0445 j 0.0645 65.2 36.9o
234.84 j1.62
234.85 0.4o V
234.85 230
VR
100% 2.1%
230
70
At PF=1, current
Vp
a
I s 65.2 0o A
Vs Req 2 jX eq 2 Is
230 0o 0.0445 j 0.0645 65.2 0o
232.9 j 4.21
232.94 1.04o V
232.94 230
VR
100% 1.28%
230
Prof. Adel Gastli
71
o
At PF=0.8 leading, current I s 62.5 36.9 A
Vp
a
Vs Req 2 jX eq 2 Is
230 0o 0.0445 j 0.0645 65.2 36.9o
229.80 j 5.10
229.85 1.27 o V
229.85 230
VR
100% 0.062%
230
Each of these three phasor diagrams are shown in next slide.
Prof. Adel Gastli
72
Vp
a
234.9 0.4o V
Vs 230 0o V
I s 65.2 36.9o A
Vp
a
jX eq 2 I s 4.21 53.1o V
232.9 1.04o V
jX eq 2 I s 4.21 90o V
Vs 230 0o V
I s 65.2 0 A
o
I s 65.2 36.9o A
Vp
a
229.8 1.27 o V
Vs 230 0o V
Req 2 I s 2.9 0o V
jX eq 2 I s 4.21 126.9o V
73
Vp
a
234.85 0.4o V
I s 62.5 36.9o A
Pout 15,000 0.8 12,000 W
V
P
c
p / a
Rc / a 2
234.852
52.1 W
1058
100 98.15%
Pin 12225.93
Prof. Adel Gastli
74
CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1
Introduction
2.2
2.3
Practical Transformer
2.4
2.5
Multisecondary windings
2.6
Autotransformer
2.7
Voltage Regulation
2.8 Efficiency
PerUnit System
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers
75
ThreePhase Transformers
Y  D
I
N1:N2
a 3I
V
N1
3
N2
aI
V
a 3
Y  D
76
aI
3
D  Y
V
a
N2
V
I
3
N1
V
I
3
N2
aI
3
V
a
aI
aI
N1
Y  Y
D  D
3V
a
V
N1
3
N2
V
3a
V
a
77
Phase Shift
Y  D
D  Y
D  D
No phase shift
Y  Y
No phase shift
A
Vc
VAB
VAN
VCN
VBN
Va=Vab
Vb
B
VAB
30o
b
Va Vab
VAN
VBN
VBN
VCN
Vca
Vc
Vb
Vbc
78
Xeq1
I1 Req1
V1
Zeq1
I2
V2
79
I
3aI
N1
aI
N2 V / 3a
ZL
ZL
3
ZL
3
ZL
3
V
3
I
V
3a
N1 : N 2 / 3
Prof. Adel Gastli
3aI
V
3a
V
3
3aI
V
3a
ZL
3
a'
ZL
3
ZL
3
ZL
3
V
V/ 3
3a
V / 3a V / 3a
80
OpenDelta or V Connection
A
Ia
If we let:
Ib
 I a  I c  I (rated current)
b
Ic
Vab
VAB
Van
30o
Vcb
Ia
Vcn
PD 3VI
30o
VBC
Vca
Vbn
VCD
Ia
Vbc
Pv 2 cos 30o
0.58
PD
3
82
c
a
a
b
A
a
B
b
C
c
a b c 0
Advantages:
Weighs less
Cost less
Requires less space
Disadvantages:
Magnetic current imbalance
If one phase is broken the
whole transformer must be
removed
Magnetic paths of legs A and C are longer than that of B => magnetic current imbalance.
Prof. Adel Gastli
83
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vh_aCAHThTQ
Prof. Adel Gastli
5:47
84
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i4eyG99jC1c
Prof. Adel Gastli
1:25
85
CHAPTER CONTENT
2.1
Introduction
2.2
2.3
Practical Transformer
2.4
2.5
Multisecondary windings
2.6
Autotransformer
2.7
Voltage Regulation
2.8 Efficiency
PerUnit System
Electric Machines Chapter2: Transformers
86
PerUnit System
Computation using the actual values of
parameters may be timeconsuming.
However, if the quantities are expressed in
a perunit (pu) system, computations are
much simplified.
The pu quantity is define as:
Actual Quatity
Quatity in pu
Base Value of Quantity
87
PerUnit System
The advantages of using the perunit
system:
The parameters fall in a narrow
numerical range; this
simplifies
computations and makes it possible to
check the correctness of the computed
values.
It makes it unnecessary to refer
quantities on the high or low side of
transformers.
88
I base Sbase
Z base 2
Prof. Adel Gastli
89
Z eq 2
Z base 2
( Z eq1 a 2 )
2
( Z base1 a )
Z eq1
Z base1
Z eq1, pu
90
I
The full load copper losses is : cuFL
1FL Req1
( PcuFL ) pu
I12FL Req1
Pbase
I12FL Req1
VbaseI base
( PcuFL ) pu
2
I base
Req1
VbaseI base
I baseReq1
Vbase
Req1 Req1
( Req1 ) PU
Vbase Z base
I base
91
S base
I ,base
S1 ,base
V ,base
I ,base
I L ,base
Z base
Prof. Adel Gastli
,base
S1 ,base
S base
3V ,base
Sbase
3VL ,base
3V ,base
Z base
Sbase
92
EXAMPLE: A 50kVA
13,800/208V Y distribution
transformer has a resistance of 1% and a reactance of 7%
per unit.
a) What is the transformers phase impedance referred
to the highvoltage side?
b) Calculate this transformer's voltage regulation at full
load and 0.8 PF lagging, using the calculated highside impedance.
c) Calculate this transformer's voltage regulation under
the same conditions, using the perunit system.
93
Solution
3V ,base
Z base
Sbase
313,800
11,426
50,000
2
Z eq , pu 0.01 j 0.07 pu
So the highside impedance in ohms is
VR
VP aVS
aVS
100%
94
Solution
The rated transformer phase voltage on the primary is 13,800V, so the
rated phase current on the primary is given by:
S
I
3V
The rated apparent power is S=50kVA, so:
50,000
I
1.208 A
313,800
The rated phase voltage on the secondary of the transformer is:
208 / 3 V
When referred to the highvoltage side of the transformer, this voltage
becomes:
V'S aVS 13,800 V
Assume that the transformer secondary is operating at rated voltage and
current, and find the resulting primary phase voltage:
95
50,000
I
1.208 A
313,800
Solution
VP aVS Req I jX eq I
VP aVS
aVS
14,506 13,800
100%
100 5.1%
13,800
1 0o V
c) In the perunit system, the output voltage and current are:
1 36.87 o A
Therefore, the input voltage is:
96
97
Solution
(a) The connection diagram is shown below. The highvoltage windings
are to be connected in wye so that the primary can be connected to
the 4000 V supply. The lowvoltage winding is connected in delta to
form a 230V system for the load.
VLp 3V1
3 2300
3984 V
(b)
2300
10
230
4000 V
I s 301.24
S
120,000
I
173.92 A
Is
301.24 A 2
3
3
3Vs
3 230
I 2 173.92
I1
17.39 A
a
10
98
(d)
VR
V1 2332.4 V
3 V1 4039.8 V
2332.4 2300
100% 1.41%
2300
99
100
Solution
The circuit of the system is:
ReqH jX eqH
1330
3 1300
10
230
101
All the impedances from the primary side can be transferred to the
secondary side and combined with the feeder impedance on the
secondary side as:
0.80 4.01 0.003 0.051
5 8.36
R
X
0.015 0.149
2
10 2
10
230 o
VL
0 133 0 o
3
27 103
IL
67.67 A
3 133
102
103
HOME EXERCISE
Find the equivalent YY transformer ratio
for the following 3phase winding
connections:
DY
YY
DD
104