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# Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani

## Work-Integrated Learning Programmes Division

Second Semester 2015-2016
Mid-Semester Test
Course No.
Course Title
Nature of Exam
Weightage
Duration
Date of Exam
Note:
1.
2.
3.

(EC-3 Regular)
: SS ZG526
: DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
: Open Book
: 50%
: 3 Hours
: 09/04/2016 (AN)

No. of Pages
=4
No. of Questions = 5

All parts of a question should be answered consecutively. Each answer should start from a fresh page.

Q.1 (a) Suppose that there are three nodes named as P1, P2, and P3. These three nodes are
participating in a distributed computation activity. In the execution below, assume that
logical timestamps of events p, q and r (in P1, P2, and P3 respectively) are 10, 7 and 12,
respectively. Determine the logical timestamps of the remaining events in P1, P2, and
P3. Write the logical timestamp of each event next to that event in the figure.
[4]

Q.1 (b) In the above figure find out at least two events that are concurrent with event d. Explain
why are they concurrent with event d?
[2]
Q.1 (c) Compute the vector timestamps of events a, b, c, d, shown in the below diagram with
the initial vector clock values as shown (0,0,0,1), (0,0,1,0), (0,1,0,0) and (1,0,0,0) for
nodes A, B, C, and D respectively.
[4]
A

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## Second Semester 2015-2016

Page 2

Q.2 (a) For the following Wait For Graph (WFG), find out if there is any deadlock assuming
that it is an OR model WFG. List out the messages sent and received at each process.
Assume that P1 is initiating the deadlock detection activity. Show the messages clearly.
Apply an appropriate algorithm to detect the deadlock if any. Is there any Knot in the
graph
[5]
.
Site S1
P1

P2
P2

P4

P7
P6

Site S3

P3
P5

Site S2

Q.2 (b) In a Distributed system with three nodes (P1, P2, and P3) as shown below with the
communication pattern, apply Birman-Scifer-Stephenson (BSS) protocol to verify
whether there are any causal order violations. Show the vector time-stamps clearly and
the condition showing the order violations, if any.
[5]
P3

P2

P1

Q.3 (a) Distinguish between P2P networks and Grids by filling in the missing entries in the
below table. Some entries are already given.
[5]
Features
P2P networks
Grids
Distributed
file
sharing,
Applications and Peer
content distribution, peers
roles
acting as clients and servers.
Static connections with high
System connectivity
speed
over
grid
resources.
Resource discovery and
Job management

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## Second Semester 2015-2016

Page 3

Q.3 (a) The Internet of Things (IoT) is transforming the everyday physical objects that surround
us into an ecosystem of information that will enrich our lives. From refrigerators to
parking spaces to houses, the IoT is bringing more and more things into the digital fold
every day, which will likely make the IoT a multi-trillion dollar industry in the coming
days. If you are asked to build an Internet of Things (IoT) testbed within your
organization to smartly monitor the energy usage of all the computing devices that your
colleagues have in their office rooms, what types of devices you need, what types of
networks you need, and what types of software you need to build the testbed. Explain by
giving a suitable diagram. Why the IoT matters to consumers and businesses? Explain.
[5]
Q.4 (a) The InfiniBand Cluster architecture is as shown in the below diagram. It achieves Single
System Image (SSI) at functional levels? How is this SSI image different from the
virtual uniprocessor model that we discussed for distributed computing systems? What
are the architectural differences between both the systems? Explain.
[4]

Q.4 (b) The example discussed in the online class for searching an object with key equal to 80
in a CHORD overlay (a structured one) is as shown in the below figure. Do you think
that this type of search is more efficient than the search in a BitTorrent network as
shown below? Explain why.
[4]

CHORD
SS ZG526 (EC-3 Regular)

BitTorrent
Second Semester 2015-2016

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## Second Semester 2015-2016

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Q.5 (a) Identify one distributed application in either scientific or a commercial application area.
For building this application (that you have identified), determine the importance of
below listed motivating factors over a distributed computing system architecture.
Motivating factors: Resource sharing, Scalability, Performance and Fault tolerance
What type of distributed computing model (P2P, Grid, Cluster etc.) would you build to
run this application that you have listed above, and why? Explain.
[4]
Q.5 (b) Shown below a distributed system with 3 sites S1, S2, and S3 participating in a race
condition. There are two events at S1, and one event at S2. The first event at S1 is an
event not related to race, whereas the second event is a Request message for mutual
exclusion (critical section) entry. At S2, first event is a Request message for mutual
exclusion (critical section) entry. Empty request queues are shown at both the competing
sites. Your task is to assign correct Lamports logical clock to these events, and show the
execution of Lamports DME on this example showing clearly the Reply, Release
messages, and the time at which each site will enter into Critical Section. Can you also
suggest separately if any optimization can be done without violating the conditions for
critical section entry as given in the Lamports DME algorithm? Show your answer
separately.
[4]

Q.5 (c) Draw a tree showing the recursive calls of Oral Message algorithm when faulty generals
or traitors are 2 and the total number of generals is 5. Also show the computation of
majority functions at each node. Assume any initial value broadcasted by the source.
Also, describe a solution to Consensus problem using Byzantine Agreement (BA)
problem i.e., how can you solve consensus if you have a solution already available for
BA.
[4]
**********

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