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LANCASTER COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY


The mission of the Lancaster County Historical Society is to actively collect, preserve,
interpret and make accessible materials representing Lancaster County history.
The JOURNAL is published quarterly by the publications committee of the
Lancaster County Historical Society. Articles, both academic and non-academic,
pertaining to any aspect of Lancaster County history are actively solicited. For a
submission guide, or to discuss a project, you are invited to contact John W W
Loose, Editor-in-Chief, at (717) 392-4633 or by mail or e-mail. Manuscripts may
also be sent directly to Mr. Loose for review.

Publications Committee
,,

,,r

,..,,

^ ,_

Associate Editors
S. Kendrick Eshleman III. M.D.

John Ward Willson Loose, FLCHS

, ,,

Marianne Heckles
Editor-in-Chief

Wllliam Kran[z

(Jack.Loose@lancasterhistory.org)
Jean Maysilles, Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Michael L. Abel, FLCHS, Managing Editor
Albert W Drepperd, Index Editor

H. Herbert Poole, Jr., Ph.D.


David Schuyler, Ph.D.
Martha Tyzenhouse
Thomas
Wmpenny, Ph.D.
Stacy B. C. Wood, Jr., FLCHS

Lancaster County Historical Society Hours of Operation


Wednesday, Friday, Saturday 9:30 AM to 4:30 PM, Tuesday, Thursday 9:30 AM to 9:30 PM,
Closed Sunday, Monday and legal holidays.

Membership
Memberships are available at these levels:
One-year memberships $

$40 Individual

$> $250 Sustainer

&

$50 Family

$500 Director's Circle

$75 Contributor

& $1000 President's Circle

___________________l $100 Benefactor __________________________________


Tifetime Memberships $ $5000 Historian's Circle _____________________________
Please send your name and address to the historical society, along with a check indicating
your membership level. Members receive quarterly issues of the Journal, and the Historian, the
historical society's periodic newsletter. Membership benefits also include discounts on books,
access to trips and courses, as well as use of the research library"
US ISSN 0023-7477 Abstracted and indexed in America: History and Life, cited in the Journal of
American History, and in Periodical Source Index. The Lancaster County Historical Society assumes
no responsibility for the accuracy of references and notes contained herein, nor for the statements
and opinions of contributors.
Copyright 2007, Lancaster County Historical Society. All Rights Reserved.

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VOLUME 109, NUMBER 1

SPRING 2007

The Battleship Maine. Article starts on page 36,


Cover illustration: Members oj the Italian American Club Auxiliary march in the Flag Day
parade. LCHS A-10-01-28. Article starts on page 2.
A Brief History of the Italian-American Community in Lancaster, Pennsylvania
James]. Lombardo .................................................................. 2
The Lancastrian Who Went Down with the Maine
Patrick McSherry .................................................................. 36
Lancaster County Communities: Slaymakertown to Sun Flower
John Ward Willson Loose, FLCH5 ............................................... 44

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THE JOURNAL OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

A Brief History of the Italian-American


Community in Lancaster, Pennsylvania
James J. Lombardo

I
Members of Lancaster's Italian American Club Auxiliary march in the Flag Dav parade. LCHS A-W-01-28

JAMES J. LOMBARDO was born in Lancaster in 1943. A second generation Italian-American, Jim's grandparents on both his mother and father's side
immigrated to America from Gasperina. Italy in the period 1910-1915 and experienced Ellis Island. Jim grew up in a typical Italian household and
neighborhood in Lancaster City, attended St. Man's and Lancaster Catholic High Schools and served honorably in the U.S. Air Force. He graduated
Millersville University and recently retired from an executive position with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania having served under seven governors. Jim
and his family visited Italy and Gaspenna and they still communicate with his relatives living there. Jim and his wife Karen have two daughters, Gina
and Andrea.

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The Early Italian Immigrants


In 1791, only eight of the 28,552 people living in Philadelphia had been born in Italy
Fiftynine years later, the number of Italian-bom immigrants was just 172 in all of Pennsylvania.1
By 1900, the census listed 484,207 Italian-born persons throughout the country, 66,655 of
whom were located in Pennsylvania. Philadelphia ranked second, behind New York, of cities
with the largest number of Italian-bom residents. Pittsburgh ranked eighth, and Scranton made
the list at 23rd. The year 1907 was the peak year for Italian immigration into the United
States with 285,732 native-born Italians entering this country. By 1930, 225,979 native-born
Italians were living in Pennsylvania. The reasons for Italian emigration are many and varied.
Economics, poverty, ecological disasters and the dream of a good life led many, especially
those from the Mezzogiorno region (literally, "middle of the day" a term Italians use to refer
to the brutal heat of Southern Italy and Sicily), to America. Most of the immigrants who came
to Pennsylvania between 1880 and 1930 were predominantly male between the ages of
fourteen and forty and most were from Southern Italy.
A visitor to Ellis Island in New York can see what life was like for immigrants, especially during
the first few years of their arrival in the "new world." One dis-play in particular describes the
dream of life in America:
"Well, I came to America because I heard
the streets were paved with gold. When I
got here, I found out three things:
First: The streets were not paved with
gold,
Second: They were not paved at all,
Third: I was expected to pave them!"
Italian immigrants tended to concentrate into the big cities of the Northeast. They arrived
during the time of city building in America and could find work and housing, albeit crowded and
substandard, in the cities. "Little Italys" formed in the cities, and were it not for the strong ties
of family values and culture, many would not have survived the ordeal.
Early Italians
John Palma was the first recorded Italian to reside in Philadelphia. Signore Palma is recorded
as having conducted what is thought to be the first public music concert in America in 1757
Philadelphia.2
Another notable Italian was artist John Casam. In 1850, Signore Casani arrived in
Philadelphia from Venice and among his works is counted the William Penn statue that still
stands on top of City Hall.3
However, the indefatigable Lancaster historian, W U. Hensel, -writing in volume 16 of the Journal
of the Lancaster County Historical Society in 1912, tells of an Italian artist, Luigi Persico, a native of
Naples, who arrived in Lancaster in 1819 where he advertised his profession of portrait-painting. He
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became a friend of James Buchanan who was greatly impressed with Persicos ability and enthusiasm
for learning the English language. After some years in Lancaster, Persico went to New York where his
artistry in sculpture was developed. When the U.S. Capitol in Washington was being ornamented, with
the help of Senator Buchanan, Mr. Persico won the commission to produce sculpture on the tympanum
of the eastern front of the Capitol. He completed the Colum-bus group in 1844.4
Employment and settlement patterns caused many Italian immigrants to abandon the agricultural
life they knew in Italy to take jobs as common laborers and unskilled workers in the new world. Still
others carried their trades with them and began work as tailors, bakers, shoemakers and masons.
Many were forced to move in with relatives and pool resources in order to survive.
As these immigrants managed to make their way in their new country, they sent for relatives and
family to join them. With many Italian immigrants already in Pennsylvania, it is easy to see why so
many more immigrants chose Pennsylvania. In 1897 the author Maude Howe visited the village of
Roccaraso in the Abruzzi province of Southern Italy. Shortly thereafter she wrote: "The women do
practi-cally all of the work of the community; they dig, plough, sow, and reap." The reason, she
learned from the village mayor, was that all the men, approximately 400 stonemasons, migrated to
"Pittsbourgo" for work and a new life in America.5
From that auspicious beginning, the Italian dissemination throughout Pennsylvania has been both
diverse and prolific. Evety region of this great state has recorded Italian names and those Italian
names are often associated with some major contribution to the building of Pennsylvania. Italian
immigrants and their descendants play a role in many a local history and have helped to build a
community through infrastructure and cultural hentage.
1880
Lancaster Experience
Lancaster County is no exception to that claim. The greater Lancaster Census of 1880 lists the first
Italian immigrant families to be identified in Lancaster City and county6 Census documents record an
Italian laborer identified as Pasquella Spmelli arriving in Elizabeth Township in 1876 and Giuseppe
Pompetti and Giuseppe Sereio arriving in 1877, also in Elizabeth Township around the Ephrata area.
In the same census, the Repetto family is the first identified Italian family in the City of Lancaster,
listing 140 Beaver Street as their place of residence. The family at that time consisted of the

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mother who listed her occupation as


housekeeper, two daughters and two
sons with no occupation listed, which
indicates they were small children, and
two
brothers
who
listed
their
occupation as operators of a fruit stand.
Interestingly, there is no mention of a
father. Speculation could be that either
the father was deceased or he returned
to Italy for some unknown reason at
the time the census was taken. This
was not uncommon since the extended
family was most likely still in Italy
The name "Repetto" is not a
common name within the ItalianAmerican community in Lancaster. A
check of the telephone director}7 in
2005 shows no listing

for anyone with this name.


Spinelli, on the other hand, is a
familiar name in the Lancaster
community and could have roots
to one of the earliest Italian immigrants recorded in Lancaster
County.
It was not until the year 1910
that names familiar in todays
Italian-American
Lancaster
community began to appear.
Families with the familiar names of
Spinello, Lombardo, Vital! and
Yan-none were recorded in both
the city and its surrounding areas
that year. As time went on, more
and more Italian names began to
appear in the greater Lancaster
community until today when the
1990 census revealed 18,471
people in Lancaster Countv who
claimed Italian ances-

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try In the 2000 census, that number grew to


22,340 or 4.7 % of the total county
population,7 2,192 of which list residence in
Lancaster City, making up 3.9 % of the city's
population.
The 2000 census lists a total of 15,722,555
citizens claiming Italian ancestry in the United
States, up from 14,057,717 in the 1990
census. New York claims the largest population
of 2,737,146. Pennsylvania lists 1,418,465,
coming in fourth behind New York, New Jersey
and California.

Origins in Calabria, Italy


Not much is known of the activities of the
new Italian community in Lancaster
between the penod 1880 and 1919.
However, we do know that the majority of
Lancaster's Italian immigrants came from
the region of Southern Italy called Calabria.
This region occupies the "toe" in the
southern-most area of the peninsula,
bounded to the west by the Tyrrhenian
Sea and to the east by the Ionian Sea, and
has beautiful mountain ranges. It faces
the island of Sicily and currently has a

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population of just over two million


people. Calabria has a rich history tracing
back to the Greek colonization. It later
was dominated by a series of foreign conquerors, including the Romans, Byzantines, Normans, Aragonese, Spaniards,
Austnans, and Bourbons, before it was
finally united with all of Italy in the
Risorgimento movement (unification of
Italy) by Garibaldi, who, by the way was
wounded in a fierce battle in the mountainous Calabrian region of Aspromonte.
Many famous people are associated with
or originated in Calabria. The Roman
poet Cicero had a vacation home there,
and more modern-day personalities,
including Rudolfo Guglielmi, better
known as Rudolph Valentino; Frank

Capra, the famous movie director and


Padre Pio, one of the Catholic Church's
newest saints (June of 2002), all have ties
with this region of the country.
As with all of southern Italy, Calabria had
been traditionally a poor area of Italy and
had lacked industrialization and a network
of modern roads to allow commerce and
prosperity For this reason, during World
War II, when the Fascist Italian
government adopted an imitation of Hitlers
anti-Semitic laws, including the creation of
Italian concentration camps for so-called
enemies of the state, primarily the Italian
Jews, a site for such a camp was chosen in
the rugged and remote area of Southern
Italy in an area approximately thirty-five
kilometers north of the

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Calabrian city of Cosenza near Tarsia in an


indistinguishable spot called Ferra-monti.
Although the camp is a sad commentary on
Italy and specifically Southern Italy, the two
Southern Italians in charge of Ferramonti
reportedly ran this camp in the most humane
and civil manner, unlike the camps
established in the North, which were harsh
and used as staging areas for deportation into
the notorious camps of Auschwitz and
Dachau in and around Germany. The Ital-

ians who built and operated the Ferramonti camp kept the inmates alive and
prevented them from being deported. In
fact, the commandant and his wife would
take the twenty-one inmate children
bom in the camp into the nearest town
for a gelato (ice cream) treat!
Another story goes that toward the end
of the war a German general, convinced
that the Italians were not running the
camp as strict or as harsh as the
Germans,
decided
to
tour
the
Ferramonti camp. Upon his arrival, the
Italian commandant

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deliberately raised a quarantine flag in place


of the Italian flag, and the local priest who
hurried to meet the general at the gate made
up a story about cholera epidemic in the
camp. He invited the general to enter, but his
answer was the general's quick and abrupt
departure.
On September 14, 1943, the British army
liberated the camp, and many of the inmates
from other areas of Europe chose to stay in the
area, where they married local Italians. The
camp is not a subject that the southerners
speak of freely. Although remnants of the
camp still exist, there are no monuments,
markers or indications it ever existed.8
Recently, the Italian Government has
recognized the potential of the southern region
for tourism and commerce, and the area is
beginning to prosper and grow.
Calabrians can be introverted and more
difficult to deal with than other Italians, but
they become open, sincere and generous as
soon as they feel a similar attitude of respect
from others. They are also noted for a
characteristic "testa tosta," meaning "hard
head," because of their stubborn nature.
Because you will not find a Florence, Venice
or Rome in Calabria or other regions of
southern Italy, this region was able to preserve
the culture and history of its ancient times.
Historic remains have been found of a highly
evolved population known as the "Italo." From
Italo, of course, we derive the name Italia, first
applied to Calabria by the Greeks and

then spread to the rest of the country.9


The Calabrian immigrants to Lancaster
brought much of their history culture,
tradition, cooking and superstition along
with them to their new home. Even today
although no longer concentrated in any one
geographic location of the city or county, the
culture, especially the cooking and
sometimes the superstition, still remain.
One superstition in particular that of the
"malocchio" or evil eyestill exists. Ancient
Italians believed that to counter evil, a
purification ritual was needed so that,
through prayer and blessing, God will take
away the evil eye that has been cast upon
an individual by another who was angry
or envious of their unsuspecting target.
This belief still exists in modem Italy and
among many Italians living in this country
Beginning of Community
The Italian immigrants who began to
populate the Lancaster area were at a disadvantage compared to other, more
established ethnic groups such as the
Germans. Many Germans attended St.
Josephs Church along with the Italians, but
as the German population began to expand
and concentrate in one area of the city they
petitioned the bishop for a parish of their
own. Because Bishop Shanahan was out of
the country attending a Vatican Council in
Rome, the petition was referred to the
Administrator of the Diocese Father Keenan
of St. Marys in Lancaster who agreed to the
formation of

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THE JOURNAL OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

a new parish to serve the German population


in the eastern part of Lancaster. Thus, St.
Anthonys was formed, and seraces were
conducted there in German until the 1880s. It
was not until after World War I that German
was discontinued from the sermons and
eventually from the services altogether.10
Eventually the geographic area around St.
Anthonys again changed ethnicity and the
German population returned to St. Josephs to
populate what became known as "Cabbage
Hill'' while the young Italian community
gravitated toward St. Anthonys.
1906 Tragic Event
Meanwhile, the Italian community in
Lancaster continued to grow. In 1906, an
unfortunate and tragic event, one that has
been lost to history for almost 100 years,
occurred that affected the Italian community
in an adverse way.
At that time, Italian immigrants came to the
Lancaster area to work in the several
industries that were beginning to open and
prosper there. A small contingent of Italian
men who came to work on the railroad,
particularly on the building of the Atglen
and'Enola Branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad,
known locally as the "Low Grade" branch,
settled in a shanty close to the Gap area east
of the City of Lancaster. One evening while
they were in their shanty, four other Italians
enroute from Boswell (near Johnstown) to
Philadelphia made a stop at Gap to, as

they said, "collect a debt for another


friend." These visitors, armed with guns,
knives and bats, had supper with their
countrymen early in the evening and left
only to return to the shanty later that night
to collect money from the men.
At the subsequent tnal, -witnesses for the
prosecution stated that the visiting Italians
were bent on robbing the inhabitants of the
shanty, and the defense claimed the debt
collection theory and what resulted was a
matter of self-defense. What follows is an
excerpt from Personal Moments in History,
The Story of St. Anthony of Padua Parish
and its People by Dianne Danz Lee (1996).
"One of the residents, Plato Albanese,
had only fifty cents. In an angry
exchange, two of the robbers insisted on
more money, and Albanese took them
upstairs to his room to show them his
empty purse. There Albanese found a
knife and attacked the other two men. In
the struggle, Albanese was shot and
killed. The four thieves then hurried off to
the nearest town of Parkesburg, where
they were apprehended within the week.
Two of them were badly cut and had
needed medical attention. The men were
taken to Lancaster County Prison to await
a trial for murder. There they met Father
Kaul, since he was chaplain of the
prison."
The four men were tried and sentenced
to death by hanging. At that time,

10

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executions were carried out in the pnson yard,


and, the sheriff often issued passes to people
who wished to observe the event. In this
case, however, Sheriff Ziegler insisted that no
one was to be present but the jury (as required
by law), the prison officials and the chaplains.
The four menGiuseppe Celione, Antonio
Delero, Silverio Rodelli and Stephano Carlui
were Catholic, and none of them spoke
English. Rodelli and Carlui, who had been
downstairs and had not been in on the actual
murder, could not be made to understand why
they had also been condemned to death. Their
attorney, H. Frank Eshelman, worked very
hard to get Pennsylvania Governor
Stuart
to commute their sentences. Until two days
before the execution, the men still retained
hope, but at the last minute, the governor
refused to overturn the judgment of the state
Supreme Court, which had ruled when the
case was originally
The gallows was erected on September
29,1907. The front page of the Lancaster
Intelligencer Journal carried sketches of the four
men along with the headline article about the
event. St. Anthonys Choir sang to the
pnsoners for the last time in the prison
corridor. At 10:08 a.m. on October 3,
execution day, the men were led in a solemn
procession to the gallows. Rodelli was supported
by Father Kaul, pastor of St. Anthonys Church;
Delero followed with Rev. Angelo Caruso of
Philadelphia; Celione came next with

Rev. Seraphino Sama of Steelton; and


Carlui was last with Rev. John Melchoir,
assistant to Father Kaul. All of the priests
carried crucifixes for the prisoners, whose
hands were tied behind them. The executions began with the reading of the litany On
the scaffold, the prisoners repeated the act
of contrition for their sins, and the priests
each granted absolution to the pnsoner he
supported. Father Caruso read a
statement in Italian prepared by Delero.
Afterwards, when the men were hanging
from the scaffold. Father Kaul read the
translation, stating that they were
innocent of the charges and that the
shooting was in self-defense.
The men's funerals were held at St.
Anthonys Church, and their bodies were
buned in St. Anthonys cemetery where
they were laid together in one grave, side by
side, horizontal coffins in a vertical
progression. Plain iron crosses in a section
of the cemetery where the majority of the
names on the stones are Italian mark their
graves.
Although they were condemned murderers, their plight stirred the sympathy of
many people in Lancaster at the time,
including the sheriff who refused to issue
passes to the execution, the lawyer who
tned to get the sentence commuted, the
people who signed the petition to take to the
governor, and the parishioners of St.
Anthonys. Led by Father Kaul and Francis X.
Hiemenz, the prison \isitor from the parish,
the choir sang for the men on numerous
occasions. No record exists of

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THE JOURNAL OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

murdering a fellow railroad worker. Romezzo


proclaimed his innocence till the very end
and during the hanging, the rope actually
broke and Romezzo had to be hanged a
second time. This caused many to claim
divine intervention! The fact was the county
did not want to buy a new rope for the last
execution and used an old rope that simply
broke.i:
1919
Attempt to Form Italian Church
who provided the crosses to mark the graves, but
St. Anthony parish is credited with providing a
final home for these confused and repentant men
who had nowhere else to go.

This story certainly depicts a tragic moment in


history for the young Italian community in
Lancaster. Even more tragic, however, is the
depiction in the local newspapers of this account,
which clearly states that the defendants were at a
disadvantage and that the distnct attorney at the
time decided to take the pnsoners from the
county prison to the Gap for a preliminary hearing
at which no counsel was present to represent the
prisoners, who sat through the proceedings "very
nervous and did not seem to know what was
going on. They were unable to speak or
understand
English..."11
Eventually,
an
interpreter was assigned to the case.
Ironically Lancaster's last execution also
involved an Italian. On May 23, 1912, Antonio
Romezzo was hanged for

The Italian connection with St. Anthonys


continued to grow after the tragic events of
1906-07. In December 1919, then Bishop
McDevitt organized an Italian Mission church
at St. Anthonys, and the church started
offering Italian language masses. The Rev.
Dr. Torellio Mosca of the Italian Apostolate of
the Archdiocese of New York even arrived to
conduct the mission. This mission resulted in
the formation of two societies at St.
Anthonys: 1) The Italian Holy Name Society
with an initial membership of thirty-three
men and the following officers: President,
Ralph Ciccone; Secretary, Samuel Clerico;
Treasurer, Dominic Voci, and 2) the Blessed
Virgin Mary Sodality with a starting
membership also of thirty-three.13 A choir
was even organized and . placed under the
direction of organist Miss Cecelia Drachbar.14
The basement church of St. Anthonys was
designated as the Italian Mission, and a call
went out for all Italian Catholics to come
together and worship at the newly

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designated church. Ironically, a non-Italian priest, Father Michael O'Flynn was sent
to minister to the Italian community
Father O'Flynn spoke fluent Italian and
was embraced by the community that he
served until 1922 when the mission was
discontinued. The demise of the mission
church was due to neither neglect nor
apathy Instead, the mission was so successful that the Italian parishioners petitioned the bishop to build their own church
in Lancaster. They even began a
fundraising campaign and raised money to
construct a new church. However, Bishop
McDevitt disapproved of the idea and
denied the plans to form an ethnic church
on the assumption that such a
church would deter the assimilation of the
Kalians into the main community of parish
and society
1921
Santo Innocenzo
At about that same time, another event
occurred that focused on providing care
for the young Italian community in
Lancaster. Immigrants who came to
America in search of a land of opportunity
soon
discovered
that
opportunity
presented itself if they were willing to
work harder than others to overcome an
unfavorable social climate. Lancaster's
Italian immigrants were no exception.
Having a foreign-sounding name that
ended in a vowel often served as a detriment to social acceptability and sometimes generated unwarranted apprehen-

Title page from the


Constitution and ByLaws of the Societd di
Mutuo Soccorso Santo
Innocenzo.
sion among native-born Americans. In
1921, a group of Italian immigrants in
Lancaster began to be concerned with the
well being of their families and their
community. At that time in American
history, neither government nor businesses were obligated to provide programs
for the health and welfare of people, and
each individual and family was left to
provide for themselves in times of sickness
and despair. Because the Lancaster Italian
immigrants tended to be very poor, they
often lacked the means to afford care for
an illness. Many did not even have enough
money to bury their dead.

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THE JOURNAL OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

In 1921, several men in the Italian


immigrant community met to discuss
the prospect of forming a mutual relief
society for the benefit of their own
countrymen. Nicola Celia, Michele
Paparo, Francesco Yemmallo (often
spelled lem-mallo), with assistance from
Raffaele Cic-cone and Domenico Clerico,
decided that some action was needed to
address the needs of their poor
countrymen in their new adopted land.
These discussions eventually led to the
formation of a mutual relief society
titled Societa di Mutuo Soccorso
Santo
Innocenzo
(Mutual Relief
Association of Saint Innocenzo), named
after the patron saint of a
little village in Calabna, Italy, called
Gasperina, from where many of Lancaster's Italian community emigrated.
The Lancaster Italian community
thought if Santo Innocenzo looked after
the people of Gasperina in Italy, why
could he not look out for his people in
their
new
home
of
Lancaster,
Pennsylvania?
On October 22, 1921, the charter of
the Societa di Mutuo Soccorso Santo
Innocenzo was granted at the Lancaster
County Courthouse by the Honorable
Judges Charles I. Landis and A. B. Hassier, attested by Edward C. Shannon,
Pro-thonotary The Charter stated the
purposes of the association were "to
encourage a brotherly social feeling; to
accumulate a fund from dues and
assessments of its members to be
applied for their relief when sick, and to
provide for their burial and that of their
wives after death."15

The charter further describes the structure, organization and administration of


the new society as well as those individuals
chosen as the first officers and directors.
Highlights of the charter appear below:
1. The corporation will be perpetual
with no capital stock but members
paying into a common fund as
dues and assessments with yearly
income not to exceed $5,000.
2. Membership shall be composed of
subscribers and their associates as
prescribed in the Constitution and
By-Laws.
3. The Board of Directors is com
posed of Officers and Counselors.
4. First year Board is named:

a. President:
Saverio Clerico
b. Vice-President:
Raffaele P Ciccone
c.Treasurer:
Nicola Celia
d. Corresponding Secretary:
Francesco Yemmallo
e. Financial Secretary:
Saverio Voci
f. Vice Secretary:
Michele Paparo
g. Censor:
Giuseppe Catrambone h.
Trustees:
Francesco Ciccone
Francesco Spadea

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i. Auditors:
Saverio Madonna
Antonio Giordano
Giuseppe Madonna j. Relief
Committee:
Giovanni Dilaurentis
Domenico Zangan
Domenico Clerico k. Marshal:
Salvatore Rosi 1. Flag
Garners:
Saverio Fulginiti
Vincenzo Catrambone m.
Sergeant-at-Arms:
Giovanni Didalto
n. Counselors: Vito Madonna
Giuseppe Carmine
Domenico Rosi Salvatore Madonna
Francesco Sinopoli Vincenzo
Cangemi Vincenzo Lombardo
Saverio Sinopoli Antonio Lagana
Vincenzo Corradino Giuseppe
Madonna Domenico Roso

of his status as notary he was able to work


through the Lancaster Chamber of
Commerce to provide free meeting space
for the Society in the Woolworth Building in
downtown Lancaster for a period of one
year.16

The charter called for the creation of bylaws


to govern the operation and administration of
the society. A notary named Samuel Clerico,
whose commission expired on March 7,
1925, witnessed the document. The fact that
an Italian was a notary meant that members
of the Italian community were becoming
leaders in their own right and were
assimilating into the American way of life and
the Lancaster community at a rapid pace. Mr.
Clerico spoke excellent English, and by virtue

The new society began operations with


sixty-five members17 of the Lancaster Italian
community The fact that most of Lancaster's
Italian immigrants came from the same
village, Gaspenna, aided the recruitment
process since the name Santo Innocenzo
was familiar as well as comforting to these
strangers to America. As the years passed,
the society grew, as did the purpose for its
existence. In 1921, the purpose was to
encourage a brotherly social feeling, to
accumulate monies from dues and
assessments of its members for their relief
when sick, and to provide for their burial
and that of their wives after death. In 1934,
the Society began a tradition by offering a
mass of thanksgiving honoring Santo
Innocenzo on his feast day, August 6th.
That afternoon, August 6,1934, fifty-one
new members were initiated into the
society18 By 1935, the bylaws stated the
intent to promote a general welfare and
safeguard an honorable name for the Italian
generation,19 and by the year 1936, a social
fund was established. This fund, which was
mandated to keep a minimum balance of
$100, was

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THE JOURNAL OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

to be used for any purpose approved by a


majority vote of the society In future years,
this fund was used to help members purchase
homes and for other uses approved by the
society
By 1941, the purpose of the society was
again expanded to "raise by dues, contnbutions
and donations, enough funds to help and assist
the sick and needy members thereof and, in
case of death, provide for the member's funeral
and that of his wife. "It is the further purpose
of this association to promote general welfare
and to safeguard and elevate the honor of
Italians and their children."20
Membership was composed of anyone bom
in an Italian possession or territory, any Italian
citizen or sons of descendants of Italian
citizens. Applicants for membership were voted
upon by the existing membership using a
system of marbles in a secret vote. Ten black
balls were sufficient to deny membership (thus
the term "black balled" was put to use). If a
person was rejected twice, he could no longer
apply Membership was open to persons from
twelve years of age up to forty-five years of
age who were free of incurable diseases
subject to a medical examination at the
applicants own expense. Admission fees were
set at one dollar for those between twelve and
eighteen years, two dollars for ages nineteen
to thirty and three dollars from thirty-one to
forty-five years of age. Monthly dues were set
at fifty cents. Benefits included six dollars each
week beginning one week after an

illness commenced, a $50 death benefit if


a wife died and a $100 benefit if a
member died. The Society also continued
the tradition of providing a wreath of
flowers and use of two automobiles at the
funeral of a member.
In 1932, wives and children of members
were permitted entrance into the Society
and in October of 1933 benefits were
increased to $10 per week for ten weeks
and $5 per week for an additional twenty
weeks up to a maximum of $200 for a
two-year period.21 (This was later
extended to a three-year period in
1967.)22 To claim the sick benefit, the
member requesting the benefit had to
present a medical certificate stating the
member could not work. If the member
receiving benefits was seen outside the
house without a permission slip from the
doctor, he would be required to forfeit the
benefit (Remember, doctors made house
calls at that time!).
A surveillance committee, called sanitary
officers, was charged with visiting the sick
member at least once each week and
keeping a record of all payments made to
the sick member and a record of all visits
made. The sanitary officer would then
report the results and any other events
regarding the sick member to the society membership at the next regular meeting.
In the event of a death of a member, a
committee of six members of the society
was designated to attend the funeral in an
automobile representing the society. A
wreath costing no more than $10 was

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VOLUME 109, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2007

also sent along with a check of $200 for burial


purposes.
On November 17, 1957, a special meeting
was called by President Antonio Maio to
establish a voluntary hospitaliza-tion plan for
members of the society Members of the
committee were Chair, Joseph Spadea; Vice
Chair, George Celia; Secretary Michael Paparo;
Members: Vincent Catrambone, Nick Celia,
Anthony Giordano, Carl Maio, George Messina,
Antonio Palumbo, Peter Randisi and Domenick
Rose. This committee recommended forming a
hospitalization plan, and on June 15, 1958, by
a vote of seventeen in favor and three
opposed, the
society adopted its hospitalization plan.
The Hospitalization Plan would make
payment of hospital and death benefits to
participants in exchange for additional monthly
dues. Members opting for the Hospitalization
Plan paid three dollars. Membership in this plan
was restricted to members under forty-five
years of age, and the treasurer was instructed
to maintain a minimum of $1,000 in a separate
hospitalization fund. Benefits were set at $10
per day for a total of twenty days in any oneyear period with the hospital day consisting of
twenty-four hours of in-hos-pital stay Anyone
in the hospital less than twenty-four hours was
not eligible. (Interestingly, pregnancy venereal
disease, alcohol or immoral conduct and illness
outside the United States were excluded from
benefits.) A death benefit of $200 was
included.23 In 1969, twenty

dollars and thirty dollars per day hospitalization plans were added, and members
could choose which plan best suited them.
The constitution and by-laws of the
society were all inclusive, even to the
point of specifying specific language for
initiation of new members, installation of
officers, words to speak at funerals and an
agenda for all business meetings.
Besides its charter mission of providing
for the mutual health and welfare of its
members, the society participated in various other community events focused on
the Italian community, including:
In 1971, the society donated a 600-page
volume of The Complete Works of
Michelangelo to the first Italian class
established at J. P McCaskey High
School in Lancaster (through efforts of
Porsia Palumbo who taught the class at
McCaskey).
In 1974, the society donated $300 to the
Italian-American Citizens Club for
renovations of the club facility
In 1980, the society donated $1,000 to
the Italian Relief Fund, a local relief
effort formed by the Lancaster Italian
Community to aid homeless earthquake
victims of Southern Italy
Annual financial support to the American
Cancer Society
The "Lodge," as it later became known,
grew rapidly reaching a high membership
of 186 men women and children

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THE JOURNAL OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

members by 1971. The schedule of dues


ranged from a low of sixty-five cents to a high
of seven dollars per month with varying sets
of benefits. On October 23, 1971, the Lodge
held its fiftieth year celebration with a formal
program in the Sorrento Room of the
Lancaster Italian American Citizens Club,
335 North Queen Street. The Honorable
Mayor Thomas J. Monaghan was the featured
speaker.
The Lodge continued to operate, and on
November 20,1982 held its sixty-first
anniversary celebration at the Treadway Resort
Inn in Lancaster. Unfortunately this was to be
the last celebration for the Lodge. In April of
that year, a certified letter went out to all
members to attend the next regular meeting
scheduled for May 2nd at 2 p.m. at the Italian
Amencan Citizens Club. The time had come for
the membership to recognize that the society,
which was founded in 1921, was facing
serious problems in attracting and retaining
membership. Indeed, attendance at monthly
meetings had become so low that many
meetings could not proceed due to lack of a
quorum. At the May 2nd meeting, members
would have to decide whether or not to
continue or dissolve the Lodge.
President Joseph Spadea opened the
meeting with the Lord's Prayer and after some
routine business led a discussion on the
future of the Lodge. After the discussion, Mr.
Anthony Guama made a motion to dissolve
the Santo Innocenzo

Society as of December 31, 1982. Of the


fifty-three members present, forty-nine
voted in favor of dissolution, three voted
in favor of continuing, and one member
did not vote. The motion to dissolve was
approved, and the officers were directed
to seek the necessary advice on procedural and legal steps to dissolve and distribute remaining assets among the
membership.:" The society dissolved
with $149,592.71 remaining in its treasury that was evenly distributed to the
remaining membership.
1929
Sons of Italy Lodge Formed
The Order of Sons of Italy in America is
an international organization established
in the Little Italy neighborhood of New York
City on June 22, 1905 by Vin-cenzo
Sellaro, M.D. and five other Italian
immigrants. The goal of this order was
the same as many other Italian organizations formed around the same time in
Amenca: to create a support system for
Italian immigrants for becoming U.S. citizens and to provide health and death
benefits.
This order established free language
schools to teach English and become citizens. As the order grew, it established
orphanages and homes for the elderly, life
insurance, credit unions and other benefit
programs for members. Dunng World War
II, the order supported the U.S. war effort
and especially the American Red Cross. It
even went so far as to urge all

18

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members to donate one day's salary to the national


defense.
Today the organization has twenty
state chapters, over 700 local lodges
and more than 600,000 members,
making it the largest Italian-American
organization in the United States.
On Apnl 14, 1929, a local lodge of the
order was formed within the Lancaster
Italian Community The new lodge was
assigned the number 1524 and named
Nuova Gallilelo Gallilei. The formal and
complete name was Lancaster, PA Lodge
Number 1524, Nuova Gallileo Gallilei,
Order of Sons of Italy in America.
As can be surmised from the name, the
lodge was formed to honor the famed
Italian astronomer, Gallileo Gallilei who
was bom in Pisa, Tuscany on February
15, 1564. Gallileo was a philosopher,
astronomer and physicist who is closely

associated with the improved development


of the telescope and often referred to as
the "father of modem astronomy"
On Apnl 14, 1929, the New Gallileo
Gallilei lodge held its first meeting at the Red
Mens Hall on East King Street. Eighty persons
were inducted into the order, and more than
400 people, including representatives from
Philadelphia and Harris-burg, attended the
affair. Messages of congratulations were read
from officers of the order in New York and
other metropolitan cities. The event was
highlighted with an orchestra composed
entirely of Italian boys and men.25
Not much is known of the history of the
local lodge #1524 because many of the
records and members are lost to history. At
its height, the lodge was very active and
participated in the many social and cultural
events of Lancaster, includ-

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VOLUME 109, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2007

Members of the Italian-American Citizens Club, 1938-39. We were unable to identify everyone. We do know
first row, from left to light: Victor Rose, Sam Paone and Dominic Curcw. Second row, from left to right:
(unidentified), Bruno Tamilian, (unidentified), John Spadea, (unidentified), Nick Celiaand (unidentified).
Back row, from left to right: joe Caterbone, Peter Segro, John Battista Roda, Paul Segro, Attilio Grossi, Albert
DiGiacomo (and three unidentifed men). Photo courtesv ofBot Roda.
ican citizenship, to promote fellowship
among its members and to promote the
general welfare of the people of Italian
extraction. The names and residences of
those chosen as directors of the
corporation for the first year, who are
also subscribers, are as follows: Michael
A. Mastromatteo, Lititz, PA. Pietro
Mastrosimone, Lancaster, PA Domenico
Voci, Lancaster, PA Carmelo Arcudi,
Lancaster, PA. Nicola Celia, Lancaster, PA

This charter was signed on January 12,


1933 and recorded on January 21, 1933.
Credit and acknowledgement must be
given to Mr. Daniel B. Stnckler, Esq. General
Strickler, as he was commonly known for
his distinguished sendee in World War I.
was a loyal and generous friend of the
Italian Community throughout this penod
and beyond. As the attorney for the new
club, General Strickler was responsible for
drafting the charter and guiding it through
the legal process during 1932-33.

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THE JOURNAL OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Addendum to A Brief History of the Italian-American Community in Lancaster,


Pennsylvania

e have a couple of additions to the


article by James J. Lombardo, "A
Brief History of the ItalianAmerican Community in Lancaster, Pennsylvania," published
in our last Journal, volume 109, number 1.

John Casani
In reference to the paragraph on John
Casani on page 3, historical society member
Ken Hoak added to the story: In 1877 Casani
was employed by the sculptor Alexander Milne
Calder in the fabrication of the statue of
William Penn and the other statues that
decorate the Philadelphia City Hall. Casani
was the caster of these statues. See the
Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography,
volume 90 (1966), page 453. After Calder
created the statues, it was the task of Casani,
a highly skilled artisan, to render the model
in bronze segments. The statue of William
Penn is thirty-seven feet high, and weighs
more than twenty-one tons. It was raised as
castings to the top of City Hall in 1894.
Calder was the grandfather of Alexander
Stirling

Calder, the more recent abstract sculptor.


Italian-American Citizens Club
We did our best to identify everyone
pictured in the article, but we went to
press still unable to correctly identify all the
folks in the picture of the Italian-American
Citizens Club on page 21. And, we add, by
way of absolving the author from
responsibility for the missing information,
this was a photo supplied by the Journal
Coming to our aid, Valerie Cifuni wrote to
Jack Loose:
Thanks for the article on the Italian-American
Community in Lancaster By marriage, 1 now
have an Italian surname. I was most surprised
to see a picture of my father-in-law (Bill Cifuni)
and his brother on page 21, but they were
misidentified.
My father-in-law supplied the names of the
unidentified people. I have underlined the
additions/corrections. Also, the picture was from
1948-49, not 1938-39. Had it been in 1938,
my father-in-law would have been 14 years old
and not married. He has

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VOLUME 109, NUMBER 2, SUMMER 2007

Members of the Italian-American Citiyns Club, 194819. First row; from left to right: Victor Rose, Sam
Paone and Dominic Curcio. Second row, from left to right: jimmy O'Xeii. Bruno Familiari, Jimmy DiGiacomo.
John Spadea, Xicfe Cifuni. Bill Cifuni and Tony Antondh. Bad; ran; from left to right: Joe Caterlwne. Peter
Segro, John Battista Roda, Paul Segro, Attilio Grossi, Albert DiGiacomo, Jim Haeer, Pete Grossi and Bennv
Roda.
Photo courtesv of Bot Roda.
his wedding ring on in this picture as lie was married in
1919.
I hope that these corrections will be noted in a future
issue.

We've applied the corrections and


additions and underlined them as Valerie
did in her message. Thank you, Ken
Hoak and Valene Cifuni. We're pleased to
have these contributions from our
readers.

Thanhs. Valene Cifuni

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THE JOURNAL
OF THE
LANCASTER
COUNTY
HISTORICAL
SOCIETY

the
Italian-

Following the granting of this charter, the


new Italian-American Citizens Club was
graciously provided free meeting space at
the American Legion Post 34 building,
primarily through the efforts of Pietro
Mastrosimoni and most probably through the
good graces of General Stnckler. Post 34
supported the new Italian-American Citizens
Club in many ways but none was as much
appreciated as sharing their quarters for
meetings and other events at no cost to the
new Italian Club. This friendship endured
many years and included many cooperative
ventures, including joint participation by

American Citizens Club and Amencan Legion


Post 34 in Memorial Day and other patriotic
events in Lancaster.
The relationship with the American Legion
proved to be very beneficial and served the
exact purposes for which the ItalianAmerican Citizens Club was formed. In
1933, the Club teamed with the Legion to
participate in one of the largest patriotic
parades in Lancaster history. From noon
until sundown on Monday October 16,
1933, more than 30,000 people marched in
the name of humanity and patnotism to the
sounds of

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VOLUME 109, NUMBER 1,


SPRING 2007

over 100 different bands through the City


of Lancaster. Proudly carrying flags and
other signs of national patriotism, young
and old alike held their heads high as
they paraded through the streets during
the National Recovery Administration
Prosperity Parade sponsored by Lancaster
City and County. The club's pnncipal
non-Italian advocate, General (then
Lieut. Col.) Daniel Strickler, was the
parade chief marshal and was escorted by
the famed drum corps of the Amencan
Legion.26
The new Italian-American Citizens
Club provided an Italian Division to
march in the parade led by the Parade
Committee Chairman for the Club, Antonio Palumbo.
First Clubhouse Opened
On a Sunday afternoon, May 19,1935,
more than 400 people were on hand
when the Lancaster Italian-American Citizens Club proudly opened the doors to
its first home in the Cooper Building at
1522 (fourth floor) North Queen Street.
Three orchestras provided music and several prominent Lancaster citizens, including Austin McCollough, managing editor of
the Lancaster Intelligencer Journal, city
detective Daniel Shaub, and Alderman
Charles Doebler made remarks. Father
Thomas Kane of Saint Marys Church
gave the blessing and brief remarks. Club
president Antonio Palumbo, who gave
the main address, said that the purpose
of the club was to promote harmony
and

better feeling between members of the Italian


community and residents of Lancaster. Mr.
Palumbo also expressed his appreciation of the
large attendance and wished everyone an
enjoyable time with refreshments and dancing.
The room was decorated with American and
Italian flags and streamers, and the orchestras
played through the afternoon and into the
evening.2'
By this time the club had grown in interest
and membership. New officers were President
Antonio Palumbo, Vice President James DeNisio,
Secretary of Correspondence
Francesco
Famillari, Secretary of Finance Nicola Celia, and
Trustees Peter Mastrosimone, Elia Tavaglione,
Michael Amico, Querino DiCola and Nicola
Guarino. Under their careful guidance, the
Italian-American Citizens Club continued to
grow.
Ladies Auxiliary Formed
On May 29, 1935, President Antonio Palumbo
in conjunction with Mrs. Louis Angilone organized
the Ladies Auxiliary of the Italian-American
Citizens Club. The mission of the auxiliary was to
equip and operate the kitchen of the club and
support the club both in social functions and
financially when and if needed. At its height, the
ladies auxiliary had eighty-four members. During
the war, the ladies auxiliary supported the U.S.
Army and in particular Battery A of the 49th
Armored Field Artillerv Battalion.

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Hit? Italian-American Clubhouse, 19/6. From left to right: Paul Passaniti Robert
Baldon, James]. Lombardo, James V. Lombardo, Dominic Lombardo
Citizenship School for Immigrants
Created
On May 20,1940, still President Antonio
Palumbo organized a Citizenship School
under the banner of the Club and in
partnership with the Donegal Chapter of
the Daughters of the American Revolution.
Twenty-seven alienstwenty Italians,
three Russians, two Germans, one
Englishman and one Finnregistered
for that class. Classes were held on
Monday evenings at the Thaddeus
Stevens School on West Chestnut Street
in Lancaster. Mr. Palumbo opened the
class and set the tone for the class by

saving, "We cannot serve two countnes and be


loyal to them. Therefore, we ought to serve and
be loyal only to our good America."28 Mrs. Edith
Snyder, regent of the Donegal Chapter of the
Daughters of the American Revolution, also
addressed the students, as did Samuel Clerico
and W Frank Gorrecht who prepared the lessons for the class.
This class was the first of a senes of citizenship classes to occur over the next several
years, all sponsored by the Italian-American
Citizens Club in partnership with the Donegal
Chapter of the Daughters of the American
Revolution. Eventu-

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VOLUME 109, NUMBER 1, SPRING


2007

ally, the class grew to fifty-five aliens, then to


seventy-two.29
Second Clubhouse Opened
When it became evident that the club
facilities at 152V2 North Queen Street
would be inadequate for the growing
numbers of Italians joining and using the
facilities, the club, under President Antonio
Palumbo (who would go on to be the
longest serving president in the club's
sixty-four-year history) purchased a twostory building of its own at 335 North
Queen Street where the Italian-American
Citizens Club would reside until its
demise in 1999. Dunng its sixty-fouryear history, the club participated in
many events and activities both for the
Italian-American community and the
Lancaster community at large. It was the
scene of wedding receptions, father-son
and mother-daughter breakfasts, Christmas and Easter celebrations, political rallies and was the home of such cultural
staples as the traditional card games of
Briscola, Tresette, Scopa and Diece-Sette
as well as Bocce and the "finger game" of
La Mora. On Sundays, the 300 block of
North Queen Street was filled with the
mouth-watering aromatic sensations of
traditional Italian sauces as the ladies auxiliary prepared spaghetti dinners and
fresh pizza for members and the community-at-large for both dine-in and takeout
orders.
In 1956, the club was remodeled to better
accommodate its schedule of activ-

ities and to provide a modem rental hall, the


Sorrento Room, for any member or non-member
wishing to rent a facility. The club also hosted several
very successful 'Italian Night" celebrations at which
more than 200 people ate, danced and socialized
into the night.
Inl975, the club initiated a newsletter, which came
to be called The Italian Connection after a contest to
name the newsletter resulted in the winner suggested by Linda (Lombardo) Grossman. Ironically,
the prize for naming the newsletter was dinner at
Lombardos Restaurant, which was owned by Lindas
family The Italian Connection continued its quarterly
distribution until 1979 when a new board of officers
discontinued the practice. In 1987, it resurfaced for a
short time and eventually disappeared from the
scene. Various issues of the newsletter in the 1970s
show a very active and participator)7 club that held
events, including:
Blood Bank in concert with
the AFL-CIO
A club-sponsored bowling team A club-sponsored
baseball team A cultural committee Support of
Naturalization Day
Ceremonies in the county Dances Picnics
Excursions to Philadelphia Phillies
baseball A bocce league

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According to Lancaster tradition, the


local Republican Party held an election
eve rally in the Sorrento Room. This
tradition carried on for several years
into the 1970s when the party had a
big enough room at its own
headquarters to accommodate their
faithful.
In 1980, after a major earthquake
struck Southern Italy causing major
death and destruction, the Club
formed a relief effort headed by four
officers and members: James Figari,
James
J.
Lom-bardo,
Patrick
Caterbone
and
Dominic
Russo.
Together, these men raised over
S3,700 to send to the American Red
Cross for use in the disaster in Italy

Soon however, the club faced the


same plight as many other fraternal
organizations: declining membership,
competition with other organizations,
lack of interested individuals willing to
spend their free time in support of the
club, and older, dedicated members
becoming ill and eventually passing on
with fewer young people willing to
take up the banner and continue.
Assimilation of the young ItalianAmericans meant joining other social
and
popular
community-based
organizations such as the Elks Club,
Rotary Club and the Optimist Club, to
name a few. With family and work
pressures growing, the younger

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Italian-Americans had to make a choice


where and how much of their free time
would be spent on social activities. The
Italian Amencan Citizens Club began a
decline in community-based activities
and evolved into just another social club
with a barroom at a time when young
Italian-Americans sought and selected
organizations that gave something back
to the community. Thus, instead of a
growing club as had been the case in the
early days, the Italian Amencan Citizens
Club began to see its facility deteriorate
and, along with it, the mission and cause
for its existence "to encourage good
Amencan citizenship, to promote fellowship among its members and to
promote the general welfare of the people
of Italian extraction."
The result was inevitable, and at a
special meeting on September 20, 1999,
the membership in attendance voted to
disband and dissolve the club. On
October 3, 2000, after the sale of the
building on North Queen Street, a partial
distribution of the clubs assets was
divided
among
the
remaining
membership, which by that time had
dwindled to only seventy-six members.
The balance of funds available for
distnbution was $133,995.84 which,
when divided by the seventy-six members, came to an individual member
receipt of $1,763.10. On September 19,
2002, Articles of Dissolution were filed
with the Pennsylvania Department of
State, and the club was officially dissolved. The remainder of the assets
was

The statue of Christopher Columbus in


Lenox Lane.
given in a final distnbution to the same seventysix members (approximately $200 each), and
the Italian Amencan Citizens Club passed into
history
Statue of Christopher Columbus
In 1971, the three Italian organizations
Lancaster petitioned the City of Lancaster
consider the placement of a statue
Christopher Columbus in the city preferably
the new Lancaster Square.

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of
to
of
in

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THE JOURNAL OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY HISTORICAL


SOCIETY

A bocce game behind the Italian American Club on North Queen Street.
Left to right: Joe Fulgmiti, Frank DiMsio, Antonio Maio, Antonino Palumbo,
Domimco Pugliese and Pete Randisi. Photo courtesv of Greg Pugliese.
Knights of Columbus were present, A
few protesters representing the Native
American community chanted antiColumbus
slogans
during
the
ceremony,
but
otherwise
the
protesters conducted themselves in a
civil and respectable manner.
At the dedication ceremony,
Antonio Palumbo read the following
statement, the first two sentences
of which are scnpted on the statue
plaque:

"With the discovery of America, people from


all nations came to these shores to live and
prosper. With God's guidance they built the
greatest Republic in the world to stand
forever as a true symbol of democracy. Now
on this historical date October 12, 1992, we
Americans and the world proudly celebrate
the 500th anniversary of the discovery of
America. To honor Christopher Columbus is
to honor America."

The statue, which stimulated other


development of Lennox Lane in the form
of a sitting area and some other private
sector improvements, is now a permanent piece of the Lancaster architecture.
The lonely Columbus is patiently awaiting further development of the lane for
passive pedestrian use and enjoyment.
Bocce Comes to LancasterDuring the
deliberations on the merits of a
Columbus statue, a new idea
emerged. In 1978, at a brief meeting in
the mayors office of Lancaster City Hall,
Mayor Richard M. Scott and James J.
Lombardo discussed the diminishing
prospects of locating a statue of Christopher Columbus in downtown Lancaster.

Recognizing the timing s not right for


placement of a statue of Columbus in
Lancaster, Mayor Scott suggested that
something else be done to recognize
the

30

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perseverance and determination of Mr.


Palumbo in his tireless seven-year effort to
bring a piece of Italian culture to his
adopted City of Lancaster. At this meeting,
Mayor Scott, who had many years of
expenence in the cultures of the world
through his career as a military leader,
proposed the creation of Bocce Courts for the
city and furthered the suggestion by
proposing they be named in honor of Mr.
Palumbo. This project would also serve as
further encouragement to Mr. Palumbo to
continue his efforts for a statue of the great
mariner, Christopher Columbus.
Bocce is an ancient game dating back
over 2,000 years to the Roman Empire
when soldiers of the Roman legions were
known to have played the game. Indeed,
bocce can be traced as far back as ancient
Egypt before Rome even existed. The game
has many variations including the English
lawn bowling and the Amencan bowling
alley, but it was the Italians who perfected
the game and kept it alive to this day
The simplicity of the game accounts for its
durability over the centuries. Teams,
consisting of two to four players per team,
play bocce with eight ballsfour red and four
greencalled boccia, and a much smaller ball
called the pallino. If two players are on a
team, each player has two large bocce balls.
If four players on a team, each player has one
boccia. Each player must take turns rolling
the ball toward the pallino, which is the first
ball thrown onto the court. Players are
given points,

one for each of the balls of the same color


thrown closest to the pallino. The maximum
points a team can score each time are four.
Usually a team wins the match when it scores
sixteen points. Although the game itself is
deceptively simple, it is very difficult for a player
to be consistently on target.
At the mayors request to work with the city
parks department, James Lombardo sought
and received specifications for bocce courts
and after meeting with Mr. Morris Ressel, city
parks director, work was begun on two
temporary courts at Buchanan Park. These
courts were put into play in 1978 and the
Lancaster Bocce League was born. The
temporary courts were constructed with grass
surface playing areas surrounded by a border
of railroad ties to create a rectangular court
sixty feet long by ten feet wide. These courts
served the league until 1986, when the city
parks department built more permanent courts
with clay and sand surfaces. Initially the
league consisted of seven teams of four
players each and up to four alternates. As the
years progressed, the league grew to nine
teams.
In 1979, the courts were officially named
the "Antonio Palumbo Bocce Courts" in
recognition of the civic and cultural
contributions of Mr. Palumbo. Indeed, Mr.
Palumbo actively played the game as a member
of Team Reggio until he was ninety-four years
old. (At this writing, another player on Team
Reggio, Armondo Roda, is ninety years
old).

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THE JOURNAL OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

.....................
The Antonio Palumbo
Courts in Eucltannn

Today the name plaque honoring


Palumbo still exists and is located at
the head of the courts in Buchanan
Park. The plaque, which mentions
the courts and Mr. Palumbo s name,
also provides the initial slate of
officers for the Lancaster Bocce
League,
which,
interestingly
enough were first selected by a flip of
the com. Elections have occurred
ever since. The original officers were:
Robert Baldori, James J. Lombardo,
James V Lombardo and Patrick
Caterbone.
In 2002 and 2003, the courts
were upgraded and are still being
used
on
Monday,
Tuesday,
Wednesday and Thursday evenings
by the nine teams comprising the
Lancaster Bocce League. Were it not
for the efforts of the leagues
longstanding secretary Sam Mecum,
a prominent Lancaster attorney
the

Hocce
Park.

leagues longevity would have been


jeopardized. Although a non-Italian,
Mecun: grasped
the
game
and
volunteered his time to maintain
rosters, schedules anc standings for
twenty years, and it is a tribute to him
and longstanding treasurer Patrick
Caterbone that the league is still
thriving in 2005.
As a testament to the popularity of the
sport, in 2005 two new courts were
constructed at Amos Herr Park in East
Hempfield Township, Landisville, thanks
to the efforts of James J. Lombardo, a
$1,000 donation from the Lancaster
Italian Cultural Society and the
technical advice of Mr. Charles Crimti,
a local builder, businessman and bocce
player. In addition, several other parks,
senior residences and an active overfifty-five adult community boast bocce
courts in

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VOLUME 109, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2007

their planning. Indeed, several senior residences have sought technical advice from
the Lancaster Bocce League and were aided
through the efforts of Mr. Criniti.

It is a tribute not only to the game of


bocce, but to the cultural influence of the
Italian community that the Lancaster
Bocce League has existed and thrived for
almost thirty years with no sign of
stopping!

Mr.
Michael
Mastromatteo,
another
member of the bocce league, donated a set
of bocce balls to the township for use by any
citizen.

Conclusion
In 1998, when the first public notice was
given that the Lancaster Italian American
Citizens Club was being dissolved, a letter to
the editor by a Mr. Al Rossi (who moved into
Lancaster from New York) prompted
members of the Lancaster Italian American
Community to attend a meeting to discuss
the creation of an organization dedicated to
the Italian culture. Several members of the
Italian-American community responded
and attended the meeting, from which the
foundation for the Lancaster Italian Cultural
Society was laid.

The history of the Lancaster Bocce League


began in 1978, and the participants and
teams over the years reflect the diverse
culture of the Italian and American
communities in Lancaster. A true
family sport, teams consist of men and
women ranging from age sixteen to ninetyfour. Selected team names over the years
included the following:
Gasperina Raiders Risorgimento Champigne
Napolitan Four Rolling Rigatoni Scostomati
City Hall Roses Non-Italian Stallions Buchanan
Avenue Hi Bocce Cugini Bocce Babes

The society was formed with several


goals in mind:

Marchigiani Calabrese Knights of Columbus


Accola Ipoliti Rolling Stones

To promote the Italian culture and heritage


To be aware of the Italian contributions to
America and the world
To sponsor Italian cultural activities
To achieve a broader understanding of
Italian values and heritage
To foster pnde among Italian Americans
based in their heritage
As of 2005, the Lancaster Italian Cultural
Society counted more than 300 members,
a remarkable achievement in

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THE JOURNAL OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

only six years of existence. The society is credited


with various and multiple activities, including:
Trips to Italy Tnps to Italian festivals Cultural
events at the opera Picnics Scholarships to
Italian
students
Awards
for
artistic
accomplishment in the community in the names
of Michelangelo and DaVinci Italian events Italian
language classes A
regular
newsletter
(Osscrvatorc Lancastrians)
Financial support to construct bocce courts in
East Hempfield Township Wine tasting and
sampling events
As the society continues to grow, it will continue
the traditions first established by the "Old Timers"
in the 1920s: "to encourage good American
citizenship, to promote fellowship among its
members and to promote the general welfare of the
people of Italian extraction."

1900s, have disappeared from the scene. All


were created for the basic same purposes of
providing for the general health and welfare of
the members and to promote the English
language and citizenship in the United States of
America.
Gratitude and appreciation for their
contribution to this work go to:
Mario Gallello for providing the minute book
and other information relating to the Santo
Innocenzo Society
Anita Bomberger for materials relating to the
Sons of Italy Lancaster Lodge 152 kept by her
father and mother Joseph anc Josephine
Battaglia
Persia Palumbo for information on the early
days and her father Antonio
Nick Fulginiti, Greg Pugliese and Bo: Roda for
the loan of photographs
Amy Bobb, Michelle Simmons and Jil. Eurcalino
for their editing assistance
Countless others for information. memories
and discussion.
Apologies to all too numerous to mention.

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Endnotes
1 Richard D. Grifo and Anthony E Noto,
Italian Presence in Pennsylvania
(Pennsylvania Historical Association,
1990).'

Acknowledgements
This work is intended to record the
more significant events in the evolution
of the Italian-American community in
Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Many of the
institutions,
organizations
and
affiliations, which were formed to foster
community
among
the
Italian
immigrants in the early

2 Ibid.
3 Ibid.
4 W U. Hensel. An Italian Artist in Old
Lancaster, Historical Papers and

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VOLUME 109, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2007

Addresses of the Lancaster County


Histoncal Society, 1912, Vol. 16, 67101.

Mutuo Soccorso Santo Innocenzo,


as revised, 1935.
18 Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration,
Societa di Mutuo Soccorso Santo
Innocenzo, 1971.

5 The Italians in Pennsylvania (The


Pennsylvania Historic and Museum
Commission, 1988).

19 Ibid.

6 Federal Census ol 1880, Enumeration


Distnct 152, 21.

20 Constitution and By-Laws, Societa Di


Mutuo Soccorso Santo Innocenzo, as
revised, 1941.

7 US Census 2000, Pennsylvania County


and Municipality Table DP-1, Profile of
General Demographic Characteristics:
2000, 2.

21 Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration,


Societa
di Mutuo Soccorso Santo Innocenzo,
1971.

8 Paul Paolicelli, Under the Southern Sun,


chapter 5.
9 Calabria, Istituto Geografico de
Agostim, 1Q88, 21.

22 Constitution and By-Laws. Societa di


Mutuo Soccorso Santo Innocenzo, as
revised, 1967.

10 Dianne Danz Lee, Personal Moments in


History, The Story- of St. Anthony of
Padua Parish and its People, 1996.

23 Hospitalrzation Plan of Santo


Innocenzo
Mutual Relief Association, 1957.

11 Lancaster Intelligencer, Wednesday Sept


5, 1906.

24 Minute book of the Santo Innocenzo


Society, meeting entry for Sunday,
May
2, 1982, 170.

12 John Ward Willson Loose, The Heritage


of Lancaster, 1980, 126.

25 Lancaster Intelligencer journal, April


16,
1929.

13 Lancaster Intelligencer Journal, Monday


January 12, 1920
14 Journal of the Lancaster County
Histoncal Society, Vol. 74, No. 4, 249.
15 Charter of the Societa di Mutuo
Soccorso Santo Innocenzo, October 22,
1921.
16 Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration, Societa
di Mutuo Soccorso Santo Innocenzo,
1971.
17 Constitution and Bv-Laws, Societa Di

26 Lancaster Intelligencer Journal,


October
17, 1933.
27 Lancaster Intelligencer Journal, May
20,
1935.
28 Lancaster Intelligencer Journal, May
20,
1940.
29 Antonio Palumbo, A Journey
From
Immigrant To US Citizen.

35

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Italian Immigration to the United States


Alessandra Di Benedetto (January, 2000)
A FAST-US-2 (PP2D) U.S. Institutions Survey Paper
FAST Area Studies Program
Department of Translation Studies, University of Tampere

The aim of this paper is to portray the major aspects of a chapter of both Italian and American history:
immigration of Italians to the United States. This paper will not include every aspect of this rich and complex
phenomenon in depth, but will offer the main aspects in a simple and brief way. In particular, it will focus on
immigration during the 1880s more than in the present, because today the Italian migratory wave is much
weaker than in the past.

Immigration to the United States: the four waves


Ever since its founding in 1776, and even before then, the United States has attracted immigrants from around
the world. Millions of brave-minded people of many different nationalities set out from their native countries,
without knowing what was to come.
For the poor and oppressed people of many countries, immigration to the U.S. has long been considered as an
alternative to starvation, death, or a life full of hardship and suffering. However, the main reason for immigration
has been economic opportunity the lure of a better land or a better job. The decision to buy a ticket to the
country of dreams marked the end of one life and the start of new opportunities.

Landing in the New World, with new opportunities ahead . . .


There were four major periods of immigration.

The first wave (1600s-1820)


The first wave began with the colonists of the 1600s and reached a peak before the Revolutionary War in 1775.
Most of the early colonists came from England. Many were convicts transported from English jails. But most
immigrants hoped for economic opportunity. Most immigrants arrived in Philadelphia, the main port in the
colonies.
Wars in Europe and America slowed immigration during the late 1700s and early 1800s. Newcomers included
Irishmen fleeing English rule and Frenchmen escaping the French Revolution.
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During the early 1800s, New York City began to replace Philadelphia as the nations chief port of entry for
immigrants.

The second wave (1820s-1870s)


The second major flow of immigrants started in the 1820s and lasted until a depression in the early 1870s.
Between 1830 and 1850, some 2.5 million immigrants, most of them from northern and western Europe, arrived
in America. About a third were Irish who sought escape from a potato famine that struck Ireland in the mid1840s. Most of the Irish had little money, and so they stayed where they arrived, on the East coast. Many
German farmers had enough money to migrate to Illinois, Wisconsin, and Missouri, where land was inexpensive.
Norwegians and Swedes soon followed, settling in Minnesota, the Dakotas, and Wisconsin.

The third wave (1870s-1960s)


Until the 1870s, most immigrants came from northern and western Europe. But by the early 1880s, immigration
patterns were changing. The U.S. economy suffered a depression while that of Germany and Britain improved.
German and British immigration to the United States then decreased. But arrivals increased from Norway,
Sweden, Denmark, China, Canada, and Southern and Eastern Europe.
Beginning in the 1890s, the majority of arrivals were from southern and eastern Europe. From 1881 to 1920,
people from every area of the world entered the country. The end of the World War I saw still another wave of
immigrants from war-stricken nations coming to America.
Between 1930 and 1965 there was a temporary decline. During the Great Depression, immigration to the U.S.
dropped sharply. However, during the late 1950s and early 1960s, the United States received thousands of
refugees from revolutions in Hungary, Cuba, and China.

The fourth wave (1970s-present days)


The most recent wave began in 1965 when amendments to the Immigration and Nationality Act ended quotas
based on nationality. The amendments provided for annual quotas with a ceiling of 170,000 immigrants from the
Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere . The act established a preference system for
the issuing of visas that strongly favored relatives of U.S. citizens and permanent resident aliens, as well as
people with special skills. Wives, husbands, parents, and children of U.S. citizens could enter without being
counted as part of the quota. In 1978, Congress replaced the separate quotas for immigrants from the Eastern
and Western hemispheres with a single annual world quota of 290,000.
The 1965 amendments produced major changes in patterns of immigration to the United States. The percentage
of immigrants from Europe, Canada, and Central America dropped, while that of immigrants from Asia and the
West Indies leaped dramatically. The attraction of America now seems stronger as ever. Unlike in the past,
however, todays immigrants do not come from Europe, but from Asia and Latin America. Today, the largest
groups of U.S. immigrants come from Mexico, the Philippines, Vietnam, the Dominican Republic, China, India,
Cuba, Ukraine, Jamaica, and South Korea (Multimedia Encyclopedia 1998 World Book, Inc. "1998 World
Book").
America has become a mosaic of people and culture. The traditions of many different nations have formed the
American culture of today. U.S. culture constantly changes and adapts to immigrants, just as immigrants adapt
to it. The nation remains, in the words of sociologist Nathan Glazer, "the permanently unfinished country."
(Portes, A.- Rumbaut, R.G. 1990, p. 12)

Italian Immigration
Among the peoples who shaped the social fabric of the U.S., the Italians played an important role.
Italy is traditionally a country of emigration. During the 1880s, however, emigration became a mass
phenomenon. The flow increased as a result of improved national and transatlantic transport facilities, the
economic crisis both in the Southern and Northern Italy, and the growing demand for labour in North America.
The U.S. was the largest single recipient of Italian immigrants in the world. In 1850, fewer than 4,000 Italians
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were reportedly in the U.S. However in 1880, the population skyrocketed to 44,000, and by 1900 to 484,027
(Source: dossena.virtualave.net/apulians.html).
During 1900-14, Italian emigration reached its peak. During World War I, emigration ceased, but in the following
years thousands of Italians left Italy. After the U.S.s immigration acts of 1921 and 1924, emigration declined.
Fascism, which was hostile to emigration, and World War II almost eliminated emigration, which however,
increased again after World War II. The pattern of emigration changed after Italys entrance into the European
Economic Community (1957). The average of people going to the U.S. dropped severely (Colliers
Encyclopedia, volume 13, p.368).

The reasons for the Italian mass emigration


Italy never colonized parts of America as did Spain, France, and England. Instead, many Italians started coming
to America in the 1880s to escape from poverty at home.
Initially, most emigrants hailed from Northern Italy. However, as time passed, most emigrants came from the
South. With this shift also came an increase in those leaving the nation. Between 1898 and 1914, approximately
750,000 Italians emigrated each year. From 1906 to 1915, as many as 2 million Italians emigrated. The reasons
for the mass emigration of the Italians were many, and there were also differences in the reasons that made
people emigrate from the south and north of Italy. The standard of living became worse in the whole of Italy
between 1870 and 1900, especially in the countryside. Disease and starvation were the main causes of
migration. Food had become the biggest cost for an Italian family. Many peasant families spent about 75% of
their money on food. Despite the high cost, this food often did not contain enough nutrition to sustain a person
(A. Lyttelton 1997, pp.238-240).
In the North, the population suffered from pellagra, a disease which often resulted in insanity and death,
whereas in the South, fatal malaria plagued the nations residents. At first, malaria only struck in the coastal
areas, but this changed as deforestation, erosion and flooding enabled the malaria to spread. The conditions
which people endured in these areas were unbelievable as 2 million Italians died each year (Maldwin A. Jones,
1976, pp 193-216).
To make matters worse, the agricultural system of Italy was not modernised, and there was little hope of
improving the situation. During this time, Italian agriculture was hurt by the increasing number of products from
America that invaded Italian markets. The price of wheat and other products fell. There was no alternative than
to emigrate. As the journey became easier, few people hesitated to leave their homeland.

Peculiarities of the Italian immigration


General trends in the Italian migratory waves can be outlined.

Immigrants were not an undifferentiated mass; they represented specific regional and occupational
groups. They also tended to come from specific regions and work in specific fields.

Entrepreneurs and workers tended to concentrate in large areas that provided thriving markets and sources of
labour. Therefore, they settled mostly in New York. More than half of the emigrants from Molise and Abruzzo,
two heavily working-class regions, worked in construction and excavation trades in Pennsylvania, as they had in
Italy.
Thus, to a certain extent, the pattern of distribution of Italians in America mirrored the regional differences in
Italy.

A peculiarity of the Italian migrants was that most of them lived in the countryside in Italy, but once in the
U.S., they became urban. Most Italians went to live in the big cities, especially in the North-east of the
U.S., because they did not have enough money to move farther.

However, if many Italians did not go beyond the Atlantic shores, some others pushed on to the West Coast.
Inland states, such as Ohio, Indiana and Illinois were already inhabited by the first colonists. Groups of settlers,
especially Germans arriving before the Revolutionary War, could find abundant cheap land in the West.
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Therefore, those Italians who wanted to work on an independent farm, had to shift to the West Coast. Indeed,
California still represented a Frontier land. Furthermore, it provided a familiar climate and environment.

What often occurred in the U.S. were Italian enclaves. They were called "Little Italy" and still exist in
many cities today. Unlike the Irish, the Jews, the Germans, and the Poles, who dispersed themselves in
other immigrant groups, the Italians remained in their clusters.

Italians adapted more slowly to the new country than other immigrant groups, such as Irish and
German, because they had a different background (for instance, the climate and the language) from the
new cultural environment. That is why once a group settled in a certain area, the new arrivals
established in the same area. Most Italians tended to settle in a community made up of people from
their native land or even their native village, so that friends or relatives could provide shelter and
assistance. This accounts for the high concentration of Italians in certain American regions and their
absence in others.

The two charts below show that still today, as in the past, Italians are mostly concentrated in the North-East and
in California. The figures clearly show that their presence in the southern and central states is almost
imperceptible.
ITALIAN-AMERICANS LIVING IN THE U.S. (1990 CENSUS)
States with more than 15% of pop. or more than 1 million Italian Americans

STATE

ITALIAN AMERICANS

% OF POPULATION

New York

2.9 million

16%

New Jersey

1.5 million

20%

California

1.5 million

5%

Pennsylvania

1.4 million

12%

Massachusetts

845,000

15%

Connecticut

630,000

20%

Rhode Island

200,000

20%

U.S. CITIES WITH THE MOST ITALIAN AMERICANS (1990 CENSUS)

RANK

CITY

ITALIAN POPULATION

New York, NY

1,882,396

Philadelphia, PA

497,721

Chicago, IL

492,158

Boston, MA

485,761

Pittsburgh, PA

316,351

Los Angeles/Long Beach, CA

308,409

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Detroit, MI

280,051

Cleveland, OH

179,733

Rochester, NY

170,910

10

Washington, D.C.

163,440

As in many other places in the world, Italians in America clustered into groups related to their place of
origin. For example, the Sicilians resided in New Orleans, the Neapolitans and Calabrians in Minnesota,
and mostly northern Italians in California. However, most of the Italians were concentrated on the East
coast, in New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, just where they had disembarked. Other
business-minded groups decided to move away from the towns of arrival and look for new economic
opportunities elsewhere than in the port cities.

To understand why Italians were so clearly divided in different groups, one needs remember that until 1861, Italy
was not a consolidated state. Only when Italians arrived to America did they realize what the concept of nation
meant. "They became Americans before they were ever Italians" (Ascoli, p.101).
Italians came from a nation that struggled to become a state. They lacked political consciousness, because they
lacked national consciousness. For instance, Sicilian peasants identified with their village, not with Italy. The
center of the migrants concern remained his hometown. No matter how long they lived in the host country, they
continued to think of the problems and needs of their home town as paramount.

New York, Philadelphia and San Francisco


New York
Italians first settled in the Five Points neighborhood of New York, i.e. the most notorious slum at the southwest
corner of what is now Columbus Park. The district teemed with gangs, prostitutes, criminals and street urchins.
However, so poor were the immigrant Italians in Italy that their lives in "Lamerica" was regarded as progress.
In New York, one could trace back to the region or even to the villages from which the inhabitants came,
according to the areas or even the streets on which they lived. Northern Italians settled in Greenwich village and
what is now Soho; Southern Italians populated Little Italy (location map). From the south, Little Italy has lately
been colonized by Chinatown; in the north, it now hosts boutiques, bars and restaurants. In the late 1990s, what
remains of Little Italy is Mulberry Street, with its numerous cafes and restaurants.
Philadelphia
Most but not all Italian immigrants were peasants or labourers, some were artists. This latter category
concentrated in Philadelphia.
Philadelphias first Italian immigrants arrived in the mid-eighteenth century and established a new community,
one of the first "Little Italies" in America. Italians found Philadelphia attractive because the city was the cultural,
economic, and political center of North America in the early 19 th century. There, the earliest Italians found a
generally warm welcome, because of the high regard in which Americans held Italian culture (Brady, citing
Juliani).
San Francisco
A study on Italian immigration to San Francisco (Dino Cinel, "From Italy to San Francisco", pp.13-43, Stanford
University Press, 1982), shows that only four Italian provinces supplied most of the emigrants to that city:
Genoa, Lucca, Cosenza, and Palermo. Emigrants from larger cities such as Genoa and Palermo were familiar
with trade business, or industrial skills. Others were vine growers or found work on farms, where they picked
berries and harvested sugar beets. Despite their prosperity, not many of these workers remained in the
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countryside, even though those who did were successful with their vineyards and market gardening in California.
Another important activity to many Italians was fishing.

The Italian family


Another factor that distinguished the Italian emigration was that the number of men who left Italy was much
higher than the number of women.
Italian men came to America just to earn money, rather than to settle and begin a new life. A few Italians did
return home, but it was usually just to get married or to visit. But eventually many Italian men decided to settle
permanently in America, so their wives and children joined them. As a result, the image of Italian families
became more common in 19th century America.
The "family" included all those relatives whom Americans would consider very distant cousins, aunts and uncles,
e.g. what would commonly be referred to as an "extended family".
The institution of the family was a strategy to survive. Family members were expected to suppress their
individualism and to work for the family. The family was the economic unit in which each member had a specific
role.
Every member of the family was supposed to help the family. Daughters and sons cooked, cleaned, gardened,
and looked after younger brothers and sisters. Aunts, uncles, cousins, and grandmothers often lived in the same
house.
This was often to the detriment of personal mobility. One was not supposed to abandon his/her family. As a
result, it was very difficult to attain a higher position on the social ladder, simply because economic and social
mobility often required spatial mobility.
The typical first generation parent ridiculed American institutions and nurtured in his children a sense of mistrust
and cynicism regarding the outside world. Any aspiration to go far from ones family was regarded as something
shameful and disloyal. Thus, personal mobility was impeded.
To understand this peculiar attitude, it is useful to take a glimpse at Italys history. Italy was very often invaded
and colonised by different peoples. What enabled Italians to survive a history of invasions and conquest was the
family. To Italians, the only social reality was family life. It was the only means of protecting, isolating, and
defending themselves from the outer world. The main social institution was always the family, regardless of
which government was ruling the country.
Even when Italians migrated to the U.S., the concept of family did not change for them, even if it underwent
some changes with time.
The Italian migrant usually had high social and familial stress. He was supposed to return to buy the land that he
once sharecropped and to marry the girl of his dreams, who would be as virginal as when he had left for
America, or take up again with a wife he had not seen for many years.
He planned to be away for a certain amount of time in search of money for the family. In turn, his family often
envisioned a certain period that it should take him to achieve his goal. A sojourn longer than expected caused
anxiety for all the family: his wife, the aging parents and the daughter awaiting the dowry. A Southern Italian
woman could marry only if she had a dowry. It was the symbol of her familys well-being and the major factor for
marriage
Italian immigrants were men far away from loved ones and familiar places. They feared failing to bring their
families to the social and economic level they expected to rise to.
They still worked to send money home; they still intended to marry someone from their village (very often the
one whom they or their families had chosen before they left), or to return to their wives.

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If they were young men, they worried about the girl they chose before leaving. If they were husbands and
fathers, they worried about their wives morality. The failure was perceived both in terms of personal and social
dignity.
The stereotypical Italian woman, in turn, was dominated by an oppressive father and husband. However, her
role in the family and society changed along with immigration.
In Italy, since she had to work and act on her own in the place of her husband, for the first time she made
decisions for the family and administered the money that her husband sent to her. She enjoyed a freedom never
experienced before.
In America, the immigrant Italian woman felt a less powerful pressure of motherhood; in fact she had fewer
children than her mother had. On the other hand, the economic responsibilities were intensified. She saw an
increase in her economic opportunities for her and a new place in the family. She participated in family decisions
as long with her husband, who was no longer the only breadwinner of the family.

Italians in America
In 19th century America, the Italians competed with the Irish for the same occupations, and as the number of
Italians in the United States increased, they began to dominate many of the occupations that were earlier
controlled by the Irish.
Italian women competed with Jewish women in the clothes industry. They worked in various industries, such as
woollen mills and shoe factories.
Starting from the bottom of the occupational ladder, most Italians worked in the worst kinds of professions, such
as shoe shining, rag-picking, sewer cleaning, and whatever hard, dirty, dangerous jobs others didn't want. Many
were garbage collectors. Others were miners or built railroads.
Generally speaking, they did not want to get involved with social and political leadership in order to devote
themselves to their families. This explains why in New York city, basic positions in the Fire Department, Police
Department and Sanitation Department were often filled with Italians and why the top positions in these services
and in private corporations were largely free of Italians.
Italians frequently lived in the worst slums, or were crowded together in construction camps or railroad wagons.
In the cities, they lived in the worst apartments. They worked at least ten hours a day, seven days a week. Even
children worked at an early age, as they did in Italy, even at the expense of their education. Schools were seen
by parents as something to be avoided. They saw attend school as lost days of work. Children were seen as an
economic resource. However, they were eventually forced into schools which they legally had to attend until the
age of 16.

Social life of Italians in the U.S.


Italians lived in ghettos in which the chief places of social activities were the church, the social clubs, and the
cafs. Italians met regularly in these clubs and societies to engage in a wide spectrum of social activities ranging
from music and literature to politics.
There were two different types of cafs: coffee-houses and caf-chantants, which were also called cafconcertos. The caf-chantant was a coffee-house where, besides coffee, alcoholic beverages were also served.
Here the Italian working class used to meet on Sundays. Those cafs proved to play an important role in the
community life. They were a place of entertainment, where on Sundays some musicians with a singer
accompanied by a guitar and mandolin played well-known folk songs and music.

Italians and religion in the U.S.


The customs and Catholic faith of Italian immigrants were often feared by the "original" populations within which
the Italians lived. As Catholic immigrants (Italians, Poles, Hungarians and Slovaks) became more and more
numerous in 19th century America, Protestant Evangelists feared that Protestant America would be submerged.
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Indeed, such a large number of Catholic believers would have greatly affected the American society. Most
Evangelists believed that Catholicism was an oppressive, superstitious and aggressive religion which would
enter the public schools.
Non-Catholic people were suspicious of Italians, because they rarely went to church as real Christians were
supposed to do. Instead, they practiced their own folk religion outside the church. For instance, Evangelists
feared so much that Catholics would fall into anarchism or socialism that they invested a lot of time and energy
in the attempt to evangelize the increasing number of Italians in the American cities. By evangelizing the Italians,
they would have defended the traditional American ideals -- democracy, individualism, industriousness, thrift,
and patriotism -- and served the nation as well as God. Very few Italians converted to Evangelism.
Even so, the Catholic faith has adjusted to the United States. Originally the services were performed in Latin, but
as time passed, it became more and more common to use English in the churches, even though services were
supposed to be performed in Latin.
The Italians were not the only Catholic people who settled in the U.S. Irish people arrived before the Italians.
Consequently, when the Italians arrived to the U.S., there were already Catholic churches. The Italians largely
resented this Irish-dominated American Catholic Church, so they seldom attended Irish churches.
Italian immigrants were unwelcome in the pre-existent Irish churches, because the Irish were trying to preserve
their identity. Why? Apart from the Catholic religion they both practised, the Irish and the Italians did not share
almost anything else. They had very different cultures. As a result, the Italians formed their own parochial
schools and built their own churches.

Treatment by other Americans


Italians were treated with some respect but not much and formed their own communities. Italians were looked
upon as different from the older generations of immigrants and were often viewed as people of lower class. By
the early 1900s many newspapers defined the Italian race as inferior and degraded, because they usually lived
in the worst areas of the towns. They also aroused suspicion because of their attitude toward religion. Unlike the
Irish who were also Catholic, Italians did not go to church. These are the main causes one can trace back to in
order to understand why Italians were stereotyped as prone to crime.
Even today, Italian-Americans still have to fight bias, bigotry and defamation. Usually in American movies,
Italians are painted as persons who use foul language, speak broken English, and think of nothing besides
violence and crime. These films create a negative portrait of Italians, who are then treated with less respect by
others.
74% of Americans believe that most Italian-Americans are in some way associated with organized crime.
Movies such as Married to the Mob, My Cousin Vinny, The Freshman, Prizzis Honor and many more help to
account for this prejudice.
Yet a recent FBI study found that fewer one-tenth of one percent of the 25 million Italian-Americans in the United
States were associated with organized with crime (web source, attribution lost).

Accomplishments of Italians in America


Italians introduced America to pizza, pasta and opera.
Made from a flat, yeast bread baked with melted cheeses and tomatoes, the dish is called "pizza." Today, pizza
is delivered to the doors of American homes throughout the country, but back then it was a way for immigrants
to have a slice of home in their new country.
The Metropolitan Opera became one of the finest opera companies in the world under the legendary leadership
of its manager, Giulio Gatti-Casazza (1869-1940) who brought to its stage a brilliant array of singers, including
Enrico Caruso, Rosa Ponselle, Amelita Galli-Curci, Beniamino Gigli, and Ezio Pinza as well as the conductor
Arturo Toscanini. Gatti-Casazzi managed the Met from 1908 to 1935.

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Besides, one could mention a lot of Italians among Hollywoods stars. The following represent highlights of these
contributions.
Hollywood's first sex symbol and the first "Latin Lover" of the silver screen was Rudolph Valentino.
Frank Sinatra, the Oscar, Emmy and Grammy-winning legend was known as "The Voice".
Among the many Italian Americans in Hollywood is the legendary father-and-son team of Carmine and Francis
Ford Coppola, who won four Oscars in 1975 for The Godfather, Part II.
Sylvester Stallone, Jimmy Durante, Frank Capra (one of Hollywood's most gifted directors) and Joseph Barbera
(the man behind Tom and Jerry, Yogi Bear, The Flintstones, The Jetsons, The Smurfs and Scooby-Doo), all
also have Italian roots.

Conclusion
Italians have enriched American culture from religion to opera.
At the worst, one thinks of them as mafia-related people. Indeed, still today they have this prejudice to contend
with.
However, apart from this shadow, one can find Italian footsteps in many aspects of American culture. They
brought pizza and pasta to America, both of which have left such a deep mark upon American minds that people
very often think of Italians only as restaurant-owners. The Italian gastronomic culture permeated the American
cuisine. The presence of Italian self-styled restaurants and pizzerias on almost every corner of all American
towns witnesses the high regard in which Americans hold Italian food.
However, the Italian influence is not limited only to the myth of its cuisine; it also involves many cultural fields.
For instance, none would doubt the impact on show-business of such well-known actors, such as Al Pacino,
Robert De Niro, Sylvester Stallone, not to mention some directors like Frank Capra and Francis Ford Coppola
who all have Italian roots.
The Italians contributed to shape American society since they were one of the most highly-represented ethnic
groups of the Southern Europe who settled in the U.S. Being an ethnic group very different from the first settlers,
Italians were regarded as suspicious. Their conception of the family and of the woman distinguished them from
the others. This led to a different approach to the American society. They started to perceive themselves as a
nation only when they arrived to the U.S.
There they began a new life where the weight they gave to the family remained as important as it was in Italy.
What changed more was the role of the woman. Italian women gained more freedom than she had in Italy.
Thus Italian immigration both enriched and was enriched by American culture. Immigration resulted in a mutual
exchange of culture: a phenomenon that nowadays is so broadly discussed both in the U.S. and in Italy.
The experience of Italian immigration provides a good example of how deeply the arrival of a new people can
affect the culture of another nation.

Bibliography

Ascoli, Max. Immigrant America: A Portrait. Page 101 (other citation data not supplied)
Bodnar, John. The Transplanted. A History of Immigrants in Urban America. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1987.
Brady, Thomas J. Reviews: Richard N. Juliani ... tells the story of the love affair between Italians and
Philadelphia. The Philadelphia Inquirer, 23 August 1998. [citation omitted from original paper, but added
01 August 2001 on notification by Richard Juliani]

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Caroli, Betty B., Harney, Robert F., and Tomasi, L. F. (eds.) The Italian Immigrant Woman in North
America. Toronto: The Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1978.
Colliers Encyclopedia. New York: MacMillan Educational Company, 1991.
Dossena, Tiziano. Apulians. 6 October 1999.
Little Italy New York City and Location Map. 6 October 1999.
Lyttelton Politics and Society 1870-1915. The Oxford Illustrated History of Italy. New York, U.S.: Oxford
University Press Inc., 1997.
Jones, Maldwin A. The Italian Exodus London. U.K.: Thames Television Ltd., 1976.
Multimedia Encyclopedia 1998 World Book, Inc. 1998 World Book. Chicago, Illinois: IBM Corp. and its
licensors, 1998.
Portes, Alejandro, and Rumbaut, Ruben G. Immigrant America, A Portrait. Berkeley and Los Angeles,
California: University of California Press, 1990.
Rischin, Moses (ed.). Immigration and the American Tradition. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill
Company, Inc., 1976
The National Italian American Foundation. Statistical Data and Reports on Italian Americans. Italian
Americans living in the U.S. (1990 census). 6 October 1999.

Top - US-2 Papers Index - British Institutions Papers - Finland Institutions Papers - US-2 Home
Original dated 27 January 2000; Modified 01 August 2001

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Italy convicts U.S. agents in abduction
BY RACHEL DONADIO, New York Times
MILAN -- In a landmark ruling, an Italian judge on Wednesday convicted a base
chief for the Central Intelligence Agency and 22 other Americans, almost all CIA
operatives, of kidnapping a Muslim cleric from the streets of Milan in 2003.
The case was a huge symbolic victory for Italian prosecutors, who drew the first
convictions involving the American practice of rendition, in which terrorism
suspects are captured in one country and taken for questioning in another, often
one more open to coercive interrogation techniques.
Critics of the Bush administration have long hailed the case as a repudiation of
the tactics it used to fight terrorism. And the fact that Italy would actually convict
intelligence agents of an allied country was seen as a bold move that could set a
precedent in other cases.
Still, the convictions may have little practical effect. They do not seem to change
the close relations between the United States and Italy. Nor did they reveal
whether the government of Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi had approved the
kidnapping. And it seemed highly unlikely that anyone, Italian or American,
would spend any time in prison.
Judge Oscar Magi handed an eight-year sentence to Robert Seldon Lady, a
former CIA base chief in Milan, and five-year sentences to the 22 other
Americans, including an Air Force colonel and 21 CIA operatives. Three of the
other high-ranking Americans were given diplomatic immunity, including Jeffrey
Castelli, a former CIA station chief in Rome.
Citing state secrecy, the judge did not convict five high-ranking Italians charged
in the abduction, including a former head of Italian military intelligence, Nicolo
Pollari.
All the Americans were tried in absentia and are considered fugitives. Through
their court-appointed lawyers, they pleaded not guilty.
Italian prosecutors had charged the Americans and seven members of the Italian
military intelligence agency in the abduction of Osama Moustafa Hassan Nasr,
known as Abu Omar, on Feb. 17, 2003. Prosecutors said he was snatched in
broad daylight, flown from an American air base in Italy to a base in Germany
and then on to Egypt, where he asserts that he was tortured.
Ian C. Kelly, a State Department spokesman, said the United States was
"disappointed" by the verdicts in Milan. He said that because the verdicts were
likely to be appealed, he could not comment on the specifics of the case.
Armando Spataro, the counterterrorism prosecutor who brought the case, said he
was considering asking the Italian government for an international arrest warrant
for the fugitive Americans.
Spataro said he was pleased with what he called "very courageous" verdicts. He
said it was a victory that "we brought the trial to an end, and the facts were
shown to be what they were."
In May, Magi ruled that there was enough evidence to proceed with the case even
after Italy's Constitutional Court ruled in March that any evidence of coordination
between the Italian secret services and the CIA violated state secrecy rules and
was therefore inadmissible.
Magi also asked for $1.45 million in damages for Nasr and $750,000 for his wife,
Ghali Nabila. In separate lawsuits, Nasr, who is now living in Alexandria, Egypt, is
seeking $14 million in damages from the defendants, and his wife is seeking $7.4
million against the Italian authorities. In August the couple also filed a suit with
the European Court of Human Rights.
Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International applauded Wednesday's ruling.
In a statement, Tom Parker, Amnesty International's U.S. point man for
terrorism issues, called on the Obama administration to "repudiate the unlawful

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practice of extraordinary rendition."
The administration has closed secret overseas prisons but is keeping the practice
of rendition in place.
At the time of his abduction, Nasr was under surveillance by the Italian
authorities, who suspected him of preaching violence from his Milan mosque and
recruiting militants to send to Iraq in anticipation of the American invasion. He
was missing for a year, finally resurfacing in Egypt, where he called his wife in
Italy to say he had been tortured.
The phone call was enough to activate Italian prosecutors, who are required to
investigate if there is the possibility of a crime.
Prosecutors were able to reconstruct his disappearance using cell phone records
traced to the American agents. The operatives used false names but left a paper
trail of unencrypted cell phone records and credit card bills at luxury hotels in
Milan.

2004-2009 Lancaster Newspapers


PO Box 1328, Lancaster PA 17608, (717) 291-8811
Terms of Service Privacy Policy

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Paul A. Bonacci
08 October 2008
Satanic Subversion of the U.S. Military

Michael and Lilith Aquino


On February 5, 1999, in U.S. District Court in Lincoln, Nebraska, an extraordinary hearing
occurred in Paul A. Bonacci v. Lawrence E. King, a civil action in which the plaintiff charged
that he had been ritualistically abused by the defendant, as part of a nationwide pedophile
ring linked to powerful political figures in Washington and to elements of the U.S. military
and intelligence establishment. Three weeks later, on February 27, Judge Warren K. Urbom
ordered King, who is currently in Federal prison, to pay $1 million in damages to Bonacci, in
what Bonacci's attorney John DeCamp said was a clear signal that "the evidence presented
was credible."
During the February 5 hearing, Noreen Gosch stunned the court with sworn testimony
linking U.S. Army Lt. Col. Michael Aquino (ret.) to the nationwide pedophile ring. Her son,
Johnny, then 12 years old, was kidnapped off the streets of West Des Moines, Iowa on
September 5, 1982, while he was doing his early-morning newspaper deliveries. Since his
kidnapping, she has devoted all of her time and resources to finding her son, and to
exposing the dangers that millions of children in American face from this hideous, literally
Satanic underground of ritualistic deviants.
"We have investigated, we have talked to so far 35 victims of this said organization that
took my son and is responsible for what happened to Paul, and they can verify everything
that has happened," she told the court.
"What this story involves is an elaborate function, I will say, that was an offshoot of a
government program. The MK-Ultra program was developed in the 1950s by the CIA. It was
used to help spy on other countries during the Cold War because they felt that the other
countries were spying on us.
"It was very successful. They could do it very well."

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Then, the Aquino bombshell: "Well, then there was a man by the name of Michael Aquino.
He was in the military. He had top Pentagon clearances. He was a pedophile. He was a
Satanist. He's founded the Temple of Set. And he was a close friend of Anton LaVey. The
two of them were very active in ritualistic sexual abuse. And they deferred funding from this
government program to use [in] this experimentation on children.
"Where they deliberately split off the personalities of these children into multiples,
so that when they're questioned or put under oath or questioned under lie
detector, that unless the operator knows how to question a multiple-personality
disorder, they turn up with no evidence."
She continued: "They used these kids to sexually compromise politicians or anyone else
they wish to have control of. This sounds so far out and so bizarre I had trouble accepting it
in the beginning myself until I was presented with the data. We have the proof. In black and
white."
Under questioning from DeCamp, Gosch reported: "I know that Michael Aquino has been in
Iowa. I know that Michael Aquino has been to Offutt Air Force Base [a Strategic Air
Command base, near Omaha, which was linked to King's activities]. I know that he has had
contact with many of these children."
Paul Bonacci, who was simultaneously a victim and a member of the nationwide pedophile
crime syndicate, has subsequently identified Aquino as the man who ordered the kidnapping
of Johnny Gosch. In his February 5 testimony, Bonacci referred to the mastermind of the
Gosch abduction as "the Colonel."
A second witness who testified at the February 5 hearing, Rusty Nelson, was King's personal
photographer. He later described to EIR another incident which linked King to Aquino, while
the Army special forces officer was still on active reserve duty. Some time in the late 1980s,
Nelson was with King at a posh hotel in downtown Minneapolis, when he personally saw
King turn over a suitcase full of cash and bearer-bonds to "the Colonel," who he later
positively identified as Aquino. According to Nelson, King told him that the suitcase of cash
and bonds was earmarked for the Nicaraguan Contras, and that "the Colonel" was part of
the covert Contra support apparatus, otherwise associated with Lt. Col. Oliver North, Vice
President George Bush, and the "secret parallel government" that they ran from the White
House.
Just who is Lt. Col. Michael Aquino (ret.), and what does the evidence revealed in a
Nebraska court hearing say about the current state of affairs inside the U.S. military? Is the
Aquino case some kind of weird aberration that slipped off the Pentagon radar screen?
Not

in

the

least.

Aquino, Satan and the U.S. Military


Throughout much of the 1980s, Aquino was at the center of a controversy involving the
Pentagon's acquiescence to outright Satanic practices inside the military services. Aquino
was also a prime suspect in a series of pedophile scandals involving the sexual abuse of
hundreds of children, including the children of military personnel serving at the Presidio U.S.
Army station in the San Francisco Bay Area. Furthermore, even as Aquino was being
investigated by Army Criminal Investigation Division officers for involvement in the
pedophile cases, he was retaining highest-level security clearances, and was involved in
pioneering work in military psychological operations ("psy-ops").
On August 14, 1987, San Francisco police raided Aquino's Russian Hill home, which he
shared with his wife Lilith. The raid was in response to allegations that the house had been
the scene of a brutal rape of a four-year-old girl. The principal suspect in the rape, a Baptist
minister named Gary Hambright, was indicted in September 1987 on charges that he

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committed "lewd and lascivious acts" with six boys and four girls, ranging in age from three
to seven years, during September-October 1986. At the time of the alleged sex crimes,
Hambright was employed at a child care center on the U.S. Army base at Presidio. At the
time of Hambright's indictment, the San Francisco police charged that he was involved in at
least 58 separate incidents of child sexual abuse.
According to an article in the October 30, 1987 San Francisco Examiner, one of the victims
had identified Aquino and his wife as participants in the child rape. According to the victim,
the Aquinos had filmed scenes of the child being fondled by Hambright in a bathtub. The
child's description of the house, which was also the headquarters of Aquino's Satanic Temple
of Set, was so detailed, that police were able to obtain a search warrant. During the raid,
they confiscated 38 videotapes, photo negatives, and other evidence that the home had
been the hub of a pedophile ring, operating in and around U.S. military bases.
Aquino and his wife were never indicted in the incident. Aquino claimed that he had been in
Washington at the time, enrolled in a year-long reserve officers course at the National
Defense University, although he did admit that he made frequent visits back to the Bay Area
and to his church/home. The public flap over the Hambright indictment did prompt the U.S.
Army to transfer Aquino from the Presidio, where he was the deputy director of reserve
training, to the U.S. Army Reserve Personnel Center in St. Louis.
On April 19, 1988, the ten-count indictment against Hambright was dropped by U.S.
Attorney Joseph Russoniello, on the grounds that, while there was clear evidence of child
abuse (six of the children contracted the venereal disease, chlamydia), there was
insufficient evidence to link Hambright (or the Aquinos) to the crimes. Parents of several of
the victims charged that Russoniello's actions proved that "the Federal system has broken
down in not being able to protect the rights of citizens age three to eight."
Russoniello would later be implicated in efforts to cover up the links between the Nicaraguan
Contras and South American cocaine-trafficking organizations, raising deeper questions
about whether the decision not to prosecute Hambright and Aquino had "national security
implications."
Indeed, on April 22, 1989, the U.S. Army sent letters to the parents of at least 56 of the
children believed to have been molested by Hambright, urging them to have their children
tested for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), because Hambright, a former daycare
center worker, was reported to be a carrier.
On May 13, 1989, the San Jose Mercury reported that Aquino and his wife had been recently
questioned by Army investigators about charges of child molestation by the couple in two
northern California counties, Sonoma and Mendocino. A 9-year-old girl in Santa Rosa,
California, and an 11-year-old boy in Fort Bragg, also in California, separately identified
Aquino as the rapist in a series of 1985 incidents, after they had seen him on television.
Softies on Satan
When the San Francisco Chronicle contacted Army officials at the Presidio to find out if
Aquino's security clearances had been lifted as the result of the pedophile investigations, the
reporters were referred to the Pentagon, where Army spokesman Maj. Greg Rixon told
them, "The question is whether he is trustworthy or can do the job. There is nothing that
would indicate in this case that there is any problem we should be concerned about."
Indeed, the Pentagon had already given its de facto blessings to Aquino's longstanding public association with the Church of Satan and his own successor
"church," the Temple of Set. This, despite the fact that Aquino's Satanic activities
involved overt support for neo-Nazi movements in the United States and Europe.
On October 10, 1983, while traveling in West Germany on "official NATO
business," Aquino had staged a Satanic "working" at the Wewelsburg Castle in

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Bavaria. Aquino wrote a lengthy account of the ritual, in which he invoked Nazi SS
chief Heinrich Himmler: "As the Wewelsburg was conceived by Heinrich Himmler
to be the 'Mittelpunkt der Welt' ('Middle of the World'), and as the focus of the Hall
of the Dead was to be the Gate of that Center, to summon the Powers of Darkness
at their most powerful locus."
As early as April 1978, the U.S. Army had circulated A Handbook for Chaplains "to
facilitate the provision of religious activities." Both the Church of Satan and the
Temple of Set were listed among the "other" religions to be tolerated inside the
U.S. military. A section of the handbook dealing with Satanism stated, "Often
confused with witchcraft, Satanism is the worship of Satan (also known as
Baphomet or Lucifer). Classical Satanism, often involving 'black masses,' human
sacrifices, and other sacrilegious or illegal acts, is now rare. Modern Satanism is
based on both the knowledge of ritual magick and the 'anti-establishment' mood
of the 1960s. It is related to classical Satanism more in image than substance, and
generally focuses on 'rational self-interest with ritualistic trappings.'
No so fast! In 1982, the Temple of Set fissured over the issue of Aquino's emphasis on
Nazism. One leader, Ronald K. Barrett, shortly after his expulsion, wrote that Aquino had
"taken the Temple of Set in an explicitly Satanic direction, with strong overtones of German
National Socialist Nazi occultism ... One fatality has occurred within the Temple membership
during the period covered May 1982-July 1983."
The handbook quoted "Nine Satanic Statements" from the Church of Satan, without
comment. "Statement Seven," as quoted in the handbook, read, "Satan represents man as
just another animal, sometimes better, more often worse than those that walk on all fours,
who, because of his 'divine and intellectual development' has become the most vicious
animal of all."
From 'Psy-Ops' to 'Mindwars'
Aquino's steady rise up the hierarchy of the Satanic world closely paralleled his career
advances inside the U.S. military. According to an official biography circulated by the
Temple of Set, "Dr. Aquino is High Priest and chief executive officer of the Temple of Set,
the nation's principal Satanic church, in which he holds the degree of Ipissimus VI. He
joined the original Church of Satan in 1969, becoming one of its chief officials by 1975 when
the Temple of Set was founded. In his secular profession he is a Lieutenant Colonel, Military
Intelligence, U.S. Army, and is qualified as a Special-Forces officer, Civil Affairs officer, and
Defense Attach. He is a graduate of the Command and General Staff College, the National
Defense University and the Defense Intelligence College, and the State Departments'
Foreign Service Institute."
Indeed, a more detailed curriculum vitae that Aquino provided to EIR, dated March 1989,
claimed that he had gotten his doctorate at the University of California at Santa Barbara in
1980, with his dissertation on "The Neutron Bomb." He listed 16 separate military schools
that he attended during 1968-87, including advanced courses in "Psychological Operations"
at the JFK Special Warfare Center at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, and "Strategic Intelligence"
at the Defense Intelligence College, at Bolling Air Force Base in Washington, D.C.
Aquino was deeply involved in what has been called the "revolution in military affairs"
("RMA"), the introduction of the most kooky "Third Wave," "New Age" ideas into military
long-range planning, which introduced such notions as "information warfare" and "cyberwarfare" into the Pentagon's lexicon.
In the early 1980s, at the same time that Heidi and Alvin Toffler were spinning their
Tavistock "Third Wave" utopian claptrap to some top Air Force brass, Aquino and another
U.S. Army colonel, Paul Vallely, were co-authoring an article for Military Review. Although
the article was never published in the journal, the piece was widely circulated among

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military planners, and was distributed by Aquino's Temple of Set. The article, titled "From
PSYOP to Mindwar: The Psychology of Victory," endorsed some of the ideas published in a
1980 Military Review article by Lt. Col. John Alexander, an affiliate of the Stanford Research
Institute, a hotbed of Tavistock Institute and Frankfurt School "New Age" social engineering.
Aquino and Vallely called for an explicitly Nietzschean form of warfare, which they dubbed
"mindwar." "Like the sword Excalibur," they wrote, "we have but to reach out and seize this
tool; and it can transform the world for us if we have but the courage and the integrity to
guide civilization with it. If we do not accept Excalibur, then we relinquish our ability to
inspire foreign cultures with our morality. If they then devise moralities unsatisfactory to us,
we have no choice but to fight them on a more brutish level."
And what is "mindwar?" "The term is harsh and fear-inspiring," Aquino wrote. "And it should
be: It is a term of attack and victory-not one of rationalization and coaxing and conciliation.
The enemy may be offended by it; that is quite all right as long as he is defeated by it. A
definition is offered: Mindwar is the deliberate, aggressive convincing of all participants in a
war that we will win that war."
For Aquino, "mindwar" is a permanent state of strategic psychological warfare against the
populations of friend and foe nations alike. "In its strategic context, mindwar must reach out
to friends, enemies and neutrals alike across the globe ... through the media possessed by
the United States which have the capabilities to reach virtually all people on the face of the
Earth. These media are, of course, the electronic media-television and radio. State of the art
developments in satellite communication, video recording techniques, and laser and optical
transmission of broadcasts make possible a penetration of the minds of the world such as
would have been inconceivable just a few years ago." Above all else, Aquino argues,
mindwar must target the population of the United States, "by denying enemy
propaganda access to our people, and by explaining and emphasizing to our
people the rationale for our national interest. ... Rather it states a whole truth
that, if it does not now exist, will be forced into existence by the will of the United
States."
Satanic Subversion of the U.S. Military
Jeffrey Steinberg
http://www.theforbiddenknowledge.com/hardtruth/satanic_subversion.htm

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Paul A. Bonacci v. Lawrence E. King


The Franklin Scandal Tried in Civil Court
U.S. government mind control programs, like MK-Ultra and Monarch, directed against helpless victims-human guinea pigs--have been virtually ignored by the Big Media Cartel. On Feb. 27, 1999, however,
U.S. District Court Judge Warren Urbom found former Franklin S&L manager Lawrence E. King guilty of
numerous crimes committed against mind control victim Paul A. Bonacci.
King, serving a 15-year sentence for his role in the theft of $40 million from Franklin, an Omaha, Neb.,
credit union, was ordered by Judge Urbom to pay Bonacci $800,000 in compensatory damages and an
additional $200,000 in punitive damages.
This legal judgement against a notorious perpetrator of satanic-ritual child abuse is unprecedented. In the
Memorandum of Decision, Judge Urbom wrote, "King continually subjected the plaintiff [Bonacci] to
repeated sexual assaults, false imprisonment, infliction of extreme emotional distress, organized and
directed satanic rituals, forced the plaintiff to 'scavenge' for children to be a part of the defendant King's
sexual abuse and pornography ring, forced the plaintiff to engage in numerous sexual contacts with the
defendant King and others and participate in deviate sexual games and masochistic orgies with other
minor children.
"He [Bonacci] has suffered burns, broken fingers, beatings of the head and face and other indignities by
the wrongful actions of the defendant King," the judge declared. "In addition to the misery of going
through the experiences just related over a period of eight years [1980-1988], the plaintiff has suffered the
lingering results to the present time. "He [Bonacci] is a victim of multiple personality disorder, involving as
many as 14 distinct personalities aside from his primary personality," wrote the judge.
"He has given up a desired military career and received threats on his life. He suffers from sleeplessness,
has bad dreams, has difficulty holding a job, is fearful that others are following him, fears getting killed,
has depressing flashbacks, and is verbally violent on occasion, all in connection with the multiple
personality disorder and caused by the wrongful activities of the defendant King."
Franklin Cover-up
Bonacci's lawyer, John DeCamp, has waged a long, lonely and expensive legal campaign in exposing
crimes involving an international pedophile-pornography ring.
In 1991, DeCamp filed a 12-count suit in federal court, charging 16 prominent individuals and institutions,
including Lawrence E. King, Omaha World Herald Publisher Harold Andersen and the Omaha Police
Department with conspiracy to deprive Paul Bonacci of his civil rights. DeCamp's suit detailed slander,
false imprisonment, child abuse, assault, battery and infliction of emotional distress suffered by Bonacci.
The complex case also involved high-level politicians, business leaders, judges and police officials with
connections to the drug distribution/money laundering operations known as "Iran"-Contra which goes
back to then Vice-President George Bush. DeCamp, a former Nebraska State Senator, even wrote a
groundbreaking book about the sordid history of the case called The Franklin Cover-Up: Child Abuse,
Satanism and Murder in Nebraska.
Monarch Project
The horrendous Monarch Project "refers to young people in America who were victims of mind control
experiments run either by U.S. government agencies such as the Central Intelligence Agency or military
intelligence agencies," writes DeCamp. "The story told by Monarch victims--one of whom was Paul
Bonacci--is that they were tortured for the purpose of creating 'multiple personalities' within them,"
DeCamp continues from his book. "These multiple personalities could then be programmed--as spies,
'drug mules,' prostitutes or assassins."
An article by Anton Chaitkin, quoted in the book, states that "professionals probing the child victims of

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'Monarch' say there are clearly two responsible elements at work: the government/military, and
cooperating satanic (or more exactly pagan) cults. These are multi-generation groups, whose parents
donate their own children--who are proudly called 'bloodline' or simply 'blood' cultists--to be smashed with
drugs and electric shock and shaped. Other children are kidnapped and sold into this hell, or are brought
in gradually through day care situations.
"Paul Bonacci and other child victims have given evidence in great depth on the central role of Lt. Col.
Michael Aquino in this depravity," continues Chaitkin. "Aquino, alleged to have recently retired from an
active military role, was long the leader of an Army psychological warfare section which drew on his
'expertise' and personal practices in brainwashing, Satanism, Nazism, homosexual pedophilia and
murder." DeCamp's victory in court and the million dollar judgement is a vindication of mind control
survivors Paul Bonacci, Alisha Owens and others who were falsely imprisoned to keep them from
testifying against their abusers.
Police and FBI Cover-Up
According to the sworn testimony of Noreen Gosch, an activist on behalf of "Missing Children," whose
own 12-year-old son Johnny, a West Des Moines, Iowa paperboy kidnapped in 1991, was drugged and
sold into prostitution and pornography. "There was no law on the books in Iowa or most any other state in
the country specifying that the police would have to act sooner than 72 hours-even though we had five
witnesses that could describe the car, the man and various details of the kidnapping. So I wrote the first
piece of legislation which became the Johnny Gosch Bill.
Gosch also alleges that the FBI were active in quashing a TV expose. "Just prior to the 'America's Most
Wanted' story going on the air...within a week or two of airtime, the FBI in Quantico, Virg. contacted
'America's Most Wanted' and told them to kill the story," Gosch continued. They did not want the Johnny
Gosch story broadcast," she says. The only reason the story went on is because John Walsh is a
personal friend, and he stood up to them, and he said this story goes. This woman does not lie. I've
known her for years. We're going with the story. You can fire me afterwards. We're doing the story.
And they did the story. But the FBI tried to kill this story."
When DeCamp, the attorney, asked her if she knew why, she replied, "Well, of course. It would have
opened up the biggest scandal in the United States, bigger than the Iran-Contra story. Bigger than
President Clinton's infidelities." The Satanic-Military MK-Ultra Mind Control Connection Continuing her
sworn testimony, Noreen Gosch spoke about "the MK-Ultra program developed in the 1950s by the CIA.
It was used to help spy on other countries during the Cold War because they felt that the other countries
were spying on us. It was very successful.
"...Then there was a man by the name of Michael Aquino. He was in the military. He had top Pentagon
clearance. He was a Satanist. He's founded the Temple of Set. And he was also a very close friend of
Anton LaVey [the late founder of the Church of Satan].
The two of them were very active in ritualistic sexual abuse. And they deferred funding from this
government program to use this experimentation upon children where they deliberately split off the
personalities of these children into multiples, so that when they're questioned, or put under oath, or
questioned under lie detector, that unless the operator knows how to question a multiple personality
disorder they turn up with no evidence.
"They use these kids to sexually compromise politicians or anyone else they wish to have control of,"
Gosch continued. "This sounds so far out and so bizarre. I had trouble accepting it in the beginning
myself, until I was presented with the data. We have the proof. In black and white."
DeCamp asked her, "You known that Colonel Aquino was drummed out of the military?" "He was," replied
Gosch. "But then there were no charges filed against him that stuck [the San Francisco Presidio child
abuse allegations]...I know that Michael Aquino has been in Iowa. I know that Michael Aquino has been to

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Offutt Air Force Base [described by numerous victims as a center of mind control-ritual abuse]. I know
that he had contact with many of these children."
Bonacci's Story
One of the most heart-rendering parts of the court transcript is the testimony of Paul A. Bonacci, the mind
control victim survivor, on whose behalf DeCamp sued Lawrence E. King. Bonacci testifed that King took
him on many trips to Washington, D.C., Kansas City, Chicago, Minnesota and Los Angeles, where he
prostituted the kidnapped and drugged youngster to the rich and famous--and depraved.
Bonacci said that "one person I'm not afraid to talk about because Larry King always said him and this
guy were on opposite ends of the field because this guy was a Democrat and Larry King was a
Republican...And this guy--every time I see him on TV, my wife knows my hatred for him...His name is
Barney Frank."
When asked if he "relationships" with him, Bonacci replied, "In Washington, D.C. And also I was sent to a
house, I believe it was in Massachusetts in Boston where I believe it was his house because there's
pictures on the wall with him and different people and stuff, that he had met I guess, but it was in his
basement.
Suffering from Multiple Personality Disorder, currently called Dissassociative Identity Disorder (DID),
Bonacci testified that as one of his alters called Wesley, he lured Johnny Gosch into the van when he was
kidnapped.
"I went up to him, asked him [Gosch] a question," said Bonacci. "At that point he was close enough to the
car where Tony [another kidnapper] had pulled up in the van and they pushed him in the car and they had
a rag with chloroform in the bag that they had us stick over his face. And then put it back in the bag after
he was out...We drove several miles...we met up with a station wagon and a van several times."
After switching vehicles and changing direction, the kidnapping of Johnny Gosch was over.
More Chilling Memories
When the judge asked Paul Bonacci if Lawrence E. King ever sexually abused him, he answered, "Yes,
he did on numerous occasions." How many times would you estimate, the judge then asked. "Probably a
couple of hundred. Within all of the different personalities. Beginning at the time I was approximately 12 or
13 years old. Up until I was about 17 or 18."
And what was his primary duty, according to directions he received from Mr. King, asked the judge. "It
depended on what was needed," replied Bonacci. "Most of the time it was to compromise politicians so he
could get whatever he wanted from them...If they wanted to get something passed, through the legislature
or whatever, he would put some people that were against it in a compromising position, by using us boys
and girls." And how often was he used at these "parties" in Washington? the judge asked.
"Kind of hard to say," replied Bonacci. "Because there were times when there would be four or five in a
night. And I hardly knew, I didn't know most of them. But probably a couple of thousand times." New
ramifications since the judgment in favor of Paul Bonacci contradicts the previous findings of the U.S.
Attorney, Nebraska Attorney General, and the entire judicial system regarding the "Franklin Cover-Up,"
DeCamp has issued an open letter challenging the verdicts of the last ten years of court battles regarding
this case and its principals. DeCamp wrote, "I believe that the U.S. Attorney has no choice but to either
charge the witnesses with perjury having testified under oath in a federal court...or the U.S. Attorney has
an obligation to investigate further into the Franklin saga and reopen matters.
"This time there are pictures [tens of thousands of pornographic photos taken by Rusty Nelson],
continues DeCamp. "This time Rusty Nelson [King's former porno photographer] exists and testified
completely contrary to Chief Wadman's testimony under oath to the legislature. This time Noreen Gosch
validated the credibility and story of Paul Bonacci...At a minimum some Federal or State authority has an
obligation to reopen the Alisha Owen case."

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Alisha Owen, another mind control victim, was sent to prison for 15 years for refusing to recant her
testimony against her abusers, namely former Omaha Police Chief Wadman. Despite this victory, the
mind control cover-up continues-as long as Alisha Owen and others remain in prison.
And the Monarch Program? As more and more survivors appear and give eyewitness accounts of mind
control atrocities, these outrageous human rights abuses-the Secret Holocaust of the 20th Century-will
finally become common knowledge.
Bibliography
Constantine, Alex. Virtual Government: CIA Mind Control Operations in America (1997); $14.95;
Feral House, 2532 Lincoln Blvd., Suite
359, Venice CA 90291.
DeCamp, John. The Franklin Cover-Up: Child Abuse, Satanism and Murder in Nebraska (1996); $12.95;
AWT, Inc., P.O. Box 85461, Lincoln, NE 68501
Dowbenko is CEO of New Improved Entertainment Corp., and can be reached by email at:
u.dowbenko@mailcity.com.

In the United States District Court For the District of Nebraska


Paul A. Bonacci, Plaintiff 4:CV91-3037
vs
Lawrence E. King, Defendant
Memorandum of Decision
Filed February 22, 1999
On February 27, 1998, I found that default judgment should be entered against the defendant
Lawrence E. King in favor of the plaintiff, Paul A. Bonacci. A trial on the issue of the damages
due the plaintiff by that defendant was had on February 5, 1999.
Two counts are alleged against the defendant: King in the complaint. Count V alleges a
conspiracy with public officers to deprive the plaintiff of his civil rights, designed to continue to
subject the plaintiff to emotional abuse and to prevent him from informing authorities of
criminal conduct. Count VIII charges battery, false imprisonment, infliction of emotional
distress, negligence and conspiracy to deprive the plaintiff of civil rights. Between December
1980 and 1988, the complaint alleges, the defendant King continually subjected the plaintiff to
repeated sexual assaults, false imprisonments, infliction of extreme emotional distress,
organized and directed satanic rituals, forced the plaintiff to "scavenge" for children to be a part
of the defendant King's sexual abuse and pornography ring, forced the plaintiff to engage in
numerous masochistic orgies with other minor children. The defendant King's default has made
those allegations true against him. The issue now is the relief to be granted monetarily.
The now uncontradicted evidence is that the plaintiff has suffered much. He has suffered burns,
broken fingers, beating of the head and face and other indignities by the wrongful actions of the
defendant King. In addition to the misery of going through the experiences just related over a
period of eight years, the plaintiff has suffered the lingering results to the present time. He is a
victim of multiple personality disorder, involving as many as fourteen distinct personalities aside
from his primary personality. He has given up a desired military career and received threats on
his life. He suffers from sleeplessness, has bad dreams, has difficulty in holding a job, is fearful

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that others are following him, fears getting killed, has depressing flashbacks, and is verbally
violent on occasion, all in connection with the multiple personality disorder and caused by the
wrongful activities of the defendant King.
Almost certainly the defendant King has little remaining financial resources, but a fair judgment
to compensate the plaintiff is necessary. For the sixteen years since the abuse of the plaintiff
began I conclude that a fair compensation for the damages he has suffered is $800,000. A
punitive damage award also is justified, but the amount needs to be limited because of the
small effect that such a judgment would have on the defendant King, given his financial
condition and presence in prison. I deem the punitive damage award of $200,000 to be
adequate.
Dated February 19, 1999.
By the Court
/s/Warren Urborn
United States Senior District Judge

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The calculated and technological entry into another persons mind is an act of
monumental barbarism which obliterates perhaps with the twiddling of a dial
the history and civilisation of mans mental development. It is more than an
abuse of human rights, it is the destruction of meaning.

For any one who is forced into the hell of living with an unseen mental
rapist, the effort to stay sane is beyond the scope of tolerable
endurance. The imaginative capacity of the ordinary mind cannot
encompass the horror of it.
We have attempted to come to terms with the experiments of the Nazis in concentration
camps. We now have the prospect of systematic control authorized by men who issue
instructions through satellite communications for the destruction of societies while they are
driving new Jaguars and Mercedes, and going to the opera.
By Carol Smith
On the Need for New Criteria of Diagnosis of Psychosis in the Light of Mind Invasive Technology
Global Research
October 18, 2007

On the Need for New Criteria of Diagnosis of Psychosis in the Light of


Mind Invasive Technology
By Carole Smith
Global Research, October 18, 2007
Journal of Psycho-Social Studies, 2003
ESP - Mental Telepathy - Remote Viewing & The US Government Research Documents Sept 11 2007 by
THE ADVANCED MEDIA GROUP

"We have failed to comprehend that the result of the technology that originated in the years of
the arms race between the Soviet Union and the West, has resulted in using satellite
technology not only for surveillance and communication systems but also to lock on to human
beings, manipulating brain frequencies by directing laser beams, neural-particle beams,
electro-magnetic radiation, sonar waves, radiofrequency radiation (RFR), soliton waves,
torsion fields and by use of these or other energy fields which form the areas of study for
astro-physics. Since the operations are characterised by secrecy, it seems inevitable that the
methods that we do know about, that is, the exploitation of the ionosphere, our natural shield,
are already outdated as we begin to grasp the implications of their use." [Excerpt]
For those of us who were trained in a psychoanalytical approach to the patient which was characterized as
patient centered, and which acknowledged that the effort to understand the world of the other person
entailed an awareness that the treatment was essentially one of mutuality and trust, the American
Psychiatry Associations Diagnostic Criteria for Schizotypal personality was always a cause for alarm. The
Third Edition (1987) of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) required that there be
at least four of the characteristics set out for a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and an approved selection of
four could be: magical thinking, telepathy or sixth sense; limited social contact; odd speech; and oversensitivity to criticism. By 1994, the required number of qualifying characteristics were reduced to two or
more, including, say, hallucinations and negative symptoms such as affective flattening, or disorganised

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or incoherent speech or only one if the delusions were bizarre or the hallucination consisted of a voice
keeping up a running commentary on the persons behaviour or thoughts. The next edition of the DSM is
not due until the year 2010.
In place of a process of a labeling which brought alienation and often detention, sectioning, and mind
altering anti-psychotic medication, many psychoanalysts and psychotherapists felt that even in severe
cases of schizoid withdrawal we were not necessarily wasting our time in attempting to restore health by
the difficult work of unraveling experiences in order to make sense of an illness. In this way,
psychoanalysis has been, in its most radical form, a critic of a society, which failed to exercise imaginative
empathy when passing judgment on people. The work of Harry Stack Sullivan, Frieda Fromm-Reichmann,
Harold Searles or R.D. Laing - all trained as psychiatrists and all of them rebels against the standard
procedures provided a way of working with people very different from the psychiatric model, which
seemed to encourage a society to repress its sickness by making a clearly split off group the carriers of it.
A psychiatrist in a mental hospital once joked to me, with some truth, when I commented on the number
of carrier bags carried by many of the medicated patients around the hospital grounds, that they assessed
the progress of the patient in terms of the reduction of the number of carrier bags. It is too often difficult
to believe, however, when hearing the history of a life, that the schizophrenic was not suffering the
effects of having been made, consciously and unconsciously, the carefully concealed carrier of the ills of
the family.
For someone who felt his mind was going to pieces, to be put into the stressful situation of the psychiatric
examination, even when the psychiatrist acquitted himself with kindness, the situation of the assessment
procedure itself, can be an effective way to drive someone crazy, or more crazy. (Laing, 1985, p 17).
But if the accounting of bizarre experiences more or less guaranteed you a new label or a trip
to the psychiatric ward, there is even more reason for a new group of people to be outraged
about how their symptoms are being diagnosed. A doubly cruel sentence is being imposed on
people who are the victims of the most appalling abuse by scientific-military experiments, and
a totally uncomprehending society is indifferent to their evidence. For the development of a
new class of weaponry now has the capability of entering the brain and mind and body of
another person by technological means.
Harnessing neuroscience to military capability, this technology is the result of decades of research and
experimentation, most particularly in the Soviet Union and the United States. (Welsh, 1997, 2000) We
have failed to comprehend that the result of the technology that originated in the years of the arms race
between the Soviet Union and the West, has resulted in using satellite technology not only for surveillance
and communication systems but also to lock on to human beings, manipulating brain frequencies by
directing laser beams, neural-particle beams, electro-magnetic radiation, sonar waves, radiofrequency
radiation (RFR), soliton waves, torsion fields and by use of these or other energy fields which form the
areas of study for astro-physics. Since the operations are characterized by secrecy, it seems inevitable
that the methods that we do know about, that is, the exploitation of the ionosphere, our natural shield,
are already outdated as we begin to grasp the implications of their use. The patents deriving from Bernard
J. Eastlunds work provide the ability to put unprecedented amounts of power in the Earths atmosphere at
strategic locations and to maintain the power injection level, particularly if random pulsing is employed, in
a manner far more precise and better controlled than accomplished by the prior art, the detonation of
nuclear devices at various yields and various altitudes. (ref High Frequency Active Auroral Research
Project, HAARP).
Some patents, now owned by Raytheon, describe how to make nuclear sized explosions
without radiation and describe power beam systems, electromagnetic pulses and over-thehorizon detection systems. A more disturbing use is the system developed for manipulating and
disturbing the human mental process using pulsed radio frequency radiation (RFR), and their
use as a device for causing negative effects on human health and thinking. The victim, the
innocent civilian target is locked on to, and unable to evade the menace by moving around. The
beam is administered from space. The Haarp facility as military technology could be used to
broadcast global mind-control, as a system for manipulating and disturbing the human mental
process using pulsed radio frequency (RFR). The super-powerful radio waves are beamed to
the ionosphere, heating those areas, thereby lifting them. The electromagnetic waves bounce
back to the earth and penetrate human tissue.

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Dr Igor Smirnov, of the Institute of Psycho-Correction in Moscow, says: It is easily conceivable that some
Russian Satan, or lets say Iranian or any other Satan, as long as he owns the appropriate means and
finances, can inject himself into every conceivable computer network, into every conceivable radio or
television broadcast, with relative technological ease, even without disconnecting cablesand intercept the
radio waves in the ether and modulate every conceivable suggestion into it. This is why such technology is
rightfully feared.(German TV documentary, 1998).
If we were concerned before about diagnostic criteria being imposed according to the classification of
recognizable symptoms, we have reason now to submit them to even harsher scrutiny. The development
over the last decades since the Cold War arms race has included as a major strategic category, psychoelectronic weaponry, the ultimate aim of which is to enter the brain and mind. Unannounced, undebated
and largely unacknowledged by scientists or by the governments who employ them technology to enter
and control minds from a distance has been unleashed upon us. The only witnesses who are speaking
about this terrible technology with its appalling implications for the future, are the victims themselves
and those who are given the task of diagnosing mental illness are attempting to silence them by
classifying their evidence and accounts as the symptoms of schizophrenia, while the dispensers of psychic
mutilation and programmed pain continue with their work, aided and unopposed.
If it was always crucial, under the threat of psychiatric sectioning, to carefully screen out any sign of
confused speech, negativity, coldness, suspicion, bizarre thoughts, sixth sense, telepathy, premonitions,
but above all the sense that others can feel my feelings, and that someone seemed to be keeping up a
running commentary on your thoughts and behaviour, then reporting these to a psychiatrist, or anyone
else for that matter who was not of a mind to believe that such things as mind-control could exist, would
be the end of your claim to sanity and probably your freedom. For one of the salient characteristics of
mind-control is the running commentary, which replicates so exactly, and surely not without design, the
symptoms of schizophrenia. Part of the effort is to remind the victim that they are constantly under
control or surveillance. Programmes vary, but common forms of reminders are electronic prods and
nudges, body noises, twinges and cramps to all parts of the body, increasing heart beats, applying
pressures to internal organs all with a personally codified system of comments on thoughts and events,
designed to create stress, panic and desperation. This is mind control at its most benign. There is reason
to fear the use of beamed energy to deliver lethal assaults on humans, including cardiac arrest, and
bleeding in the brain.
It is the government system of secrecy, which has facilitated this appalling prospect. There have been
warning voices. the government secrecy system as a whole is among the most poisonous legacies of
the Cold War the Cold War secrecy (which) also mandate(s) Active Deceptiona security manual for
special access programs authorizing contractors to employ cover stories to disguise their activities. The
only condition is that cover stories must be believable. (Aftergood & Rosenberg, 1994; Bulletin of Atomic
Scientist). Paranoia has been aided and abetted by government intelligence agencies.
In the United Kingdom the fortifications against any disturbing glimmer of awareness of such actual or
potential outrages against human rights and social and political abuses seem to be cast in concrete.
Complete with crenellations, ramparts and parapets, the stronghold of nescience reigns supreme. To
borrow Her Majesty the Queens recent observation: There are forces at work of which we are not
aware. One cannot say that there is no British Intelligence on the matter, as it is quite unfeasible that
the existence of the technology is not classified information. Indeed it is a widely held belief that the
women protesting against the presence of cruise missiles at Greenham Common were victims of electromagnetic radiation at gigahertz frequency by directed energy weapons, and that their symptoms,
including cancer, were consistent with such radiation effects as reported by Dr Robert Becker who has
been a constantly warning voice against the perils of electro-magnetic radiation. The work of Allen Frey
suggests that we should consider radiation effects as a grave hazard producing increased permeability of
the blood-brain barrier, and weakening crucial defenses of the central nervous system against toxins.
(Becker, 1985, p. 286). Dr Becker has written about nuclear magnetic resonance as a familiar tool in
medecine known as magnetic resonance imaging or MRI. Calcium efflux is the result of cyclotronic
resonance which latter can be explained thus: If a charged particle or ion is exposed to a steady magnetic
field in space, it will begin to go into a circular or orbital, motion at right angles to the applied magnetic
field.The speed with which it orbits will be determined by the ratio between the charge and the mass of
the particle and by the strength of the magnetic field. (Becker, 1990,p.235) The implications of this for

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wide scale aggression by using a combination of radar based energy and the use of nuclear resonating are
beyond the scope of the writer, but appear to be worth the very serious consideration of physicists in
assessing how they might be used against human beings.
Amongst medical circles, however, it has so far not been possible for the writer to find a neuroscientist,
neurologist or a psychiatrist, nor for that matter, a general medical practitioner, who acknowledges even
the potential for technological manipulation of the nervous system as a problem requiring their
professional interest. There has been exactly this response from some of Englands most eminent
practitioners of the legal profession, not surprisingly, because the information about such technology is
not made available to them. They would refer anyone attempting to communicate mind- harassment as a
psychiatric problem, ignoring the crime that is being committed.
The aim here is not to attempt a comprehensive history and development of the technology of mind
control. These very considerable tasks - which have to be done under circumstances of the most extreme
difficulty - have been addressed with clarity and courage by others, who live with constant harm and
threats, not least of all contemptuous labelling. Their work can be readily accessed on the internet
references given at the end of this paper. For a well-researched outline of the historical development of
electro-magnetic technology the reader should refer to the timeline of dates and electromagnetic weapon
development by Cheryl Welsh, president of Citizens against Human Rights Abuse. (Welsh 1997; 2001).
There are at least one and a half thousand people worldwide who state they are being targeted. Mojmir
Babacek, now domiciled in his native Czech Republic, after eight years of residence in the United States in
the eighties, has made a painstakingly meticulous review of the technology, and continues his research.
(Babacek 1998, 2002)
We are concerned here with reinforcing in the strongest possible terms:
i) The need for such abuses to human rights and the threats to democracy to be called to consciousness,
and without further delay.
ii) To analyse the reasons why people might defend themselves from becoming conscious of the existence
of such threats.
iii) To address the urgent need for intelligence, imagination, and information
compassion - in dealing with the victims of persecution from this technology, and

- not to mention

iv) To alert a sleeping society, to the imminent threats to their freedom from the threat from fascist and
covert operations who have in all probability gained control of potentially lethal weaponry of the type we
are
describing.

It is necessary to emphasise that at present there is not even the means for victims to gain medical
attention for the effects of radiation from this targeting. Denied the respect of credulity of being used as
human guinea pigs, driven to suicide by the breakdown of their lives, they are treated as insane at best
regarded as sad cases. Since the presence of a permanent other in ones mind and body is by definition
an act of the most intolerable cruelty, people who are forced to bear it but who refuse to be broken by it,
have no other option than to turn themselves into activists, their lives consumed by the battle against
such atrocities, their energies directed to alerting and informing the public of things they dont want to
hear
or
understand
about
evil
forces
at
work
in
their
society.
It is necessary, at this point, to briefly outline a few one might say the precious few attempts by public
servants
to
verify
the
existence
and
dangers
inherent
in
this
field:

In January 1998, an annual public meeting of the French National Bioethics Committee was held in
Paris. Its chairman, Jean-Pierre Changeux, a neuroscientist at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, told the
meeting that advances in cerebral imaging make the scope for invasion of privacy immense.
Although the equipment needed is still highly specialized, it will become commonplace and capable
of being used at a distance. That will open the way for abuses such as invasion of personal liberty,

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control of behaviour and brainwashing. These are far from being science-fiction concernsand
constitute a serious risk to society. (Nature. Vol 391, 1998.
In January 1999, the European Parliament passed a resolution where it calls for an international
convention introducing a global ban on all development and deployment of weapons which might
enable any form of manipulation of human beings. It is our conviction that this ban can not be
implemented without the global pressure of the informed general public on the governments. Our
major objective is to get across to the general public the real threat which these weapons
represent for human rights and democracy and to apply pressure on the governments and
parliaments around the world to enact legislature which would prohibit the use of these devices to
both
government
and
private
organisations
as
well
as
individuals.
(Plenary
sessions/Europarliament, 1999)
In October 2001, Congressman Dennis J. Kucinich introduced a bill to the House of
Representatives which, it was hoped would be extremely important in the fight to expose and stop
psycho-electronic mind control experimentation on involuntary, non-consensual citizens. The Bill
was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committee on Armed Services
and International Relations. In the original bill a ban was sought on exotic weapons including
electronic, psychotronic or information weapons, chemtrails, particle beams, plasmas,
electromagnetic radiation, extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultra low frequency (ULF) energy
radiation, or mind control technologies. Despite the inclusion of a prohibition of the basing of
weapons in space, and the use of weapons to destroy objects or damage objects in space, there is
no mention in the revised bill of any of the aforementioned mind-invasive weaponry, nor of the use
of satellite or radar or other energy based technology for deploying or developing technology
designed for deployment against the minds of human beings. (Space Preservation Act, 2002)

In reviewing the development of the art of mind-invasive technology there are a few outstanding
achievements to note:
In 1969 Dr Jose Delgado, a Yale psychologist, published a book: Physical Control of the Mind: Towards a
Psychocivilized Society. In essence, he displayed in practical demonstrations how, by means of electrical
stimulation of the brain which had been mapped out in its relations between different points and activities,
functions and sensations, - by means of electrical stimulation, how the rhythm of breathing and
heartbeat could be changed, as well as the function of most of the viscera, and gall bladder secretion.
Frowning, opening and closing of eyes and mouth, chewing, yawning, sleep, dizziness, epileptic seizures in
healthy persons were induced. The intensity of feelings could be controlled by turning the knob, which
controlled the intensity of the electric current. He states at the end of his book the hope that the new
power will remain limited to scientists or some charitable elite for the benefit of a psychocivilized society.
In the 1980s the neuromagnetometer was developed which functions as an antenna and could monitor
the patterns emerging from the brain. (In the seventies the scientists had discovered that electromagnetic
pulses enabled the brain to be stimulated through the skull and other tissues, so there was no more need
to implant electrodes in the brain). The antenna, combined with the computer, could localize the points in
the brain where the brain events occur. The whole product is called the magnetoencephalograph.
In January 2000 the Lockheed Martin neuroengineer Dr John D. Norseen, was quoted (US News and World
Report, 2000) as hoping to turn the electrohypnomentalaphone, a mind reading machine, into science
fact. Dr Norseen, a former Navy pilot, claims his interest in the brain stemmed from reading a Soviet book
in the 1980s claiming that research on the mind would revolutionize the military and society at large. By
a process of deciphering the brains electrical activity, electromagnetic pulsations would trigger the release
of the brains own transmitters to fight off disease, enhance learning, or alter the minds visual images,
creating a synthetic reality. By this process of BioFusion, (Lockheed Martin, 2000) information is placed
in a database, and a composite model of the brain is created. By viewing a brain scan recorded by
(functional) magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machine, scientists can tell what the person was doing at
the time of recording say reading or writing, or recognise emotions from love to hate. If this research
pans out, says Norseen, you can begin to manipulate what someone is thinking even before they know
it. But Norseen says he is agnostic on the moral ramifications, that hes not a mad scientist just a
dedicated one. The ethics dont concern me, he says, but they should concern someone else.

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The next big thing looks like being something which we might refer to as a neurocomputer but it need
not resemble a laptop it may be reducible to whatever size is convenient for use, such as a small mobile
phone. Arising from a break-through and exploitation of PSI-phenomena, it may be modelled on the
nervous-psychic activity of the brain that is, as an unbalanced, unstable system of neurotransmitters
and interacting neurones, the work having been derived from the creation of a copy of a living brain
accessed
by
chance,
and
ESP
and
worked
on
by
design.

On receiving a communication from the writer on the feasibility of a machine being on the horizon which,
based on the project of collecting electromagnetic waves emanating from the brain and transmitting them
into another brain that would read a persons thoughts, or using the same procedure in order to impose
somebody elses thoughts on another brain and in this way direct his actions there was an unequivocal
answer from IBM at executive level that there was no existing technology to create such a computer in the
foreseeable future. This is at some variance with the locating of a patent numbered 03951134 on the
Internet pages of IBM Intellectual Property Network for a device, described in the patent, as capable of
picking up at a distance the brain waves of a person, process them by computer and emit correcting
waves which will change the original brain waves. Similar letters addressed to each of the four top
executives of Apple Inc., in four individual letters marked for their personal attention, produced absolutely
no response. This included the ex- Vice President of the United States, Mr Al Gore, newly elected to the
Board of Directors of Apple.
Enough people have been sufficiently concerned by the reports of victims of mind control abuse to
organise The Geneva Forum, in 2002, held as a joint initiative of the Quaker United Nations Office,
Geneva; the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research; the International Committee of the Red
cross, and the Human Rights Watch (USA), and Citizens against Human Rights Abuses (CAHRA); and the
Programme for Strategic and International Security Studies, which was represented by the Professor and
Senior Lecturer from the Department of Peace Studies at the University of Bradford.
In England, on May 25, 1995, the Guardian newspaper in the U.K. carried an article based on a report by
Nic Lewer, the peace researcher from Bradford University, which listed more than 30 different lines of
research into new age weaponssome of the research sounds even less rational. There are, according to
Lewer, plans for pulsed microwave beams to destroy enemy electronics, and separate plans for very-lowfrequency sound beams to induce vomiting, bowel spasm, epileptic seizures and also crumble masonry.
Further, the article states, There are plans for mind control with the use of 'psycho-correction messages
transmitted by subliminal audio and visual stimuli. There is also a plan for psychotronic weapons
apparently the projection of consciousness to other locations and another to use holographic projection
to disseminate propaganda and misinformation. (Welsh, Timeline). Apart from this notable exception it is
difficult to locate any public statement of the problem in the United Kingdom.
Unfortunately, the problem of credulity does not necessarily cease with frequent mention, as in the United
States, in spite of the number of reported cases, there is still not sufficient public will to make strenuous
protest against what is not only already happening, but against what will develop if left unchecked. It
appears that the administration believes that it is necessary and justifiable, in the interests of national
security, to make experimental human sacrifices, to have regrettable casualties, for there to be collateral
damage, to suffer losses in place of strife or war. This is, of course, totally incompatible with any claims
to be a democratic nation which respects the values of human life and democracy, and such an
administration which tutors its servants in the ways of such barbaric tortures must be completely
condemned
as
uncivilised
and
hypocritical.

Disbelief as a Defence Mechanism


In the face of widespread disbelief about mind-control, it seems worth analysing the basis of the
mechanisms employed to maintain disbelief:
i) In the sixties, Soviet dissidents received a significant measure of sympathy and indignant protest from
western democracies on account of their treatment, most notedly the abuse of psychiatric methods of
torture to which they were subjected. It is noteworthy that we seem to be able to access credulity,
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express feelings of indignant support when we can identify with victims, who share and support our own
value system, and who, in this particular historical case, reinforced our own values, since they were
protesting against a political system which also threatened us at that time. Psychologically, it is equally
important to observe that support from a safe distance, and the benefits to the psyche of attacking a splitoff bad father, the soviet authorities in this case, presents no threat to ones internal system; indeed it
relieves internal pressures. On the other hand, recognizing and denouncing a similar offence makes very
much greater psychic demands of us when it brings us into conflict with our own environment, our own
security, our own reality. The defence against disillusion serves to suppress paranoia that our father
figure, the president, the prime minister, our governments - might not be what they would like to be seen
to be.
ii) The need to deposit destructive envy and bad feelings elsewhere, on account of the inability of the ego
to acknowledge ownership of them - reinforces the usefulness of persons or groups, which will serve to
contain those, disowned, projected feelings which arouse paranoid anxieties. The concepts of mindinvasion strike at the very heart of paranoid anxiety, causing considerable efforts to dislodge them from
the psyche. The unconscious identification of madness with dirt or excrement is an important aspect of
anal aggression, triggering projective identification as a defence.
iii) To lay oneself open to believing that a person is undergoing the experience of being invaded mentally
and physically by an unseen manipulator requires very great efforts in the self to manage dread.

iv) The defence against the unknown finds expression in the split between theory and practice; between
the scientist as innovator and the society who can make the moral decisions about his inventions;
between fact and science fiction, the latter of which can present preposterous challenges to the
imagination without undue threat, because it serves to reinforce a separation from the real.
v) Identification with the aggressor. Sadistic fantasies, unconscious and conscious, being transferred on to
the aggressor and identified with, aid the repression of fear of passivity, or a dread of punishment. This
mechanism acts to deny credulity to the victim who represents weakness. This is a common feature of
satanic sects.
vi) The liberal humanist tradition which denies the worst destructive capacities of man in the effort to
sustain the belief in the great continuity of cultural and scientific tradition; the fear, in ones own past
development, of not being ongoing, can produce the psychic effect of reversal into the opposite to shield
against aggressive feelings. This becomes then the exaggerated celebration of the new as the affirmation
of human genius which will ultimately be for the good of mankind, and which opposes warning voices
about scientific advances as being pessimistic, unenlightened, unprogressive and Luddite. Strict
adherence to this liberal position can act as overcompensation for a fear of envious spoiling of good
possessions, i.e. cultural and intellectual goods.
vii) Denial by displacement is also employed to ignore the harmful aspects of technology. What may be
harmful for the freedom and good of society can be masked and concealed by the distribution of new and
entertaining novelties. The technology, which puts a camera down your gut for medical purposes, is also
used to limit your freedom by surveillance. The purveyors of innovative technology come up with all sorts
of new gadgets, which divert, entertain and feed the acquisitive needs of insatiable shoppers, and bolster
the economy. The theme of Everythings up to date in Kansas City only takes on a downside when
individual experience exploding breast implants, say takes the gilt off the gingerbread. Out of every
innovation for evil (i.e. designed for harming and destroying) some good (i.e. public diversion or
entertainment) can be promoted for profit or crowd-pleasing.
viii) Nasa is sending a spacecraft to Mars, or so we are told. They plan to trundle across the Martian
surface searching for signs of water and life. We do not hear dissenting voices about its feasibility.
Why is it that, when a person accounts that their mind is being disrupted and they are being persecuted
by an unseen method of invasive technology, that we cannot bring ourselves to believe them? Could it be
that the horror involved in the empathic identification required brings the shutters down? Conversely, the
shared experience of the blasting of objects into space brings with it the possibilities of shared potency or
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the relief that resonates in the unconscious of a massive projection or evacuation a shared experience
which is blessed in the name of mans scientific genius.
ix) The desire not to be taken in, not to be taken for a fool, provides one of the most powerful and
common
defence
mechanism
against
credulity.

Power, Paranoia and Unhealthy Governments


The ability to be the bearer and container of great power without succumbing to the pressures of latent
narcissistic psychoses is an important matter too little considered. The effect of holding power and the
expectation and the need to be seen as capable of sustaining it, if not exercising it, encourages
omnipotence of thought. In the wake of this, a narcissistic overevaluation of the subjects own mental
processes may set in. In the effort to hold himself together as the possessor, container and executor of
power, he (or indeed, she) may also, undergo a process of splitting which allows him, along with others,
to bear enthralled witness of himself in this illustrious role. This may mean that the seat of authority is
vacated, at least at times. The splitting process between the experiencing ego and the perceiving ego
allows the powerful leader to alternate his perception of himself inside and outside, sometimes beside,
himself. With the reinforcement of himself from others as his own narcissistic object, reality testing is
constrained. In this last respect, he has much in common with the other powerful figure of the age, the
movie star. or by those, in Freuds words, who are ruined by success.
In a world, which is facing increasing disillusion about the gulf between the public platforms on which
governments are elected, and the contingencies and pragmatics of retaining defence strategies and
economic investments, the role of military and intelligence departments, with their respective tools of
domination and covert infiltration, is increasingly alarming. Unaccountable to the public, protected from
exposure and prosecution by their immunity, licensed to lie as well as to kill, it is in the hands of these
agents that very grave threats to human rights and freedom lies. Empowered to carry out aggression
through classified weapon experimentation which is undetectable, these men and women are also open to
corruption from lucrative offers of financial reward from powerful and sinister groups who can utilize their
skills, privileged knowledge and expertise for frankly criminal and fascist purposes.
Our information about the psychological profiles of those who are employed to practice surveillance on
others is limited, but it is not difficult to imagine the effects on the personality that would ensue with the
persistent practice of such an occupation, so constantly exposed to the perversions. One gains little
snatches of insight here and there. In his book on CIA mind control research (Marks, 1988), John Marks
quotes a CIA colleagues joke (always revealing for personality characteristics): If you could find the
natural radio frequency of a persons sphincter, you could make him run out of the room real fast. (One
wonders if the same amusement is derived from the ability to apply, say infra-sound above 130 decibels,
which is said to cause stoppage of the heart, according to one victim/activist from his readings of a report
for the Russian Parliament.)
Left to themselves, these servants of the state may well feel exempt from the process of moral selfscrutiny, but the work must be dehumanising for the predator as well as the prey. It is probably true that
the need to control their agents in the field was an incentive to develop the methods in use today. It is
also an effectively brutalising training for persecuting others. Meanwhile the object, the prey, in a bid for
not only for survival but also in a desperate effort to warn his or her fellows about what is going on,
attempts to turn himself into a quantum physicist, a political researcher, a legal sleuth, an activist, a
neurologist, a psychologist, a physiologist his own doctor, since he cannot know what effects this
freakish treatment might have on his body, let alone his mind. There are always new methods to try out
which might prove useful in the search to find ways of disabling and destroying opponents air injected
into brains and lungs, lasers to strike down or blind, particle beams, sonar waves, or whatever
combination of energies to direct, or destabilise or control.
Science and Scepticism
Scientists can be bought, not just by governments, but also by sinister and secret societies. Universities
can be funded by governments to develop technology for unacceptably inhumane uses. The same people
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who deliver the weapons - perhaps respected scientists and academics - may cite the acceptable side of
scientific discoveries, which have been developed by experimenting on unacknowledged, unfortunate
people. In a cleaned up form, they are then possibly celebrated as a break-through in the understanding
of the natural laws of the universe. It is not implausible that having delivered the technical means for
destruction, the innovator and thinker goes on, wearing a different hat, to receive his (or her) Nobel Prize.
There are scientists who have refused to continue to do work when they were approached by CIA and
Soviet representatives. These are the real heroes of science.
In the power struggle, much lies at stake in being the first to gain control of ultimate mind-reading and
mind-controlling technology. Like the nuclear bomb, common ownership would seem by any sane
calculations to cancel out the advantage of possession, but there is always a race to be the first to possess
the latest ultimate means of mass destruction. The most desirable form is one that can be directed at
others without contaminating oneself in the process - one that can be undetected and neatly, economically
and strategically delivered. We should be foolish to rule out secret organisations, seeing threat only from
undemocratic countries and known terrorist groups.
As consumers in a world which is increasingly one in which shopping is the main leisure activity, we should
concern ourselves to becoming alert to the ways in which human welfare may have been sacrificed to
produce an awesome new gadget. It may be the cause for celebration for the innovator, but brought
about as the result of plugging in or dialling up the living neuronal processes of an enforced
experimentee. If we are concerned not to eat boiled eggs laid by battery hens, we might not regard it
morally irrelevant to scrutinise the large corporations producing electronically innovative software. We
might also be wary about the origins of the sort of bland enticements of dating agencies who propose
finding your ideal partner by matching up brain frequencies and bio-rhythms.
We do not know enough about the background of such technology, nor how to evaluate it ethically. We do
not know about its effects on the future, because we are not properly informed. If governments persist in
concealing the extent of their weapon capability in the interests of defence, they are also leaving their
citizens disempowered of the right to protest against their deployment. More alarmingly, they are leaving
their citizens exposed to their deployment by ruthless organisations whose concerns are exactly the
opposite
of
democracy
and
human
rights.

Back in the United Kingdom


Meanwhile, back in England, the Director of the Oxford Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Professor Colin
Blakemore, also the elective Chief Executive of the Medical Research Council writes to the author that he
... knows of no technology (not even in the wildest speculations of neuroscientists) for scanning and
collecting neuronal data at a distance. (Blakemore, 2003, ) This certitude is at distinct variance with the
fears of other scientists in Russia and the United States, and not least of all with the fears of the French
neuroscientist, Jean-Pierre Changeux of the French National Bioethics Committee already quoted (see
page 5). It is also very much at odds with the writing of Dr Michael Persinger from the Behavioural
Neuroscience Laboratory at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. His article On the
Possibility of Directly Accessing Every Human Brain by Electromagnetic Induction of Algorithms (1995),
he describes the ways that individual differences among human brains can be overcome and comes to a
conclusion about the technological possibilities of influencing a major part of the approximately six billion
people on this planet without mediation through classical sensory modalities but by generating
electromagnetic induction of fundamental algorithms in the atmosphere. Dr Persingers work is referred to
by Captain John Tyler whose work for the American Air Force and Aerospace programmes likens the
human nervous system to a radio receiver. (1990)
Very recently the leading weekly cultural BBC radio review had as one of its guests, the eminent astrophysicist and astronomer royal, Sir Martin Rees, who has recently published a book, Our Final Century,
in which he makes a sober and reasoned case for the fifty-fifty chance that millions of people, probably in
a third-world country could be wiped out in the near future through biotechnology and bio-terrorism
by error or malign release. He spoke of this devastation as possibly coming from small groups or cults,
based in the United States. few individuals with the right technology to cause absolute mayhem. He

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also said that in this century, human nature is no longer a fixed commodity, that perhaps we should
contemplate the possibility that humans would even have implants in the brain.
The other guests on this programme were both concerned with Shakespeare, one a theatre producer and
the other a writer on Shakespeare, while his remaining guest was a young woman who had a website
called Spiked, the current theme of which was Panic Attack, that is to say, Attack on Panic. This guest
vigorously opposed what she felt was the pessimism of Sir Martin, regarding his ideas as essentially
eroding trust, and inducing panic. This reaction seems to typify one way of dealing with threat and
anxiety, and demonstrates the difficulty that a warning voice, even from a man of the academic
distinction of Martin Rees, has in alerting people to that which they do not want to hear. This flight
reaction was reinforced by the presenter who summed up the mornings discussion at the end of the
programme
with
the
words:
We
have
a
moral!
Less
panic,
more
Shakespeare!

The New Barbarism


Since access to a mind-reading machine will enable the operator to access the ideas of another person, we
should prepare ourselves for a new world order in which ideas will be, as it were, up for grabs. We need
not doubt that the contents of anothers mind will be scooped up, scooped out, sorted through as if the
event was a jumble sale. The legal profession would therefore be well advised to consider the laws on
Intellectual Property very judiciously in order to acquit themselves with any degree of authenticity. We
should accustom ourselves to the prospect of recognizing our work coming out of the mouth of another.
The prospect of wide-scale fraud, and someone posturing in your stolen clothes will not be a pretty sight.
The term personal mind enhancement is slipping in through the back door, to borrow a term used by
the Co-Director of the Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics, and it is being done through
technologically-induced mental co-ercion mind raping and looting. In place of, or in addition to, cocaine,
we may expect to see mind-enhanced performances on live television.
The brave new science of neuropsychiatry and brain mapping hopes to find very soon, with the fMRI
scanner - this brand new toy that scientists have got their hands on - the blob for love and the blob
for guilt, (BBC Radio 4: All in the Mind, 5 March, 2003). Soon we will be able to order a brain scan for
anyone whose behaviour strikes us as odd or bizarre, and the vicissitudes of a life need no longer trouble
us in our diagnostic assessments. In his recent Reith Lectures for the BBC (2003), Professor
Ramachandran, the celebrated neuroscientist from the La Hoya Institute in San Diego, California, has
demonstrated for us many fascinating things that the brain can do. He has talked to us about personality
disorders and shown that some patients, who have suffered brain damage from head injury, do not have
the capacity to recognise their mothers. Others feel that they are dead. And indeed he has found brain
lesions in these people. In what seems to be an enormous but effortless leap, the self-styled kid in a
candy store is now hoping to prove that all schizophrenics, have damage to the right hemisphere of the
brain, which results in the inability to distinguish between fantasy (sic) and reality. Since Professor
Ramachandran speaks of schizophrenia in the same breath as denial of illness, or agnosia, it is not clear,
and it would be interesting to know, whether the person with the head injury has been aware or unaware
of the head injury. Also does the patient derive comfort and a better chance at reality testing when he is
told of the lesion? Does he feel better when he has received the diagnosis? And what should the
psychoanalysts and the psychiatrists, - feel about all those years of treating people of whose head
injuries they were absolutely unaware? Was this gross negligence? Were we absolutely deluded in
perceiving recovery in a sizable number of them?
It is, however, lamentable that a neuroscientist with a professed interest in understanding schizophrenia
should seek to provide light relief to his audience by making jokes about schizophrenics being people who
are convinced that the CIA has implanted devices in their brain to control their thoughts and actions, or
that aliens are controlling them. (Reith Lecture, No 5, 2003).
There is a new desire for concretisation. The search for meaning has been replaced by the need for hard
proof. If it doesnt light up or add up it doesnt have validity. The physician of the mind has become a
surgeon. He found a lump as big as a grapefruit!
Facing up to the Dread and Fear of the Uncanny
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Freud believed that an exploration of the uncanny would be a major direction of exploration of the mind in
this century. The fear of the uncanny has been with us for a very long time. The evil eye, or the terrifying
double, or intruder, is a familiar theme in literature, notably of Joseph Conrad in The Secret Sharer, and
Maupassants short story, Le Horla. Freuds analysis of the uncanny led him back to the old animistic
conception of the universe: it seems as if each one of us has been through a phase of individual
development corresponding to the animistic phase in primitive men, that none of us has passed through it
without preserving certain residues and traces of it which are still capable of manifesting themselves, and
that everything which now strikes us as uncanny fulfills the condition of touching those residues of
animistic mental activity within us and bringing them to expression. (Freud: 1919. p.362)
The separation of birth, and the childhood fear of spooks in the night, also leave their traces in each and
every one of us. The individual experience of being alone in ones mind the solitary fate of man which
has never been questioned before, and upon which the whole history of civilized nurture is based - is now
assaulted head-on. Since growing up is largely synonymous with acceptance of ones aloneness, the
effort to assuage it is the basis for compassion and protection of others; it is the matrix for the greatest
good, that of ordinary human kindness, and is at the heart of the communicating power of great art. Even
if we must all live and die alone, we can at least share this knowledge in acts of tenderness which atone
for our lonely state. In times of loss and mental breakdown, the starkness of this aloneness is all too
clear. The best of social and group constructiveness is an effort to allay the psychotic anxieties that lie at
the base of every one of us, and which may be provoked under extreme enough conditions.
The calculated and technological entry into another persons mind is an act of monumental barbarism
which obliterates perhaps with the twiddling of a dial the history and civilization of mans mental
development. It is more than an abuse of human rights, it is the destruction of meaning. For any one who
is forced into the hell of living with an unseen mental rapist, the effort to stay sane is beyond the scope of
tolerable endurance. The imaginative capacity of the ordinary mind cannot encompass the horror of it.
We have attempted to come to terms with the experiments of the Nazis in concentration camps. We now
have the prospect of systematic control authorised by men who issue instructions through satellite
communications for the destruction of societies while they are driving new Jaguars and Mercedes, and
going to the opera.
This is essentially about humiliation, and disempowerment. It is a manifestation of rage acted out by
those who fear impotence with such dread, that their whole effort is directed into the emasculation and
destruction of the terrifying rival of their unconscious fantasies. In this apocalypse of the mind the punitive
figure wells up as if out of the bowels of the opera stage, and this phantasmagoria is acted out on a
global scale. These men may be mad enough to believe they are creating a psychocivilised world order.
For anyone who has studied damaged children, it is more resonant of the re-enactment from the
unconscious, reinforced by a life devoid of the capacity for empathic identification, of the obscenities of
the abused and abusing child in the savage nursery. Other people -which were to them like Action Man
toys to be dismembered, or Barbie Dolls to be obscenely defiled - become as meaningless in their
humanity as pixillated dots on a screen.
Although forced entry into a mind is by definition obscene, an abbreviated assessment of the effects that
mind-invaded people describe testifies to the perverted nature of the experiments. Bizarre noises are
emitted from the body, a body known well enough by its owner to recognise the noises as extrinsic; air is
pumped in and out of orifices as if by a bicycle pump. Gradually the repertoire is augmented - twinges and
spasms to the eyes, nose, lips, strange tics, pains in the head, ringing in the ears, obstructions in the
throat, pressure on the bowel and bladder causing incontinence; tingling in the fingers, feet, pressures on
the heart, on breathing, dizziness, eye problems leading to cataracts; running eyes, running nose;
speeding up of heart beats and the raising of pressure in the heart and chest; breathing and chest
complaints leading to bronchitis and deterioration of the lungs; agonizing migraines; being woken up at
night, sometimes with terrifying jolts ; insomnia; intolerable levels of stress from the loss of ones privacy.
This collection of assorted symptoms is a challenge to any medical practitioner to diagnose.
There are, more seriously, if the afore-going is characterised as non-lethal, the potential lethal effects
since the capability of ultrasound and infra-sound to cause cardiac arrest, and brain lesions, paralysis and
blindness, as well as blinding by laser beam, or inducing asphyxia by altering the frequencies which
control breathing in the brain, epileptic seizure all these and others may be at the fingertips of those

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who are developing them. And those who do choose to use them may be sitting with the weapon, which
resembles, say, a compact mobile telephone, on the restaurant table next to the bottle of wine, or beside
them at the swimming pool.
Finally if the victims at this point in the new history of this mind-control, cannot yet prove their abuse, it
must be asserted that, faced with the available information about technological development it is
certainly not possible for those seeking to evade such claims to disprove them. To wait until the effects
become widespread will be too late.

For these and other reasons which this paper has attempted to address, we would call for an
acknowledgement of such technology at a national and international level. Politicians, scientists and
neurologists, neuroscientists, physicists and the legal profession should, without further delay,
demand public debate on the existence and deployment of psychotronic technology; and for the
declassification of information about such devices which abuse helpless people, and threaten
democratic freedom.
Victims accounts of abuse should be admitted to public account, and the use of psycho-electronic
weapons should be made illegal and criminal,
The medical profession should be helped to recognise the symptoms of mind-control and
psychotronic abuse, and intelligence about their deployment should be declassified so that this
abuse can be seen to be what it is, and not interpreted automatically as an indication of mental
illness.

If, in the present confusion and insecurity about the search for evidence of weapons of mass destruction,
we conclude that failure to locate them - whatever the truth of the matter encourages us to be generally
complacent, then we shall be colluding with very dark forces at work if we conclude that a course of
extreme vigilance signifies paranoia. For there may well be other weapons of mass destruction being
developed and not so far from home; weapons which, being even more difficult to locate, are developed
invisibly, unobstructed, unheeded in our midst, using human beings as test-beds. Like ESP, the methods
being used on humans have not been detectable using conventional detection equipment. It is likely that
the signals being used are part of a physics not known to scientists without the highest level of security
clearance. To ignore the evidence of victims is to deny, perhaps with catastrophic results, the only
evidence which might otherwise lead the defenders of freedom to becoming alert to the development of a
fearful new methods of destruction. Manipulating terrorist groups and governments alike, these sinister
and covert forces may well be very thankful for the professional derision of the victims, and for public
ignorance.

References
Laing, R.D. (1985) : Wisdom, Madness and Folly: The Making of a Psychiatrist. Macmillan, 1985
Welsh, Cheryl (1997): Timeline of Important Dates in the History of Electromagnetic Technology and Mind
Control,
at:
www.dcn.davis.ca.us/~welsh/timeline.htm
Welsh, Cheryl (2001):Electromagnetic Weapons: As powerful as the Atomic Bomb, President Citizens
Against Human Rights Abuse, CAHRA Home Page: U.S. Human Rights Abuse Report:
www.dcn.davis.ca.us/~welsh/emr13.htm
Begich, Dr N. and Manning, J.: 1995 Angels Dont Play this HAARP, Advances in Tesla Technology,
Earthpulse Press.

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ZDF TV:
No. 35

Secret Russia: Moscow The Zombies of the Red Czars, Script to be published in Resonance,

Aftergood, Steven and Rosenberg, Barbara: The Soft Kill Fallacy, in The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists,
Sept/Oct 1994.
Becker, Dr Robert: 1985,The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life, William Morrow,
N.Y.
Babacek, Mojmir: International Movement for the Ban of Manipulation of The Human Nervous System:
http://mindcontrolforums.com/babacek.htm and go to: Ban of Manipulation of Human Nervous System
Is
it
Feasible
to
Manipulate
www.aisjca-mft.org/braindist.htm

the

Human

Psychoelectronic
Threat
http://mindcontrolforums.com/babacek.htm

Brain

at

to

Distance?

Democracy

Nature: Advances in Neuroscience May Threaten Human Rights, Vol, 391, Jan. 22, 1998, p. 316; (ref
Jean- Pierre Changeux)
Space Preservation Act: Bill H.R.2977 and HR 3616 IH in 107th Congress 2nd Session: see:
www.raven1.net/govptron.htm
Sessions
European
www.europarl.eu.int/home/default_en.htm?redirected=1

Parliament:

Click at Plenary Sessions, scroll down to Reports by A4 number, click, choose 1999 and fill in oo5 to A4
Delgado, Jose M.R: 1969. Physical Control of the Mind: Towards a Psychocivilized Society, Vol. 41,
World Perspectives, Harper Row, N.Y.
US News & World Report: Lockheed Martin Aeronautics/ Dr John Norseen; Report January 3/10 2000,
P.67
Freud,
Sigmund:
1919:
Also Those Wrecked by Success.
Marks, John:
20137-3

Art

and

Literature:

The

Uncanny.

Penguin,

1988 :The CIA and Mind Control the Search for the Manchurian Candidate, ISBN 0-440-

Persinger, M.A. On the Possibility of Directly Accessing Every Human Brain by Electromagnetic Induction
of Fundamental Algorythms; In Perception and Motor Skills, June, 1995, vol. 80, p. 791 799
Tyler, J.Electromagnetic Spectrum in Low Intensity Conflict, in Low Intensity Conflict and Modern
Technology, ed. Lt. Col. J. Dean, USAF, Air University Press, Centre For Aerospace Doctrine, Research
and Education, Maxwell Air Force base, Alabama, June, 1986.
Rees, Martin Our Final Century: 2003, Heinemann.
Conrad, Joseph: The Secret Sharer, 1910. Signet Classic.
Maupassant, Guy de: Le Horla, 1886. Livre de Poche.
Carole Smith is a British psychoanalyst. In recent years she has been openly critical of government use of
intrusive technology on non-consenting citizens for the development of methods of state control. Carole

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Smith
E-mail: rockpool@dircon.co.uk

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not
necessarily
reflect
those
of
the
Centre
for
Research
on
Globalization.
To become a Member of Global Research
The CRG grants permission to cross-post original Global Research articles on community internet sites as
long as the text & title are not modified. The source and the author's copyright must be displayed. For
publication of Global Research articles in print or other forms including commercial internet sites, contact:
crgeditor@yahoo.com
www.globalresearch.ca contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically
authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to our readers under the
provisions of "fair use" in an effort to advance a better understanding of political, economic and social
issues. The material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest
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Thought Police
Sunday, 11 November 2007
DARPA on Your Mind
Found a paper by Jonathan Moreno entitled DARPA on Your Mind
courtesy of the Mind Control Newsgroup - Applied science may once
again play a decisive role in changing the face of armed conflict, and
the rest of human affairs, by shifting the battlefield to our very brains.
The national-security establishmentand particularly the Pentagons
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)supports
research at the intersection of neuroscience and national security that
could ultimately enable authorities to do things like enhance (or
muddle, or erase) memory, monitor crowds for individuals whose
brain patterns correlate with aggressive behaviors, or control weapons
from afar merely with thoughts. What are the dangers of such
information falling into the wrong hands, and are there any right
hands for this kind of knowledge? Is any extension of human abilities justified by the need for government to
protect its society?
Posted by TI at 09:25
Labels: DARPA, MILITARY, MORENO
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Blog Archive

2007 (33)
o November (10)
 DARPA on Your Mind
 More from Boris Ratnikov on Russian Mind Control D...
 Active Denial System Problems
 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting 2007
 Russians Reading Madeline Albright's Mind
 FMRIs and Lie Detection
 New Mini-Sensor May Have Biomedical and Security A...
 IMEC has a brain wave: feed EEG emotion back into ...
 Brain scans have big implications for U.S. courts

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It's no longer science fiction: High-tech GIs


October (23)
 Neuroscientist Uses Brain Scan to See Lies Form
 Thought Police: How Brain Scans Could Invade Your ...
 US Spent $43.5 Billion on Intel in 2007
 Mind Control: The Ultimate Brave New World
 US Electromagnetic Weapons and Human Rights
 Invention helps brain diagnostic methods
 EFF: Class-Action Lawsuit Against AT&T
 CIA's In-Q-Tel not just spying on innovation
 Redaction
 Method for communicating using synthesized speech
 Sandia using EEG to monitor drivers
 Neuroscience in Military R & D
 Diagnosis in the Light of Mind Invasive Technology...
 Tufts researchers using fNIR to monitor brain acti...
 Neuroscience in the Courtroom
 U.S. Slaps Secret Tag on Private Patents
 Silent Guardian, Active Denial System
 Get you FBI, NSA and CIA files here
 More Brain Computer Interfaces
 Microsoft's "Mind Reader" Patent
 ACLU FOIA request on NSA use of fMRI
 Googlestalking NSA Research Funding
 Technical Feasibility of Mind Control

Sites

Federation of American Scientists


Society for Neuroscience
The National Security Archive
The Law and Neuroscience Project
Mind Justice
Mind Control Forums
FFCHS
Freedom Isnt Free(raven1)

Other Blogs
FAS Secrecy News
Wired: Danger Room
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Unannounced, undebated and largely unacknowledged by scientists or by the governments who employ them
technology to enter and control minds from a distance has been unleashed upon us. The only witnesses who are
speaking about this terrible technology with its appalling implications for the future, are the victims themselves
On the Need for New Criteria of Diagnosis of Psychosis in the Light of Mind Invasive Technology by
Carole Smith
Technologies for stimulating the brain and controlling the mind
can have benefits, but they have a dark side that military and
intelligence planners have been exploiting for decades.

Mind Control: The Ultimate Brave New World by Nick Begich

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Avocado Safety and Potion Permits

http://www.independent.com/news/2007/oct/05/avocado-safety-and...
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Avocado Safety and Potion Permits


The Weird Highlights of Santa Barbara Law
By Elena Gray-Blanc
Friday, October 5, 2007
There are some very strange prohibitions in this nation, many of them having been documented by enterprising seekers of
weirdness. For example, there is a law in Tennessee although this is, of course, hearsay, having not examined the code
myself stating that bologna may not be sold on Sunday.
Santa Barbara has no laws against lunchmeat, fortunately. However, there are subsections of our county and municipal laws
which, although not quite so strange as those found in other parts of the country, have an oddness all their own. One might
call it a uniquely Santa Barbaran type of weirdness.
As an example: We are all justifiably proud of our countys avocado production or at least, we ought to be. And is it not
ethical to take very good care of those things we hold dear? We can be as proud, it turns out, of the care we take of our
avocados as we are of the avocados themselves. Article III, Section 14 of our very own County Code says that any peace
officer, upon reasonable belief that a person is not in legal possession of a commercial quantity of avocados, may seize
such avocados without warrant. Upon seizure of the avocados, the sheriff shall receive and provide for the care and
safekeeping of such avocados. It sounds very much like a section of drug law, does it not, only with the word avocado

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http://www.independent.com/news/2007/oct/05/avocado-safety-and...
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substituted in whenever appropriate? Perhaps our lawmakers cut some corners.


Whether or not shortcuts were taken in the writing of our avocado law, however, our Municipal Code contains some
sections which, it seems, were researched perhaps a little too carefully. Weve all seen the signs for Madam Rosinkas
fortunetelling businesses, but other than that, were no Salem. Or so it seemed before reading Chapter 5.40 of the Santa
Barbara Municipal Code.
Not that such practices are discouraged rather, theyre perfectly permissible, so long as the magician pays the
appropriate business tax. Among the professions for which a permit is required are astrology, palmistry, phrenology, life
reading, fortunetelling, cartomancy, crystal gazing, and clairvoyance. You think thats a comprehensive list? No. Theres
also clairaudience, magic, necromancy, psychism, psychometry, mind reading, mental telepathy, automatic writing, spirit
writing, trance mediumship, and sandgazing. If youre reading this and asking, how could they have forgotten potion
making in this list, rest assured they didnt. They also included materialization, ballot reading, conducting trumpet
sances, prophecy, augury, divination, and the making of magic articles.
Basically, if you play Dungeons & Dragons, watch out. Theyre coming for you.
In uncertain times, its easy to feel insecure about our lawmakers and our nation. But thankfully, we can be assured of one
thing: In Santa Barbara County, no necromancer will steal avocados.
At least, not without a permit.
Seen anything strange lately? Let us know about it, and you may see a solution to the mystery here. Contact Elena at
weirdsb@gmail.com.

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Spposedly DARPA, funded by your tax dollars, has plans to


scan people
through buildings and read their thoughts.

Oh geez. This is troubling.


September 18, 2007

This too is unnerving


Supposedly DARPA, funded by your tax dollars, has plans to scan people through
buildings and read their thoughts.
No this isnt the demented delusion of some grizzled, agitated guy you meet on a
park bench whos swallowed too much anti-freeze. Its from an article in the BBC.
I cant imagine how this would be done, but this could indicate one of three
possibilties. (1) The brainiacs who are scooped up to fund and/or work on DARPA
projects are nuts; or (2) they are actually close to getting such things to work and
will soon have omnitient, god-like powers over the American people, who will soon
be turned into happy little slaves; or (3) the article is disinfo and maybe DARPA is on
the chopping block, so theyre making BIG promises to keep the gravy train rolling.
Even if were only talking about (3), what weve got are very very evil people
threatening the very foundations of our free society.
Oscar Goldman
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September 24, 2007 (Computerworld) -- Quick, what's the most influential piece of
hardware from the early days of computing? The IBM 360 mainframe? The DEC PDP-1
minicomputer? Maybe earlier computers such as Binac, ENIAC or Univac? Or, going
way back to the 1800s, is it the Babbage Difference Engine?
More likely, it was a 183-pound aluminum sphere called Sputnik, Russian for "traveling
companion." Fifty years ago, on Oct. 4, 1957, radio-transmitted beeps from the first manmade object to orbit the Earth stunned and frightened the U.S., and the country's reaction
to the "October surprise" changed computing forever.
Although Sputnik fell from orbit just three months after launch, it marked the beginning
of the Space Age, and in the U.S., it produced angst bordering on hysteria. Soon, there
was talk of a U.S.-Soviet "missile gap." Then on Dec. 6, 1957, a Vanguard rocket that
was to have carried aloft the first U.S. satellite exploded on the launch pad. The press
dubbed the Vanguard "Kaputnik," and the public demanded that something be done.
The most immediate "something" was the creation of the Advanced Research Projects
Agency (ARPA), a freewheeling Pentagon office created by President Eisenhower on
Feb. 7, 1958. Its mission was to "prevent technological surprises," and in those first days,
it was heavily weighted toward space programs.
Speaking of surprises, it might surprise some to learn that on the list of people who have
most influenced the course of IT -- people with names like von Neumann, Watson,
Hopper, Amdahl, Cerf, Gates and Berners-Lee -- appears the name J.C.R. Licklider, the
first director of IT research at ARPA.
Armed with a big budget, carte blanche from his bosses and an unerring ability to attract
bright people, Licklider catalyzed the invention of an astonishing array of IT, from time
sharing to computer graphics to microprocessors to the Internet.
ndeed, although he left ARPA in 1964 and returned only briefly in
1974, it would be hard to name a major branch of IT today that
Licklider did not significantly shape through ARPA funding -- all
ultimately in reaction to the little Soviet satellite.
But now, the special culture that enabled Licklider and his successors to
work their magic has largely disappeared from government, many say,
setting up the U.S. once again for a technological drubbing. Could there
be another Sputnik? "Oh, yes," says Leonard Kleinrock, the Internet
pioneer who developed the principles behind packet-switching, the
J.C.R. Licklider
basis for the Internet, while Licklider was at ARPA. "But it's not going
to be a surprise this time. We all see it coming."
The ARPA Way
Licklider had studied psychology as an undergraduate, and in 1962, he brought to ARPA
a passionate belief that computers could be far more user- friendly than the unconnected,

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batch-processing behemoths of the day. Two years earlier, he had published an influential
paper, "Man-Computer Symbiosis," in which he laid out his vision for computers that
could interact with users in real time. It was a radical idea, one utterly rejected by most
academic and industrial researchers at the time. (See sidebar, Advanced Computing
Visions from 1960.)
Driven by the idea that computers might not only converse with their users, but also with
one another, Licklider set out on behalf of ARPA to find the best available research
talent. He found it at companies like the RAND Corp., but mostly he found it at
universities, starting first at MIT and then adding to his list Carnegie Mellon University;
Stanford University; University of California, Berkeley; the University of Utah; and
others.

Advanced Computing Visions from 1960


Nearly a half-century ago, a former MIT professor of psychology and electrical
engineering wrote a paper -- largely forgotten today -- that anticipated by decades the
emergence of computer time sharing, networks and some features that even today are
at the leading edge of IT.
Licklider wrote "Man-Computer Symbiosis" in 1960, at a time when computing was
done by a handful of big, stand-alone batch-processing machines. In addition to
predicting "networks of thinking centers," he said man-computer symbiosis would
require the following advances:

Indexed databases. "Implicit in the idea of man-computer symbiosis are the


requirements that information be retrievable both by name and by pattern and
that it be accessible through procedures much faster than serial search."
Machine learning in the form of "self-organizing" programs. "Computers
will in due course be able to devise and simplify their own procedures for
achieving stated goals."
Dynamic linking of programs and applications, or "real- time concatenation
of preprogrammed segments and closed subroutines which the human operator
can designate and call into action simply by name."
More and better methods for input and output. "In generally available
computers, there is almost no provision for any more effective, immediate
man-machine communication than can be achieved with an electric
typewriter."
Tablet input and handwriting recognition. "It will be necessary for the man
and the computer to draw graphs and pictures and to write notes and equations
to each other on the same display surface."
Speech recognition. "The interest stems from realization that one can hardly

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take a ... corporation president away from his work to teach him to type."

Licklider sought out researchers like himself: bright, farsighted and impatient with
bureaucratic impediments. He established a culture and modus operandi -- and passed it
on to his successors Ivan Sutherland, Robert Taylor, Larry Roberts and Bob Kahn -that would make the agency, over the next 30 years, the most powerful engine for IT
innovation in the world.
Recalls Kleinrock, "Licklider set the tone for ARPA's funding model: long-term, highrisk, high-payoff and visionary, and with program managers, that let principal
investigators run with research as they saw fit." (Although Kleinrock never worked at
ARPA, he played a key role in the development of the ARPAnet, and in 1969, he
directed the installation of the first ARPAnet node at UCLA.)
From the early 1960s, ARPA built close relationships with
universities and a few companies, each doing what it did best while
drawing on the accomplishments of the others. What began as a
simple attempt to link the computers used by a handful of U.S.
Department of Defense researchers ultimately led to the global
Internet of today.
Along the way, ARPA spawned an incredible array of supporting
technologies, including time sharing, workstations, computer
Leonard
graphics, graphical user interfaces, very large-scale integration
Kleinrock
(VLSI) design, RISC processors and parallel computing (see
DARPA's Role in IT Innovations ). There were four ingredients in
this recipe for success: generous funding, brilliant people, freedom from red tape and the
occasional ascent to the bully pulpit by ARPA managers.
These individual technologies had a way of cross- fertilizing and combining over time in
ways probably not foreseen even by ARPA managers. What would become the Sun
Microsystems Inc. workstation, for example, owes its origins rather directly to a halfdozen major technologies developed at multiple universities and companies, all funded
by ARPA. (See Timeline: Three Decades of DARPA Hegemony.)
Ed Lazowska, a computer science professor at the University of Washington in Seattle,
offers this story from the 1970s and early 1980s, when Kahn was a DARPA program
manager, then director of its Information Processing Techniques Office:
What Kahn did was absolutely remarkable. He supported the DARPA VLSI program,
which funded the [Carver] Mead-[Lynn] Conway integrated circuit design methodology.

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Then he funded the SUN workstation at Stanford because Forest Baskett needed a highresolution, bitmapped workstation for doing VLSI design, and his grad student, Andy
Bechtolsheim, had an idea for a new frame buffer.
Meanwhile, [Kahn] funded Berkeley to do Berkeley Unix. He wanted to turn Unix into a
common platform for all his researchers so they could share results more easily, and he
also saw it as a Trojan horse to drive the adoption of TCP/IP. That was at a time when
every company had its own networking protocol -- IBM with SNA, DEC with DECnet, the
Europeans with X.25 -- all brain-dead protocols.
One thing Kahn required in Berkeley Unix was that it have a great
implementation of TCP/IP. So he went to Baskett and Bechtolsheim
and said, "By the way, boys, you need to run Berkeley Unix on this
thing." Meanwhile, Jim Clark was a faculty member at Stanford, and
he looked at what Baskett was doing with the VLSI program and
realized he could take the entire rack of chips that were Baskett's
graphics processor and reduce them to a single board. That's where
Silicon Graphics came from.
Bob Kahn
All this stuff happened because one brilliant guy, Bob Kahn, cherrypicked a bunch of phenomenal researchers -- Clark, Baskett, Mead,
Conway, [Bill] Joy -- and headed them off in complimentary directions and crossfertilized their work. It's just utterly remarkable.

Surprise?
The launch of the Soviet satellite Sputnik shocked the world and became known as the
"October surprise." But was it really?
Paul Green was working at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory in 1957 as a
communications researcher. He had learned Russian and was
invited to give talks to the Popov Society, a group of Soviet
technology professionals. "So I knew Russian scientists," Green
recalls. "In particular, I knew this big-shot academician named
[Vladimir] Kotelnikov."

Paul Green

In the summer of 1957, Green told Computerworld, a coterie of


Soviet scientists, including Kotelnikov, attended a meeting of the
International Scientific Radio Union in Boulder, Colo. Says Green,
"At the meeting, Kotelnikov -- who, it turned out later, was
involved with Sputnik -- just mentioned casually, 'Yeah, we are
about to launch a satellite.'"

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"It didn't register much because the Russians were given to braggadocio. And we
didn't realize what that might mean -- that if you could launch a satellite in those days,
you must have a giant missile and all kinds of capabilities that were scary. It sort of
went in one ear and out the other."
And did he tell anyone in Washington? "None of us even mentioned it in our trip
reports," he says.

DARPA Today
But around 2000, Kleinrock and other top-shelf technology researchers say, the agency,
now called the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), began to focus
more on pragmatic, military objectives. A new administration was in power in
Washington, and then 9/11 changed priorities everywhere. Observers say DARPA shifted
much of its funding from long-range to shorter-term research, from universities to
military contractors, and from unclassified work to secret programs.
Of government funding for IT, Kleinrock says, "our researchers are now being channeled
into small science, small and incremental goals, short-term focus and small funding
levels." The result, critics say, is that DARPA is much less likely today to spawn the
kinds of revolutionary advances in IT that came from Licklider and his successors.
DARPA officials declined to be interviewed for this story. But Jan Walker, a
spokesperson for DARPA Director Anthony Tether, said, "Dr. Tether ... does not agree.
DARPA has not pulled back from long-term, high-risk, high-payoff research in IT or
turned more to short-term projects." (See sidebar, DARPA's Response.)
A Shot in the Rear
David Farber, now a professor of computer science and public policy at Carnegie Mellon,
was a young researcher at AT&T Bell Laboratories when Sputnik went up.
"We people in technology had a firm belief that we were leaders in science, and suddenly
we got trumped," he recalls. "That was deeply disturbing. The Russians were
considerably better than we thought they were, so what other fields were they good in?"

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Farber says U.S. university science programs back then were weak and
out of date, but higher education soon got a "shot in the rear end" via
Eisenhower's ARPA. "It provided a jolt of funding," he says. "There's
nothing to move academics like funding."
Farber says U.S. universities are no longer weak in science, but they are
again suffering from lack of funds for long-range research.
"In the early years, ARPA was willing to fund things like artificial
David Farber
intelligence -- take five years and see what happens," he says. "Nobody
cared whether you delivered something in six months. It was, 'Go and
put forth your best effort and see if you can budge the field.' Now that's changed. It's
more driven by, 'What did you do for us this year?'"
DARPA's budget calls for it to spend $414 million this year on information,
communications and computing technologies, plus $483 million more on electronics,
including things such as semiconductors. From 2001 to 2004, the percentage going to
universities has shrunk from 39% to 21%, according the Senate Armed Services
Committee. The beneficiaries have been defense contractors.
Meanwhile, funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) for
computer science and engineering -- most of it for universities -- has
increased from $478 million in 2001 to $709 million this year, up 48%.
But the NSF tends to fund smaller, more-focused efforts. And because
contract awards are based on peer review, bidders on NSF jobs are
inhibited from taking the kinds of chances that Licklider would have
favored.
"At NSF, people look at your proposal and assign a grade, and if you are
Victor Zue
an outlier, chances are you won't get funded," says Victor Zue, who
directs MIT's 900-person Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence
Laboratory, the direct descendent of MIT's Project MAC, which was started with a $2
million ARPA grant in 1963.
"At DARPA, at least in the old days, they tended to fund people, and the program
managers had tremendous latitude to say, 'I'm just going to bet on this.' At NSF, you don't
bet on something."

DARPA's Response
"We are confident that anyone who attended DARPATech [in Aug. 2007] and heard
the speeches given by DARPA's [managers] clearly understands that DARPA
continues to be interested in high-risk, high-payoff research," says DARPA

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spokesperson Jan Walker.


Walker offers the following projects as examples of DARPA's current research
efforts:

Computing systems able to assimilate knowledge by being immersed in a


situation
Universal [language] translation
Realistic agent-based societal simulation environments
Networks that design themselves and collaborate with application services to
jointly optimize performance
Self- forming information infrastructures that automatically organize services
and applications
Routing protocols that allow computers to choose the best path for traffic, and
new methods for route discovery for wide area networks
Devices to interconnect an optically switched backbone with metropolitanlevel IP networks
Photonic communications in a microprocessor having a theoretical maximum
performance of 10 TFLOPS (trillion floating-point operations per second)

Farber sits on a computer science advisory board at the NSF, and he says he has been
urging the agency to "take a much more aggressive role in high-risk research." He
explains, "Right now, the mechanisms guarantee that low-risk research gets funded. It's
always, 'How do you know you can do that when you haven't done it?' A program
manager is going to tell you, 'Look, a year from now, I have to write a report that says
what this contributed to the country. I can't take a chance that it's not going to contribute
to the country.' "
A report by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, released
Sept. 10, indicates that at least some in the White House agree. In "Leadership Under
Challenge: Information Technology R&D in a Competitive World," John H. Marburger,
science advisor to the president, said, "The report highlights in particular the need to ...
rebalance the federal networking and IT research and development portfolio to emphasize
more large-scale, long-term, multidisciplinary activities and visionary, high-payoff
goals."
Still, turning the clock back would not be easy, says Charles Herzfeld, who was ARPA
director in the mid-1960s. The freewheeling behavior of the agency in those days might
not even be legal today, he adds. (See The IT Godfather Spe aks: Q&A With Charles
M. Herzfeld.)
No Help From Industry
The U.S. has become the world's leader in IT because of the country's unique

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combination of government funding, university research, and industrial research and


development, says the University of Washington's Lazowska. But just as the government
has turned away from long-range research, so has industry, he says.
According to the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy at the National
Academy of Sciences, U.S. industry spent more on tort litigation than on research and
development in 2001, the last year for which figures are available. And more than 95% of
that R&D is engineering or development, not long-range research,
Lazowska says.
"It's not looking out more than one product cycle; it's building the next
release of the product," he says. "The question is, where do the ideas
come from that allow you to do that five years from now? A lot of it has
come from federally funded university research."
A great deal of fundamental research in IT used to take place at IBM,
AT&T Inc. and Xerox Corp., but that has been cut way back, Lazowska
says. "And of the new companies -- those created over the past 30 years
-- only Microsoft is making significant investments that look out more
than one product cycle."

Ed Lazowska

Lazowska isn't expecting another event like Sputnik. "But I do think we are likely to
wake up one day and find that China and India are producing far more highly qualified
engineers than we are. Their educational systems are improving unbelievably quickly."
Farber also worries about those countries. His "Sputnik" vision is to "wake up and find
that all our critical resources are now supplied by people who may not always be
friendly." He recalls the book, The Japan That Can Say No (Simon & Schuster), which
sent a Sputnik-like chill through the U.S. when it was published in 1991 by suggesting
that Japan would one day outstrip the U.S. in technological prowess and thus exert
economic hegemony over it.
"Japan could never pull that off because their internal markets aren't big enough, but a
China that could say no or an India that could say no could be real," Farber says.
The U.S. has already fallen behind in communications, Farber says. "In computer
science, we are right at the tender edge, although I do think we still have leadership
there."

Science and Technology Funding by the U.S. Department of Defense (in millions)

Account

FY 2006
Level

FY 2007
Estimate

FY 2008
Request

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$ Change
FY 07 vs.
FY 08

% Change
FY 07 vs.
FY 08

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Total Basic Research

$1,457

$1,563

$1,428

-$135

-8.6%

Total Applied
Research

$4,948

$5,329

$4,357

-$972

-18%

Total Advanced
Technology
Development

$6,866

$6,432

$4,987

-$1,445

-22.4%

Total Science and


Technology

$13,272

$13,325

$10,772

-$2,553

-19%

Source: The Computing Research Association

Some of the cutbacks in DARPA funding at universities are welcome, says MIT's Zue.
"Our reliance on government fund ing is nowhere near what it was in 1963. In a way,
that's healthy, because when a discipline matures, the people who benefit from it ought to
begin paying the freight."
"But," Zue adds, "it's sad to see DARPA changing its priorities so that we can no longer
rely on it to do the big things."

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Darpa Goal: Psychic Doctors on Danger Room

http://blog.wired.com/defense/2007/10/darpas-nose-for.html
Published by The Advanced Media Group

Five for Fighting 10/11/07 | Main | Israeli Jamming Mystery Deepens

Darpa Goal: Psychic Doctors


By Noah Shachtman

October 11, 2007 | 8:14:00 PM

Categories: Medic!

Most of us start wheezing, or coughing, or sniffling -- then we


go see a doctor, to get treated for the flu. The Pentagon's mad
science division wants to flip that around: Constantly
monitoring troops' health, so diseases can be spotted, before the
first sniffle. It's like having a having a doctor with a
stethoscope... and a crystal ball, too.

The Predicting Health and Disease ( PHD) Program will


generate methods to assess whether an individual will
develop an infectious disease prior to the onset of
symptoms. While current methods diagnose and treat
after an individual reports to a physician, the PHD Program seeks to alter this
paradigm by identifying changes in the baseline state of human health through
frequent surveillance. The vision is to maintain 100-percent warfighter
readiness by detecting, intervening, and eliminating disease before the
emergence of symptoms.

DARPA doesn't say how the trick might be pulled off -- only that it will require, "at the
minimum, innovative data analytic methodologies coupled with traditional and
non-traditional medical diagnostic[s]." But the agency does know what kinds of illnesses
it would like to spot .

We are mainly interested in viral, upper respiratory pathogens that have the
potential for decreasing warfighter mission readiness, and occasionally result in
aborted missions and significant warfighter morbidity. Pathogens of interest
include influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and
other similar viruses.

And since soldiers don't have time to wait, the agency wants the detection done in a hurry.
"DARPAs end goal is to create the technological breakthroughs required for the
development of a field-portable, point-of-care health assessment system that is able to
handle large throughput (100 or more analyses), in short time spans (under a 3-hour
turnaround), at low costs.
"

EDITOR: Noah Shachtman | email


CONTRIBUTOR: Sharon Weinberger | email
CONTRIBUTOR: David Axe | email
CONTRIBUTOR: David Hambling | email
CONTRIBUTOR: Jeffrey Lewis | email
CONTRIBUTOR: Jason Sigger | email
CONTRIBUTOR: Nicholas Thompson | email
CONTRIBUTOR: Kris Alexander | email

October 2007
Sun

Good luck, docs.


Reddit It | Digg This | Add to del.icio.us

Mon Tue Wed Thu

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Video Fix: Don't Daz Me, Bro


Video Fix: World's Deadliest Waterguns
Watch the Morphing Copter Blades
Blackwater's a Black Sheep?
Blackwater: Whose Side Are They On?
Five for Fighting 10/12/07
Video Fix: Predator's Big Bro in Action
Inside Al-Qaeda's "Intranet"
Israeli Jamming Mystery Deepens
Darpa Goal: Psychic Doctors

It will work! They're "mainly interested in viral, upper respiratory pathogens," easy, no problem. Been there,
done that back in 1965-7. Exercise hard (2.5 hours) run 6 days a week, eat a strict regime of dietitian planned
food, no smoke no drink no sex, lights out at 10. Take your pulse every morning before getting out of bed, and
graph it for months.
Now you have resting pulse and you can see an upper respiratory infection (or something else) coming 3-4 days
in advance by just a 3-5 beat per minute uptick in your daily resting pulse. Rest some, exercise but take it easier
for a day or two and the resting pulse drops back to average and you don't get sick. Worked for two years
exactly as promised, a gift from a fabulous coach - a former US Olympic Team member. I broke that regime and
got sick frequently for years, stopped running, funky diet, drank, smoked stayed out late chasing women. 40
years on it is still true, minus the 15 hours of running a week. Commercial air travel still gets me nasty colds.
Posted by: stevew | Oct 11, 2007 7:40:32 PM

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This idea has also been suggested for identifying biological attacks before symptoms appear. Selected people
within a population would voluntarily undergo a simple daily test that could be performed at home and results
automatically transmitted to their doctor. Changes from their baseline indicate infection. Some measurable
changes occur quickly after exposure to a pathogen and people can be treated before they ever know they were
sick. Fast detection would also help to narrow the search for the location of the attack. But would people really
participate in such a plan, especially if it meant something like taking a drop of blood every morning? With the
military you don't have that problem. Yes, it will work if a good/fast/easy test method is worked out, but
probably best in a controlled population.

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Posted by: BGG | Oct 12, 2007 2:46:01 AM

You go to the doctor for the *Flu* !?


.
What the heck does he prescribe, aspirin & chicken soup?
-Kle.

2007 CondNet, Inc. All rights reserved.


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and Privacy Policy

Posted by: Klebert L. Hall | Oct 12, 2007 7:50:32 AM

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Print Science & Industry: DARPA

http://www.esquire.com/print-this/ESQ1203-DEC_DARPA
Published by The Advanced Media Group

Close

Science & Industry: DARPA


The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is a total anomaly in our government or any
other. Creative by nature, revolutionary in its imaginings, it's the brain at the beginning of the
future.
FOR SOME OF THEM, the future begins with the gnawing awareness of a gap -- with the awareness
that something is missing, that something could be better, that there's something the generals want
and don't yet have. A radio that operates on the frequency of 60 gigahertz, say -- the generals don't
have that yet. And they want it, because at 60 gigahertz, radio signals are absorbed by oxygen, and
therefore a radio operating at that frequency would be undetectable and untraceable. A ghost radio. Of
course, it's really hard to build a radio for a frequency that eats radio signals. Hell, it's more than hard.
It's so hard that nobody will do it. It's so hard that it doesn't make sense to do it. It's so hard that only
DARPA -- the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency -- will give it a try. And that's what the
people at DARPA mean when they say a problem is not just hard but "DARPA hard." They mean that it's
really sort of impossible. In the best possible way.
For others, the future begins with a sense of opportunity -- an opportunity that springs precisely from
the prevailing sense of impossibility. These are generally the people who come to DARPA with an idea,
a vision. These are generally the people who keep on asking themselves, "Well, why not?" until they
realize that the problem they're proposing is DARPA hard, until they realize that if they're ever going to
figure out something that's been bugging them since they first started fiddling with ham radios, they're
going to have to do it at DARPA. Of course, they still have to get the generals on their side. That's the
deal, because D is the first letter in DARPA, and everybody who works for DARPA works for Donald
Rumsfeld. They still have to find a general and say, "If we could do this, would you be interested?" And
the general has to say, "Sure, but you can't do that yet." And the DARPA person says, "Yeah, but if we
could." And that's how DARPA programs begin, which is just another way of saying that's how the
future begins.
The Internet was invented at DARPA. Now people are sick of it. Now there's a guy at DARPA who says
that the Internet was "a reasonably good solution to problems that existed at the time. But it's not
science. If you drop an apple, it will always fall -- that's science. The Internet is not that. It's a
technology. And technologies change." So he called one of the guys who invented the Internet while he
was at DARPA -- like, thirty years ago -- and as it turns out, the guy feels the same way. So now they're
working together to build a network that works on principles that run counter to the principles
underlying the Internet -- that subverts it. It's high risk, sure. But that's the phrase you hear around
DARPA almost as much as you hear that something is DARPA hard. Indeed, it's the phrase embedded in
DARPA's own mission statement. DARPA's programs are supposed to be "high risk and high payoff." It's
odd language for a government agency to be using. Risk? What's DARPA risking, besides taxpayer
money?
Well, failure, in the main. But also misunderstanding. Controversy. Opprobrium.
As for the payoff: That's easy.
The payoff is the future.
THE PEOPLE WHO HANDLE the future at DARPA -- who are responsible for creating it in an
atmosphere that encourages them to be, in the best way, irresponsible--are called program managers.
There are 140 of them. They come from academia, from industry, from NASA, from the various research
labs funded by the armed services. Most have already worked with DARPA -- in programs receiving
DARPA money -- before they get there. Some are recruited, either to run an existing DARPA program or
because they're pursuing an idea that someone at DARPA has heard about. Some apply. All of them are
short-timers. All of them are on contracts that are finite, by nature and definition. That's the signal

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Print Science & Industry: DARPA

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Published by The Advanced Media Group

element of the DARPA culture: It's a government job, but it's the opposite of the civil service, and even
of academia. You don't get tenure. You don't get security. What you get, generally, is about four years
-- four years to do something that's never been done before. Four years to do the impossible. Four
years to do something that's DARPA hard. It's what accounts for the overwhelming enthusiasm of the
program managers, for the caffeinated quality of thought and gesture, for the sheer velocity of the
place and its programs. It's what accounts for the fact that whole fields of inquiry rise up around the
enthusiasms of program managers -- fields of inquiry that weren't there before and that keep going
after the program manager is gone. Call them program managers if you want, but really, if the whole
DARPA ethos works, they become fathers of their fields. Mothers of invention. Inventors.
Alan Rudolph is a biologist. He came to DARPA's Defense Sciences Office from the Naval Research
Laboratory. He was working on the development of synthetic blood, and he continued that work at
DARPA. He had an idea, though. What do soldiers have to do in the battlefield? They have to sense
changes in their environments, then adapt and survive. Where's the best place to learn how to do
that? Nature. Look at cockroaches. All they do is adapt and survive. So Rudolph had the idea of
gleaning methods of adaptation and survival from nature, especially in the area of movement. Humans,
he says, have developed one way to move, over land, from one place to another -- "wheels and tracks.
But there are no wheels and tracks in nature." He wanted to develop technologies that would move
based on how cockroaches move, that would fly based on how bumblebees fly, that would climb walls
based on how geckos climb walls. The only problem: As it turned out, no one really knew how
cockroaches, bumblebees, and geckos do what they do. So Rudolph seeded the field. He found people
in academia and industry who were interested in asking the same questions he was asking, and he
gave them money and motivation. Now not only does he know the answers to his basic questions, he
has the prototype of a buglike robot in his office. With legs. Another of his prototypes has wings; it's a
contraption so small and delicate that it could be a brooch, and yet it flies. He is heading another
program dedicated to using honeybees to detect bombs. He is talking with companies like Nike to
develop adhesive materials that would enable humans to climb like geckos. And that's not even all. The
field that he helped start keeps going, keeps engendering or necessitating the seeding of other
tangential fields. Operating between what is biological and what is mechanical, Rudolph, along with
several other DARPA program managers, is finding the border permeable. The robots whose
movements are modeled after the appendages of insects give rise to the possibility of something the
military really wants -- a robotic human prosthesis that can be controlled by nothing more than thought.
And such a creation makes possible, in turn, a mechanical appendage that could be used not just by
the wounded but by the warrior -- an amplification that would finally address the gap in human
strength and endurance that limits the capacities of human soldiers.
This has all happened while Alan Rudolph has been at DARPA.
Okay, he's been there six years, two years longer than the customary four.
But still.
A FEW YEARS AGO, BOB HUMMEL, a professor of computer science at New York University, told the
dean of his department that he was leaving his tenured position to go to work at DARPA. "You know,
Bob," the dean warned, "it's just management." The implication was clear. Dilbert. Bob Hummel was
about to leave a life of intellectual adventure to become Dilbert. Instead of thinking, he would be a
mere handmaiden to thought, pushing paper in some nondescript office building outside D. C. Over the
years, Hummel has had occasion to think of the dean's words. He thought of them during the war in
Iraq, when the prototype of an automated target-recognition program he's managed at DARPA was
pushed into service and he was called to an undisclosed location to observe the prototype's
presumably deleterious effects on the targets it identified. "I can't talk in too much detail about actual
things," he says. "Let me talk very circumspectly. There was actually a time this year when there were
operations going on, and I sat in a place where we had certain technologies and we were sitting cheek
to jowl with people who were, um, doing things. And I'm sitting there thinking, I used to be a university
professor."
So: If the program managers are not paper pushers, nor pure thinkers in the academic sense, nor quite
who they used to be before they came to DARPA, then who are they, and how do they do what they
do? They don't look particularly lethal. They indeed go to work in a nondescript office building--a
black-windowed red-granite building in Arlington,Virginia, conspicuous only by the police cars
steadfastly parked in front of it. They go get their coffee across the street at Starbucks. They travel a
lot. They have BlackBerries. Their laboratory is the telephone, the conference room, the trade show, the
symposium. They consider themselves creative -- they are creative -- but the process of creation usually
begins, yes, with the pushing of paper. When they perceive a gap or opportunity, they send out a
solicitation. A solicitation is a call for ideas, and it goes out to the people attached to what might be

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called the military-intellectual complex, which stretches from Princeton to Raytheon. More than an
invitation, the solicitation works as a kind of challenge. Very broadly translated, it asks, "Well, why
not?" or "What's stopping us from doing this?" The best ones open floodgates of inspired response,
not simply because researchers know DARPA has money, but rather because the program manager has
succeeded at naming a problem that's DARPA hard. "There has to be a certain idealism," says Preston
Marshall, a program manager who, as it happens, is developing both the ghost radio and the network
intended to supersede the Internet. "If you're purely cynical, you accept what you're given. At DARPA,
you have a chance to say, 'I don't accept this. Things don't have to be so limited.' So every limitation
becomes a potential program. Some you can't solve today. Some you never can solve. Others, once you
identify the problem, lo and behold, there's a pile of people coming through the door saying, 'We've
been waiting for someone to ask that question.' "
Program managers have to pick and choose between ideas, of course. This is how one program
manager describes the decision: "I can't think of one [idea] that wasn't remarkable. A few -- oh, my
God, nobody's ever thought of this. I can go and change the face of technology research." There are
winners, in other words. From the solicitation to the workshop to the awarding of funds to the creation
of prototypes, there are winners at every stage of the game, and the competition is brutal by design.
Teams of researchers with the best ideas are assembled, and the teams that win -- and keep on
winning -- are the teams that understand not only the A in DARPA but also the D and P. If an idea
crosses the
program manager's desk, odds are it's Advanced. But what kind of change does it promise?
Evolutionary change? That's not enough. It has to promise revolutionary change. It has to increase
current capacity or decrease cost by at least an order of magnitude -- that's tenfold. And why not two
orders of magnitude -- why not a hundredfold? Why not a thousandfold? And even if the idea meets
those qualifications, does it have a defense application? Do soldiers need it? Will the generals want it?
Will the program manager be able to sell the idea to the military, and will the military be able to afford
it? That's where the P comes in: It can't just be a paper. You have to be able to build it. It has to be a
Project. It has to excite the engine of capitalism, which generally means that it has to have an
application beyond its initial use on the battlefield.
"I've actually shocked the CEOs of companies," says Lieutenant Colonel John Carrano, a project
manager who is working to harness ultraviolet light for the detection of biological agents and the
creation of new communications systems. "I'll look at them and say, 'Wait a minute, why do you want to
make this? Why do you think this is a good idea?' And they'll say, 'John, this is crazy. You're the one
who put the idea out there.' And I'll say, 'No. I want to know why you think you're gonna make money
from this idea.' And so when someone tells me, 'Oh, I love America, I want to help the troops,' that's all
fine. We can sit down over a beer, and I'll tell them, 'Yeah, you're a wonderful human being. You're a
great American. But that's not why we're in business together. Your shareholders care about making
money. How are you gonna take this technology and make money from it?' "
The DARPA process is obviously very American. Whimsical and lethal. Cooperative and Darwinian. At its
best, it forces people who are territorial and proprietary about their own knowledge--and who, in
Carrano's words, "never learned to share their toys in kindergarten" -- to sit together in a room and
join forces against impossibility. Indeed, there are people who go to DARPA workshops for no other
reason than to say that the idea under consideration is impossible. When Clark Nguyen, a program
manager in DARPA's Microsystems Technology Office, announced his intention to build an atomic clock
on a micro scale: impossible. Atomic clocks were the province of classical physicists. The most accurate
were the size of a refrigerator. Nguyen wanted an atomic clock the size of a computer chip. Clearly
impossible, the physicists said, without catastrophic losses of stability and accuracy -- the very virtues
of an atomic clock. The problem was DARPA hard, so Nguyen pursued a DARPA solution, which is to say
an interdisciplinary one. He put the classical physicists in the same room with researchers who
specialized in MEMS --microelectromechanical systems -- technology. These were guys who didn't think
something was small unless it was invisible to the naked eye. They argued that although there are
always disadvantages to shrinking something, there are also compensatory advantages, often
unforeseen. They were right. An atomic clock that can be worn as a wristwatch--which is what Nguyen
is developing with the physicists and the MEMS guys--is not just a small atomic clock. It's a different
atomic clock. It's a new atomic clock. It's a different kind of entity, and that principle has led Nguyen to
initiate new programs, such as one for tiny, superefficient batteries that generate electricity from the
sustained combustion of hydrocarbon fuels -- combustion once considered impossible in such small
spaces. It has also led him to something else: a realization that "sometimes people who know
everything are floored by the ideas of people who know nothing." It has led him to the belief that
"nothing is impossible. There are no limits."
It has led him, in other words, to something one would not necessarily expect to find in an agency

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whose mission is the consecration of science --no, more than that: American ingenuity -- to the art of
war.
It has led him to believe in the future.
The most optimistic people in the world are people who are figuring out new ways to probe it, patrol it,
protect it, and, if need be, bomb it into submission. That's the paradox at the heart of DARPA. Created
in 1958 in response to the trauma of Sputnik, the agency is a political entity dedicated to insulating its
inventors and creators -- its program managers -- from political interference. It is unlike any other
agency in the United States government in the freedom it both enjoys and confers. Its executive
structure consists of a director, Tony Tether; a deputy director; and the directors of each of its seven
offices, to whom the program managers report. And that's all. It is not a formal place in either structure
or atmosphere. It is intended to be entrepreneurial rather than bureaucratic. It is intended to have a
low overhead. By moving program managers in and out, it relieves them from even internal political
obligations -- from the usual temptations of empire building. Of course, DARPA itself is not immune to
politics. One of its offices, created after September 11, 2001, was the Information Awareness Office. It
was headed by John Poindexter. One of its programs was Total Information Awareness, which was
renamed Terrorism Information Awareness to make it less scary, and ultimately denied funding. Another
of its programs was the Policy Analysis Market, which was popularly known as the "terrorist futures
market." This one cost Poindexter his job and the office its existence. Was it, as the newspaper
accounts had it, a program straight out of Dr. Strangelove? Was it -- maybe, possibly -- a good idea?
Well, whatever you might think of it, you have to give it this: It was radical. It was supposed to be
radical, because that's what DARPA's mission statement names as the agency's one imperative: "radical
innovation for national security." That it was a political disaster -- that it came as a surprise -- is a
demonstration of how little journalists and politicians understand either innovation or DARPA, and how
much more politicized the war on terror is than even the cold war. Because really, when you
understand the implications of what DARPA is up to, the Policy Analysis Market is the least of it.
This is a government agency that describes its program managers as "freewheeling zealots," after all.
This is a government agency that tries to encourage innovation--and freewheeling zealotry -- by
protecting innovators from the consequences of even the most outrageous ideas. And, by and large, it
has succeeded. The culture at DARPA is not one of wartime trepidation. It is not embattled. It is . . .
sunny. It is sanguine. It is professionally optimistic. The program managers are hopeful about the
future because they've seen it. Because they're in it. There's an innocence to these people, a joy in
creation that transcends the uses to which their creations are put. Even the program managers who
work in the Tactical Technology Office--that's the office that builds the planes and the bombs--exude a
peculiarly American innocence. When they say, "Wouldn't it be neat?" they say it in such a way that
makes you think it would be neat, even if the program's ultimate payoff is fear.
A guy like Preston Carter, he didn't come to DARPA to darken the skies above foreign countries with
shows of American might; he came to DARPA because he watched Fireball XL5 when he was a kid and
dug the puppets. He came to DARPA because one day, when he was at the Johnson Space Center in
Houston, he was discussing the question of why there's no such thing as intercontinental express mail,
and he had an idea. The problem, of course, is that planes are too slow; the idea was to speed them
up by taking away resistance -- by, specifically, putting them into the atmosphere, not fast enough to
enter orbit, but fast enough to skip over the atmosphere, like a flat stone skipping over water. Cool.
That's the Hypersoar program. It promises planes that can reach anywhere on earth in two hours.
Carter brought it to DARPA, but he doesn't even manage the program. He got involved in something
else -- an alternative to the shuttle that will increase American access to space by orders of magnitude.
But that's not even the coolest thing Carter is working on or the neatest or most outre'. That distinction
goes to the Walrus. What's the Walrus? "A blimp," Carter says. He usually gets a laugh out of that,
because he's sort of a big guy, and he's hip enough to say, "I am the Walrus," but also -- a blimp? But
as it turns out, the Walrus is not just a blimp. If it works -- and if the military buys into it -- it will be the
biggest thing that humankind has ever put into the sky. Right now we have only one way of moving the
full complement of U. S. force: the aircraft carrier. The Walrus would be as big as an aircraft carrier. It
would be as big as the Empire State Building. It would project American power anywhere in the world,
and what's more, it would serve as the projection of American power. "If you had a couple of Walruses
coming in," he says, "it would be like Independence Day. All of a sudden, the sky is darkened. It could
be epic in itself. When the U. S. is coming, the impression is that an alien race is coming."
If there's anything you learn from visiting DARPA, it's this: An alien race is exactly what we are.
Americans. Humans. There's nothing we won't think of, nothing we won't do. There are no limits.
Nothing is impossible. The generals always want the next thing, no matter what the next thing is. The
stuff that DARPA did twenty years ago wound up in the Gulf war twelve years ago. Now you can buy it
off the shelf. The maintenance of our superiority depends on the maintenance of our superiority, so

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there will always be a gap. We need the gap. The gap is the opportunity, and vice versa. Indeed, of all
the cockeyed optimists at DARPA, the most optimistic is probably Lieutenant Commander Dylan
Schmorrow, whose work is based on his perception that we are the gap. Schmorrow is an experimental
psychologist. He works in the Information Processing Technology Office. His program is called
Augmented Cognition. Basically, what that means is this: The brain that creates the technology now
has the opportunity to create technology to help the brain. "Wouldn't it be interesting," he asks, "to be
able to have a symbiotic relationship with your computational system? Wouldn't it be neat if you could
wear, like, a thinking cap? Heck, I have all sorts of bottlenecks in my brain. I lose memory, I forget what
I was thinking, I lose track. It would be neat if I had somebody like a spouse, or a good friend who
really knows me, to help me out. To give me cues. It would be great if someone could look at me and
say, 'Whoa, Dylan is overloaded spatially. He's getting so much spatial information, I can't give him any
more. But I have something important I have to tell him. How about I give him that verbally? Because I
can tell by looking into his brain that the spatial part is filled up. But this part over here is empty. Maybe
I'll put the information there.' Wouldn't it be neat if a computer could do that?"
The generals liked the idea of the thinking cap -- that is, a noninvasive technology by which a computer
can read and therefore adapt itself to brain activity. They wanted the thinking cap because they know
there's a limit to human performance, and they want to get beyond it. It would be the next stage in the
evolution of the American soldier: the availability not of personal computers but of what Schmorrow
calls "symbiotes" that would boost each soldier's brain as each soldier's brain needed boosting,
whether in the control room, in the cockpit, or on the battlefield. But such a thing -- well, it's impossible,
isn't it? Neuroscientists told Schmorrow that it was impossible. Except that it wasn't. It's done. Phase
one, proving instantaneous brain-scanning technology can work, is over. Phase two, installing basic
platforms in each of the four services, is about to start. Phase three, combining all four platforms in a
fighter-plane cockpit, is in the future. Schmorrow has been at DARPA since October 2001. He has seen
the opportunity in the gap between man and machine, for, as he says, "If we're fighting in an
information space, we have to find a way for our computers to communicate with us. Our speed and our
accuracy are quickly becoming the weak links in the chain. It's an information world. Heck, how much
money are we spending to get Osama bin Laden right now? Probably a lot. Well, with perfect
information, it would cost about twenty cents. It would be one bullet. 'Hey, he's walking outside the
7-Eleven in twenty minutes.' Really? Hey, we got him. Done."
Dylan Schmorrow was saying this on the afternoon of September 11, 2003, by the way. The guy he
was talking about wasn't standing outside a 7-Eleven. He was on the other side of the world. He was
thinking of his own gaps, his own opportunities. In a cave.
Find this article at: http://www.esquire.com/features/best-n-brightest-2003/ESQ1203-DEC_DARPA

Close

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Computer Science Professors and the Department of


Defense DARPA
September 18, 2007
The Brain Drain in U.S. Universities and Colleges For Technological Innovation and
Invention

Long-time readers of this blog, or anyone familiar with CRA's policy efforts, will know
that we've spent a lot of time raising concerns about policy shifts at the Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) that have cut university participation
rates in DARPA-funded computer science research. In congressional testimony and
blog posts, we've pointed out that a shift at DARPA -- a focus on nearer-term efforts
with an emphasis on go/no-go milestones at relatively short intervals and an
increased use of classification -- has sharply reduced the amount of DARPAsupported research being performed in U.S. universities. In fact, between FY 2001
and FY 2004 (the last year for which we have good data), the amount of funding
from DARPA to U.S. universities for computer science research fell by half -- and
informal evidence suggests university shares are even lower today.
There are a number of reasons we're concerned about this trend. For one, DARPA's
diminished support for university CS leaves a hole in the federal IT R&D portfolio -both in funding, but maybe more importantly, in the loss of the "DARPA model" of
research support. Since the early 1960s, the country (indeed, the world) has reaped
the benefits of the diverse approaches to funding IT research represented by the two
leading agencies -- NSF and DARPA. While NSF has primarily focused on small grants
for individual researchers at a wide range of institutions -- and support for computing
infrastructure at America's universities -- DARPA's approach has been to identify key
problems of interest to the agency and then assemble and nurture communities of
researchers to address them. The combination of models has been enormously
beneficial -- DARPA-supported research in computing over the last four decades has
laid down the foundations for the modern microprocessor, the internet, the graphical
user interface, single-user workstations and a whole host of other innovations that
have made the U.S. military the best in the world, driven the new economy, changed
the conduct of science and enabled whole new scientific disciplines.
But DARPA's policy shift also impacts its own mission, which is to ensure the U.S.
never again suffers the sort of technological surprise marked by the Soviet launch of
Sputnik (which motivated the establishment of the agency nearly 50 years ago).
DARPA's move away from support of university researchers means that many of the
brightest minds of the country (indeed, the world) are no longer working on defenserelated problems. This loss of mindshare -- the percentage of people working on
DARPA-related problems -- is very worrisome to those in the community who
understand how much of America's advantage on the battlefield (and in the
marketplace) is owed to a network-centric strategy. I hear concerns from the "old
guard" in many of America's top university CS departments that there's a whole
generation of young researchers who have no experience working with DARPA or the
Defense Department and who are not attuned to defense problems -- a fact that
doesn't bode well for the future of the U.S. technological advantage and DARPA's
goal of preventing technological surprise.

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To their credit, the folks at DARPA recognize that this lack of awareness among
younger faculty of the types of problems DARPA would really like to solve is a
situation that needs addressing. And one way they're approaching the problem is
very direct -- they're finding young faculty with research areas of interest to the
agency and, well, taking them on a little tour of the DOD. The Computer Science
Study Group, run by the Institute for Defense Analysis for DARPA, serves to
"acclimate a generation of researchers to the needs and priorities of the DOD," by
mentoring, holding workshops, field trips to DOD facilities and fairly elaborate (and
pretty kewl) show-and-tells. An interesting article today on Rensselaer ECSE
professor Rich Radke's experience has some details on CSSG goals and methods:
The multi-year program familiarizes up-and-coming faculty from
American universities with DoD practices, challenges, and risks.
Participants are encouraged to view their own research through this
new perspective, and then to explore and develop technologies that
have the potential to transition innovative and revolutionary computer
science and technology advances to the government.
"The basic idea is to expose young faculty to Department of Defenserelated activities, via briefings by military and intelligence officers and
field trips to military and industrial bases," Radke said. "It is truly a
hard-core experience filled with days of interesting briefings and upclose show-and-tell with vehicles and equipment."
Read the whole piece for details of his adventures.
2007 was the first year for the CSSG and the $4.5 million program supported about
a dozen young researchers. DARPA has requested an increase in the program for FY
08 ($7 million) and FY 09 ($7.7 million), so hopefully we'll see that number start to
rise.
The DARPA CSSG program is one part of addressing the overall problem. The larger
concern is the importance of bringing DARPA back into the university research fold -not because it would benefit academic researchers, but because it impacts the
mission success of the Department of Defense (and hence our national security). A
number of factors suggest that maybe it's time to focus on the goal of increasing
mindshare of the best brains working on U.S. defense-related problems. For one,
because of U.S. visa policies, increasingly the best minds in the world won't
necessarily be coming to the U.S. Second, the research capacity of our potential
adversaries increases daily. And finally, the increase in foreign investment in U.S.
university research departments means that competition for U.S. university
mindshare is only increasing, and in some cases, maybe from countries we'd rather
not gain a competitive leg-up on us. So, programs like CSSG are really important.
But maybe so are some bigger policy issues across the agency....
Posted by PeterHarsha at September 18, 2007 11:34 AM

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BBC NEWS | Programmes | From Our Own Correspondent | Big Brother... http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/1...
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Big Brother is watching us all


By Humphrey Hawksley
BBC News, Washington
The US and UK governments are developing increasingly sophisticated gadgets to keep
individuals under their surveillance. When it comes to technology, the US is determined
to stay ahead of the game.
"Five nine, five ten," said the research student, pushing down a laptop button to seal the
measurement. "That's your height."
"Spot on," I said.
"OK, we're freezing you now," interjected another student, studying his computer screen.
"So we have height and tracking and your gait DNA".
"Gait DNA?" I interrupted, raising my head, so inadvertently my full face was caught on a
video camera.
"Have we got that?" asked their teacher Professor Rama Challapa. "We rely on just 30
frames - about one second - to get a picture we can work with," he explained.
Tracking individuals
I was at Maryland University just outside Washington DC, where Professor Challapa and his
team are inventing the next generation of citizen surveillance.
They had pushed back furniture in the conference room for me to walk back and forth and set
up cameras to feed my individual data back to their laptops.
Gait DNA, for example, is creating an individual code for the way I walk. Their goal is to invent
a system whereby a facial image can be matched to your gait, your height, your weight and
other elements, so a computer will be able to identify instantly who you are.
"As you walk through a crowd, we'll be able to track you," said Professor Challapa. "These
are all things that don't need the cooperation of the individual."
Since 9/11, some of the best scientific minds in the defence industry have switched their
concentration from tracking nuclear missiles to tracking individuals such as suicide bombers.
Surveillance society
My next stop was a Pentagon agency whose headquarters is a drab suburban building in
Virginia. The Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa) had one specific mission to ensure that when it comes to technology America is always ahead of the game.
Its track record is impressive. Back in the 70s, while we were working with typewriters and
carbon paper, Darpa was developing the internet. In the 90s, while we pored over maps,
Darpa invented satellite navigation that many of us now have in our cars.
"We ask the top people what keeps them awake at night," said its enthusiastic and
forthright director Dr Tony Tether, "what problems they see long after they have left their
posts."

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"And what are they?" I asked.
He paused, hand on chin. "I'd prefer not to say. It's classified."
"All right then, can you say what you're actually working on now."
"Oh, language," he answered enthusiastically, clasping his fingers together. "Unless we're
going to train every American citizen and soldier in 16 different languages we have to
develop a technology that allows them to understand - whatever country they are in - what's
going on around them.
"I hope in the future we'll be able to have conversations, if say you're speaking in French and
I'm speaking in English, and it will be natural."
"And the computer will do the translation?"

Opinion polls, both in the US and Britain, say that


about 75% of us want more, not less, surveillance

"Yep. All by computer," he said.


"And this idea about a total surveillance society," I asked. "Is that science fiction?"
"No, that's not science fiction. We're developing an unmanned airplane - a UAV - which may
be able to stay up five years with cameras on it, constantly being cued to look here and
there. This is done today to a limited amount in Baghdad. But it's the way to go."
Smarter technology
Interestingly, we, the public, don't seem to mind. Opinion polls, both in the US and Britain,
say that about 75% of us want more, not less, surveillance. Some American cities like New
York and Chicago are thinking of taking a lead from Britain where our movements are
monitored round the clock by four million CCTV cameras.
So far there is no gadget that can actually see inside our houses, but even that's about to
change.
Ian Kitajima flew to Washington from his laboratories in Hawaii to show me
sense-through-the-wall technology.
"Each individual has a characteristic profile," explained Ian, holding a green rectangular box
that looked like a TV remote control.
Using radio waves, you point it a wall and it tells you if anyone is on the other side. His
company, Oceanit, is due to test it with the Hawaiian National Guard in Iraq next year, and it
turns out that the human body gives off such sensitive radio signals, that it can even pick up
breathing and heart rates.
"First, you can tell whether someone is dead or alive on the battlefield," said Ian.
"But it will also show whether someone inside a house is looking to harm you, because if
they are, their heart rate will be raised. And 10 years from now, the technology will be much
smarter. We'll scan a person with one of these things and tell what they're actually thinking."
He glanced at me quizzically, noticing my apprehension.
"Yeah, I know," he said. "It sounds very Star Trekkish, but that's what's ahead."
From Our Own Correspondent was broadcast on Saturday, 15 September, 2007 at 1130
BST on BBC Radio 4. Please check the programme schedules for World Service
transmission times.

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BBC NEWS | Programmes | From Our Own Correspondent | Big Brother... http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/1...
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Story from BBC NEWS:


http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/6995061.stm
Published: 2007/09/15 10:38:11 GMT
BBC MMVII

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AN OVERLOOKED FORM OF SURVEILLANCE


Dear Everyone;
I came across this article about a form of surveillance which has been overlooked. Ron
Getty SF Libertarian http://www.rutherfo rd.org/articles_ db/commentary. asp?record_
id=497 An Electronic Concentration Camp: Big Brother in the Sky By John Whitehead
9/23/2007
Short of hiding out in a cave, far removed from any trace of modern technology, it would
seem that there is no longer any escaping the electronic concentration camp in which we
live.
Whether we?re crossing the street, queuing up at the ATM or picnicking in the park,
we?re under constant scrutiny?our movements monitored by cameras, tracked by
satellites and catalogued by a host of increasingly attentive government agencies. No
longer does the idea of an omnipresent, omniscient government seem all that far- fetched..
And as technology becomes ever more sophisticated, the idea of a total surveillance
society moves further from the realm of George Orwell?s science fiction fantasy into an
accepted way of life.
In fact, surveillance has become an industry in itself, with huge sectors having sprung up
devoted to developing increasingly sophisticated gadgets to keep American citizens under
surveillance, with or without their cooperation. The science behind the gadgetry is
particularly brilliant. For example, human motion analysis, a pet project of researchers at
the University of Maryland, aims to create an individual ?code? for the way people
walk?researchers refer to it as ?finding DNA in human motion.? Dubbed Gait DNA, this
surveillance system works by matching a person?s facial image to his gait, height, weight
and other elements?all captured through remote observation, thereby allowing the
computer to identify someone instantly and track them, even in a crowd.
Soon there really will be no place to hide. Oceanit, a Hawaii-based company that has
been working with the Hawaiian National Guard in Iraq, is preparing to roll out sensethrough- the-wall technology next year that can ?see? through walls by picking up on
sensitive radio signals emitted by the human body to determine vital signs such as
breathing and heart rates. As Ian Kitajima, the marketing manager for Oceanit pointed
out, in addition to telling users whether someone is dead or alive on the battlefield, the
technology ?will also show whether someone inside a house is looking to harm you,
because if they are, their heart rate will be raised. And 10 years from now, the technology
will be much smarter. We?ll scan a person with one of these things and tell what they?re
actually thinking.?
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the central research and
development agency for the Department of Defense, is credited with ensuring that the
U.S. remains ahead of the game when it comes to such far-reaching technology.
According to a recent BBC news report, ?Back in the 70s, while we were working with
typewriters and carbon paper, Darpa was developing the Internet. In the 90s, while we
pored over maps, Darpa invented satellite navigation that many of us now have in our

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cars.? DARPA is currently working on technology that will enable users to understand
any language spoken to them, as well as fine-tuning the prototype for an unmanned
airplane with surveillance cameras that would be able to stay airborne for up to five
years.
And on October 1, the government will launch its latest assault on privacy by making
data from U.S. satellites available to federal agents. These satellites, which orbit the earth
24 hours a day and have historically provided high-resolution photographs to track
climate changes and foreign military movements, will now be used to watch for terrorist
activity and drug smuggling, among other things. Yet they are a far cry from the satellite
imagery many Americans have become acquainted with through Google Earth and
MapQuest. These spy satellites not only take color photos, they also use more advanced
technology to track heat generated by people in buildings.
In fact, as the Wall Street Journal points out, ?The full capabilities of these systems are
unknown outside the intelligence community, because they are among the most closely
held secrets in government.? Moreover, the technology is expected to be made available
to state and local law enforcement agencies within the year, which raises serious concerns
about the deepening ties between domestic law enforcement agencies and the military.
This latest citizen surveillance program comes draped in the familiar government mantra
that it will keep us safe from terrorists. As Charles Allen, the chief intelligence officer for
the Department of Homeland Security, explained to the Washington Post, ?These systems
are already used to help us respond to crises. We anticipate that we can also use it to
protect Americans by preventing the entry of dangerous people and goods into the
country, and by helping us examine critical infrastructure for vulnerabilities.?
Yet despite the government?s best efforts to sell the program, it is nothing less than ?Big
Brother in the sky,? as Kate Martin, director of the Center for National Security Studies,
aptly termed it. Indeed, since 9/11, the U.S. government has been building an arsenal of
surveillance tools aimed directly at American citizens, largely paid for by American
taxpayers and fueled by our fears.
For too long now, the American people have been ruled by fear. We are afraid of
terrorists, afraid of crime, even afraid of our next-door neighbors. More than anything
else, Americans want to feel safe. According to the BBC News, opinion polls show that
approximately 75% of Americans want more, not less, surveillance. But there is wisdom
in the adage to ?be careful what you wish for, lest it come true.?
Implemented with virtually no oversight from Congress, this particular surveillance
program will be overseen by the Homeland Security Department and the Office of the
Director of National Intelligence, which is a little like letting the foxes guard the chicken
coop. And while some might argue that we at least live in a benevolent surveillance state,
one that seemingly has our best interests at heart, I beg to differ. Whether we choose our
prison or have it foisted upon us, the end is still the same: a lack of freedom.

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A Peek Inside DARPA


Gary Anthes

January 22, 2007 (Computerworld) Save for a single manned police car that has sat in
front of the building since 9/11, there is nothing about this particular office tower to
distinguish it from hundreds of others in Arlington, Va. But inside 3701 N. Fairfax Drive,
more than 100 computer scientists, biologists, materials specialists, microsystems
experts, mathematicians and engineers are hatching ideas around a staggering variety of
new technologies.
Its the headquarters of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the
subjects being studied there include software that can translate and analyze Arabic TV
broadcasts, insects with microcontrollers inside their bodies and the next generation of
supercomputers.
DARPAs philosophical underpinnings have changed several times over the years (see
Shifting Missions), but its mission remains the same. In 1958, in the aftershock of the
Soviet Unions Sputnik launch, President Eisenhower formed what was then known as
the Advanced Research Projects Agency. Two years ago, DARPA Director Tony Tether
told a congressional subcommittee, Our mission is still to prevent technological surprise,
but also to create technological surprise for our adversaries.
DARPA focuses on technologies for military use, especially those deemed too risky for
the private sector to tackle on its own. But it has also been a catalyst for many
commercial technologies, including timesharing, networking and the Internet,
workstations, database technology, operating systems, semiconductors and parallel
computing.
Open and Shut
Security is tight at the DARPA offices. Guards are everywhere, and visitors mostly
vendors looking for a piece of DARPAs $3 billion budget must surrender their cell
phones at the front desk if they contain cameras.
At the same time, DARPA is extraordinarily open for a military agency. Its main Web
site, www.darpa.mil, is packed with detailed accounts of what the agency is up to and
where it hopes to go in the future. DARPAs six offices have undertaken hundreds of
projects, including the following:
The Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) is soliciting proposals for
cognitive technologies that enable systems to reason, learn from experience, explain

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themselves and reflect on their own capabilities.


The Information Exploitation Office is working to develop a handheld, commandguided loitering cruise munition, a tiny guided missile that soldiers can use to fire at
targets that are behind and inside buildings.
The Microsystems Technology Office is sponsoring development of an atomic clock
smaller than a sugar cube.
The Intestinal Fortitude Program in the Defense Sciences Office aims to use beneficial
bacteria in the gut to protect soldiers from enteric disease.
In its Deep Speak program, the Strategic Technology Office (STO) is developing
techniques that will allow communications signals to penetrate deep into buildings and
underground facilities.
The Tactical Technology Office is sponsoring design of the Oblique Flying Wing, a
supersonic aircraft with no fuselage or tail that flies with one edge rotated forward and
one back.

David Honey

When Im vetting a project, clearly what I look for is its value to the military, says
David Honey, director of the STO. Commercial applications are often a byproduct, he
says.
For example, the STO is trying to solve a difficult and expensive problem that U.S. forces
face abroad. The spectrum of communications frequencies is statically allocated by type
of use and user, and it varies by country. A military radio that is usable in the U.S. and
Zambia, for example, may be illegal in Germany and South Korea. So radio frequencies
must often be reconfigured for each local environment.
But any particular slice of spectrum at any given locale may be unused much of the time.
So you establish a network to operate in those open spaces, Honey explains, and when
a legitimate use comes up, you are very agile and you move the entire network over to
another part of the spectrum.
DARPA has developed prototype software and hardware for just such an agile radio
network. Theres tremendous commercial interest in this, because its a problem
worldwide, Honey says.

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Indeed, a start- up called Shared Spectrum Co. in Vienna, Va., hopes to ride that
commercial wave. The payoff is going to be when the military application has a
commercial extension, says Peter Tenhula, a vice president at the company.
For example, he says, companies with their own private wireless networks, such as
couriers, could boost their bandwidth by 10 to 100 times with the technology, without
losing control of their networks as they would if they purchased network services from a
carrier.
Arpanet Revisited
Much of what Honeys office does today is aimed at making military networks robust and
self-healing. Its a goal that goes back to the agencys creation of the Arpanet the
embryonic Internet in the late 1960s. Packet-switching technology and the TCP/IP
protocols were designed to ensure that the network could survive in the face of multiple
failures.
All of this has its roots right back to the work of Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, who
invented TCP/IP while working at DARPA, Honey says.
Now DARPA is taking those concepts to a new level, and pioneers like Cerf are still
contributing. For example, IP-based wireless networks dont work well when
connectivity is interrupted. So in the Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) program,
cheap memory is used to cache data packets at individual nodes until service can be
restored.
Some of the concepts for DTN came from Cerfs earlier work in delay-tolerant
networking for the Interplanetary Internet project. Recalls Honey, Vint came to us and
said, We are doing this work. Wouldnt there be some military application? Thats a
very common occurrence people coming to us with an idea.

Charles Holland

Charles Holland, director of the IPTO, says his unit focuses on computing for human
productivity, and the target users are warfighters and military decision- makers.
For example, the IPTO is developing technology to translate and analyze voices from
Arabic and Chinese television and radio broadcasts. Weve been in this for many years,
he says, but about three years ago, the real requirement for this showed up, in Iraq. We

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had to really speed this up, to make it happen.


DARPAs speech technology has been deployed in nine locations, and it can translate
with about 50% accuracy good enough to see if public sentiment is going a certain
way, Holland says. By 2009, thats expected to reach 90%, which is as good as human
translators.
In parallel, the program is working on distillation technology designed to remove
irrelevant and redundant information from masses of translated text. The goal is to go
from 30% to 110% of human ability in the next few years.
One project that has commercialization as a specific goal is DARPAs High Productivity
Computing Systems (HPCS) supercomputer program. We asked the vendors to propose
to us systems that would be economically competitive, Holland says. They might not
sell many at the very high end [2 PFLOPS scalable to 4 PFLOPS], but theyd have to
have a strategy for marketing that technology so the government wouldnt have to pay for
it all.
A similar program in the 1980s resulted in the creation of a number of innovative, highperformance parallel computing architectures such as Thinking Machines Corp.s
Connection Machine. But they never went on to widespread commercial use, leaving the
military to pick up most of the research, development and support costs.
Theres another crucial difference between this HPCS program and the earlier program,
which focused on peak processing speeds.
We use the word productivity rather than performance, Holland says. Its from the
time a guy thinks about a problem to the time the answer comes out of the machine.
The goal, Holland says, is to improve application productivity by a factor of 10 through
new programming languages and development tools. In November, DARPA awarded a
total of $494 million to IBM and Cray Inc. for the next phase of the program, which is
expected to result in fully functional systems in four years.
On a more intimate scale, DARPA continues to refine and enhance its PAL, or
Personalized Assistant That Learns, a package of artificial intelligence technologies that
learn user behaviors and preferences by scanning e- mails, calendar entries, Web activity
and so on. A prototype is being readied for deployment in Iraq, where it will automate the
chore of writing up reports about the situation on the battlefield, which currently takes
command center personnel two hours at the end of their 12-hour shifts.
Later in the program, Holland says, PAL will be able to automatically watch a
conversation between two people and, using natural- language processing, figure out what
are the tasks they agreed upon.
At that point, perhaps DARPAs PAL could be renamed HAL, for Hearing Assistant That

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Learns. The original HAL, in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey, tells the astronauts how it
knows theyre plotting to disconnect it: Dave, although you took thorough precautions
in the pod against my hearing you, I could see your lips move.

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[print version] Yahoo hires DARPA director to head research | CNET N...

http://www.news.com/2102-1030_3-5996430.html?tag=st.util.print

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http://www.news.com/

Yahoo hires DARPA director to head research


By Elinor Mills
http://www.news.com/Yahoo-hires-DARPA-director-to-head-research/2100-1030_3-5996430.html
Story last modified Thu Dec 15 12:04:30 PST 2005

Yahoo has opened an East Coast research center and hired an artificial intelligence expert and former director at the U.S.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to open research centers in other countries.
Ron Brachman, 56, was named vice president of worldwide research operations, the Internet giant said Thursday.
The new research center in New York City will initially focus on media, microeconomics and e-commerce to help
understand "how people get together and do things in markets (and) auctions, (how they) exchange goods and services,
and how large groups of people have macroeconomic behaviors," Brachman said.
Brachman previously served as the director of DARPA's Information Processing Technology Office.
In his new position, Brachman said he will research data-mining and how to make computer systems adaptive over time.
"Recommendations made by online services--understanding similarities between interests and how to recommend things
to people--have underlying (artificial intelligence) technology," he said.
Artificial intelligence can also be used to help fight fraud and help improve targeted advertising, he said. "We can use
expert rules and Bayesian reasoning to understand when transactions may be fraudulent," Brachman said.

Ron Brachman,
Yahoo VP

Before joining DARPA in 2002, Brachman was a research vice president at AT&T Labs, where he developed an artificial
intelligence team. He also served as president of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence. He received a bachelor's degree from Princeton
University and a master's degree and doctorate from Harvard University.
Yahoo has three other research centers in Sunnyvale, Burbank and Berkeley, Calif.

Copyright 1995-2007 CNET Networks, Inc. All rights reserved.

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STNG :: United States makes big brother software

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United States makes big brother software


(http://www.dailysouthtown.com/business/harmening/550518,091107computerbits.article)

September 11, 2007


What do you think of when you hear carnivore, spyware, virus, CIPAV and key loggers? I think of criminals,
goofs and other nefarious sorts, but during the past few years, we have been getting bits of news out of the
federal government having to do with computer mischief and tracking of terrorists and criminals.
Carnivore is the nickname for a computer that basically sits on the Internet and stores all of the traffic going
by. The FBI and Homeland Security have been using this tool for several years to track messages, e-mail and
Web surfing of terrorists and criminals. I have heard the tool is incredibly easy to use and that it has been
successful in gathering evidence. This type of program is akin to tapping your telephone. Government
officials can listen in on what is going over the "Internet" lines, but they have not infiltrated the end user's
computer. Times have changed.
With CIPAV (Computer and Internet Protocol Address Verifier), the federal government has a new tool. In a
U.S. District Court case in western Washington, the FBI took the unusual step of utilizing spyware to track
down a person making bomb threats. The perpetrator ended up being a disturbed 15-year-old who thought
he could remain anonymous through posting on his MySpace page.
With the court's approval, the FBI "infected" the computer with the CIPAV program, which sent the "real" IP
address back to them. They either worked with MySpace to deliver the spyware when he accessed his
MySpace page, or they posted a message to his MySpace page and the boy infected himself when he read
the post.
Why does this matter to you? As many news stories have pointed out, including Wired and National Public
Radio, the federal government is getting into the nasty business of writing malicious software. Don't get me
wrong, with the court's approval, I am all for the CIPAV program. It prevented what could have been a horrible
incident. I applaud the hard work of the agents who planned and carried this out.
It also means that you have to be incredibly diligent about where you go on the Internet. If you go to a site that
has been hacked, and a spyware program has been dropped on your PC, then your PC is NOT safe. Your
keystrokes could be logged, your e-mail could be read, your passwords for bank and investment accounts
could be compromised, so please be careful when you surf the Internet.
Another interesting story in the computer news is the annual convention of DARPA. DARPA is the Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency. The convention brought together technologies being worked on across
the nation on new advancements in weapons, computers and satellite systems. One of the biggest things to
come out of DARPA was the GPS system. This year, there were many interesting technologies on display. I
wish I could have gone, but I was just able to read about them.
I think the robotics section was the most interesting. I had the pleasure of assembling a radio-controlled
helicopter a few years back and can appreciate the complexity of unmanned flights and robotics. The
advances described and being tested are incredible. Sending an unmanned ultra light plane into hostile
territory beats sending a pilot every time.
On the other hand, some of the projects were just hard to figure out. One project wants to connect binoculars
to a soldier's frontal cortex. Ouch. Brain surgery only should come after battle and to save a person's life. The
other project was called lifelog. A person wears a video camera, and everything they do is filmed. The data
could be analyzed - for what I don't know, but some very smart people want to know. Unfortunately for them,
this one has been terminated after three years, no pun intended.
Jim Harmening is president of Computer Bits Inc., an Orland Park computer services company. Send
questions to Jim in care of Mary Beth Sheehan at info@bitsmail.com or at www.computer-bits.com. Personal
responses are not always possible. Questions may be used in future columns.

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STNG :: United States makes big brother software

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Remote viewing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remote_viewing
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Remote viewing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The neutrality of this article is disputed.

Remote viewing
Events
Remote viewing

Please see the discussion on thetalk page.


Please do not remove this message until thedispute is resolved.

Stargate Project
People

Remote viewing (RV) is a broad term for a variety of techniques or protocols


employed to produce and control extra-sensory perception (ESP). The term
was coined in the early 1970s by principal researchers at SRI International,
Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff, mainly to distinguish the protocols they

Ingo Swann
Hal Puthoff
Pat Price
Russell Targ
Joseph McMoneagle
Paul H. Smith
Ed May
Mel Riley
Dale Graff
Lyn Buchanan
Aaron Donahue
David Morehouse
Gerald O'Donnell

were investigating from older ESP protocols.[1] (Targ & Puthoff 1977,
Puthoff 1996, Schnabel 1997). There is no scientific proof for RV or ESP.
In RV, a viewer attempts to gather information via ESP on a remote target.
The target is usually an object, a place, or a person, and many remote
viewers believe that the target may be situated anywhere in space or time.
The viewer often has no prior knowledge of the target's identity. Adherents
believe that data generated by the remote viewer is best combined with data
provided by other viewers and evaluated by a separate analyst. (Targ and
Puthoff 1977, Puthoff 1996, Schnabel 1997.)

Contents

<edit>
(http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Remote_Viewing&action=edit)

1 History
1.1 Background
1.2 Early SRI experiments
1.3 Government sponsorship
2 Criticism
3 Response to Criticism
4 Popular Culture
5 Selected remote viewing study participants
6 Books
7 Papers
8 References
9 External links

History
Background
From the World War II era the US government occasionally funded ESP research. But as of the early 1970's it had no significant program in this area. At the same
time, the US intelligence community learned that the USSR and China were giving high priority to ESP research, and to psi research generally. U.S. intelligence
officials therefore became receptive to the idea of having their own, competing psi research program. (Schnabel 1997)

Early SRI experiments


The report of a low-key psi experiment conducted in 1972 by SRI laser physicist, Hal Puthoff, with purported psychic Ingo Swann led to a visit from two employees
of the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology. The immediate result was a $50,000 CIA-sponsored project whose goal was to find some way of using psi
operationally. (Schnabel 1997, Puthoff 1996, Kress 1977/1999, Smith 2005) As research continued, the SRI team published papers in Nature (Targ & Puthoff, 1974),
in Proceedings of the IEEE (Puthoff & Targ, 1976), and in the proceedings of a symposium on consciousness for the American Association for the Advancement of
Science (Puthoff, et al, 1981).

Government sponsorship
The initial grant was later renewed and expanded. A number of CIA officials including John McMahon, then the head of the Office of Technical Service and later the
Agency's deputy director, became strong supporters of the program. By the mid 1970s, facing the post-Watergate revelations of its "skeletons," and after internal
criticism of the program, the CIA dropped sponsorship of the SRI research effort. Sponsorship was picked up by the Air Force, led by analyst Dale E. Graff of the
Foreign Technology Division. In 1979, the Army's Intelligence and Security Command, which had been providing some taskings to the SRI psychics, was ordered to
develop its own program by the Army's chief intelligence officer, Gen. Ed Thompson. CIA operations officers, working from McMahon's office and other offices, also
continued to provide taskings to SRI's psychic subjects. (Schnabel 1997, Smith 2005, Atwater 2001)
The program had three parts (Mumford, et al, 1995). First was the evaluation of psi research performed by the U.S.S.R. and China, which appears to have been
better-funded and better-supported than the government research in the U.S. (Schnabel 1997)
In the second part of the program, SRI managed its own stable of "natural" psychics both for research purposes and to make them available for tasking by a variety of
US intelligence agencies. The most famous results from these years were the description of a big crane at a Soviet nuclear research facility (Kress 1977/199, Targ 1996),
the description of a new class of Soviet strategic submarine (Smith 2005, McMoneagle 2002) and the location of a downed Soviet bomber in Africa (which former
President Carter later referred to in speeches). By the early 1980s numerous offices throughout the intelligence community were providing taskings to SRI's psychics.
(Schnabel 1997, Smith 2005)

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The third branch of the program was a research project intended to find ways to make ESP -- now called "remote viewing" -- more accurate and reliable. The
intelligence community offices that tasked the psychics seemed to believe that the phenomenon was real. But in the view of these taskers, a remote viewer could be
sensationally "on" one day and inexplicably "off" the next, a fact that made it hard for the technique to be officially accepted. Through SRI, psychics were studied for
years in a search for physical (e.g., brain-wave) correlates that would reveal when they were on- or off-target.
At SRI, Ingo Swann and Hal Puthoff also developed a remote-viewing training program meant to enable any individual with a suitable background to produce useful
data. As part of this project, a number of military officers and civilians were trained and formed a military remote viewing unit, based at Fort Meade, Maryland.
(Schnabel 1997, Smith 2005, McMoneagle 2002)
In part because the program managers believed that anyone could learn accurate remote-viewing, the loss (through death and retirement) of the "naturals" was never
replenished. Within the program, this was controversial. Some of the "naturals" believed that their talents were superior to those of the trainees.
The trainees (see Smith 2005, Schnabel 1997, Buchanan 2003) generally believed that the research program had succeeded not only in training them acceptably but in
finding ways to make remote viewing an intelligence-collection tool as reliable as other standard methods (for example, human-source intelligence, which is not always
reliable). Meanwhile, one of the authors of an official 1995 report, authorized by the CIA wrote that "There's no documented evidence it had any value to the
intelligence community."[2].
Some agencies and offices sent taskings to the program routinely but, fearing the "giggle factor," were loath to document their involvement. Only a few intelligence
officials, including the Army generals Edmund Thompson and Albert Stubblebine, and senior DIA official Jack Vorona, were willing to champion it openly. Others,
such as generals Harry Soyster and William Odom, and Admiral Sam Koslov, allegedly wished to end the project. The struggle between "true unbelievers" and "true
believers" provided much of the program's actual drama. Each side seems to have been utterly convinced that the other's views were wrong.(Schnabel 1997, Smith
2005)
In the early 1990s the Military Intelligence Board, chaired by DIA chief Soyster, appointed an Army Colonel, William Johnson, to manage the remote viewing unit
and, in effect, prove its uselessness. According to an account by former SRI-trained remote-viewer, Paul Smith (2005), Johnson spent several months running the
remote viewing unit against military and DEA targets, and ended up a believer, not only in remote viewing's validity as a phenomenon but in its usefulness as an
intelligence tool.
However, by this time Vorona, Stubblebine and Thompson had all retired, and the program's support essentially depended on a key group of Senators, especially
Democrat Robert Byrd, who chaired the Appropriations Committee. One of Byrd's top aides, Richard D'Amato, was the boyfriend of a female remote viewer, and
evidently on the order of the supportive Senators kept the program alive with earmarks to appropriations bills. After the Democrats lost control of the Senate in late
1994, and Byrd could no longer exert the same level of control over appropriations, the remote viewing program was effectively doomed. The project was transferred
out of DIA to the CIA in 1995, with the promise that it would be evaluated there, but most participants in the program believed that it would be terminated. (Schnabel
1997, Smith 2005, Mumford, et al 1995)
The CIA hired the American Institutes for Research, a perennial intelligence-industry contractor, to perform a retrospective evaluation of the results generated by the
remote-viewing program. Most of the program's results were not seen by the evaluators, with the report focusing on the most recent experiments, and only from
government-sponsored research.[3] One of the reviewers was Ray Hyman, a long-time opponent of psi research while another was Jessica Utts who, as a supporter of
psi, was chosen to put forward the pro-psi argument. Utts maintained that there had been a statistically significant positive effect
(http://anson.ucdavis.edu/~utts/air2.html) , with some subjects scoring 5%-15% above chance.[4] Ray Hyman argued for a null result and the program was officially
terminated. [4]. [2]

Criticism
According to Dr. David Marks in experiments conducted in the 1970s at the Stanford Research Institute, the notes given to the judges contained clues as to which
order they were carried out, such as referring to yesterday's two targets, or they had the date of the session written at the top of the page. Dr. Marks concluded that these
clues were the reason for the experiment's high hit rates.[5][6]
Dr. Marks also suggested that the participants of remote viewing experiments were influenced by subjective validation, a process through which correspondences are
perceived between stimuli that are in fact associated purely randomly. [7]
At the request of the Army Research Council, the National Research Council conducted an evaluation in 1987 (results published in 1988) to examine the effectiveness
of various "human performance" technologies, among them remote viewing. The NRC's chief psi investigators, Ray Hyman and James Alcock, reported that they
found no legitimate validation of any psi phenomenon, to include remote viewing (Druckman & Swets 1988, Smith 2005). Others have said that the remote viewing
sessions often produce information which is vague, and much of which is erroneous.[4] For example, the 1995 report for the American Institute for Research "An
Evaluation of Remote Viewing: Research and Applications" by Mumford, Rose and Goslin, contains a section of anonymous reports describing how remote viewing
was tentatively used in a number of operational situations. The three reports conclude that the data was too vague to be of any use, and in the report that offers the most
positive results the writer notes that the viewers "had some knowledge of the target organizations and their operations but not the background of the particular tasking
at hand."[4]

Response to Criticism
SRI researchers responded to Marks' first criticism by noting that it could hardly have accounted for the very high positive hit rates. Moreover, the "outbound remote
viewing" protocol criticized by Marks was used only in an early phase of the program. Later experiments were not vulnerable to such criticism. (See the discussions in
Targ & Puthoff 1977, Puthoff 1996, and Schnabel 1997.)

Popular Culture
In the movie Suspect Zero detectives must track a killer who has the Remote Viewing ability. A major theme of the film is remote viewing, and the DVD's extra
features include interviews with people who worked with the US military and intelligence agencies as part of those programs.
In the second season of The Dead Zone, episode 16 (The Hunt) involves the protagonist, John Smith, being recruited by a covert government remote viewing
team. He enables the team to provide real-time intelligence information to U.S. special forces engaging with terrorists in Afghanistan.
In the TV Series John Doe (2002-2003) remote viewing also played a key role as John struggled to learn his identity.
Remote Viewing is a common topic on the late-night radio talk show Coast to Coast AM.
In the video games Psi-Ops: The Mindgate Conspiracy and Second Sight, the main characters have remote viewing as one of their abilities.

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In the science fiction novel Three Days to Never by Tim Powers one character is a psychic spy, but also blind, using her Remote Viewing to see normally
through the eyes of others. The underground US military Remote Viewing spy training facility in the desert which honed her RV capabilities as a child is
loosely based on an actual CIA program which existed until the 1980s.
In the TV series Numb3rs, season two episode "Mind Games" features John Glover as a remote viewer who assists Eppes' FBI team with a case.
In the animated TV series Delta State, one of the four protagonists has the power of remote viewing.
In the book Sole Survivor by Dean Koontz, a genetically modified remote viewer is able to possess control of a persons body at any location, usually indoors.
Remote viewing is a major theme of the 2006-2007 Deadman series by Bruce Jones.

Selected remote viewing study participants


Ingo Swann, one of the founding participants
Pat Price, early participant
Russell Targ, cofounder of the Stanford Research Institute's investigation into psychic abilities in the 1970s and 1980s
Joseph McMoneagle, early participant
Ed Dames, formerly associated with PSI TECH, Inc.
Courtney Brown, founder of the Farsight Institute
David Morehouse, participant during the Stargate program
Lyn Buchanan
David Marks, critic of remote viewing, after finding sensory cues in the original transcripts generated by Russell Targ and Hal Puthoff at Stanford Research
Institute in the 1970s

Books

F. Holmes Atwater, Captain of My Ship, Master of My Soul: Living with Guidance, Hampton Roads 2001, ISBN 1-57174-247-6
Richard Broughton, Parapsychology: The Controversial Science
(http://www.amazon.com/Parapsychology-Controversial-Science-Richard-Broughton/dp/0712652930/ref=sr_1_11/103-9080698-1033452?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1186258106&s
. Rider and Company, 1991.
Courtney Brown, Ph.D., Remote Viewing : The Science and Theory of Nonphysical Perception. Farsight Press, 2005. ISBN 0-9766762-1-4
Buchanan, Lyn, The Seventh Sense: The Secrets Of Remote Viewing As Told By A "Psychic Spy" For The U.S. Military, 2003. ISBN 0-7434-6268-8
Druckman, Daniel & John A. Swets Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and Techniques
(http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=1025&page=R1) , 1988, National Academy Press.
Graff, Dale E. River Dreams, Element Books, 2000.
David Marks, Ph.D., "The Psychology of the Psychic (2nd edn.)" Prometheus Books, 2000. ISBN 1-57392-798-8
McMoneagle, Joseph, The Stargate Chronicles: Memoirs of a Psychic Spy, Hampton Roads 2002, ISBN 1-57174-225-5
David Morehouse, Psychic Warrior, St. Martin's, 1996, ISBN 0-312-96413-7
Jim Schnabel, Remote Viewers: The Secret History of America's Psychic Spies (http://jimschnabel.com) , Dell, 1997 , ISBN 0-440-22306-7
Paul H. Smith, Reading the Enemy's Mind: Inside Star Gate -- America's Psychic Espionage Program, Forge, 2005, ISBN 0-312-87515-0
Targ, Russell and Hurtak, J.J.The End of Suffering (http://www.theendofsuffering.org) 2006, Hampton Roads.
Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff, Mind-Reach: Scientists Look at Psychic Abilities Delacorte Press, 1977, ISBN 0440056888 (currently published by Hampton
Roads Publishing Co., 2005)

Papers
Bisaha, J.P. & B. J. Dunne, "Multiple Subject and Long-Distance Precognitive Remote Viewing of Geographical Locations," in Mind at Large, edited by C. T.
Tart, H. E. Puthoff and R. Targ (Praeger, New York, 1979), p. 107.
Bremseth, Commander L.R., USN, Unconventional Human Intelligence Support: Transcendent and Asymmetric Warfare Implications of Remote Viewing
(http://irvalibrary.com/papers/Bremseth.pdf)
Dunne, B.J., and Bisaha, J.P. (1979) Precognitive remote viewing in the Chicago area. Journal of Parapsychology. 43: 17-30.
Kress, Kenneth A., Parapsychology in Intelligence: A Personal Review & Conclusions (http://http://irvalibrary.com/papers/ParaIntel_Kress.html) Studies in
Intelligence, Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, Winter 1977. (Republished with addendum in Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 13, No. 1
(Spring 1999), pp. 69-85
Mumford, Michael D.; Rose, Andrew M.; & Goslin, David A. An Evaluation of Remote Viewing: Research and Applications, American Institutes for Research
(http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/air1995.pdf) , September 29, 1995
Nelson, R. D., B. J. Dunne, Y. H. Dobyns, and R. G. Jahn. 1996. Precognitive Remote Perception: Replication of Remote Viewing
(http://www.princeton.edu/~pear/pdfs/jse_papers/9PRP%20i0892-3310-010-01-0109.pdf) . Journal of Scientific Exploration, 10(1), 109-10
Puthoff, H.E., "CIA-Initiated Remote Viewing at Stanford Research Institute" (http://www.biomindsuperpowers.com/Pages/CIA-InitiatedRV.html) , 1996
Puthoff, Harold E., Russell Targ, and Edwin C. May, "Experimental Psi Research: Implications for Physics," in Robert G. Jahn (ed), The Role of
Consciousness in the Physical World: AAAS Selected Symposium 57, American Association for the Advancement of Science: Boulder, CO, 1981.
Puthoff, H.E. & R. Targ, A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical Perspective and Recent Research
(http://irvalibrary.com/papers/Remote-Viewing-IEEE-1976.pdf) Proceedings of the IEEE 64, 329 (1976)
Radin, Dean, Precognition, Presentiment & Remote Viewing (http://www.esalenctr.org/display/confpage.cfm?confid=2&pageid=5&pgtype=1)
Targ, Russell, Remote Viewing at Stanford Research Institute in the 1970s: A Memoir (http://irvalibrary.com/papers/RV_SRI_Memoir.html) Journal of
Scientific Exploration, Vol. 10, No.1, 1996, pp.77-88.
Targ, R. & H.E. Puthoff, "Information Transfer Under Conditions of Sensory Shielding," Nature, Vol. 2, No. 5476 (October 18, 1974), 602-607.
Utts, J.M., (1996) An Assessment of the Evidence for Psychic Functioning, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 10 (1), 3-30. Also in Journal of Parapsychology,
59(4), 289-320.
Utts and Josephson, "The Paranormal: The Evidence and Its Implications for Consciousness", 1996 [1] (http://www.tcm.phy.cam.ac.uk/~bdj10/psi/tucson.psi)

References
1. ^ http://parapsych.org/glossary_l_r.html#r Parapsychological Association website, Glossary of Key Words Frequently Used in Parapsychology, Retrieved
January 8, 2006
2. ^ a b Time magazine, 11 Dec 1995, p.45, The Vision Thing (http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,983829,00.html) by Douglas Waller,

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Washington
3. ^ May, E.C., The American Institutes for Research Review of the Department of Defense's STAR GATE Program: A Commentary, The Journal of
Parapsychology. 60, pp 3-23, March 1996
4. ^ a b c d http://psiland.free.fr/dossiers/parapsy/psi_defense/remote.pdf "An Evaluation of Remote Viewing: Research and Applications" by Mumford, Rose and
Goslin
5. ^ Marks, D.F. & Kammann, R. (1978). "Information transmission in remote viewing experiments", Nature, 274:680-81.
6. ^ http://www.nap.edu/books/POD276/html/647.html "A comprehensive review of major empirical studies in parapsychology involving random event generators
or remote viewing" by Alcock, J.
7. ^ Marks, D.F. (2000). The Psychology of the Psychic. Amherst, New York:Prometheus Books.
Stargate FOIA (freedom of information act) remote viewing documents and other remote viewing files and history can be found at remoteviewed.com
(http://www.remoteviewed.com)

External links
The International Remote Viewing Association (http://www.irva.org)
History of Remote Viewing and its Connection to the OT-Levels of Scientology (http://sc-i-r-s-ology.pair.com/rvtimeline/index.html)
STAR GATE Controlled Remote Viewing (http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/stargate.htm)
The Remote Viewing Conference Website (http://www.rvconference.org)
Interview with noted remote viewer and researcher, Stephan A. Schwartz (http://www.skeptiko.com/index.php?id=14)
http://www.remoteviewed.com FOIA Stargate papers, remote viewing results, history and much more
Remote Viewing? Remote Chance. A Skeptical look at Remote Viewing by Karen Stollznow (http://www.bad-language.com/remote)
Remote Viewing (http://www.esmhome.org/library/trv-part-1.html) What is Remote Viewing Parts 1, 2 & 3 by Kevin Pirolo
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remote_viewing"
Categories: NPOV disputes | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since July 2007 | Articles with trivia sections from July
2007 | Psychic powers | Parapsychology | Remote viewers
This page was last modified 14:17, 6 September 2007.
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.)
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity.

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American Institute of Parapsychology

Parapsychology Principles: Andrew Nichols, Ph.D.


(1) Parapsychology is defined as the interdisciplinary study of a class of human experiences which are typically
described by the percipient as Aparanormal,@ Asupernatural,@ Amystical,@ etc. Paranormal experiences are
defined as those experiences which seem to violate known scientific laws (whether or not they do in fact violate
such laws). Examples of paranormal experiences include Extra-sensory perception (ESP), Psychokinesis (PK),
and phenomena suggestive of survival of human consciousness after death, e.g. apparitions, near-death
experiences, etc. Parapsychology is also concerned with all anomalous aspects of human consciousness, including
altered states of consciousness, dreams, hypnosis and trance, etc.
(2) Parapsychology asserts that such experiences are not, in and of themselves, indicative of psychopathology.
It is recognized that paranormal experiences may be concomitants of certain psychopathological states, or that
certain paranormal experiences may trigger psychopathological (dysfunctional) responses in some percipients.
Parapsychology rejects psychiatric diagnostic categories which are based solely upon subjective paranormal
experiences (e.g. Ahearing voices@).
(3) Parapsychology asserts that paranormal-type experiences are often a source of personal transformation or
healing to the individual, and as such, are potentially valuable aspects of the human experience. These
experiences are potentially transformative and beneficial whether or not they correspond to events in the realm
of mundane sensory experience. Parapsychologists have a duty to assist their clients in the analysis and
integration of paranormal experiences, as an adjunct to personal growth and individuation.
(4) Parapsychology asserts that consciousness itself is fundamentally Aparanormal@ (i.e. unexplainable by
contemporary scientific models), and further asserts that within each individual is a (usually unconscious) stratum
or layer of the psyche which is transpersonal (extends beyond the self), non-local, and non-temporal (not
bound by conventional concepts of space and time). This transpersonal consciousness incorporates other
individuals, living and deceased, as well as objects and/or locations which are meaningful to the individual. This
transpersonal stratum of consciousness is the source of genuine paranormal experiences, whether experienced
consciously or subliminally.
(5) Parapsychology asserts that the prudent use of certain techniques (e.g. trance induction, automatisms) may
facilitate access to the transpersonal unconscious, and may provide beneficial opportunities for self-actualization
and personal transformation for the individual. Such techniques do, however, have a potential for misuse, and
should be supervised by an experienced facilitator trained in parapsychology.
(6) Parapsychology assumes no stance on the question of physical measurement or recording of paranormal
phenomena. There is no conclusive evidence that physical measures or recording techniques (photography,
audio-recording, etc.) are capable of detecting paranormal energies or entities. Therefore, the parapsychologist
must view such purported evidence with an attitude of open-minded skepticism, recognizing that further research
or developments in scientific methodology may ultimately provide legitimate physical evidence for the paranormal.
Parapsychology asserts that the meaning or value of paranormal experiences are not dependent upon the
acquisition of genuine Aspirit photographs,@ AEVP recordings,@ or other physical evidence. This is true of all
subjective human experiences studied by social scientists. Recognizing that some hoaxes do occur, humanistic
parapsychologists believe that most reported paranormal phenomena are genuine human experiences, and thus
are inherently meaningful and valuable.
(7) Parapsychology is a scientific approach insofar as it utilizes the methodology of the social sciences
(psychology, sociology, anthropology) to acquire and analyze data on paranormal experiences. However,
humanistic parapsychology also incorporates psychological/spiritual development, and as such may be regarded
as an interdisciplinary field which incorporates scientific, mystical/intuitive, and philosophical approaches.
(8) The task of parapsychology is threefold. First, since paranormal experiences are usually designated as such by
the percipient due to a perceived synchronicity between internal, subjective experiences and external, objective
events (e.g. a dream that seems to come true), the parapsychologist seeks to determine whether this assertion is
factual, or if the experience is subjective in nature. Next, the parapsychologist analyzes the gathered material,
seeking meaningful patterns relating the event to the percipient=s personal history, mythological concepts, etc.
Finally, the parapsychologist offers counseling and advice to the percipient, with the goal of providing an
explanation for the paranormal experience(s), and suggestions for integrating, amplifying, or eliminating such
experiences, depending upon the individual needs and wishes of the client, and the assessment of the
parapsychologist.
(9) Parapsychological Counseling is client-centered and non-directive, i.e., paranormal experiences should be
studied within the cultural and social context in which they occur. Insofar as is possible, the parapsychologist
should work within the belief system of the individual percipients toward an understanding of the reported
experiences. The task of the parapsychologist is to provide beneficial counseling and advice to the client, rather

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than to Adebunk@ the experience, or indoctrinate the client into a particular belief system or dogmatic
interpretation of the reported experience. Occasionally it is necessary to attempt to re-frame the belief system of
the percipient to alleviate fear (e.g. poltergeist cases), protect the client from exploitation (e.g. by fraudulent
psychics) or if the physical or psychological health of the individual is believed to be in jeopardy.
(10) Parapsychology supports no specific religious interpretation of paranormal experiences, and makes no
assertions with regard to the question of conscious survival after death, nor does it assert the literal existence of
an objective Aspirit world= or of non-corporeal entities, extra-terrestrial beings, etc. Parapsychology does assert
that these concepts are scientifically possible, that these questions are of fundamental importance to the human
species, and therefore warrant rigorous scientific research.

Copyright 2007, American Institute of Parapsychology

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Society for Psychical Research - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Society for Psychical Research


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) is a non-profit organization which started in the United Kingdom
and later acquired branches in other countries. Its stated purpose is to understand "events and abilities
commonly described as psychic or paranormal by promoting and supporting important research in this area" and
to "examine allegedly paranormal phenomena in a scientific and unbiased way."[1] It was founded in 1882 by a
group of eminent thinkers including Edmund Gurney, Frederic William Henry Myers, William Barrett, Henry
Sidgwick, and Edmund Dawson Rogers.
The Society's headquarters are in Marloes Road, London.
It publishes the quarterly Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (JSPR), the irregular Proceedings
and the magazine Paranormal Review. It holds an annual conference, regular lectures and two study days per
year. Its French branch, the French Society for Psychical Research, publishes the Journale de la Socit
Franaise pour Recherche Psychique (JSFRP), which means "Journal of the French Society for Psychical
Research" in English. Its American counterpart, the American Society for Psychical Research, publishes the
Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (JASPR). After the French branch of the Society
was formed, the Society as a whole became known as the International Society for Psychical Research
(ISPR).

Contents
1 Purpose and organization
2 List of Presidents
3 Today
4 References
5 External links

Purpose and organization


Its purpose was to encourage scientific research into psychic or paranormal phenomena in order to establish
their truth. Research was initially aimed at six areas: telepathy, mesmerism and similar phenomena, mediums,
apparitions, physical phenomena associated with sances and, finally, the history of all these phenomena. The
Society is run by a President and a Council of twenty people. The organisation is divided between London and
Cambridge (where the archives are located), the London headquarters were initially at 14 Dean's Yard. A
French branch of the Society was formed in 1885 as the Socit Franaise pour Recherche Psychique
(SFRP), which means "French Society for Psychical Research" in English. Later, an American branch of the
Society was formed as the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR), becoming an affiliate of the
original SPR in 1890. American writers sometimes incorrectly call the SPR the British Society for Psychical

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Society_for_Psychical_Research
Published by The Advanced Media Group

Research (BSPR), to distinguish it from the American SPR, but the modifer should not be added.

List of Presidents
The presidents of the Society for Psychical Research
1882-1884 Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900), philosopher
1885-1887 Balfour Stewart (1827-1887), physicist
1888-1892 Henry Sidgwick (

1882)

1892-1894 Arthur Balfour (1848-1930), later prime minister of Great Britain, originator of the well
known Balfour Declaration
1894-1895 William James (1842-1910) psychologist, philosopher
1896-1897 Sir William Crookes (1832-1919), physicist, chemist
1900

Frederick William Henry Myers (1843-1901), philologist and philosopher

1901-1903 Sir Oliver Lodge (1851; 1940), physicist


1904

Sir William Fletcher Barrett (1845-1926), physicist

1905

Charles Robert Richet (1850; 1935), physiologist, Nobel Prize winner

1906-1907 Gerald Balfour (1853-1945), politician


1908-1909 Eleanor Sidgwick (1845-1936), parapsychologist
1910

Henry Arthur Smith (1848-), Anwalt

1911

Andrew Lang (1844-1912)

1912

William Boyd Carpenter (1841-1918), Bishop

1913

Henri Bergson (1859-1941) philosopher; Nobel Prize winner for literature 1927.

1914

Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller (1864-1937), philosopher

1915-1916 George Gilbert Aime Murray (1866-1957), philologist


1917-1918 Lawrence Pearsall Jacks (1860-1955), professor of philosophy in Oxford
1919

John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919), physicist, Nobel Prize 1904

1920-1921 William McDougall (1871-1938), psychologist


1922

Thomas Walter Mitchell (1869; 1944), editor of the British journal of medical psychology

1923

Camille Flammarion (1842-1925), astronomer

1924-1925 John George Piddington (1869-1952), businessman


1926-1927 Hans Driesch (1867-1941), German biologist and natural philosopher
1928-1929 Sir Lawrence Jones (1885-)
1930-1931 Walter Franklin Prince (1863-1934), founded the Boston SPR in 1925
1932

Eleanor Sidgwick (

1908) and Oliver Joseph Lodge (

1901)

1933-1934 Edith Lyttelton (1865-1948), playwright

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1935-1936 Charlie Dunbar Broad (1887-1971), philosopher


1937-1938 Robert John Strutt, 4th Baron Rayleigh (1875-1947)
1939-1941 Henri Haberley Price (1899-)
1942-1944 Robert Henry Thouless (1894-), psychologist
1945-1946 George Tyrell (*1879; 1952), mathematician
1947-1948 William Henry Salter (1880-), lawyer
1949

Gardner Murphy (1895-1979), psychologist

1950-1951 Samuel George Soal (1889-1975), mathematician


1952

George Murray ( 1915)

1953-1955 Frederick Stratton (1881-1960), astrophysicist, professor in Cambridge


1956-1958 Guy William Lambert (1889-), diplomat
1958-1960 Charlie Dunbar Broad (

1935)

1960-1961 Henri Habberley Price ( 1939)


1960-1963 Eric Robertson Dodds (1893-), professor of Greek studies in Birmingham and Oxford
1963-1965 Donald James West (1924-), psychiatrist and criminologist
1965-1969 Sir Alister Hardy (1896-1985), zoologist
1970

W. A. H. Rushton (1901-1980), physiologist, professor in Cambridge

1971-1974 Clement William Kennedy Mundle (1916-), philosopher


1974-1976 John Beloff (1920-2006), psychologist at the University of Edinburgh
1976-1979 Arthur J. Ellison (-2000)
1980

Joseph Banks Rhine (1895-1980)

1980

Louisa Ella Rhine (1891-)

1981-1983 Arthur J. Ellison ( 1976)


???

???

1992-1993 Alan Gauld


1993-1995 Archie Roy, professor of astronomy in Glasgow, founded the Scottish SPR in 1987
1996-1999 David Fontana, professor of psychology at Cardiff University
1999-2004 Bernard Carr, professor of mathematics and astronomy at Queen Mary, University of London
2004-2007 John Poynton, Biologist
2007-

Professor Deborah Delanoy, Parapsychologist

Remark concerning the persons in italics: Eleanor Sidgwick was the wife of Henry Sidgwick and the sister of
both Arthur Balfour and Gerald Balfour.

Today
The Society states its principal aim as "understanding events and abilities commonly described as psychic or
paranormal by promoting and supporting important research in this area." The Society has gathered and
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Published by The Advanced Media Group

disseminated a great deal of data relating to the paranormal. The SPR publishes three peer-reviewed scientific
journals, the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, the Journal of the French Society for
Psychical Research, and the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. The Society has built
up an extensive library and archive, part of which is held at the University of Cambridge.[2][3]
The Society has many well known figures among its members, including parapsychologists Dean Radin, Charles
Tart, Tom Ruffles, Ciarn O'Keeffe, and Louie Savva. Investigators of spontaneous phenomena (hauntings, etc.)
include the late Maurice Grosse and Guy Lyon Playfair who are best known for the Enfield Poltergeist[4].
Contrary to popular belief, Susan Blackmore is no longer a parapsychologist.

References
1.
2.
3.
4.

^ SPR website (http://www.spr.ac.uk/index.php3?page=library)


^ SPR website (http://www.spr.ac.uk/index.php3?page=library)
^ Edinburgh University Website (http://moebius.psy.ed.ac.uk/~info/SocAssoc.php3)
^ Playfair, G.L. & Grosse, M. (1988). "Enfield revisited: The evaporation of positive evidence". Journal
of the Society for Psychical Research 55 pp.208-219
Vernon Harrison. (1997) H. P. Blavatsky and the SPR. ISBN 1-55700-119-7

External links
SPR home page (http://www.spr.ac.uk)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Society_for_Psychical_Research"


Categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since March 10 | Articles
with unsourced statements since June 2007 | Paranormal investigators | Non-profit organizations based in the
United Kingdom | Parapsychology
This page was last modified 07:20, 15 August 2007.
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for
details.)
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3)
tax-deductible nonprofit charity.

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DARPA Mission

http://www.darpa.gov/body/mission.html
Published by
The Advanced Media Group

DARPAs mission is to maintain the technological superiority of


the U.S. military and prevent technological surprise from
harming our national security by sponsoring revolutionary,
high-payoff research that bridges the gap between
fundamental discoveries and their military use.
Below are some documents that provide general information
about DARPA.
DARPA Overview DARPAs Strategic Plan (updated
February 2007) provides an overview of the agency and
its programs.
Statement - Directors statement to the Subcommittee
on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities of
the House Armed Services Committee, 3/21/07.
Transformation and Transition: DARPA's Role in Fostering
an Emerging Revolution in Military Affairs (reprinted with
permission)
Volume I - Overall Assessment (April 2003)
Volume II - Detailed Assessments (Nov. 2003)
Coin Log: List of recipients who have been awarded a
coin by the DARPA Director.
DARPA Over the Years
ARPA - DARPA, the history of the name
DARPA Technology Transition study is available
electronically. Published January 1997, the study
chronicles the process by which DARPA technologies and
concepts have transitioned into military capabilities for
U.S. forces. (1635k .pdf Format)

Last Updated: March 27, 2007

H o m e I Mission and Overview I D A R P A O f f i c e s I E m p l o y m e n t


Opportunities I
Doing Business with DARPA I News ReleasesI Budget Information I
Solicitations

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DARPA Over the Years

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DARPA Over the Years

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)


was established in 1958 as the first U.S. response to the
Soviet launching of Sputnik. Since that time DARPA's mission
has been to assure that the U.S. maintains a lead in
applying state-of-the-art technology for military capabilities
and to prevent technological surprise from her adversaries.
The DARPA organization was as unique as its role, reporting
directly to the Secretary of Defense and operating in
coordination with, but completely independent of, the
military research and development (R&D) establishment.
Strong support from the senior DoD management has
always been essential since DARPA was designed to be an
anathema to the conventional military and R&D structure
and, in fact, to be a deliberate counterpoint to traditional
thinking and approaches.
Some of the more important founding characteristics are
listed below. Over the years, DARPA has continued to
adhere to these founding principles:
Small and flexible;
Flat organization;
Substantial autonomy and freedom from bureaucratic
impediments;
Technical staff drawn from world-class scientists and
engineers with representation from industry,
universities, government laboratories and Federally
Funded Research and Development Centers;
Technical staff assigned for 3-5 years and rotated to
assure fresh thinking and perspectives;
Project based -- all efforts typically 3-5 years long
with strong focus on end-goals. Major technological
challenges may be addressed over much longer times
but only as a series of focused steps. The end of each
project is the end. It may be that another project is
started in the same technical area, perhaps with the
same program manager and, to the outside world, this
may be seen as a simple extension. For DARPA,
though, it is a conscious weighing of the current
opportunity and a completely fresh decision. The fact
of prior investment is irrelevant;
Necessary supporting personnel (technical,
contracting, administrative) are "hired" on a temporary

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DARPA Over the Years

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basis to provide complete flexibility to get into and out
of an area without the problems of sustaining the
staff. This is by agreement with Defense or other
governmental organizations (military R&D groups,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration,
National Science Foundation, etc.) and from System
Engineering and Technical Assistance (SETA)
contractors;
Program Managers (the heart of DARPA) are selected
to be technically outstanding and entrepreneurial. The
best DARPA Program Managers have always been
freewheeling zealots in pursuit of their goals;
Management is focused on good stewardship of
taxpayer funds but imposes little else in terms of rules.
Management's job is to enable the Program Managers;
A complete acceptance of failure if the payoff of
success was high enough.
The Agency looks very similar today. The principal
exception is its reporting chain -- whereas initially DARPA
reported to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary, it later
came under the Under Secretary of Defense (Research and
Engineering) (current equivalent is Under Secretary of
Defense (Acquisition and Technology)) and more recently
under the Director for Defense Research and Engineering.
Other than the reporting chain, there have been only minor
changes in approach. Each Director recognized the wisdom
of the agency's historical approach and defended the
organization from outside influences that would constrain
its freedom and flexibility. In addition, the Department of
Defense's senior management, seeing the value of an agile,
forward-looking R&D group unconstrained by conventional
thinking and able to investigate ideas and approaches that
the traditional R&D community finds too outlandish or risky,
has consistently protected the independence of DARPA.
Failure to keep the bureaucracy at bay would have doomed
the value of DARPA and this has been consistently
recognized over the years.
The freedom to act quickly and decisively with high-quality
people has paid handsome dividends for DoD in terms of
revolutionary military capabilities.
Today, DARPA is an organization of 240 personnel
(approximately 140 of which are technical) directly
managing a budget of about $2 billion. A typical technical
project might be structured as follows:
$10-40 million over 4 years;
Single DARPA Program Manager with direct control of
the efforts and the funding;
A SETA contractor or contractors to support the

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Program Manager in his or her primary roles of


managing the efforts and representing the program
with Congress, the Office of the Secretary of Defense,
the military Services and/or involved Unified
Commander;
An Agent (furnishing from a fraction of a person to
several people) in a military R&D laboratory to provide
technical and contracting support (paid from program
funds to provide this support);
Five to 10 contractor organizations and two
universities executing tasks focused on a specific
aggregate goal.
Obviously, there are wide variations to this "typical" case.
Some projects are under $1 million and a few are in the
hundreds of millions of dollars. However, the management
paradigm is the same; the variation is in the amount and
type of "hired" assistance. Even in larger programs, the
emphasis is on small teams of the highest quality people.
Regardless of size, a single DARPA Program Manager is in
charge and must manage and represent the project
internally and externally.
DARPA's original operating philosophy has changed over the
years in only three ways -- its relationships with the
commercial marketplace, its business practices, and its
emphasis on joint systems.
First, the DoD has gone from dominating the market in
such areas as microelectronics, computing and network
communications, each of which was driven by DARPA in
past years, to the current situation where the DoD is able
to somewhat influence the directions of a
much-larger-than-DoD market. DARPA has played one of
the key roles in assuring that DoD's long-term interests are
served in this new situation.
Second, in the past decade, DARPA has pioneered
revolutionary R&D business practices reform. With the
support of the Congress and DoD senior management,
DARPA has led the way in adopting commercial practices
and innovative contracting arrangements. Congress
provided the authority for "Other Transactions" and
"Section 845" agreements to DARPA on an experimental
basis, and, because of DARPA's success, has now conveyed
the same authorities to the rest of DoD.
Third, since the Goldwater-Nicholls Act, DARPA has focused
considerable attention on solutions to joint-Service systems
and problems.
In summary, DARPA's ability to adapt rapidly to changing
environments and to seek and embrace opportunities in
both technology and in processes, while maintaining the
historically proven principles of the Agency, makes DARPA

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the crown jewel in Defense R&D and a unique R&D
organization in the world.
Last Updated: October 27, 2003
H o m e I Mission and Overview I DARPA Offices I Employment
Opportunities I
Doing Business with DARPA I News Releases I Budget Information I
Solicitations

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You may review article at: http://www.defensetech.org/archives/000427.html


HOW THE WAR WAS WIRED | Main | LESS LETHAL OPTIONS FOR
POLICING IRAQ
DARPA WANTS YOUR LIFE INDEXABLE AND SEARCHABLE
It's a memory aid! A robotic assistant! An epidemic detector! An all-seeing,
ultra-intrusive spying program!
The Pentagon is about to embark on a stunningly ambitious research project
designed to gather every conceivable bit of information about a person's life,
index it and make it searchable.
What national security experts and civil libertarians want to know is, why the
hell would the Defense Department want to do such a thing?
The embryonic LifeLog program would take every e-mail you've sent or
received, every picture you've taken, every web page you've surfed, every
phone call you've had, every TV show you've watched, every magazine
you've read, and dump it into a giant database.
All of this -- and more -- would be combined with a GPS transmitter, to keep
tabs on where you're go ing; audio -visual sensors, to capture all that you see
or say; and biomedical monitors, to keep track of your health.
This gigantic amalgamation of personal information could then be used to
"trace the 'threads' of an individual's life," to see exactly how a relationship
or events developed, according to a briefing from the Defense Advanced
Projects Research Agency, LifeLog's sponsor.
Someone with access to the database could "retrieve a specific thread of past
transactions, or recall an experience from a few seconds ago or from many
years earlier by using a search-engine interface."
On the surface, the project seems like the latest in a long line of DARPA's
"blue sky" research efforts, most of which never make it out of the lab. But
Steven Aftergood, a defense analyst with the Federation of American
Scientists, says he is worried.
With its controversial Total Information Awareness database project, DARPA
already is planning on tracking all of an individual's "transactional data" -like what we buy and who gets our e-mail.

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Aftergood said he believes LifeLog could go far beyond that, adding physical
information (like how we feel) and media data (like what we read) to this
transactional data.
"LifeLog has the potential to become something like 'TIA cubed,'" he said.
My Wired News article has details on the LifeLog program.
THERE'S MORE: The idea of committing everything in your life to a machine
is nearly sixty years old. In 1945, Vannevar Bush -- who headed the White
House's Office of Scientific Research and Development during World War II -published a landmark Atlantic Monthly article, "As We May Think." In it, he
describes a "memex" -- a "device in which an individual stores all his books,
records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be
consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility."
Minicomputer visionary Gordon Bell, now working at Microsoft, sees his
"MyLifeBits" project as a fulfillment of Bush's vision.
There are other commercial and academic efforts to weave a life into
followable threads, including parallel processing prophet David Gelernter's
"Scopeware" and "Haystack," from MIT's David Karger.
AND MORE: LifeLog may eventually dwarf Total Information Awareness,
DARPA's ultra-invasive database effort. But "TIA" could wind up being pretty
damn large on its own, with 50 times more data than the Library of
Congress, according to the Associated Press.
AND MORE: Lovers of civil liberties, you now have nothing to fear.
Henceforth, the creepy "Total Information Awareness" program will be known
as "Terrorism Information Awareness."
Feel better?
AND MORE: DARPA's report to Congress on TIA is online here.
May 20, 2003 10:06 AM | Data Diving

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Vannevar Bush

Publishedhttp://www.ibiblio.org/pioneers/bush.html
by The Advanced Media Group

Internet Pioneers
Vannevar Bush
Vannevar Bush was never
directly involved with the
creation or development of the
Internet. He died before the
creation of the World Wide Web.
Yet many consider Bush to be
the Godfather of our wired age
often making reference to his
1945 essay, "As We May Think."
In his article, Bush described a
theoretical machine he called a
"memex," which was to enhance
human memory by allowing the
user to store and retrieve
documents linked by associations. This associative linking
was very similar to what is known today as hypertext.
Indeed, Ted Nelson who later did pioneering work with
hypertext credited Bush as his main influence (Zachary,
399). Others, such as J.C.R. Licklider and Douglas
Engelbart have also paid homage to Bush.
Bush's innovative idea for automating human memory
was obviously important in the development digital age,
but even more important was his influence on the
institution of science in America. His work to create a
relationship between the government and the scientific
establishment during WWII changed the way scientific
research is carried on in the U.S. and fostered the
environment in which the Internet was later created.
Bush's Early Years
Bush was born on March 11, 1890, in Chelsea,
Massachusetts. He had two sisters. His father was a
Universalist minister. As a child, Bush was sickly and was
occasionally bedridden for long stretches of time. Still, he
was self-confident and sometimes got into fights with
other boys. He once said, "all of [my] recent ancestors
[before my father] were sea captains, and they have a
way of running things without any doubt. So it may have
been partly that, and partly my association with my
grandfather, who was a whaling skipper. That left me
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Vannevar Bush

Publishedhttp://www.ibiblio.org/pioneers/bush.html
by The Advanced Media Group

with some inclination to run a show once I was in it."


(Zachary, 23).
Bush did well in school where he showed an aptitude for
math. When he graduated he went off to Tufts College to
study engineering. Half of his
expenses were paid by a
scholarship. He worked as a tutor
and aid in the math department to
pay the other half. Bush studied
earnestly and earned a master's
degree in the time it usually takes to
earn a bachelor's degree. His
academic success fueled his desire
to do things his way not depending
on others' rules. This trait would
become increasingly evident later in his life.
While at Tufts Bush enjoyed his first experience as an
inventor. His invention was a land surveying device he
called the profile tracer. It looked something like a
lawnmower. As it was pushed over land it automatically
calculated elevations and drew a crude map. It allowed
one man to do the work usually done by three. Bush
thought it would be commercially successful, but it never
caught on. He learned from this failure. He learned that to
become a real engineer he needed to learn more than
math and physics. He needed to learn how to effectively
deal with people.
After graduation from Tufts, Bush went to work for
General Electric testing electrical equipment. He was laid
off after a fire broke out in his plant. He then took a
position teaching math at Tufts' sister college-Clark
University in Massachusetts. That was in 1914. The next
year he decided to return to school himself. He was
offered a large fellowship of $1,50o to pursue his
doctorate under a professor named Arthur Webster.
Webster wanted Bush to devote his doctoral work to the
study of acoustics. Bush, who did not care to be told what
to do, declined the fellowship. Instead, he went to MIT
where he earned his doctorate in engineering in less than
a year ad then returned to Tufts as a assistant professor.
World War I
Bush had paid little attention to the war before the U.S.
entered into it in 1917, but then he wanted to aid the
effort. Other scientists also wanted to lend their services,
but the military and government mostly declined their
offers. In 1916, a group of interested scientists formed
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Vannevar Bush

Publishedhttp://www.ibiblio.org/pioneers/bush.html
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the National Research Council (NRC). The council's main


purpose was to produce innovations in weaponry. One of
its main tasks was to improve submarine detection.
Bush had an idea for a device that would use magnetic
fields to detect submarines. In May 1917, he traveled to
Washington to meet with the director of the NRC. The
director liked Bush's idea and thought it was worth
pursuing. Bush convinced the director to let him handle
the research personally without interference. It was
important to Bush that he be in control of his project. His
device proved to be successful in testing, but Navy
officials, who generally viewed Bush as somewhat of a
maverick, did not deploy the device correctly and it
proved virtually useless in combat. Bush again learned
that a successful engineer also had to be a good politician.
Between the Wars
In 1919, Bush left Tufts and went to MIT's electrical
engineering department. By the 1930's Bush was working
on analog computers. These were large mechanical
devices that looked quite different than today's digital
machines. They actually used large gears and other
mechanical parts to solve equations. In 1931, he
completed the first differential analyzer-a machine that
was used to solve differential equations.
Bush's Differential Analyzer
Bush also
worked on
developing
machines
that would
automate
human
thinking.

Specialization in just about every field of academia was


creating a glut of information. Something was needed to
help sort through the growing store of accumulated
knowledge. In the 1930' s microfilm, which had been
around for nearly a century, was growing in popularity as
a storage device, especially among librarians. Bush, a
photography enthusiast, was quite interested in this
resurgent technology. He proposed to build a machine for
the FBI that could review 1,000 fingerprints a minute.
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Vannevar Bush

Publishedhttp://www.ibiblio.org/pioneers/bush.html
by The Advanced Media Group

They turned him down. But he continued to pursue his


latest vision.
Bush called his device a rapid selector. It would be
housed in a desk and could store huge amounts of
information on microfilm. The user could rapidly select
documents which would then be projected on screen. In
the late 1930's, Bush oversaw the building of four rapid
selectors. They were plagued with technical problems
and hindered by the state of current technology, but he
was among the very first to attempt to build a personal
information processor, and these early experiences
provided a solid base for his landmark article, "As We
May Think."

In 1937, Bush became the president of the Carnegie


Institution. The institution spent $1.5 million annually on
research. The presidency of the institution came with a
lot of prestige. The president influenced the direction of
research in the U.S. and informally advised the
government on scientific matters.
World War II
The U.S. was not prepared for the second world war.
Little was spent on military research. The military
research that was done was done by military personnel
and often duplicated between the different branches. The
military looked down on engineers as little more than
salesmen. By 1940, Bush and other American scientists
felt that the country needed a new organization to
conduct military research. Scientists and the
government/military, as well as business would need to
cooperate in the event of American involvement in the
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Vannevar Bush

Publishedhttp://www.ibiblio.org/pioneers/bush.html
by The Advanced Media Group

war.
On June 12, 1940, Bush met with President Roosevelt
and detailed his plan for mobilizing military research. He
proposed a new organization he called the National
Defense Research Committee (NDRC). The committee
would bring together government, military, business,
and scientific leaders to coordinate military research.
Roosevelt quickly agreed and thus the NDRC was
created. Bush was made chairman and given a direct line
to the White House. In mid-1941, The Office of Scientific
Research and Development was set up. The NDRC had
been funded by presidential emergency funds and was
often short on money. The OSRD was congressionally
funded. The NDRC was subsumed under the OSRD as its
chief operating unit. Bush became director of the OSRD.
The NDRC and then the OSRD were originally set up to
support and augment Army and Navy research, but by
the end of the war the OSRD was leading military
research. Many useful innovations resulted from OSRD
research and development including improvements in
radar, the proximity fuse, anti-submarine tactics, and
various secret devices for the OSS (the precursor of the
CIA). Bush was also very closely involved in the
Manhattan Project which developed the first atomic
bomb. Of course most of OSRD's work was top secret
during the war, but Bush as its leader became something
of a celebrity. Colliers magazine hailed him as the "man
who may win or lose the war" (Ratcliff, 1942).
Bush's work with the NDRC and OSRD definitely helped
the U.S. and its allies win the war. Bush also changed the
way basic scientific research was done in the U.S. He
proved that technology was key to winning a war and this
created a new respect for scientists. He institutionalized
the relationship between government, business, and the
scientific community. Paul Ceruzzi, curator of the
Smithsonian Institutions says, " Bush is responsible for
the whole architecture of government support for
science" (Ceruzzi in Zachary). It was this government
support of research that would later foster the creation of
the Internet.
The War Ends
By late 1944, Allied victory was inevitable. Bush began to
look to the future. He believed that after the war the
nation would still need permanent support for research.
In March 1945, Bush drafted an article entitled,
"Science-The Endless Frontier." He outlined the
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Vannevar Bush

Publishedhttp://www.ibiblio.org/pioneers/bush.html
by The Advanced Media Group

importance of continued support for research. He called


for a National Research Foundation that "should develop
and promote a national policy for scientific research and
scientific education, should support basic research in
nonprofit organizations, should develop scientific talent in
American youth by means of scholarships and
fellowships, and should by contract and otherwise
support long -range research on military matters" (Bush,
28). His dreams for were never fully realized, but in 1950
the National Science Foundation (NSF) was created. The
NSF did not quite fulfill Bush's expectations. It was not as
powerful as his proposal called for. Nonetheless, the
marriage between science and government was secured.
"As We May Think"
In 1945, Bush also published an article in the Atlantic
Monthly called, "As We May Think." He had written
earlier drafts of this article years before he actually
published it. His main purpose in writing the article was
to influence "thinking regarding science in the modern
world" and to "emphasize the opportunity for the
application of science in a field which is largely neglected
by science" (Bush in Nyce & Kahn, 81). That field was the
automation or augmentation of human thought.
In the article he describes a theoretical machine called a
"memex." It was an obvious extension of Bush's earlier
work with the rapid selector. The memex was also to be
a storage and retrieval device using microfilm. It would
consist of a desk with viewing screens, a keyboard,
selection buttons and levers, and microfilm storage.
Information stored on the microfilm could be retrieved
rapidly and projected on a screen. The machine was to
extend the powers of human memory and association.
Just as the human mind forms memories through
associations, the user of the memex would be able to
make links between documents. Bush called these
associative trails and offered this example in his article:
"The owner of the memex let us say, is interested in
the origin and properties of the bow and arrow.
Specifically he is studying why the short Turkish bow
was apparently superior to the English long bow in
the skirmishes of the Crusades. He has dozens of
possibly pertinent books and articles in his memex.
First he runs through an encyclopedia, finds an
interesting but sketchy article, leaves it projected.
Next, in a history, he finds another pertinent item, and
ties the two together. Thus he goes, building a trail of
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Vannevar Bush

Publishedhttp://www.ibiblio.org/pioneers/bush.html
by The Advanced Media Group

many items. Occasionally he inserts a comment of his


own, either linking it into the main trail or joining it by
a side trail to a particular item. When it becomes
evident that the elastic properties of available materials
had a great deal to do with the bow, he branches off
on a side trail which takes him through textbooks on
elasticity and physical constants. He inserts a page of
longhand analysis of his own. Thus he builds a trail of
his interest through the maze of materials available to
him." (Bush, 15).
This system is remarkably similar to modern hypertext.
In fact, Ted Nelson, who coined the term "hypertext" in
the 1960's, acknowledges his debt to Bush. "Bush was
right," says Nelson (Nelson in Nyce and Kahn, 245).
Vannevar Bush died on June 30, 1974, years before the
Internet became widely popular or the World Wide Web
even existed. With the growing popularity of the Internet
many now look back through its history and see Bush as a
visionary. Even when Bush was alive he seemed to
always be looking toward the future, or perhaps he saw
the present a little differently than most othershe was
fond of saying, "It is earlier than we think" (Zachary,
408).

For Further Reading


Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American
Century
From Memex to Hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the Mind's
Machine

Home| Vannevar Bush | J.C.R. Licklider | Larry Roberts | Paul


Baran |
Bob Metcalfe | Doug Engelbart | Vint Cerf | Ted Nelson | Tim
Berners-Lee |
Marc Andreesen | Epilogue | References |

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Information Exploitation Office

Published by http://dtsn.darpa.mil/ixo/programs.asp
The Advanced Media Group

Enter Search

Active Programs
Affordable Adaptive Conformal ESA Radar (AACER)
Camouflaged Long Endurance Nano Sensors (CLENS)
Close Combat Lethal Recon (CCLR)
Conflict Modeling, Planning, and Outcomes Experimentation - COMPOEX
Exploitation of 3-D Data (E3D)
Fast Connectivity for Coalition Agents Program (Fast C2AP)
FOPEN Reconnaissance, Surveillance, Tracking and Engagement Radar (FORESTER)
Heterogeneous Urban RSTA Team (HURT)
Jigsaw
Joint Air/Ground operations: Unified, Adaptive Replanning (JAGUAR)
Multispectral Adaptive Networked Tatical Imaging System (MANTIS)
NetTrack
Networked Embedded Systems Technology (NEST)
Persistent Operational Surface Surveillance and Engagement (POSSE)
Predictive Analysis for Naval Deployment Activities (PANDA)
Quint Networking Technology (QNT)
Real-Time Adversarial Intelligence & Decision Making (RAID)
Standoff Precision ID in 3-D (SPI-3D)
Tactical Targeting Network Technology (TTNT)
Urban Reasoning and Geospatial Exploitation Technology (URGENT)
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Information Exploitation Office

Published by http://dtsn.darpa.mil/ixo/programs.asp
The Advanced Media Group

Archived Programs
Active Templates
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Command Post of the Future (CPOF) - Reassigned to ATO on March 17, 2005
Counter Camouflage Concealment and Deception
DARPA Agent Mark Up Language (DAML)
Dynamic Tactical Targeting: Tactical Exercises and System Test (DTT:TEST)
EyeBall
High Resolution Rotocraft Radar (HRR)
Mixed Initiative Control of Automa-teams (MICA)
Multicell and Dismounted Command and Control (M&D C2)
National Tactical Exploitation to Counter Enemy Air Defenses (NTEX)
Network Centric Logistics (NCL)
Program Composition for Embedded Systems (PCES)
Sensing and Patrolling Enablers Yielding Enhanced SASO (SPEYES)
Software Enabled Control (SEC)
Tactical Sensors - Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS)
Ultralog (Ultralog)
Wide-Area All-Terrain Change Indication Technologies (WATCH-IT)

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DARPA Information Processing Technology Office

I P T O H o m e P a g e >> P r o g r a m s

http://www.darpa.gov/ipto/programs/pal/index.htm
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

>>

Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL)

Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL)


Mission:

Dr. David Gunning


Overview
Mission
Vision
Goals
Background

The mission of the PAL program is to radically improve the way


computers support humans by enabling systems that are cognitive,
i.e., computer systems that can reason, learn from experience, be told
what to do, explain what they are doing, reflect on their experience, and
respond robustly to surprise. More specifically, PAL will develop a series
of prototype cognitive systems that can act as an assistant for
commanders and staff. Successful completion of this program will
usher in a new era of computational support for a broad range of human
activity.

Supplemental
Solicitations
PAL Video

P l e a s e r e a d o u r Privacy And Security Notice


C o m m e n t s , q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e w e b s i t e ? E - M a i l : Webmaster

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Defense Sciences Office - Programs (A-Z)

http://www.darpa.gov/dso/programsexp.htm
Published
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Home >

Programs (A-Z)

Close All Programs

Choose a letter below to navigate the index. Click on a program name to view detailed program information.
Click Close All Programs to return to the alphabetical guide.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A
Accelerated Insertion of Materials (D-3D)
Accelerated Learning
Accelerated Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals
Advanced Armor
Applications of Molecular Electronics
back to top
B
Biological Sensory Structure Emulation
Bio-Magnetic Interfacing Concepts
Bio-molecular Motors
Bio-Optic Synthetic Systems
back to top
C
Compact Directional Neutron Source
Competence Assessment and Alarms for Teams (DARCAAT)
Control of Protein Conformations
back to top
D
Disruptive Manufacturing
DARPA Initiative in Titanium
Deep Bleeder Acoustic Coagulation
Direct Thermal to Electric Conversion
Discovery and Exploitation of Structure in Algorithms

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back to top
E
Engineered Bio-Molecular Nano-Devices/Systems
Evaporative Cooling Turbine Blades
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F
Femtosecond Adaptive Spectroscopy Techniques for Remote Agent Detection
Focus Areas in Theoretical Mathematics
Fundamental Laws of Biology
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G
Geospatial Representation and Analysis
Guided BEC Interferometry
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H
High-Performance, Corrosion-Resistant Materials
Human-Assisted Neural Devices
Hyperspectral Radiography Sources
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I
Improving Warfighter Information Intake Under Stress (AugCog)
Integrated Sensing and Processing
Intelligent Multi-modal Volume Angio Computed Tomography
Intestinal Fortitude
back to top
J
Jet Blast Deflector
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K

L
Long-Term Storage of Blood Products
LSTAT-lite

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Defense Sciences Office - Programs (A-Z)

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back to top
M
Materials Systems for Autonomous Structural Tailoring
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Micro Power Sources
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Nano Air Vehicle
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Naval Advanced Amorphous Coatings
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Neovision
Neurotechnology for Intelligence Analysts
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O
Optical Lattice Emulator
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P
Peak Soldier Performance
PowerSwim
Precision Inertial Navigation Systems
Predicting Health and Disease
Predicting Real Optimized Materials
Preventing Sleep Deprivation
Preventing Violent Explosive Neurologic Trauma
Prognosis
Protein Design Processes
back to top
Q

R
Rapid Vaccine Assessment

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RealWorld
Restorative Injury Repair
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Self Decontaminating Surfaces
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Slowing, Storing and Processing Light
Small Uninhabited Air Vehicle Engine
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Stochastic and Perturbation Methods in PDE Systems
Structural Amorphous Metals
Superconducting Hybrid Power Electronics
Surviving Blood Loss
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T
Tactical Underwater Navigation
Topological Data Analysis
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U
Ultra-broadband Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation
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V
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Wasp
Waveforms for Active Sensing

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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
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DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation


Posted by Zonk on Wed Aug 22, '07 03:37 AM
from the looking-to-the-past-for-the-future dept.

An anonymous reader writes "New Scientist has a post on a patent filed by the Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), seeking to control a new potent predictive
simulation. The patent outlines the process, which may someday allow researchers to
accurately predict the behavior of observed subjects. They're not there yet, but not for lack
of trying. It already works in some military war game scenarios, says the patent. 'Parunak
says his model can successfully detect players' emotions, and then predict future actions
accordingly. He believes the technique could one day be applied to predict the behavior of
adversaries in military combat situations, competitive business tactics, and even multiplayer
computer games. The patent application gives an interesting insight into DARPA's goals. The
agency has pumped a lot of money into AI in recent years without reaping major rewards.
One day computers may find a way to accurately second-guess humans, but I suspect we
may have to wait a little longer yet.'"
[+] patents, science, technology, privacy, darpa (tagging beta)

Related Stories
Firehose:Can DARPA predict what you'll do next? by Anonymous Coward
Riiiight...
(Score:1, Funny)
by femto (459605) on Wednesday August 22, @03:46AM (#20315475)
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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

(http://john.daltons.info/)

Dr Evil: Fire up the predictive simulation! We'll know our enemy's every move before they do!
Igor: But Dr. Evil, they have patented predictive simulators and we will be violating their patent.
Dr Evil: Damn. Get out the toy soldiers Igor.
Re:Riiiight...
(Score:4, Funny)
by Mr2cents (323101) on Wednesday August 22, @04:26AM (#20315659)
That's what I didn't get: if you want to use something like that for war games, why patent it? Then
you have to disclose how you did it, no? Betting that your enemy will not use this because of patent
laws, is quite optimistic thinking.
USA: Please stop using our wargame simulation technology, you're only making it worse.
Enemy: Making it worse? How can it possibly get any worse? Coca-Cola! Coca-Cola!
USA: And don't abuse our trademarks!
[ Parent ]
Re:Riiiight... by QuickFox (Score:3) Wednesday August 22, @05:14AM
Re:Riiiight... by Calinous (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @05:21AM
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
Re:Riiiight... by someone1234 (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @05:46AM
Re:Riiiight... by marcello_dl (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @07:03AM
Re:Riiiight... by foobsr (Score:1) Wednesday August 22, @07:51AM
Re:Riiiight... by marcello_dl (Score:2) Thursday August 23, @05:08AM
Don't forget non-military applications! by morgan_greywolf (Score:1) Wednesday
August 22, @08:38AM
Re:Riiiight... by UbuntuDupe (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @09:06AM
Re:Riiiight... by RenderSeven (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @09:28AM
Re:Riiiight... by UbuntuDupe (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @09:34AM
Re:Riiiight... by jwo7777777 (Score:1) Wednesday August 22,
@09:40AM
Re:Riiiight... by RenderSeven (Score:1) Wednesday August 22,
@10:23AM
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
Re:Riiiight... by DamnStupidElf (Score:2) Wednesday August 22,
@02:11PM
Re:Riiiight... by jamesh (Score:3) Wednesday August 22, @07:12AM
Re:Riiiight... by Impy the Impiuos Imp (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @04:37PM
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
are you sure this is a good idea?
(Score:5, Funny)
by theheadlessrabbit (1022587) on Wednesday August 22, @03:47AM (#20315477)
have these scientists not watched a single sci-fi movie. Military machines that can predict human behavior
always lead to human enslavement. and the only way to stop them is by sending those machines back in
time to stop us from building the machines in the first place.

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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

Re:are you sure this is a good idea? by Znork (Score:3) Wednesday August 22, @04:36AM
Re:are you sure this is a good idea? by edittard (Score:1) Wednesday August 22, @05:21AM
Re:are you sure this is a good idea? by TapeCutter (Score:2) Wednesday August 22,
@05:58AM
Re:are you sure this is a good idea?
(Score:5, Insightful)
by Dragonslicer (991472) on Wednesday August 22, @07:28AM (#20316371)
What you really need is a random strategy generator.
"Professionals are predictable; amateurs are dangerous."
[ Parent ]
Re:are you sure this is a good idea? by Anonymous Coward (Score:1)
Wednesday August 22, @08:29AM
Re:are you sure this is a good idea? by drDugan (Score:2) Wednesday
August 22, @02:34PM
Re:are you sure this is a good idea? by Teufelsmuhle (Score:1)
Wednesday August 22, @04:29PM
Re:are you sure this is a good idea? by yada21 (Score:1) Wednesday August 22,
@07:29AM
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
Re:are you sure this is a good idea? by idontgno (Score:2) Wednesday August 22,
@02:16PM
Re:are you sure this is a good idea? by soops1966 (Score:1) Wednesday August 22, @09:51AM
HELLO WORLD
(Score:1)
by JosefAssad (1138611) on Wednesday August 22, @03:47AM (#20315487)
(http://www.sancairodicopenhagen.com/tbpmd.html)

The agency has pumped a lot of money into AI in recent years without reaping major rewards.
Unless, of course, the AI is just holding back. Just a thought... STOP
THIS POST BROUGHT TO YOU BY BENJAMIN 9GH55T: DARPA "PROTOTYPE" (HA!) AI
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
Tic-tac-toe
(Score:1)
by impossiblefork (978205) on Wednesday August 22, @03:51AM (#20315505)
This seems truly idiotic and quite a bit like attempting to guess what an opponent is to do in Tic-Tac-Toe
and playing accordingly to that instead of playing the the mixed Nash-solution: for although the DARPA
often do clever things I can from my lack of imagination not conceive how this could be made reasonable.
Given the knowledge that an opponent plays in this manner it would be trivial to play as to earn more than
ones normal solution (with a trivial consequence for strictly competitive games).
Re:Tic-tac-toe by tgv (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @04:38AM
Re:Tic-tac-toe by impossiblefork (Score:1) Wednesday August 22, @05:17AM

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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

Re:Tic-tac-toe by tgv (Score:3) Wednesday August 22, @07:54AM


Re: Rock-paper-scissors - not tic-tac-toe! by impossiblefork (Score:1)
Wednesday August 22, @08:34AM
Re: Rock-paper-scissors by impossiblefork (Score:1) Wednesday August
22, @12:29PM
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
Re:Tic-tac-toe by raftpeople (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @11:11AM
Re:Tic-tac-toe by impossiblefork (Score:1) Wednesday August 22, @12:12PM
Re:Tic-tac-toe by rtb61 (Score:3) Wednesday August 22, @11:15AM
If you can see the whites of their eyes..
(Score:1, Insightful)
by Anonymous Coward on Wednesday August 22, @03:54AM (#20315515)
If you're close enough to see your enemy, you should be shooting them, not waiting for a computer model
to generate
Re:If you can see the whites of their eyes.. by mrjb (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @07:12AM
Re:If you can see the whites of their eyes.. by afabbro (Score:2) Wednesday August 22,
@09:47AM
Obligatory...
(Score:4, Funny)
by ZombieRoboNinja (905329) on Wednesday August 22, @04:02AM (#20315549)
Step 1: Patented behavior-prediction computer
Step 2: Beowulf cluster
Step 3: ???
Step 4: Psychohistory! [wikipedia.org]
Re:Obligatory... by Bearhouse (Score:3) Wednesday August 22, @08:19AM
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
Prior art
(Score:4, Funny)
by MillionthMonkey (240664) on Wednesday August 22, @04:02AM (#20315551)
(Last Journal: Wednesday January 31, @03:25AM)

I have already predicted with 100% precision that this patent will be granted.
Re:Prior art by ebonum (Score:3) Wednesday August 22, @06:50AM
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
Meh
(Score:3, Interesting)
by SamP2 (1097897) on Wednesday August 22, @04:07AM (#20315575)
When a genuinely new way of doing something is patented, I don't see much of a problem. Even if you
don't agree with software patents in principle, patents that introduce a new technology tend to expire
before the technology matures enough to become profitable. In that case, the patent filer gets the honestly
deserved upper hand of having better in-house knowledge about the technology by the time it gets to
production stage, instead of having the unfair advantage of forced monopoly over its production.

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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

Some patents are harmful - such as those which either patent a well known technology they didn't really
invent, or patentsquatting (patenting something with the only reason of preventing others from using this
technology, even if you have no intention of using it yourself either), but it doesn't seem this was one of
these cases.
If the copyright system worked like the patent system (requires novelty and expires in a reasonable
amount of time (~5 years)) then we'd be living in a much better world.
Re:Meh by Maelwryth (Score:1) Wednesday August 22, @04:14AM
Re:Meh by StringBlade (Score:3) Wednesday August 22, @06:30AM
Re:Meh by Just Some Guy (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @11:27AM
govt can't hold patents
(Score:1)
by bugi (8479) on Wednesday August 22, @04:08AM (#20315587)
I thought the govt wasn't allowed to hold patents. What goes?
Re:govt can't hold patents by vertinox (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @11:36AM
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
The best thing to do
(Score:1)
by Zefrim (1146035) on Wednesday August 22, @04:16AM (#20315621)
Is for us to finally start acting less predictable. That would really piss them off.
Re:The best thing to do by dbolger (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @04:44AM
Interesting idea
(Score:3, Funny)
by Splab (574204) on Wednesday August 22, @04:25AM (#20315649)
This is not as far fetched as one might think - if you have ever played a game like counter strike and
observed the players on a public server, you can see the follow a very predictive pattern.
Re:Interesting idea by Jamu (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @09:18AM
Re:Interesting idea by Splab (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @12:54PM
Solution: Randomize human behaviour
(Score:1)
by CyberGenesis (1064776) on Wednesday August 22, @04:28AM (#20315667)
Even if they could predict human behavior reliably, a counter would be simply to use a dice or random
number generator to determine a range of actions that one may perform. Perhaps I can patent "Human
Behavior Randomizer". Of course if the "enemy" (oh there is always an enemy) develops counter
software then some sort of infinite feedback loop could occur which could use an infinite amount of
processing power and crash the known universe. Creative people can never be predicted. Human
behavior can not be much more accurately predicted in a complex situation than "hungry person likely to
eat food" etc.
Re:Solution: Randomize human behaviour by CyberGenesis (Score:1) Wednesday August 22,
@04:31AM
Re:Solution: Randomize human behaviour by Hognoxious (Score:2) Wednesday August 22,
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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

@06:00AM
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
Re:Solution: Randomize human behaviour
(Score:5, Interesting)
by bentcd (690786) <bcd@pvv.org> on Wednesday August 22, @05:46AM (#20315939)
(http://www.pvv.org/~bcd)

Even if they could predict human behavior reliably, a counter would be simply to use a dice or
random number generator to determine a range of actions that one may perform.
This would presumably cause you to pursue a strategy that is worse than what you otherwise would
have (unless you're a really crappy strategist so that random choice outperforms conscious
planning). If so, then mark that down as a victory for the prediction system.
It becomes a bit like land mines: it forces you to use a less optimal route to your target than what
you would have preferred. There must be a term waiting to be coined here. Idea space denial?
[ Parent ]
Re:Solution: Randomize human behaviour by edittard (Score:1) Wednesday August 22,
@07:27AM
Re:Solution: Randomize human behaviour by bentcd (Score:2) Wednesday August 22,
@08:34AM
Re:Solution: Randomize human behaviour by Lumpy (Score:2) Wednesday August 22,
@09:09AM
Re:Solution: Randomize human behaviour by oreaq (Score:1) Wednesday August 22,
@10:04AM
Re:Solution: Randomize human behaviour by mdmkolbe (Score:1) Wednesday August 22,
@10:34AM
Dice to be declared munitions, confiscated. by EWAdams (Score:1) Wednesday August 22,
@08:20AM
That's it
(Score:2)
by jsse (254124) on Wednesday August 22, @04:33AM (#20315679)
(http://slashdot.org/ | Last Journal: Thursday October 10, @05:09AM)

All video games infringe this patent.


While senators are desperately seeking ways to outlaw us playing violent video games, DARPA found its
way outlawing all video game once and for all.
I predict...
(Score:1)
by jdogalt (961241) on Wednesday August 22, @04:42AM (#20315709)
That as long as the majority of the populace can be easily manipulated by fear, that countless scientists
will continue to get funding by manipulating data and analysis to pander to the terrorists. And by terrorists,
I mean the politicians that use the aforementioned terrorized populace, to fund their own paychecks, and
the paychecks of the scientists whose only actual function is to fabricate the illusion of security.

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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

I just wish that I could predict what the parasitic scientists and politicians will do when the masses realize
that sacrificing some number of their offspring to terrorists that "get away with" their evil deeds due to
"exploiting liberty and a permissive society", is a truly small price to pay, to avoid living in the kind of
society that will(/has) come about due to sacrificing liberty, freedom, and justice.
Re:I predict... by Esion Modnar (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @07:53AM
Psychohistory by Isaac Asmov
(Score:2)
by Zdzicho00 (912806) on Wednesday August 22, @04:44AM (#20315715)
Seems that someone else got this idea earlier.
Just see that:
Isaac Asimov's Psychohistory [wikipedia.org]
Is that patent valid since the prior art [wikipedia.org] arleady exists?
/Z
Re:Psychohistory by Isaac Asmov by machinelou (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @09:43AM
Good grief, get your pseudo-science right
(Score:1)
by giafly (926567) on Wednesday August 22, @04:47AM (#20315727)
Abstract. A method of predicting the behavior of software agents in a simulated environment
involves modeling a plurality of software agents representing entities to be analyzed, which
may be human beings. Using a set of parameters that governs the behavior of the agents, the
internal state of at least one of the agents is estimated by its behavior in the simulation,
including its movement within the environment. This facilitates a prediction of the likely future
behavior of the agent based solely upon its internal state; that is, without recourse to any
intentional agent communications. In the preferred embodiment the simulated
environment is based upon a digital pheromone infrastructure. The simulation
integrates knowledge of threat regions, a cognitive analysis of the agent's beliefs, desires, and
intentions, a model of the agent's emotional disposition and state, and the dynamics of
interactions with the environment. By evolving agents in this rich environment, we can fit their
internal state to their observed behavior. In realistic wargame scenarios, the system
successfully detects deliberately played emotions and makes reasonable predictions about the
entities' future behavior.
USPTO 0070162405 [uspto.gov]
In the sentence I've highlighted, they mean hormones, not pheromones. DOh!
Also my brother programmed a system to do this this for a school project in about 1985 (no kidding).
2 replies beneath your current threshold.
Even mutiplayer computer games!
(Score:2)
by CrazyJim1 (809850) on Wednesday August 22, @04:47AM (#20315729)
(Last Journal: Sunday November 06, @11:30PM)

He believes the technique could one day be applied to predict the behavior of adversaries in
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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

military combat situations, competitive business tactics, and even multiplayer computer games.
We can run this simulation to predict what other players are going to do in a simulation.
Re:Even mutiplayer computer games! by Hognoxious (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @06:02AM
Re:Even mutiplayer computer games! by yada21 (Score:1) Wednesday August 22,
@07:38AM
Re:Even mutiplayer computer games! by LuxMaker (Score:1) Wednesday August 22, @09:33AM
I knew they were going to do that
(Score:3, Funny)
by niceone (992278) * on Wednesday August 22, @04:50AM (#20315743)
(Last Journal: Tuesday June 19, @08:48AM)

My prior art told me yesterday.


Doesn't seem useful
(Score:2)
by TheRealMindChild (743925) on Wednesday August 22, @04:54AM (#20315751)
(http://www.mindchild.net/ | Last Journal: Tuesday November 29, @11:16AM)

How effective can this really be? What if both sides have said tech? Then they both know what each
other thinks that the other is doing and change tactics accordingly.
Re:Doesn't seem useful by value_added (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @06:33AM
Re:Doesn't seem useful by aadvancedGIR (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @08:21AM
Re:Doesn't seem useful by jmnormand (Score:1) Wednesday August 22, @08:27AM
Re:Doesn't seem useful by Just Some Guy (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @09:53AM
Re:Doesn't seem useful by robophobe (Score:1) Wednesday August 22, @05:21PM
Leeching money
(Score:1)
by Joseph1337 (1146047) on Wednesday August 22, @05:18AM (#20315837)
A simple media-forged evidence that they`re doing something (Wow, it can say that you will rather bomb
the factories than the AA guns and rocket launchers). Move along, nothing to see here...
Inventive?
(Score:2)
by mattr (78516) <mattr AT telebody DOT com> on Wednesday August 22, @05:21AM (#20315845)
(http://telebody.com | Last Journal: Tuesday July 30, @08:28AM)

...a model of the agent's emotional disposition and state, ...


16. The method of claim 1, wherein the simulation involves urban warfare.
Well that's a no-brainer, they're pissed off!
Seriously though this is BDE thing that novel that it can be patented? It seems like a useful algorithm, how
come they can patent it?
1 reply beneath your current threshold.

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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

Deus Ex, anyone?


(Score:2, Insightful)
by Landshark17 (807664) on Wednesday August 22, @05:23AM (#20315855)
Someday I'm gonna be walking around an apartment in Paris to find a computer program that greets me
with a full summary of my file...
Iraq etc.
(Score:1)
by PinkyDead (862370) on Wednesday August 22, @05:41AM (#20315915)
"A strange game. The only winning move is not to play. How about a nice game of chess?"
(Not meant as anti-anybody comment, Iraq's just the Guerre d'jour).
Psychohistory?
(Score:3, Interesting)
by the_arrow (171557) on Wednesday August 22, @05:57AM (#20315983)
(http://pileborg.org/~arrow/)

Someone should tell Hari Seldon his work is already done!


Re:Psychohistory? by grahamm (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @07:39AM
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
Then answer to everything
(Score:2)
by slobarnuts (666254) on Wednesday August 22, @06:00AM (#20315999)
(http://slashdot.org/)

Is 42, HA! I'd like to see a machine predict that. Then i googled the answer to everything and it gave me
42. Yea, thats all i got. As I predicted everything insightful i was going to say has already been said.
This is where DARPA got the original Idea
(Score:3, Informative)
by Shohat (959481) on Wednesday August 22, @06:29AM (#20316099)
(http://www.sc2blog.com/)

DARPA issues a 2 million $ challenge to build a driverless car.


A brilliant engineer built such a car, that was able to navigate in complex environments at high speeds by
predicting the size, shape and behavior of surroundings on its path through simulation, according to the
behavior of similar environment and path structures it has already passed. This causes the car to actually
gain speed and statistical confidence in its own upcoming actions simply by acquiring enough experience
of driving in similar environment.
Same kind of algorithm can of course be applied to any machine that is expected to operate for a long time
in a complex semi-predictable environment - such as forex trading, poker, or a battlefield
This is the story on Wired [wired.com]
Re:This is where DARPA got the original Idea by Frank T. Lofaro Jr. (Score:2) Wednesday
August 22, @11:50AM

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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

gta?
(Score:2)
by SolusSD (680489) on Wednesday August 22, @07:13AM (#20316283)
(http://www.solussd.com/)

wonder if a braod patent like this could be applied in some situations to games ... say gta?
Recursivity ?
(Score:1)
by vegiVamp (518171) on Wednesday August 22, @07:26AM (#20316355)
(http://users.pandora.be/liever.spruitjes)

You have one. So does the enemy. How about this internal dialogue in the applicance:
- I predict X will do a, so I propose that Y should do b.
- However, I know that X also has one of me, which will have told X that I predicted X will do a and I will
have told Y to do b, so it will tell him to do c
- Thus, I will anticipate and tell Y to do d
- But I can now anticipate that X's machine will have predicted this and will tell him to do e, so I will again
anticipate and tell Y to do e
[repeat ad nauseam]
Isn't infinite recursion fun ?
Alternatively, if this kind of recursion issue is solved (or non-existant), if I know you have one of these
predicting what I'm gonna do, I'll just fire up my own and ask it what *I* am going to do. Knowing what
you have been told I'm about to do allows me to do something entirely different.
It seems that this technology, like psychohistory and any number of statistical sciences, only works if the
subject isn't aware that it's being profiled. Once it, or knowledge of it, becomes widespread it starts losing
much of it's effectiveness.
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
Limited use
(Score:2)
by DoofusOfDeath (636671) on Wednesday August 22, @07:31AM (#20316389)
The patent outlines the process, which may someday allow researchers to accurately predict
the behavior of observed subjects.
Presumably it will only allow some researcher to predict behavior. Researchers who lack the money or
clout to license the patent won't have the legal ability to make predictions using this technology.
I hate government patents.
This sounds like...
(Score:2)
by brunes69 (86786) <(slashdot) (at) (keirstead.org)> on Wednesday August 22, @07:37AM (#20316419)

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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

(http://www.keirstead.org/)

... and ideal basis for an unbeatable poker bot.


Vegas here I come!
Theory of mind
(Score:2, Insightful)
by AttilaSz (707951) on Wednesday August 22, @07:45AM (#20316477)
(http://www.szegedi.org/ | Last Journal: Monday February 16, @06:20PM)

Folks likening this to Harry Seldon's psychohistory in Isaac Asimov's books are missing the point.
Psychohistory was predicting the movements of a society as a whole. What DARPA is striving to do is
predict the behaviour of individuals faster than those individuals can act.
An "obvious" method for doing this is to somehow capture the individual's state vector and that of its
surrounding environment, and simulate it in faster than realtime. Stuff of science fiction for now, and it is
usually referred to as possessing one's theory of mind (Charles Stross likes to use the phrase a lot). For
combat environments, I can't fathom how this'd work. At best, it looks like it'd be feasible for strategy
planning, but not in a tactical situation in physical operations.
Re:Theory of mind by Headw1nd (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @11:49PM
I for one...
(Score:2, Funny)
by s-gen (890660) on Wednesday August 22, @08:00AM (#20316579)
*spit* on our new behaviour predicting overlord.
Dang it.
How did it manage to dodge that?
Can they even build it?
(Score:1)
by Jim in Buffalo (939861) on Wednesday August 22, @08:20AM (#20316707)
I don't understand... when did it become possible to patent something that the applicant doesn't actually
have the ability to build?
Re:Can they even build it? by PPH (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @01:46PM
Asimov
(Score:2)
by ubrgeek (679399) on Wednesday August 22, @08:20AM (#20316709)
I vaguely recall some Asimov series (one of his better known ones, IIR) that deals with the ability to
predict group behavior quite successfully through some sort of psychology. It seemed to evolve into some
kind of "future guessing" where he warns of a messianic figure or something. Assuming my memory is
anywhere near what I think I'm referring to, it's an interesting case of life imitating art...
1 reply beneath your current threshold.

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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

Dubious Conclusion
(Score:2)
by imstanny (722685) on Wednesday August 22, @08:47AM (#20316957)
(http://www.greenarrowinvestments.com/)

The prediction of this mechanism is predicated on the fact that the subjects being observed are not aware
of the observer. The mere fact of observing may change the outcome of the objects' behaviour. Now,
thanks to the slahdot effect, this mechanism & its patent will be rendered useless.

GAAAH!
(Score:1)
by revengebomber (1080189) on Wednesday August 22, @09:20AM (#20317289)
The CTs are hacking!
Dept of Defense itself has much of the prior art
(Score:2)
by ibn_khaldun (814417) on Wednesday August 22, @09:54AM (#20317691)
Various research units of the Dept of Defense have been funding this sort of thing since the 1940s, with a
lot of serious mathematical work on game theory [wikipedia.org] and, a bit later, a lot of computer
simulation work with systems dynamics [wikipedia.org]. And those are just the big topics; there are plenty
of little ones as well. They backed off a lot of this in the 1980s, partly because of a feeling that the
methods had been pushed as far as they could go, partly in response to Reagan-era ideologues who
wanted to remove anything remotely resembling a fact or falsifiable theory from policy making. In the last
five years DARPA has gotten back into this with a wide variety of initiatives, though to date results have
been decidedly mixed.
Bottom line is that people in the quantitative social sciences have been doing this sort of thing
mathematically for more than a century, and with computers pretty much since computers became
available. The guy may have a new angle -- though has likely, just hasn't done a good review of the
literature.
Wow
(Score:1)
by ZonkerWilliam (953437) * on Wednesday August 22, @10:06AM (#20317847)
(Last Journal: Sunday January 14, @11:42PM)

Good news for those none-conformists.


Von Crappen Architecture
(Score:1)
by ginbot462 (626023) on Wednesday August 22, @10:30AM (#20318133)
(http://vierstein.sourceforge.net/)

So, this must be some new fangled non-deterministic machine. I assume it can also predict the weather
and winning lottery numbers. I also have done something to that effect.
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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

bool IsRandomPersonAJerk()
{
return true;
}
It's right 90% of the time (at least on the internet)!
Obligatory
(Score:1)
by krou (1027572) on Wednesday August 22, @10:34AM (#20318179)
I, for one, welcome ... oh wait, they knew that already.
This is either great or awful
(Score:4, Insightful)
by melted (227442) on Wednesday August 22, @10:50AM (#20318353)
(http://slashdot.org/)

Depending on the legal interpretation. On one hand as a government agency all work done by DARPA
should be public domain. On the other hand they somehow managed to patent this. Does this mean that
this is an anti-patent, i.e. no one else can patent this anymore and everyone can use it? Or did they find a
legal loophole which could prevent everyone else from using the tech? If it's the latter, it's pretty horrible.
DARPA pays for a heck of a lot of fundamental innovation each year (with taxpayer money, of course).
If they start patenting it a lot of things will come to a grinding halt.
Any lawyers on the thread?
Re:This is either great or awful by Courageous (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @11:35AM
It shouldn't be happening all the time by melted (Score:2) Wednesday August 22, @05:27PM
2 replies beneath your current threshold.
this can work under rules of engagement
(Score:1)
by recharged95 (782975) on Wednesday August 22, @11:25AM (#20318769)
(Last Journal: Friday September 17, @05:10PM)

For the art of war and under a known set of rules of engagement, this algorithm can work for DARPA's
needs.
Interesting the article mentions they used a LSM-based algorithm vs. a Monte Carlo method (satisfy
real-time requirement?) and it can cast some doubt on how accurate their model really is.
---- emergence and self-organization, two important concepts of the future
Dada and Discordianism are our only hope!
(Score:2)
by StefanJ (88986) on Wednesday August 22, @12:30PM (#20319517)
(http://home.comcast.net/~stefan_jones | Last Journal: Monday May 16, @07:21PM)

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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/22/0512235
Published
by The Advanced Media Group

The forces of coercion and aristocratic statism cannot be allowed to prevail. The world they would create
would crush the soul of humanity and bring progress to a grinding stop.
Throwing sand in the gears of this predictive machine means getting weird people.
Date your livestock, but only if you live in an apartment. Borrow a friend's supermarket membership card
to do your shopping. Use your own card to make suspiciously large purchases of anchovies, motor oil, bird
seed and tampons. Stick macaroni in your cap and do not call it a pipe. Go to church dressed in a furry
costume and stuff the donation plate with bizarre foreign currency.
Of course, if enough people did this, people in terrorist sleeper cells would stand right out, since they'd be
trying really hard to be normal and square.
Iocaine powder
(Score:1)
by m2943 (1140797) on Wednesday August 22, @12:36PM (#20319587)
This is only against stupid opponents or crowds. A smart opponent will, if anything is at stake, run the
same simulation, predict your action based on your prediction, and alter his behavior accordingly.
Hmm. Lets see....
(Score:2)
by PPH (736903) on Wednesday August 22, @01:37PM (#20320389)
We screw around in Middle Eastern politics for decades. The various factions resident there get pissed.
They retaliate against us using various forms of violence.
I figured that out all by myself, No AI or DARPA grant required.
How Much Longer.....
(Score:1)
by IHC Navistar (967161) on Wednesday August 22, @02:57PM (#20321389)
How much longer until Mom's Freindly Robot Company puts this into a shiny, alcoholic, cigar-smoking,
compulsive gambling, egocentric, shoplifting robot.....and where can I get one?
Prediction is Impossible
(Score:1)
by monxrtr (1105563) on Wednesday August 22, @05:33PM (#20323015)
All things are extrinsically subjectively valued. Nothing is intrinsically objectively valued. 'Tis why the
ancient Greeks couldn't figure out why a diamond could be worth more than a glass of water. All claims
of prediction algorithms will just be various derivatives of the false Marxist labor theory of value.
All action only occurs for the purpose of going from a state of greater dissatisfaction to a state of lesser
dissatisfaction. People only act because they are in a state of dissatisfaction.
Subjective value is never constant. Only the most valuable actions are done at the time of action, by
definition of the opportunity cost of other actions which could have been chosen being forsaken.

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As subjective value is never constant for the same things by everyone or even within the same person
through time, prediction is as impossible to determine as future subjective valuations. They can only be
observed in present tense. QED. Nobel Prize in Economics #24. Rack it.
No mathematical formula imaginable can predict, let alone accurately depict even in past tense analysis,
any numerical degree to which profit occurs from any action, or to which numerical extent the most
profitable action which by definition is always chosen (given limited imperfect knowledge, which is always
the case) is profitable over the next most profitable action which would have been chosen but is forsaken
in present tense action.
Therefore, 'tis proved the DARPA patent application is bogus and the claim false.
Mainstream economics has wasted a century on game theory and mathematical formulas. But it's funny
to watch other scientific branches adopt shaky (read: unproved and false) "principles" into their fields
without checking the methodological evolution of the ideas and "formulas". Modern economics only began
in the 1860s with marginal utility.
I'm also dubious of the widespread adoption of statistics methodology in a whole host of academic fields.
Statistics does not establish the validity of statistics. Statistics is derived from proved mathematical
principles. But none the less we have legions of library basements filled with mostly garbage plug in data
into plays for sure statistical academic "research". I suppose every welfare distribution program needs day
workers to dig ditches and night workers to fill in the ditches, because by definition redistributing wealth
violently away from voluntarily chosen trade by definition results in a net less wealthy society in absolutely
every instance (since by definition it is philosophically proved that trade only occurs because that which is
received is valued more than that which is given away in exchange). And academia is about as corrupted
as the legal profession with the massive financial "assistance" (read: plunder) they are beholden to from
government redistribution coffers. Better for them to justify their fat growing 6-7 figure administration and
professor salaries by throwing as much junk "research" as possible for as little effort as possible. Work
less, make more, is not just a Union motto, it's a principle of economic efficiency, even for the various
forms of Mafioso organizations.
At any rate, guessing is not prediction, even if it is couched in phony statistical anyalysis guess intervals. It
may be a better form of guessing than pure randomization, but its still guessing, and not prediction.
Subjective valuation prices only arise from voluntary trade and only send signals for more of this, less of
that. That's why socialism and communism by definition fail; precisely because they prohibit and inhibit
voluntary trade which sends pricing signals.
Perhaps DARPA should delve into the USSR archives for failed examples of prediction and production
algorithms. It would be a much more fruitful endeavor.
Empathy
(Score:1)
by mitchskin (226035) <mitchskinNO@SPAMgmail.com> on Wednesday August 22, @10:27PM
(#20325473)
Detect an opponent's emotions? Wow, it's not like we've had tens or hundreds of thousands of years living
in communities to evolve something like that.
Of course, the capacity for empathy probably is lacking in some of our war planners.

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Slashdot | DARPA Files Patent On Predictive Simulation

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Published
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This technology is not new


(Score:1)
by sbenfield (643273) on Thursday August 23, @01:18AM (#20326773)
The BDI model (Beliefs, Desires, Intents) has exited in the multiagent world of AI for some time. Think
of how you work as an autonomous organism. You have a set of beliefs--what you perceive to be true
about your environment. You have desires--goals that you'd like to achieve. Once you marry beliefs and
desires you get a commitment to act--and that is an intent. So from this intent you determine a plan to get
to your goal. You try and the results of that change your current environment state--your beliefs. Continue
until terminated. Oh yea, there are other agents out there competing, communicating, and negotiating with
you as well...multiply this by a large # and you get very complex behavior based on some much simpler
rules. So this patent seems to be on using simulation to try to determine what the beliefs & desires of a
specific agent are--and from there I can predict what their intents--and behavior will be like. At my
company we use Java-based BDI-agent based technolgy to actually build complex processes in a fraction
of the time as it takes using traditional development or a finite-state machine design approach. The
company founder was one of the pioneers of the BDI approach.
1 reply beneath your current threshold.
AI
(Score:1)
by jesse285 (1145913) on Sunday August 26, @08:59PM (#20366879)
(http://hotmail.com/)

When IT DO COME, some of us will not be around,so stop crying.


10 replies beneath your current threshold.
He who is content with his lot probably has a lot.

All trademarks and copyrights on this page are owned by their respective owners. Comments are owned by the
Poster. The Rest 1997-2007 SourceForge, Inc.

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BEYOND SPACE AND TIME: An ESP Casebook Mark Twain & Mental Telepathy

BEYOND SPACE AND TIME: An ESP Casebook


Edited by Martin Ebron 1967
A Message can be transmitted without words, from one person
to another by mind alone.and, when conditions are precisely correct,
certain individuals can actually see specific future events before they
happen!
These are only conclusions that can be drawn from the
thousands of recorded cases involving prophecy and telepathy of which
the ones in this book are a representative cross-section.

Leading

authorities experiences their own and other peoples in the area of


accurate foreknowledge.

Each experience described here has been

carefully documented and put to the test of parapsychology.

schoolteacher sets on a compelling premonition, and saves her


mothers life; a tea-leaf reader tells a policeman all about a multiple
murder, before it happens; a young woman predicts her fathers
death, and is falsely accused of his murder.Each of these is living
proof the future can be known-that the gift of prophecy can strike
unexpectedly, anywhere.
Psychic research has revealed that telepathy or mental
telepathy, as Mark Twain called it is actually a common human
experience!

Documented case histories a young woman calling out

a plea in the middle of the night, and preventing a murder many miles
away; a homebound welder following a compulsion to return to work,
and saving a friend from being buried alive; a doctor reading the
brain waves of an unknown killer, and identifying him to the police

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these and other show why todays supernatural phenomena may


become tomorrows staggering science of the mind.
MARK TWAINS DISCOVERY OF TELEPATHY
I suggest that it is time-eighty-three years after Mark Twain
penned his thoughts on "mental telegraphy"-that the biographers and
critics of this great author do him the courtesy of meeting his simple,
modest desire about this early essay; all he asked was that "the public
should receive the thing seriously, and be willing to stop and give it
some fair degree of attention." That's all-"give it some fair degree of
attention." By the time he got around to actually publishing his
"mental telegraphy" papers, Mark Twain felt that he had received
convincing corroboration of his discovery. Mental telegraphy, he said,
"is the same thing around the outer edges of which the Psychical
Society of England began to group (and play with) four or five years
ago, and which they named 'Telepathy.' Within the last two or three
years they have penetrated toward the heart of the matter, however,
and have found out that mind can act upon mind in a quite detailed
and elaborate way over vast stretches of land and water. And they
have succeeded in doing, by their great credit and influence, what I
could never have done they have convinced the world that mental
telegraphy i.; not a jest, but a fact, and it is a thing not rare, but
exceedingly common.
They have done our age a service-and n very great service, I
think" It is exceedingly interesting to know something about Mark
Twain that is not generally known, and that is that he was a member

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of the Society for Psychical Research from 1885 to 1903. This society
had been formed in London 111 1882, after William F. Barrett,
professor of physics in the Royal College of Science, Dublin, had called
a conference to consider the application of more scientific methods 10
1 the study of all types of psychical phenomena. Mark Twain was thus
an early member, for he wrote from Hartford, Connecticut, in October
1884, to accept membership in the pioneering society. His letter of
acceptance was published in the Journal of the Society for Psychical
Research, Vol. 1, 1884-1885, and is here reproduced in full. Mark
Twain On Thought-Transference The following characteristic letter from
Mr. S. L. Clemens (Mark Twain) will, doubtless, entertain many of our
readers.-Ed.
Hartford, Conn., October 4th, 1884.
DEAR SIRI should be very glad indeed to be made a Member of the
Society for Psychical Research; for Thought transference, as you call it,
or mental telegraphy as I have been in habit of calling it, has been a
very strong interest with me for the past nine or ten years. I have
grown so accustomed to considering that all my powerful impulses
come to me from somebody else, that I often feel like a mere
amanuensis when I sit down to write a letter under the coercion of a
strong impulse: I consider that that other person is supplying the
thoughts to me, and that I am merely writing from dictation.
And I consider that when that other person does not supply me
with the thoughts, he has supplied me with the impulse, anyway: I

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never seem to have any impulses of my own. Still, maybe I get even
by unconsciously furnishing other people with impulses. I have reaped
an advantage from these years of constant observation. For instance,
when I am suddenly and strongly moved to write it-because I know
that that other person is at that moment writing to tell me the thing I
wanted to how,-I have moved him or he has moved me, I don't know
which,-but anyway I don't need to write, and so I save my labor. Of
course I sometimes act upon my impulse without stopping to think. My
cigars come to me from 1,200 miles away. A few days ago,-September
3oth,-it suddenly, and very warmly occurred to me that an order made
tlirce weeks ago for cigars had as yet, for some unaccountable reason,
received no attention. I immediately telegraphed to inquire what the
matter was. At least I wrote the telegram and was about to send it
down town, when the thought occurred to me, "This isn't necessary,
they are doing something about the cigars now-this impulse has
traveled to me two miles in half a second ."
As I said writing the above sentence a servant intruded here to
say, "The cigars have arrived, and we haven't any money downstairs
to pay the expressage." This is October &-you see how serene my
confidence was. The bill for the cigars arrived October md, dated
September 30th-I hew perfectly well they were doing something about
the cigars that day, or I shouldn't have had that strong impulse to wire
an inquiry. SO, by depending upon the trustworthiness of the mental
telegraph, and refraining from using the electric one, I saved 50 centsfor the poor. [I am the poor.] Companion instances to this have
happened in my experience so frequently in the past nine years, that I
could pow them out upon you to utter weariness. I have been saved

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the writing of many and many a letter by refusing to obey these strong
impulses.
I always knew the other fellow was sitting down to write when I
got the impulse-so what could be the sense in both of us writing the
same thing? People are always marveling because their letters "cross"
each other. If they would but squelch the impulse to write, there would
not be any crossing, because only the other fellow would write. I am
politely making an exception in your case; you have mentally
telegraphed me to write, possibly, and I sit down at once and do it,
without any shirking. I began a chapter upon "Mental Te1egraphy"in
May, 1878, and added a paragraph to it now and then during two or
three years; but I have never published it, because I judged that
people would only laugh at it and think I was joking.
I long ago decided to not publish it at all; but I have the old MS.
by me yet, and I notice one thought in it which may be worth
mentioning-to this effect: In my own case it has often been
demonstrated

that

people

can

have

crystal-clear

mental

communication with each other over vast distances. Doubtless to be


able to do this the two minds have to be in a peculiarly favorable
condition for the moment. Very well, then, why shouldn't some
scientist find it possible to invent a way to create this condition of
rapport between two minds, at will? Then we should drop the slow and
cumbersome telephone and say, "Connect me with the brain of the
chief of police at Peking." We shouldn't need to how the man's
language; we should communicate by thought only, and say in a
couple of minutes what couldn't be dictated into words in an hour and

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a half. Telephones, telegraphs and words are too slow for this age; we
must get something that is faster. Truly yours,
S. L. CLEMENS
P.S.-I do not mark this "private," there being nothing furtive about it
or any misstatements in it. I wish you could have given me a call. It
would have been a most welcome pleasure to me.
This letter is entertaining, as the Editor of the Journal says. Mark
Twain evidently felt that he could take a light tone with a sympathetic
audience, but he wrote earnestly to the unconverted, as we shall see.
In

volume

two

of

the

posthumously

published

Mark

Twain's

Autobiography, hr made an entry, dated March 21, 1906, that


"certainly mental telegraphy is an industry which is always silently at
work-oftener than otherwise, perhaps, when we are not suspecting
that it is affecting our thought." He goes on to tell how he had been
planning an article about Dr. John Brown of Edinburgh and had begun
it the day before.
"To-day comes a letter from his son Jock, from whom I had not
previously heard for a good many years." He gave his reasons for
thinking that Jock's mind had telegraphed his thoughts across the
Atlantic to him, and concludes as he had often done before, "I imagine
that we get most of our thoughts out of somebody else's head, by
mental

telegraphy-

and

not

always

out

of

the

heads

of

the

acquaintances, but, in the majority of cases, out of the heads of


strangers; strangers far removed-Chinamen, Hindus, and 200 BEYOND

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SPACE AND TIME , all manner of remote foreigners whose language


we should not be able to understand, hut whose thoughts we can read
without difficulty." This, so far as I know, was Mark Twain's final word
on telepathy. His official biographer, Albert Bigelow Paine, had noted,
"Psychic theories and phenomena always attracted Mark Twain. In
thought transference, specially, he had a frank interest-an interest
awakened and kept alive by certain phenomena-psychic manifestations
we call them now. In his association with Mrs. Clemens it not
infrequently happened that one spoke the other's thought, or perhaps
a long, procrastinated letter to a friend would bring an answer as
quickly as mailed; but these are things familiar to us all."
There was one time, though, when Mark Twain mentally
telegraphed an error to his wife Livy. He told about it in a chapter
entitled "I Send an Error by Telepathy" in Following the Equator (
1899). Mark, Livy, their daughter, and Marys manager were lunching
at Waitukurau in Australia. "I sat at the head of the table," Mark Twain
wrote, "and could see the right-hand wall; the others had their backs
to it. On that wag, at a good distance away, were a couple of framed
pictures. I could not see them clearly, but from the groupings of the
figures I fancied that they represented the killing of Napoleon IIIs son
by the Zulus in South Africa. I broke into the conversation, which was
about poetry and cabbage and art, and said to my wife: "'Do you
remember when the news came to Paris-' "'Of the killing of the
Prince?' "(Those were the very words I had in my mind.)
'Yes, but what Prince?' "'Napoleon. Lulu.' "'What made you think
of that?' "'I don't know.' MARK TWAIN'S DISCOVERY OF TELEPATHY

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201 "There was no collusion. She had not seen the pictures, and they
had not been mentioned. She ought to have thought of some recent
news that came to Paris, for we were but seven months from there
and had been living there a couple of years when we started on this
trip; but instead of that she thought of an incident of our brief sojourn
in Paris of sixteen years before. "Here," Mark Twain concludes, was a
clear case of mental telegraphy; of mind transference. How do I know?
Because I telegraphed him. For it turned out that the pictures did not
represent the killing of Lulu at all, nor anything connected with Lulu.
She had to get the error from my head-it existed nowhere else." Mark
Twain tells the foregoing incident in a by-the-way manner in the
course of a potboiling travelogue. But in two papers, "Mental
Telegraphy," and "Mental Telegraphy Again" (written seventeen years
after the first paper), which were collected in the volume entitled
Literary Essays of the Author's Edition of Mark Twain's works, Mark
Twain makes an impressive marshaling of the evidence supporting the
case for telepathy. Remember that in this he was a pioneer; his notes
on telepathy go back to 1878. He begins by saying that "another of
those apparently training things has happened to me which puzzle all
men every now and then, keep them thinking an hour or two, and
leave their minds barren of explanation or solution at last." He was
referring to the phenomenon of "crossed letters." "A few days ago I
said: 'It must be that Frank Millet doesn't know we are in Germany, or
he would have written long before this. I have been on the point of
dropping him a line at least a dozen times during the last six weeks . .
But now I will write.' And so I did. I directed the letter to Paris,
and thought, 'Now we shall hear from him before this letter is 6fty

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miles from Heidelberg-it always lappets o . . .' 'Yes, as I was saying, I


had waited five or six weeks; then I I wrote but three lines, because I
felt and seemed to know that a Letter from Millet would cross mine.
And so it did. He wrote the same day that I wrote . . . In this letter
Millet said he had been trying for six weeks to stumble upon somebody
who knew my German address, and at last the idea had occurred to
him that a letter sent to care of the embassy at Berlin might possibly
find me. Maybe it was an 'accident' that he finally determined to write
me at the same moment that I finally determined to write him but I
think not." Here is Mark Twain's commentary on "crossing letters." 'We
are always talking about letters 'crossing' each other, for that is one of
the very commonest accidents of this life.
We call it accident, but perhaps we misname it. We have the
instinct a dozen times a year that the letter we are writing is going to
'cross' the other person's letter; and if the reader will rack his memory
a little he will recall the fact that this presentiment had strength
enough to it to make him cut his Letter down to a decided briefness,
because it would be a waste of time to write a letter which was going
to 'cross,' and hence be a useless letter. I think that in my experience
this instinct has generally come to me in cases where I had put off my
letter a good while in the hope that the other person would write." In
further commentary, Mark Twain said: "With me the most irritating
thing has been to wait a tedious time in a purely business matter,
hoping that the other party will do the writing, and then sit down and
do it myself, perfectly satisfied that that other man is sitting down at
the same moment to write a letter which will 'cross' mine. And yet one
must go on writing, just the same; because if you get up from your

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table and postpone, that other man will do the same thing, exactly as
if you two were harnessed together like the Siamese twins, and must
duplicate each other's movements."
Mark Twain then cited the case of the electrical repair man. A
6rm had done some work about his Hartford home but did not do it
satisfactorily. When the bill arrived Mark Twain wrote hack stating that
he wanted the work perfected before he paid the bill. The firm pled
that they were extremely busy but would send a man when able.
More than two months passed. Then Twain sat down and wrote a letter
of a page or so. At this point-it was in the evening he had the feeling
that the f%m had begun to act. He cut his letter short, sealed it, and
left it downstairs for the postman. When he came down to breakfast,
however, he found that the postman had not yet called but the
electrical repair man had been there, had done his work, and had left.
It seems that he had received his orders the previous evening and had
come up on the night train. "If that was an accident,'" Mark Twain
remarked, "it took about three months to get it up in good shape."
The next example cited occurred when Mark Twain arrived in
Washington, D.C., registered at the Arlington Hotel, and decided about
ten o'clock in the evening to take a stroll. He knew that a friend, Mr.
O., was in town and wished to find him but did not know where he was
stopping. Toward midnight, Twain stepped into a cigar store, listened
to drummers' talk for about &teen minutes, and then made a prophecy
to himself: he would go out the door, turn to the left, walk ten steps,
and meet his friend. He did this and met his friend exactly as he had
prophesied. "That I should step out there and stumble upon Mr. 0. -

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was nothing," Mark Twain commented, "but that I should how


beforehand that I was going to do it was a good deal. It is a very
curious thing when you come to look at it. I stood far within the cigar
shop when.
1 delivered my prophecy; I walked about five steps to the door,
opened it, closed it after me, walked down a flight of three steps to the
side walk, then turned to the left and walked four or five more, and
found my man. I repeat that in itself the thing was nothing; but to
know it would happen so beforehand, wasn't that really curious?" Mark
Twain passed on to matters of minor curiosity. "I have criticized
absent people so often, and then discovered, to my humiliation, that I
was talking with their relatives, that I have grown superstitious about
that sort of thing and dropped i t . . .
We are always mentioning people, and in that very instant they
appear before us. We laugh, and say, 'Speak of the devil,' and so
forth, and there we drop it, considering it an 'accident.' It is a cheap
and convenient way of disposing of a grave and very puzzling mystery.
The fact is, it does seem to happen too often to be an accident.= The
next example of thought-communication Mark Twain cited was
probably the most startling to him. Paine wrote that it raised to a
fever-point whatever interest in mental telegraphy Mark Twain may
have had before. It was the case of William H. Wright, a journalist of
Virginia City, Nevada, who wrote under the name of Dan de Quille. It
suddenly occurred to Mark Twain that the time was ripe and the public
ready for a book about the Nevada silver mines. The "Great Bonanza"
was in the news. Casting about for an author for this timely book,

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Twain thought of William H. Wright, with whom he had worked as a


reporter a dozen years previously. He drafted a letter to Wright on
March 2, urging the project upon him and even outlining a book.
Then the thought occurred to Twain that he would be in an
uncomfortable position if Wright wrote the book at his suggestion and
no publisher wanted it. He pigeonholed his letter and instead sent a
note to Bliss, his own publisher, asking him to name a time for a
business consultation, intending me to press the project. But Bliss was
out of town, the note re- I remained unanswered, and the matter
passed out of Twain's mind. On the 9th of March, three or four letters
arrived, and Twain noticed that one was from Wright. He said to a
visiting relative: "Now I will do a miracle. I will tell you everything this
letter contains-date, signature, and all-without breaking the seal. It is
from a Mr. Wright, of Virginia ity, Nevada, and is dated the second of
March-seven days ago. Mr. Wright proposes to make a book about the
silver mines and the 'Great Bonanza,' and asks what I, as a friend,
think of the idea. He says his subjects are to be so and so, their order
and sequence so and so, and he will close with a history of the chief
feature of the book, the 'Great Bonanza'." Mark Twain then opened the
letter and showed that he had stated the date and the contents
correctly. The letter contained what Twain's own unsent Letter
contained. This was not clairvoyance, Twain remarked, inasmuch as he
did not actually see the writing paranormally. Instead he seemed to
know absolutely the contents of the letter in correct order and detail,
but he had to word them himself.

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"I translated them, so to speak, out of Wright's language into my


own. Wright's letter and the one which I had written to him and never
sent were in substance the same." Twain said that he could not doubt
"that Mr. Wright's mind and mine had been in close and crystal-clear
communication with each other across three thousand miles of
mountain and desert on the morning of the 2nd of March. I did not
consider that both minds originated that succession of ideas, but that
one mind originated it, and simply telegraphed it to the other. I was
curious to know which brain was the telegrapher and which the
receiver, so I wrote and asked for particulars. Mr. Wrights. reply
showed that his mind had done the originating and telegraphing, and
mine the receiving." The incident had a happy sequel. William Wright
(Dan I de Quille) came to Hartford for an extended visit with Twain. He
wrote The Big Bonanza there, and Bliss successful. l' y published it a
year later. Last spring," Mark Twain continued, "a literary friend of
mine [William Dean Howells], who lived a hundred miles away, paid
me a visit, and in the course of our talk he said he had made a
discovery-conceived an entirely new idea -one which certainly had
never been used in literature. He told me what it was. I handed him a
manuscript, and said he would find substantially the same idea in thata manuscript which I had written a week before, The idea had been in
my mind since the previous November; it had only entered his while I
was putting it on paper, a week gone by. He had not yet written his;
so he left it unwritten, and gracefully made over all his right and title
in the idea to me."
Mark Twain bolstered his case by introducing two newspaper
clippings of literary coincidences, one relating to Howell's Atlantic

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Monthly story, "Dr. Breen's Practice," the other relating to Miss Alcott's
novel, Moods. He recalled several poems whose authorship had been
claimed by two or three at the same time, and said, somewhat rashly,
"These were all blameless cases of unintentional and unwitting mental
telegraphy, I judge." He capped his literary coincidences with a
quotation from Boswell's Johnson: "Voltaire's Candide is wonderfully
similar in its plan and conduct to Johnson's Rasselas; insomuch that I
have heard Johnson say that Jf they had not been published o closely
one after the other that thae was no time for imitation, it would have
been in vain to deny that the scheme of that which came latest was
taken from the other."

Mark Twain stoutly declared his conclusion

from the evidence he had presented. "1 am forced to believe," he said


firmly,

"that

one

human

mind

(still

inhabiting

the

flesh)

can

communicate with another, over any sort of a distance, and without


any artificial preparation of 'sympathetic conditions' to act as a
transmitting agent. I suppose that when the sympathetic conditions
happen to exist the two minds communicate with each other, and that
otherwise they don't; and I suppose that if the sympathetic conditions
could be kept up right along, the two minds would continue to
correspond without limit as to time. "Now there is that curious thing
which happens to everybody: suddenly a succession of thoughts or
sensations flocks in upon you, which startles you with the weird idea
that you have ages ago experienced just this succession of thoughts or
sensations in a previous existence.
The previous

existence is possible, no doubt, but I am

persuaded that the solution of this hoary mystery lies not there, but in
the fact that some far off stranger has been telegraphing his thoughts

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and sensations into your consciousness, and that he stopped because


some countercurrent or other obstruction intruded and broke the line
of communication. Perhaps they seem repetitious to you because they
are repetitious, got at second hand from the other man. Possibly Mr.
Brown, the 'mind-reader,' reads other people's minds, possibly he does
not; but I know of a surety that I have read another man's mind, and
therefore I do not see why Mr. Brown shouldn't do the like also."
Twain's brushing aside of Plato's doctrine of reminiscence is certainly
the weakest paragraph in his paper on "Mental Telegraphy," but he
recovers to the resounding information: "I know of a surety that I
have read another man's mind." Three years after writing the fiist draft
of this paper,
Twain began tacking on additional thoughts and evidences to it.
He claimed that "when I get tired of waiting upon a man whom I very
much wish to hear from, I sit down and nm compel him to write,
whether he wants to or not; that is to say, I sit down and write him,
and then tear my letter up, satisfied that my a d has forced him to
write me at the same moment. I do not need to mail my letter-the
writing it is the essential thing." A second time Mark Twain performed
for a visitor the miracle of correctly describing a letter's contents
without opening the envelope. S t is from Mrs.--, and she says she
was in New York last Saturday, and was proposing to run up here in
the afternoon train and surprise us, but at the last minute, changed
her mind and returned westward to her home." Twain then opened the
letter and the details were found exactly correct. He remarked that he
had no suspicion that this lady was coming to New York, or that she
had even a remote intention of visiting them.

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The members of Mark's family, especially his wife Livy, as


already illustrated in the extract from Following the Equator, often
finished sentences or thoughts which Mark had begun to speak aloud.
This family facility at completing his half-spoken thoughts was another
reason why Mark Twain declared that ''I think I know now that mind
can communicate accurately with mind without the aid of the slow and
clumsy vehicle of speech." Why not an invention then to facilitate
mental telegraphy? Mark called for the invention of the phrenophone:
"a method whereby the communicating of mind with mind may be
brought under command and reduced to certainty and system . . .
Doubtless the something which conveys our thoughts through the air
from brain to brain is a finer and subtler form of electricity, and all we
need do is to find out how to capture it and how to force it to do its
work, as we have had to do in the case of the electric currents." MARK
Mark Twain had difficulty stopping once he was on the subject of
mental telegraphy. He added a postscript to his paper in which he
quoted what John Fiske, in the Atlantic Monthly for June, 1882, had
had to say about the Darwin and Wallace "coincidence" in a theory of
evolution. He introduced another newspaper clipping which told a
highly amusing story about coincidences in the discovery of a greatly
needed roll of wallpaper, and finally he wondered if, during your
waking hours, "you can be asleep-at least, wholly unconscious-for a
time, and not suspect that it has happened, and not have any way to
prove that it has happened." It's a good story as he tells it. He
prefaces by saying that "ever since the English Society for Psychical
Research began its investigations of ghost stories, haunted houses,
and apparitions of the living and the dead, I have read their pamphlets

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with avidity as fast as they arrived." Mark Twain saw a man coming up
the walk to his house. He wished to avoid him-Twain was standing on
his porch at the time-and he tried to look like a stranger himself.
The man disappeared about twenty-five feet away and Twain
was positive that he had seen an apparition. However, when he
entered his house a few minutes later he was astounded to find the
man waiting in the hallway. He had rung the bell and the colored
servant had admitted him. What had happened? "During at least sixty
seconds that day," Twain decided, "I was asleep, or at least totally
unconscious, without suspecting it." This led him to conclude his
postscript to his first paper on "Mental Telegraphy" with these
searching questions: "Now how are you to tell when you are awake?
What have you to go by?" Seventeen years later Mark Twain returned
to the subject of "mental telegraphy" in a second paper, and he
started it with an even better story of an apparition than the one just
cited. He and George W. Cable were sharing the lecture I platform on
a Canadian tour, and in Montreal they were given a reception in the
Windsor Hotel. They were stationed at one end of a long drawing room
and greeted a throng of admirers who came in the opposite end,
moved up in a line, shook hands and said a few words, and passed on.
Mark Twain suddenly recognized a familiar face in the crowd and said
to himself, "That is Mrs. R.; I had forgotten that she was a Canadian."
He had known Mrs. R, in Carson City, Nevada, hut he had not seen nor
heard of her for twenty years. Nor had he been thinking about her and
there had been nothing to suggest her to him. Nevertheless Twain
knew her instantly and he noted some particulars of her dress. People
continued to shake his hand but he managed to catch glimpses of Mrs.

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R. as she progressed with the slow moving crowd across the room. He
saw her start up the left-hand side and was able to take a full front
view of her face. She came within twenty feet of him. But she never
reached him. Twain, thinking that Mrs. R must still be in the room and
would finally come, was disappointed when the reception was over.
When Mark Twain arrived at the lecture hall that evening, he
was told that there was somebody in the waiting room to see him.
Mark Twain walked in and instantly recognized Mrs. R. in a group of
about ten ladies. She was dressed exactly as she was when Twain had
seen her at the reception. "I hew you the moment you appeared at the
reception," he said to her, "and you were dressed precisely as you are
now. When they told me a moment ago that I should find a friend in
this room, yow image rose before me, dress and all, just as I had seen
you at the reception.' But Mrs. R. had not attended the reception1 At
the time of the reception she had been on a train approaching
Montreal. Mark Twain thought that she must have been thinking of him
as she traveled toward him. But Mark Twain's experience with the
apparition of Mrs. R. is, as Raymond Bayless has observed in The
Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (April, 1g60),
"plainly far more complicated than the usual explanation of telepathy
will cover. If it were not for the coincidence of the appearance of Mrs.
R. and her subsequent arrival at the lecture hall, the entire matter
could have been merely a matter of false recognition. However, the
coincidence of the 'apparition' and the arrival of the actual person plus
the fact that Mark Twain states that both were dressed identically,
clearly indicates Para normality (especially when his additional

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examples are remembered) and point particularly to a form of 'astral'


or ESP projection."
The rest of "Mental Telegraphy Again" is less impressive. Twain
tells of a 'letter crossing" incident in which he received a letter from an
Australian lecture manager answering "the single essential detail of my
letter [posted in Europe] three days after I had mailed my inquiry."
Then there was the matter of his being made an honorary member of
the Lotos Club about the time that he was lunching at the Century
Club with an editor who told him he would suggest honorary
membership at the Lotos Club. And finally Mark Twain tells an
anecdote to his friend, the Reverend Joseph H. Twichell, as they are
riding on the trolley car out to Farmington, near Hartford. Out there
one of the young ladies of Miss Porter's school stepped forth from a
party of school companions and said to Twain, 'You don't remember
me but you were introduced to me in the arcade in Milan two years
and a half ago by Lieutenant H." The lieutenant had figured in the
anecdote Mark Twain had been relating to Twichell. "What had put that
story into my head after all that stretch of time?" Twain wondered.
"Was it just the proximity of that young girl, or was it merely an odd
accident?" Mark Twain had great confidence in his discovery of talk
telegraphy. When at last he published his first paper on the subject, he
crowed a little. "Now see how the world has moved since then.
These small experiences of mine, which were too formidable at
that time for admission to a grave magazine-if the magazine must
allow them to appear as something above and beyond 'accidents' and
'coincidences3- are trifling and commonplace now, since the flood of

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light recently cast upon mental telegraphy by the intelligent labors of


the Psychical Society [London]. But I think they are worth publishing,
just to show what harmless and ordinary matters were considered
dangerous and incredible eight or ten years ago." And now see how
the world has moved since Mark Twain penned the lines above. Today
Mark Twain's observations and investigations into the paranormal are
definitely rated as one of his many remarkable achievements. He is at
last honored as a true pioneer in telepathy.

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BEYOND SPACE AND TIME

all manner of remote foreigners whose language we should


not be able to understand, hut whose thoughts we can
read without difficulty."
This, so far as I know, was Mark Twain's final word on
telepathy. His official biographer, Albert Bigelow Paine, had
noted that "psychic theories and phenomena always
attracted Mark Twain. In thought transference, especially,
he had a frank interest-an interest awakened and kept alive
by certain phenomena-psychic manifestations we call them
now. In his association with Mrs. Clemens it not infrequently
happened that one spoke the other's thought, or perhaps
a long, procrastinated letter to a friend would bring an
answer as quickly as mailed; but these are things familiar
to us all."
There was one time, though, when Mark Twain mentally
telegraphed an error to his wife Livy. He told about it in a
chapter entitled "I Send an Error by Telepathy" in Following the Eqwltor ( 1899).
Mark, Livy, their daughter, and MarYs manager were
lunching at Waitukurau in Australia. "I sat at the head of
the table," Mark Twain wrote, "and could see the right-hand
wall; the others had their backs to it. On that wag, at a good
distance away, were a couple of framed pictures. I could
not see them clearly, but from the groupings of the figures I
fancied that they represented the killing of Napoleon 111's
son by the Zulus in South Africa. I broke into the conversation, which was about poetry and cabbage and art, and said
to my wife:
"'Do you remember when the news came to Paris-'
"'Of the killing of the Prince?'
"(Those were the very words I had in my mind.)
'Yes, but what Prince?'
"'Napoleon. Lulu.'
"'What made you think of that?'
"'I don't know.'

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MARK TWAIN'S DISCOVERY OF TELEPATHY

201

"There was no collusion. She had not seen the pictures,


and they had not been mentioned. She ought to have
thought of some recent news that came to Paris, for we were
but seven months from there and had been living there a
couple of years when we started on this trip; but instead of
that she thought of an incident of our brief sojourn in
Paris of sixteen years before.
"Here," Mark Twain concludes, was a clear case of
mental telegraphy; of mind transference. How do I know?
Because I telegraphed an m.For it turned out that the
pictures did not represent the killing of Lulu at all, nor
anything connected with Lulu. She had to get the error from
my head-it existed nowhere else."
Mark Twain tells the foregoing incident in a by-the-way
manner in the course of a potboiling travelogue. But in two
papers, "Mental Telegraphy," and "Mental Telegraphy
Again" (written seventeen years after the first paper), which
were collected in the volume entitled Literary Essays of
the Author's Edition of Mark Twain's works, Mark Twain
makes an impressive marshaling of the evidence supporting
the case for telepathy. Remember that in this he was a
pioneer; his notes on telepathy go back to 1878. He begins
by saying that "another of those apparently traing things
has happened to me which puzzle all men every now and
then, keep them thinking an hour or two, and leave their
minds barren of explanation or solution at last." He was
referring to the phenomenon of "crossed letters." "A few
days ago I said: 'It must be that Frank Millet doesn't know
we are in Germany, or he would have written long before
this. I have been on the point of dropping him a line at least
a dozen times during the last six weeks . . . But now I will
write.' And so I did. I directed the letter to Paris, and
thought, 'Now we shall hear from him before this letter is
6fty miles from Heidelberg-it always l~appensso . . .'

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202

'Yes, as I was saying, I had waited five or six weeks; then


I wrote but three lines, because I felt and seemed to know
that a Ietter from Millet would cross mine. And so it did. He
wrote the same day that I wrote
. In this letter Millet
said he had been trying for six weeks to stumble upon somebody who knew my German address, and at last the idea
had occurred to him that a letter sent to care of the embassy
at Berlin might possibly 6nd me. Maybe it was an 'accident'
that he finally determined to write me at the same moment
that I finally determined to write him but I think not."
Here is Mark Twain's commentaty on "crossing letters."
'We are always talking about letters 'crossing' each other,
for that is one of the very commonest accidents of this life.
We call it 'accident,' but perhaps we misname it. We have
the instinct a dozen times a year that the letter we are writing is going to 'cross' the other person's letter; and if the
reader will rack his memory a little he will recall the fact that
this presentiment had strength enough to it to make him
cut his Ietter down to a decided briefness, because it would
be a waste of time to write a letter which was going to
'cross,' and hence be a useless. letter. I think that in my
experience this instinct has generally come to me in cases
where I had put off my letter a good while in the hope that
the other person would write."
In further commentary, Mark Twain said:
"With me the most irritating thing has been to wait a
tedious time in a purely business matter, hoping that the
other party will do the writing, and then sit down and do it
myself, perfectly satisfied that that other man is sitting down
at the same moment to write a letter which will 'cross' mine.
And yet one must go on writing, just the same; because if
you get up from your table and postpone, that other man
will do the same thmg, exactly as if you two were harnessed
together like the Siamese twins, and must duplicate each
other's movements."

203
Mark Twain then cited the case of the electrical repair
man. A 6rm had done some work about his Hartford home
but did not do it satisfactorily. When the bill arrived Mark
Twain wrote hack stating that he wanted the work perfected before he paid the bill. The firm pled that they were
extremely busy but would send a man when able. More
than two months passed. Then Twain sat down and wrote
a letter of a page or so. At this point-it was in the eveninghe had the feeling that the f%m had begun to act. He cut his
letter short, sealed it, and left it downstairs for the postman.
When he came down to breakfast, however, he found that
the postman had not yet called but the electxical repair
man had been there, had done his work, and had left. It
seems that he had received his orders the previous evening
and had come up on the night train. "If that was an 'accident,'" Mark Twain remarked, "it took about three months
to get it up in good shape."
The next example cited occurred when Mark Twain arrived in Washington, D.C., registered at the Arlington Hotel,
and decided about ten o'clock in the evening to take a stroll.
He knew that a friend, Mr. O., was in town and wished to
find him but did not know where he was stopping. Toward
midnight, Twain stepped into a cigar store, listened to drnmmers' talk for about &teen minutes, and then made a prophecy to himself: he would go out the door, turn to the left,
walk ten steps, and meet his friend. He did this and met
his friend exactly as he had prophesied.
"That I should step out there and stumble upon Mr. 0.
-was nothing," Mark Twain commented, "but that I should
h o w beforehand that I was going to do it was a good deal.
It is a very curious thing when you come to look at it. I
stood far within the cigar shop when.1 delivered my prophecy; I walked about five steps to the door, opened it, closed
it after me, walked down a flight of three steps to the sideMARK TWAIN'S DISCOVERY OF TELEPATHY

BEYOND SPACE AND TIME

..

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204
BEYOND SPACE AND TIM!3
walk, then turned to the left and walked four or five more,
and found my man. I repeat that in itself the thing was
nothing; but to know it would happen so beforehand, wasn't
that really curious?"
Mark Twain passed on to matters of minor curiosity. "I
have criticized absent people so often, and then discovered,
to my humiliation, that I was talking with their relatives,
that I have grown superstitious about that sort of thing and
dropped i t .
W e are always mentioning people, and in that very instant they appear before us. We laugh, and say, 'Speak of
the devil,' and so forth, and there we drop it, considering it
an 'accident.' It is a cheap and convenient way of disposing
of a grave and very puzzling mystery. The fact is, it does
seem to happen too often to be an accident.=
The next example of thought-communication Mark
Twain cited was probably the most startling to him. Paine
wrote that it raised to a fever-point whatever interest in
mental telegraphy Mark Twain may have had before. It
was the case of William H. Wright, a journalist of Virginia
City, Nevada, who wrote under the name of Dan de Quille.
It suddenly occurred to Mark Twain that the time was ripe
and the public ready for a book about the Nevada silver
mines. The "Great Bonanza" was in the news. Casting about
for an author for this timely book, Twain thought of William
H. Wright, with whom he had worked as a reporter a dozen
years previously. He drafted a letter to Wright on March 2,
urging the project upon him and even outlining a book.
Then the thought occurred to Twain that he would be in an
uncomfortable position if Wright wrote the book at his suggestion and no publisher wanted it. He pigeonholed his letter and instead sent a note to Bliss, his own publisher, asking
him to name a time for a business consultation, intendmg to
press the project. But Bliss was out of town, the note re-

..

MARK TWAIN'S
DISCOVERY
OF ~ L E P A Media
TIIY
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Group
205

mained unanswered, and the matter passed out of Twain's


mind.
On the 9th of March, three or four letters arrived, and
Twain noticed that one was from Wright. He said to a visiting relative: "Now I will do a miracle. I will tell you everything this letter contains-date, signature, and all-without
breaking the seal. It is from a Mr. Wright, of Virginia City,
Nevada, and is dated the second of March-seven days ago.
Mr. Wright proposes to make a book about the silver mines
and the 'Great Bonanza,' and asks what I, as a friend, think
of the idea. He says his subjects are to be so and so, their
order and sequence so and so, and he will close with a
history of the chief feature of the book, the 'Great Bonanza'."
Mark Twain then opened the letter and showed that he
had stated the date and the contents correctly. The letter
contained what Twain's own unsent Ietter contained.
This was not clairvoyance, Twain remarked, inasmuch
as he did not actually see the writing paranormally. Instead
he seemed to know absolutely the contents of the letter in
correct order and detail, but he had to word them himself.
"I translated them, so to speak, out of Wright's language into
my own. Wright's letter and the one which I had written to
him and never sent were in substance the same."
Twain said that he could not doubt "that Mr. Wright's
mind and mine had been in close and crystal-clear communication with each other across three thousand miles of
mountain and desert on the morning of the 2nd of March.
I did not consider that both minds originated that succession
of ideas, but that one mind originated it, and simply telegraphed it to the other. I was curious to know which brain
was the telegrapher and which the receiver, so I wrote and
asked for particulars. Mr. Wright's.reply showed that his
mind had done the originating and telegraphing, and mine
the receiving."

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BEYOND SPACE AND TIME

The incident had a happy sequel. William Wright (Dan


de Quille) came to Hartford for an extended visit with
Twain. He wrote The Big Bonanza there, and Bliss successfully published it a year later.
Last spring," Mark Twain continued, "a literary friend
of mine [William Dean Howells], who lived a hundred miles
away, paid me a visit, and in the course of our talk he said
he had made a discovery-conceived an entirely new idea
-one which certainly had never been used in literature. He
told me what it was. I handed him a manuscript, and said
he would find substantially the same idea in that-a manuscript which I had written a week before, The idea had
been in my mind since the previous November; it had only
entered his while I was putting it on paper, a week gone by.
He had not yet written his; so he left it unwritten, and
gracefully made over all his right and title in the idea to
me."
Mark Twain bolstered his case by introducing two newspaper clippings of literary coincidences, one relating to
Howell's Atlantic Monthly story, "Dr. Breen's Practice," the
other relating to Miss Alcott's novel, Moods. He recalled
several poems whose author~hiphad been claimed by two
or three at the same time, and said, somewhat rashly, "These
were all blameless cases of unintentional and unwitting
mental telegraphy, I judge." He capped his literary coincidences with a quotation from Boswell's Johnson: "Voltaire's Candide is wonderfully similar in its plan and
conduct to Johnson's Rasselas; insomuch that I have heard
Johnson say that Jf they had not been ~ublishedso closely
one after the other that t h a e was no time for imitation, it
would have been in vain to deny that the scheme of that
which came latest was taken from the other."
Mark Twain stoutly declared his conclusion from the evidence he had presented. "1 am forced to believe," he said
firmly, "that one human mind (still inhabiting the flesh)

.'

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207
can communicate with another, over any sort of a distance,
and without any artificial preparation of 'sympathetic conditions' to act as a transmitting agent. I suppose that when
the sympathetic conditions happen to exist the two minds
communicate with each other, and that otherwise they
don't; and I suppose that if the sympathetic conditions could
be kept up right along, the two minds would continue to
correspond without limit as to time.
"Now there is that curious thing which happens to everybody: suddenly a succession of thoughts or sensations flocks
in upon you, which startles you with the weird idea that
you have ages ago experienced just this succession of
thoughts or sensations in a previous existence. The previous existence is possible, no doubt, but I am persuaded
that the solution of this hoary mystery lies not there, but in
the fact that some faroff stranger has been telegraphing his
thoughts and sensations into your consciousness, and that he
stopped because some countercurrent or other obstruction
intruded and broke the line of communication. Perhaps they
seem repetitious to you because they are repetitious, got at
second hand from the other man. Possibly Mr. Brown, the
'mind-reader,' reads other people's minds, possibly he does
not; but I know of a surety that I have read another man's
mind, and therefore I do not see why Mr. Brown shouldn't
do the like also."
Twain's brushing aside of Plato's doctrine of reminiscence
is certainly the weakest paragraph in his paper on "Mental
Telegraphy," but he recovers to the resounding &mation: "I know of a surety that I have read another man's
mind."
MARK TWAIN'S DISCOVERY OF TELEPATRY

Three years after writing the fiist draft of this paper,


Twain began tacking on additional thoughts and evidences
to it. He claimed that "when I get tired of waiting upon a
man whom I very much wish to hear from, I sit down and

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MARK TWAIN'S DISCOVERY OF TELEPATBY

208
BEYOND SPACE AND n m
compel him to write, whether he wants to or not; that is to
say, I sit down and write him, and then tear my letter up,
satisfied that my a d has forced him to write me at the same
moment. I do not need to mail my letter-the writing it is
the essential thing."
A second time Mark Twain performed for a visitor the
miracle of correctly describing a letter's contents without
opening the envelope. S t is from Mrs.--, and she says she
was in New York last Saturday, and was proposing to run
up here in the afternoon train and surprise us, but at the
last minute, changed her mind and returned westward to
her home."
Twain then opened the letter and the details were found
exactly correct. He remarked that he had no suspicion that
this lady was coming to New York, or that she had even a
remote intention of visiting them.
The members of Mark's family, especially his wife Livy,
as already illustrated in the extract from Following the
Equator, often finished sentences or thoughts which Mark
had begun to speak aloud. This family facility at completing his half-spoken thoughts was another reason why Mark
Twain declared that ''I think I know now that mind can communicate accurately with mind without the aid of the slow
and clumsy vehicle of speech."
Why not an invention then to facilitate mental telegraphy? Mark called for the invention of the phrenophone:
"a method whereby the communicating of mind with
mind may be brought under command and reduced to certainty and system . . Doubtless the something which conveys our thoughts through the air from brain to brain
is a finer and subtler form of electricity, and all we need do
is to find out how to capture it and how to force it to do
its work, as we have had to do in the case of the electric
currents."

209

Mark Twain had difficulty stopping once he was on the


subject of mental telegraphy. He added a postscript to his
paper in which he quoted what John Fiske, in the Atlantic
Monthly for June, 1882, had had to say about the Darwin
and Wallace "coincidence" in a theory of evolution. He
introduced another newspaper clipping which told a highly
amusing story about coincidences in the discovery of a
greatly needed roll of wallpaper, and finally he wondered
if, during your waking hours, "you can be asleep-at least,
wholly unconscious-for a time, and not suspect that it
has happened, and not have any way to prove that it has
happened."
It's a good story as he tells it. He prefaces by saying that
"ever since the English Society for Psychical Research began
its investigations of ghost stories, haunted houses, and apparitions of the living and the dead, I have read their pamphlets with avidity as fast as they arrived."
Mark Twain saw a man coming up the walk to his house.
He wished to avoid him-Twain was standing on his porch
at the time-and he tried to look like a stranger himself.
The man disappeared about twenty-five feet away and
Twain was positive that he had seen an apparition. However, when he entered his house a few minutes later he was
astounded to find the man waiting in the hallway. He had
rung the bell and the colored servant had admitted him.
What had happened? "During at least sixty seconds that
day," Twain decided, "I was asleep, or at least totally nnconscious, without suspecting it." This led him to conclude
his postscript to his first paper on "Mental Telegraphy" with
these searching questions: "Now how are you to tell when
you are awake? What have you to go by?"

Seventeen years later Mark Twain returned to the subject


of "mental telegraphy" in a second paper, and he started it
with an even better story of an apparition than the one just

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BEYOND SPACE AND TIME

cited. He and George W. Cable were sharing the lecture


platform on a Canadian tour, and in Montreal they were
given a reception in the Windsor Hotel. They were stationed at one end of a long drawing room and greeted a
throng of admirers who came in the opposite end, moved
up in a line, shook hands and said a few words, and passed
on. Mark Twain suddenly recognized a familiar face in the
crowd and said to himself, "That is Mrs. R.; I had forgotten
that she was a Canadian." He had known Mrs. R, in Carson
City, Nevada, hut he had not seen nor heard of her for
twenty years. Nor had he been thinking about her and there
had been nothing to suggest her to him. Nevertheless Twain
knew her instantly and he noted some particulars of her
dress. People continued to shake his hand but he managed
to catch glimpses of Mrs. R. as she progressed with the slowmoving crowd across the room. He saw her start up the
left-hand side and was able to take a full front view of her
face. She came within twenty feet of him. But she never
reached him. Twain, thinking that Mrs. R must still be in
the room and would finally come, was disappointed when
the reception was over.
When Mark Twain arrived at the lecture hall that evening, he was told that there was somebody in the waiting
room to see him. Mark Twain walked in and instantly recognized Mrs. R. in a group of about ten ladies. She was
dressed exactly as she was when Twain had seen her at the
reception. "I h e w you the moment you appeared at the
reception," he said to her, "and you were dressed precisely
as you are now. When they told me a moment ago that I
should find a friend in this room, yow image rose before
me, dress and all, just as I had seen you at the reception.'
But Mrs. R. had not attended the reception1 At the time of
the reception she had been on a train approaching Montreal.
Mark Twain thought that she must have been thinking of
him as she traveled toward him.

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MAFX

TwAI~"sDISCOVERY

OF TELEPATHY

211

But Mark Twain's experience with the apparition of Mrs.


R. is, as Raymond Bayless has observed in The Journal of
the AmeAcan Society for Psychical Research (April, 1g60),
"plainly far more complicated than the usual explanation
of telepathy will cover. If it were not for the coincidence
of the appearance of Mrs. R. and her subsequent arrival at
the lecture hall, the entire matter could have been merely
a matter of false recognition. However, the coincidence of
the 'apparition' and the arrival of the actual person plus the
fact that Mark Twain states that both were dressed identically, clearly indicates paranormality (especially when his
additional examples are remembered) and point particnlarly to a form of 'astral' or ESP projection."
The rest of "Mental Telegraphy Again" is less impressive.
Twain tells of a 'letter crossing" incident in which he
received a letter from an Australian lecture manager answering "the single essential detail of my letter [posted in
Europe] three days after I had mailed my inquiry." Then
there was the matter of his being made an honorary member of the Lotos Club about the time that he was lunching
at the Century Club with an editor who told him he would
suggest honorary membership at the Lotos Club. And finally
Mark Twain tells an anecdote to his friend, the Reverend
Joseph H. Twichell, as they are riding on the trolley car out
to Farmington, near Hartford. Out there one of the young
ladies of Miss Porter's school stepped forth from a party of
school companions and said to Twain, 'You don't remember
me but you were introduced to me in the arcade in Milan
two years and a half ago by Lieutenant H." The lieutenant
had figured in the anecdote Mark Twain had been relating
to Twichell.
"What had put that story into my head after all that
stretch of time?" Twain wondered. "Was it just the proximity of that young girl, or was it merely an odd accident?"
Mark Twain had great coddence in his discovery of men-

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212

BEYOND SPACE AND TIME

tal telegraphy. When at last he published his first paper on


the subject, he crowed a little. "Now see how the world
has moved since then. These small experiences of mine,
which were too formidable at that time for admission to
a grave magazine-if the magazine must allow them to appear as something above and beyond 'accidents' and 'coincidences3-are trifling and commonplace now, since the
flood of light recently cast upon mental teIegraphy by the
intelligent labors of the Psychical Society [London]. But I
think they are worth publishing, just to show what harmless
and ordinary matters were considered dangerous and incredible eight or ten years ago."
And now see how the world has moved since Mark Twain
penned the lines above. Today Mark Twain's observations
and investigations into the paranormal are definitely rated
as one of his many remarkable achievements. He is at last
honored as a true pioneer in telepathy.

Awakened at night by a woman's voice, a Utah


housewife did not at first suspect that it might be a
cry from her mother-it did not come by phonefifteen miles away.

Call in the Night


Velma Dorrity Clowurd

h the winter of 1924, my husband and I and our three


children were living on a ranch in Greenwood, Utah. On
Christmas Day, we planned to visit my mother, who was
ill and in the hospital at Filhnore, a small town fifteen miles
away. But it was almost noon on that icy Christmas moining before I had milked the cows, cleaned the separator,
and had the children dressed for their holiday visit. Finally,
when we were ready to leave, we discovered that our Hereford bull was caught in a barbed-wire fence. My husband
would have to attend to the animal-and I would have to
drive the children to Fillmore in our horsedrawn sleigh over
the snow-covered roads.
My husband suggested that he should remove our temperamental horse, Old Cal, from the hamess, and put
Blacky, a tamer creature, in his place.
"I hate to have you drive Old Cal," he said. "He'd kick
your bead off if anything went wrong and you got near his
heels."
I protested that I was not afraid of Old Cal. After all,
I had been around horses all my life, and had even broken
them to saddle and harness. I lmew that Cal was a beautiful

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'~511,,1.r1,:11111.11
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h.neaster, Penna. 17602
Phone 394-2651

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in America
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The Association for Research and Enlightenment, Inc. A.R.E.


The Association for Research and Enlightenment, Inc. (A.R.E. ), is a not-for-profit
organization, founded in 1931 by Edgar Cayce (1877-1945), to research and explore
transpersonal subjects such as holistic health, ancient mysteries, personal
spirituality, dreams and dream interpretation, intuition, and philosophy and
reincarnation.
With an international headquarters in Virginia Beach, Virginia, the A.R.E. community
is a global network of individuals who offer conferences, educational activities, and
fellowship around the world. More than 300 books have been written about Cayce's
life and work, resulting in "Edgar Cayce Centers" in twenty-five countries, and
members in more than 60 countries.
In addition to study groups and local regional activities, A.R.E. offers membership
benefits and services, a bimonthly magazine, a newsletter, publications, conferences,
international tours, an impressive volunteer network, a massage school curriculum, a
retreat-type camp for children and adults, and A.R.E. contacts around the world.
A.R.E. also maintains an affiliation with Atlantic University, which offers a master's
degree program in Transpersonal Studies.
Our Mission
The Mission of A.R.E. is simply to help people change their lives for the better
through the ideas and information in the Edgar Cayce material. Through its many
programs, services, publication and membership outreach, the A.R.E. provides
individuals from all walks of life, levels of education, and religious backgrounds with
tools for personal empowerment and healing at all levels body, mind, and spirit.

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Who was Edgar Cayce - Text Only


Twentieth
Century
Psychic
More Readings topics click here!

and

Medical

Clairvoyant

For forty-three years of his adult life, Edgar Cayce demonstrated


the uncanny ability to put himself into some kind of self-induced
sleep state by lying down on a couch, closing his eyes, and folding
his hands over his stomach. This state of relaxation and meditation
enabled him to place his mind in contact with all time and space.
From this state he could respond to questions as diverse as "What
are the secrets of the universe?" to "How can I remove a wart?" His
responses to these questions came to be called "readings" and
contain insights so valuable that even to this day individuals have found practical
help for everything from maintaining a well-balanced diet and improving human
relationships to overcoming life-threatening illnesses and experiencing a closer walk
with God.
Although Cayce died more than sixty years ago, the timeliness of the material in the
readings is evidenced by approximately one dozen biographies and more than 300
titles that discuss various aspects of this man's life and work. These books contain a
corpus of information so valuable that even Edgar Cayce himself might have
hesitated to predict their impact on the contemporary world. Sixty years ago who
could have known that terms such as "meditation, " "Akashic records," "spiritual
growth," "auras," "soul mates," and "holism" would have become household words to
millions? Further details of Cayce's life and work are explored in the classic book
There is a River (1942) by Thomas Sugrue.
The majority of Edgar Cayce's readings deal with health maintenance and the
treatment of illness. Even to this day individuals have found physical help from
information given as long as 100 years ago! Yet, although best known for this
material, the sleeping Cayce did not seem to be limited to concerns about the
physical body. In fact, in their entirety the readings discuss an astonishing number of
10,000 different subjects. Even this vast array of subject ma tter, however, can be
narrowed down into a much smaller range of topics. When compiled together, the
majority contain and deal with the following five categories: (1) Health-Related
Information; (2) Philosophy and Reincarnation; (3) Dreams and Dream
Interpretation; (4) ESP and Psychic Phenomena; and (5) Spiritual Growth,
Meditation, and Prayer.
Learn
more
visit caycetv.com

about

Edgar

Cayce

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the

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E..S.P. - Extra Sensory Perception


Association for Research and Enlightenment, Inc.
The Readings' Approach to ESP and Psychic Phenomena.
The story of Edgar Cayce's life is filled with examples of what this extra sense of
communication is like. His ability to give readings in the sleep state could be labeled
ESP because he somehow knew information that he had never studied, and he could
see people and places and events without using his physical sight. While asleep, he
could answer questions on any topic or he could give descriptions of the individual
and his or her surroundings, even though Cayce was in Virginia Beach and the
person receiving the reading might be in New York City. Because there are so many
different types of extrasensory communication, researchers have broken down the
term ESP into further categories to help explain what is taking place.
Telepathy is the ability to obtain information psychically by reading the mind of
another person. For example, while Cayce was in Kentucky, he gave a reading for a
man in New York (740-1). He saw the man smoking a cigar, heard him whistling a
particular song, saw him meet with another man about a piece of property, and saw
him look over three letters. Finally, the sleeping Cayce heard the man telephone
another gentleman and knew the gentleman's name. All of these events were later
verified. Cayce was able to see with this extra sense everything the man in New York
had experienced firsthand with his normal senses. In our own lives, one example of
telepathy is when we suddenly start thinking about someone we haven't heard from
in a long time and a short while later the phone rings and that person is on the line.
Another category of ESP is clairvoyance, the ability to "see" information that no one
else has. For example, suppose you shuffled a deck of cards and placed them face
down, then went through the deck and tried to name each card (or at least to tell its
color). If your percentage of correct guesses was far beyond what would be expected
by random chance, it would be an example of clairvoyance. You would not need to
be 100 percent accurate to demonstrate clairvoyance, just statistically (and
consistently) greater than random chance. On the other hand, if you tried the same
experiment but had a friend look at each card and concentrate on it before you
guessed, this would be an example of telepathy.
Looking at one instance from the Cayce readings (2826-1), we find the case of a
person who was in Ohio while Cayce was in Virginia Beach. During the reading,
Cayce correctly gave the person's body temperature. Now, if the attending doctor in
Ohio had known the patient's temperature before Cayce's reading was given, then
this would be an example of telepathy, since Cayce could have read the doctor's
mind. But if the doctor hadn't known the temperature until after Cayce's psychic
reading, it would be an example of clairvoyance.
A third category of ESP is precognition, the ability to view events before they
happen. Many of us have had the experience called dj vu; for example: you might
be having a conversation with a friend and, all at once, be absolutely positive that
you've had the exact conversation before. You may even know what your friend is
going to say next. The Cayce readings suggest that one explanation for this
phenomenon is that our dreams often foreshadow future events. Such precognitive
dreams may be forgotten and onlydimly felt at those times as dj vu experiences.
There are countless examples of precognition in the files of the Cayce material. In
many readings for children, Cayce foresaw what they would be like as adults, even

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going so far as to describe hidden talents and occupational decisions. There are also
other examples of this precognitive ability. When completing a reading for one
woman in New York, Cayce suddenly started giving a reading for a woman in
Missouri, although no one had solicited it. Her request for help, dated the day after
he had volunteered the information (5700-6), did not arrive until after his response
had already been mailed. Cayce also predicted the stock market crash (900-425)
more than six months before it occurred and foresaw the outbreak of World War II.
He knew that he would die before his two sons returned home from overseas.
Although some have called Cayce a "prophet," he himself made no such claims. In
fact, in one reading, he described himself as a "lowly, weak, unworthy channel"
(254-76). He rarely made any predictions about worldwide events, mostly because
these kinds of predictions are subject to countless outside influences. For example,
when psychics try to predict the future, all they can actually do is foretell a possible
future based on current happenings. If events continue to occur the same course-if
people's attitudes, lifestyles, and world conditions remain the same -then psychics
can "see" what the result will be. However, the readings make it quite clear that
each of us has the gift of free will. If enough people use their free will and change
what they are currently doing, this in turn will have dramatic effects on the future.
In the Bible, Jonah went to the evil city of Nineveh to tell the people about the
destruction that was about to come upon them. However, the people of the city
repented of their evil ways. With their free will, they changed their lives and, as a
result, their city was saved. The ability of precognition, then, is subject to many
more influences than either telepathy or clairvoyance.
The fourth major category of ESP shown in the Cayce readings is retrocognition, the
ability to see past events. For example, in the life readings (those readings which
dealt with the soul) Cayce would often repeat aloud significant happenings in a
person's life while going back over the years until the date of the person's birth. In
one reading, he said, "1935-'32-disturbing periods-'31-'36-'26-not any too peaceful!"
etc. (1650-1). In another life reading (1462-1), Cayce was given the incorrect date
and location of birth for a young girl. In going back over the years he responded
with, "We don't find it here". (He had been incorrectly told that the child was born on
January 24, 1919 in Cleveland, Ohio). Then, after a short pause, he finally said,
"Yes, we have the record here (looks like it's the wrong place and date)." It was later
discovered that the girl had been born on January 23 (a day earlier) in New York City
and not in Cleveland.
More than eleven years before the Dead Sea Scrolls were found in 1947, Cayce's
readings described a sect of Judaism about which scholars knew little. This group
was the Essenes. Cayce gave a great deal of information about their work and their
life in the community. For example, he claimed that in the Essene society men and
women worked and lived together. At the time of the reading, scholars believed that
the Essenes were a monastic society composed exclusively of men. However, in
1951, more than six years after Cayce's death, archaeologists made further
excavations at Qumran near the site where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found. They
discovered evidence that both men and women lived together in the Essene society.
These are just a few of the many examples of ESP in the Cayce readings. Because
"psychic is of the soul," the Cayce information suggests that it is relatively easy to
induce personal psychic experiences. However, the phenomenon that manifests itself

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through psychic channels can oftentimes get us off the track. The readings suggest
that instead of seeking psychic experiences for the sake of having them, we should
seek only those within the context of spiritual growth, of learning about ourselves, or
of being of service to others.
People often have the tendency to make psychic experiences seem unusual, out of
the ordinary, special, somehow set apart, or perhaps even frightening. However in
the Cayce approach, psychic information is as natural as an "intuition" or a "hunch."
In addition, just because something is "psychic" does not mean it's 100 percent
accurate. We may wish to work with psychic information to the same degree that we
would listen to the advice of a trusted friend: it can be utilized as an additional tool
for gathering insights and for making decisions - it shouldn't necessarily be given any
more credence than information from any of our other friends (or senses); however,
it shouldn't be given any less either. In time, individuals may work with their own
intuition in such a way that it becomes as natural as using any of their other senses:
taste, smell, touch, hearing, or sight.
Recommended Reading:

Your Mind: Unlocking Your Hidden Power by Henry Reed


Edgar Cayce on ESP by Doris Agee
Understand and Develop Your ESP by Mark Thurston, Ph.D.
Venture Inward by H.L. Cayce
Edgar Cayce's ESP by Kevin J. Todeschi

See also: A.R.E. Press books about Intuition - Psychic Development


With an A.R.E. Membership you receive:

Venture
Inward,
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Bi-Monthly
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(Personal Spirituality, Ancient Mysteries or True Health)
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and, as a Special Bonus, you'll receive your Numerology Chart -- FREE!
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home and at A.R.E. Headquarters in Virginia Beach, Virginia.

When you join A.R.E. you become a part of an international network of people
dedicated to researching and applying the life-changing principles found in the Edgar
Cayce readings

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Dispute. ARE's December UFO Conference Speakers & Information. ... seeker.
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www.edgarcayce.org/conferences/main.htm - 68k - 2005-11-11 - Cached

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The Edgar Cayce readings emphasize the spiritual nature of humankind. However,
because of the demands of life we frequently overlook the truest part of ourselves,
which is our connection to spirit. Although we possess physical bodies and mental
attitudes, ultimately our deepest connection is to our spiritual source.
One of the most frequently mentioned concepts in the Edgar Cayce material is that
Spirit is the Life, Mind is the Builder, and the Physical is the Result. In other words,
spirit is the source of all life. The mind focuses that energy into creative (positive) or
destructive (negative) avenues of expression. The impact of our choices will
eventually find expression in the physical, affecting ourselves and our relationships
with one another.
Because of the importance of working with spiritual principles in everyday life, in
1931 the Edgar Cayce readings began outlining a series of lessons on spiritual
growth that are still being studied by individuals aro und the world from all walks of
life and religious backgrounds. Today, the A.R.E. Spiritual Growth Activities/Search
for God department stays in contact with hundreds of groups working with these
lessons on personal spiritual growth.
In order to become more attuned to our spiritual source, for decades the Cayce
readings emphasized the importance of meditation . Cayce believed that meditation
was listening to God, while prayer was talking. The same year that the original
Search for God program was started, Edgar Cayce began the Glad Helpers Healing
Prayer Group, which is still active. Today, A.R.E. maintains an active Prayer Services
department, offering individuals the opportunity to pray or to be prayed for. If you
would like more information see Edgar Cayce on Prayer / Request for Prayer.

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Ancient Mysteries | A.R.E.'s Ancient Mysteries Web-Site


Association for Research and Enlightenment, Inc.
While in the trance state, Edgar Cayces ability to peer into the past with uncanny
psychic accuracy was demonstrated repeatedly. This type of information is called
retrocognition and the Cayce readings attest to the variety of material available in
this manner: previous happenings in an individuals life, including accidents or
forgotten traumas; as well as ancient history, including the geological evolution of
the planet and details of tribes and civilizations that predate recorded history.
For example, more than eleven years before the Dead Sea Scrolls were found in
1947, Edgar Cayce provided a great deal of information on a Jewish sect called the
Essenes. Cayce claimed that in the Essene society men and women lived and worked
together. Scholars, however, believed that the Essenes were a monastic society
composed exclusively of men. It was not until archaeological excavations occurred
after Cayces death that his psychic information was verified.
Through the use of retrocognition, the Cayce readings provide a wealth of insights
into the ancient world. More than simply discussing hidden archeological sights and
uncovered records of forgotten civilizations, Edgar Cayce claimed that the history of
humankind went back some ten million years! Although much of this material may
be impossible to verify, sometimes contemporary research has uncovered evidence
to confirm information given in Cayces trance state. As one example, a number of
readings discussed the fact that the Nile had changed its course over eons and had
once emptied into the Atlantic Ocean:

Reading
#364-13:
Edgar Cayce: ...The Nile entered into the Atlantic Ocean. What is now the Sahara
was an inhabited land and very fertile. What is now the central portion of this
country, or the Mississippi basin, was then all in the ocean; only the plateau was
existent, or the regions that are now portions of Nevada, Utah and Arizona formed
the
greater
part
of
what
we
know
as
the
United
States...

Reading
#276-2:
Edgar Cayce: ...In the one before this we find again in this same land now called
Egypt (this before the mountains rose in the south, and when the waters called the
Nile
then
emptied
into
what
is
NOW
the
Atlantic
Ocean)...

Reading
#5748-6:
Edgar Cayce: ...In those periods when the first change had come in the position of
the land, when the Nile (or Nole, then) emptied into what is now the Atlantic Ocean,
on the Congo end of the country. What is now as the Sahara was a fertile land...

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As if to confirm some of the above, an article published in Science (August 1986),


reported that the Shuttle Imaging Radar from the Space Shuttle had discovered
previously unknown river valleys beneath the driest part of the Sahara. Through
satellite imaging and on-site arch aeological investigations, it appeared as though
the present day Nile had changed its course, once flowing across the Sahara,
through Africa, and into the Atlantic Ocean! Only time will tell how many more of the
readings historical claims regarding such places as Atlantis, ancient Egypt, and
ancient Persia, will eventually be verified.
The A.R.E./Edgar Cayce Foundation's recent satellite project was the first
comprehensive analysis of all subsurface features around Bimini. The project covered
630 square miles and imaging was done via the IKONOS satellite. Via special
processing, imaging was able to look at the seabed contours at a depth of
approximately 75 feet. The precise location of all features that were identified is
easily determined via special program.
Decoding the Past - The Other Nostradamus: Edgar Cayce
As featured on the History Channel
From the Ancient Mysteries Newsletter Site
Archaeology & Other Recent NEWS
Venture Inward Book Reviews
Mysteries of Atlantis Revisited
by Edgar Evans Cayce, Gail Cayce Schwartzer, Douglas Richards
A.R.E.'s Atlantis Search Gains Momentum
Search For Atlantis

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Telepathic Communication Between Two People

http://www.mindreality.com/telepathic-communication-between-two-people
Posted by Enoch Tan - Share this article with friends!
How do two people become so connected that they are able to communicate
without being in contact physically, speak to each other through telepathy
and even feel the same pains?
The ability to send to and receive from each other thoughts and feelings
comes from a spiritual connection between the two of you. When two people
are spiritually close to each other, they areoften able to sense what the other
is feeling or thinking. Telepathic communication consists of two directions,
sending and receiving.
It depends on intention. Whether you have the intent to sense what the
other person is thinking andfeeling, or for the other person to pick up certain
thoughts and feelings you are sending. It will be harder for others to sense
your thoughts if you want to hide yourself from them. You psychically
put up a shield to prevent them from seeing your intentions. The same is
also true when others do that.
It takes someone of a stronger mind and greater clarity of thinking to
penetrate the psychic shields of others to see what they are thinking.
When two people are spiritually close, they trust each other and they have
mutual empathy.
Empathy is one of the key ingredients of telepathy.
Telepathy which is of the psychic level of the mind tends to operate beyond
pure words and linguistics. It takes place in the form of feelings, images and
desires. You may be able to receive telepathic communication from another
person in the form of pure words. But usually it comes through a feeling,
image or desire.

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Published by The Advanced Media Group

Depending on whether the telepathic message is verbal or nonverbal as well


as your dominant mental modality, you might receive the message by
instantly knowing it (Paracognition), hearing it from an inner voice in your
mind (clairaudience), visualize it (clairvoyance) or feeling it (clairsentience).
In non-local telepathy which is psychic communication out of sight, you
might sense an emotion that another person is feeling at that time, or you
might think of an image that is related to what that person is experiencing,
or you could sense what that person is intending to do. All these happens
without you being able to read the body language of the person.
That psychic message that you get doesnt seem to be just a thought that
you conjure up in your mind out of pure imagination but it comes with the
feeling of clarity and inner certainty which is exactly what intuition is made
up of.
All things at the psychic level operates through the power of belief. In order
to send or receive telepathy, you first need to have the belief that you can
send and receive telepathy, and that it is going to happen. The methods of
telepathy are induction, visualization and will. emotions, images and desires
that you receive that prevents you from seeing what really is.
Being authentic is one of the keys to sending and receiving clear telepathic
messages. The virtue of honesty and truth is a spiritual law of reality. When
you have a good telepathic connection with someone, you can read each
others thoughts easily. So sometimes you do not want the other to know
something, such as the correct answer to a question. You can use techniques
of counter-telepathy.
You can put up a psychic shield by visualizing it and willing that the person
cant read your mind. Or if you want to, you could mislead the person by
focusing on an opposite thought or the wrong answer instead. He/she would

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Published by The Advanced Media Group

usually pick up the misleading thought and be mislead. This misleading


thought effect also explains why it is so important to watch our thoughts.
Sometimes we think certain negative thoughts towards a person when we
are momentarily angry or upset. The person may pick these thoughts up and
think that is what we really think about him/her when it isnt our true
thoughts.
It is alright to think those thoughts for awhile but we must not forget to
revert to sending our truer positive thoughts of peace, harmony and well
being in between or afterwards, and to send them with equal or greater
intensity. Especially to someone we truly love.
Finally, it is also about love. When you really love someone, Universal Mind
or God will tell you things about that person, because God is love and love
connects you to that person spiritually.
That person can also sense certain emotions, images and desires from you
through the universal mind. Telepathic connection works best when we dont
try to force it. When we know it works, it works.
But when we think it might work, it doesnt work. It is driven more by our
subconscious beliefs than by conscious effort. The more we try to force it, the
worse we do.
The things you tend to send telepathically are the things that you focus on
most often. If you focus more often on positive things, you will send positive
emotions, images and desires. If you focus more often on negative things,
you will send negative emotions, images and desires.
First induce the emotion, image or desire that you are sending within
yourself first. Allow yourself to be experiencing it at that moment. Secondly,
visualize your emotion, image or desire traveling to that person and he/she

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picking it up and experiencing it too. Thirdly, will it to happen and be certain


that it has happened the way you intend it to be. Take note that telepathy
never fails. The outcome always follows the laws that influence it which
are the beliefs and attitudes of both parties and the spiritual connection
between them. What we call failure is merely feedback about what we are
doing.
When a message does not seem to get through or it seems distorted, it is
simply because of opposing intentions, beliefs, lack of mutual trust. It could
even be your own interpretation of the Secrets of Mind and Reality MindReality.com
Learn Secrets Most People will Never Know about the Mind and Reality!

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True Reality is Spirit and True Identity is Light
Relationship between Masculine and Feminine

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Telepathic Communication Between Two People

http://www.mindreality.com/telepathic-communication-between-two-people
Published by The Advanced Media Group

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Telepathic Communication Between Two People


Posted by Enoch Tan - Share this article with friends!

How do two people become so connected that they are able to communicate without being in
contact physically, speak to each other through telepathy and even feel the same pains?
The ability to send to and receive from each other thoughts and feelings comes from a spiritual
connection between the two of you. When two people are spiritually close to each other, they are
often able to sense what the other is feeling or thinking.
Telepathic communication consists of two directions, sending and receiving.
It depends on intention. Whether you have the intent to sense what the other person is thinking and
feeling, or for the other person to pick up certain thoughts and feelings you are sending. It will be
harder for others to sense your thoughts if you want to hide yourself from them. You psychically
put up a shield to prevent them from seeing your intentions. The same is also true when others do
that.

Mind Blowing Secrets!


Receive Mind Reality - The Universe Is Mental
and the Secret of Everything and Spiritual
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Gifts to You! 100% Free

Mind Reality Secrets!

It takes someone of a stronger mind and greater clarity of thinking to penetrate the psychic shields
of others to see what they are thinking.
When two people are spiritually close, they trust each other and they have mutual empathy.
Empathy is one of the key ingredients of telepathy.
Telepathy which is of the psychic level of the mind tends to operate beyond pure words and
linguistics. It takes place in the form of feelings, images and desires. You may be able to receive
telepathic communication from another person in the form of pure words. But usually it comes
through a feeling, image or desire.
Depending on whether the telepathic message is verbal or nonverbal as well as your dominant
mental modality, you might receive the message by instantly knowing it (Paracognition), hearing
it from an inner voice in your mind (clairaudience), visualize it (clairvoyance) or feeling it
(clairsentience).
In non-local telepathy which is psychic communication out of sight, you might sense an emotion
that another person is feeling at that time, or you might think of an image that is related to what that
person is experiencing, or you could sense what that person is intending to do. All these happens
without you being able to read the body language of the person.

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That psychic message that you get doesnt seem to be just a thought that you conjure up in your
mind out of pure imagination but it comes with the feeling of clarity and inner certainty which is
exactly what intuition is made up of.
All things at the psychic level operates through the power of belief. In order to send or receive
telepathy, you first need to have the belief that you can send and receive telepathy, and that it is
going to happen.
The methods of telepathy are induction, visualization and will.
First induce the emotion, image or desire that you are sending within yourself first. Allow yourself to
be experiencing it at that moment.
Secondly, visualize your emotion, image or desire traveling to that person and he/she picking it up
and experiencing it too.
Thirdly, will it to happen and be certain that it has happened the way you intend it to be.
Take note that telepathy never fails. The outcome always follows the laws that influence it which
are the beliefs and attitudes of both parties and the spiritual connection between them. What we call
failure is merely feedback about what we are doing.
When a message does not seem to get through or it seems distorted, it is simply because of
opposing intentions, beliefs, lack of mutual trust. It could even be your own interpretation of the

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1 of 2
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Page 152 of 192

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6/6/2007 7:00 PM
Published On 11/13/2007

DARPA - ESP - MENTAL TELEPATHY & THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT'S PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES copyright 2007

Telepathic Communication Between Two People

http://www.mindreality.com/telepathic-communication-between-two-people
Published by The Advanced Media Group

emotions, images and desires that you receive that prevents you from seeing what really is.
Being authentic is one of the keys to sending and receiving clear telepathic messages. The virtue of
honesty and truth is a spiritual law of reality.
When you have a good telepathic connection with someone, you can read each others thoughts
easily. So sometimes you do not want the other to know something, such as the correct answer to a
question. You can use techniques of counter-telepathy.
You can put up a psychic shield by visualizing it and willing that the person cant read your mind. Or
if you want to, you could mislead the person by focusing on an opposite thought or the wrong
answer instead. He/she would usually pick up the misleading thought and be mislead.
This misleading thought effect also explains why it is so important to watch our thoughts.
Sometimes we think certain negative thoughts towards a person when we are momentarily angry or
upset. The person may pick these thoughts up and think that is what we really think about him/her
when it isnt our true thoughts.
It is alright to think those thoughts for awhile but we must not forget to revert to sending our truer
positive thoughts of peace, harmony and well being in between or afterwards, and to send them with
equal or greater intensity. Especially to someone we truly love.
Finally, it is also about love. When you really love someone, Universal Mind or God will tell you
things about that person, because God is love and love connects you to that person spiritually.
That person can also sense certain emotions, images and desires from you through the universal
mind.

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Telepathic connection works best when we dont try to force it. When we know it works, it works.
But when we think it might work, it doesnt work. It is driven more by our subconscious beliefs than
by conscious effort. The more we try to force it, the worse we do.

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The things you tend to send telepathically are the things that you focus on most often. If you
focus more often on positive things, you will send positive emotions, images and desires. If you
focus more often on negative things, you will send negative emotions, images and desires.

Link to Mind Reality and tell others about this


website so that they can share in the inspiration
you received!

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IQ measures only three out of seven types of Intelligence
True Reality is Spirit and True Identity is Light
Relationship between Masculine and Feminine
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HAD LANCASTER COUNTY (Pennsylvania) LOST ITS


SOVEREIGNTY BEFORE IT LOST ITS SOUL?1
Authored in May of 1998

Each time a man stands up for an ideal, or acts to


improve the lot of others, or strikes out against
injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope. And
crossing each other from a million different centers
of energy and daring, those ripples build a current
which can sweep down the mightiest walls of
oppression.. by Robert F. Kennedy

In 1987 This Plaintiff Had Unjustly Lost His Freedoms, His Rights, And His
Pursuit Of Life, Liberty And Justice.

The following report (most identities purposely omitted from this


version) is an amazingly true and factual account of an extraordinarily bizarre
tragedy that has turned one mans life into an eleven (11)2 year free fall into
Dantes Hell.
On the surface, this is a story of a victim struggling to seek the truth, but in
reality, the evidence will conclude that this is a victim, literally, held hostage by
virtue of his truth. Later, the preponderance of evidence that the victim has
In April of 1997, Federal Court Judge Stuart Dalzall said Lancaster County had
lost its soul in the worst case of prosecutorial misconduct ever found in the
English speaking language regarding the Lisa Michelle Lambert hebeas corpus
hearing in the notorious Laurie Show murder case.
1

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amassed and his obsession for meticulously documenting his ordeal might seem
eccentric, yet his demonstrated ability to react to events before they unfold
appears mystical. And this was his manner in which he tactfully defended and
protected his life. It is these actions that have painted the landscape with a dire
vengeance for his ruin. His actions will ultimately serve to protect, preserve, and
foster the truth of his story, incriminating the culpability of his many perpetrators,
while at the same time being twisted and tainted in a relentless manner to attack
his credibility.
This is a story of a human being endearing for his rights, living in fear of
his life, and the remedial actions required for the truth to set him free. A victim
forever believing in his accomplishments and his visions, yet forced to adhere to
a life of their diversions. Fatefully, ten years after being taken as a political
hostage, with the aid of numerous arrests and false imprisonments conveniently
falling short convictions , a Federal Judge, Judge Stuart Dalzall, of the Eastern
District Court of Pennsylvania, opened a Pandoras Box into the true colors of
the inner workings and politics of ultra conservative Lancaster County,
Pennsylvania. A supposedly Gods country. His findings reeled a dramatic and
emotional response from the Lancaster County community that was akin to the
assassination of JFK . A community where obstructions of justice strikes a
startling and stark contrast to the image it so desperately embraces. A
community proud of its tough on crime judges, a community of plain folks and
Amish, and a community settled in a beautiful landscape abundant in an
agricultural bounty. This is not a community of compromising integrity. Or so it
has been perceived.
Judge Dalzalls extremely controversial findings were responsible for
Pennsylvanias own crafting of the Laurie Bill, the retaliation by the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania intended to curb the Federal Courts interference
within the respective states own jurisdictions and proceedings. Or was it a
political maneuver to close the lid on Pandoras Box? The Pennsylvania
Attorney General and the Lancaster County District Attorney have both thrown all

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Published by The Advanced Media Group

their might and all their muscle at turning the tides of Judge Dalzalls findings.
This story and this victims rights have been violated and abused by some of the
very same principals that were responsible for Judge Dalzalls unsettling
revelations. Lancaster County prosecutors were found to have engaged in one of
the grossest acts of prosecutorial misconduct found in the English speaking
language, which allegedly occurred in this now famous Lisa Michelle Lambert
case, a murder trial which began in the summer of 1992. Subsequently, it is now
in the midst of a treacherous appeal process convened by Judge Dalzall. And if
so by fate, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the home of the Freedom Fighters.

It is this public disclosure, that casts a new light and sudden hope for
freedom into this victims unbelievable and horrid story, that begun just four
years prior to the murder of Laurie Show. It is the decisive similarities of how both
victims were subjected to a very calculated and politically motivated attempts to
frame and fabricate circumstances to obtain the results that justified the
means for illicit self-serving interests. This very same conduct, committed by
public servants, elected and enlisted to enforce the law, to which Judge Dalzell
found so appalling. Conduct, which violated the very same rights their respective
offices are commissioned to protect. Conduct which strikes the meaning of We
The People from our nations very own Constitution.
Fortunately, this victims story is laced with a thread of faith, a faith in
God. And because of his faith, this victim will forever regard Lisa Michelle
Lambert3 and Laurie Show as his little Angels of Justice, a Godsend. An
answer to his many prayers, that for the first time in ten years provided a small
glimmer of hope, and a few moments of solitude that have materially justified his
own tragic experience. The realization that the truth is that much more believable
because of the trials and tribulations of Lisa Michelle Lambert. Unfortunately, this
3 The author admitted in an affidavit in 1998 that he did not know the criminal
culpability of Lisa Michelle Lambert, and further argues that it was because of the
prosecutorial misconduct and the erroneous handling of the crime scene that the
truth evaded both the prosecution and the defense as to who actually killed
Laurie Show.

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revelation came at the unfortunate and untimely death of Laurie. However, it just
may be Gods intentions of a Higher Purpose.
This story was perpetuated through a gross miscarriage of justice: a
tenure of malicious wrongdoing by both the law enforcement community of
Lancaster County and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, as well as
community leaders. A process that continues obstruct this victims rights for
justice. Its mannerisms reach into the inner soul of political and judicial
corruption. All in the name of greed, and all in the honor of continuing the status
quo of the Good Ole Boys club of Lancaster County. A process obsessed with
keeping its disclosure from escaping beyond the confines of Pandoras Box. Its
a tenure of power that evolved from the days of this countrys earliest settlers, but
an evolution that has somewhere strayed away from the intent of our constitution;
with total disregard for the law, in total disrespect for the Constitution, and void of
many of our civil liberties. This atrocity, like the Lambert case, would have made
our founding forefathers revel in disgust and bellow in despair. In fact, their spirits
and energies probably are!
AT ISSUE
The central issue in this story, is a cover up, a cover up of mass
proportions, and of perplexing design, with national consequences. The fact of
the matter is that this cover up has had ramifications throughout this world,
specifically the Middle East The cover up would be emphatically unbelievable
without the wealth of evidence, especially the recorded conversations with
Pennsylvania officials. A cover up that permeates from what will later emerge as
the 4th largest financial fraud (Billion Dollars) in the history of the United States
coupled with the covert sales of arms to Iraq. And five years after this cover up
began, these same munitions were used against our own troops in the Persian
Gulf War. And of course, there are admitted ties to the Central Intelligence
Agency (CIA) and the National Security Agency (NSA).. And this cover up and
story, which began in June of 1987, in Lancaster County, preceded criminal
indictments by the United States Attorney General, the Federal Bureau of

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Investigation (FBI), the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), the Department of


Justice and Commerce, and more. A vast array of criminal activities conspired
from the ultra conservative Lancaster County, where God is supposedly
supreme, and its hard line approach to crime is said to be preeminent. In June of
1987, Lancaster County was immersed in a dynamic twist of fate, with a host of
players which may never be fully identified.
The irony of this story is how Lancaster County manages the disclosure of
the very same criminal activities that this story proves that it condoned, prior to
the intervention of federal authorities. It most dramatically will prove the nature of
its integrity, or lack thereof. International Signal & Control, (ISC) is the
controversial player in this web of conspiracy. In 1987, the third largest employer
in Lancaster County, a non-discrete defense contractor. In all due respect to our
beloved country, this report is in no way challenging the policies or the activities
of the Department of Defense, or the vast agencies of the Intelligence
Community, especially the CIA or the NSA (National Security Advisory). with
regards to ISCs foreign dealings. Trying to protect the world of malicious and evil
empires is a process which never ends, and whos players are constantly
changing. And our respective intelligence agencies are continually challenged
with the task of trying to make a difference, in accordance with protecting our
national security. Unfortunately, given the nature of their discrete activities, and
given the CIAs history of avoiding congressional approval in certain situations,
our current laws are void of effectively dealing with the peripheral catastrophes of
such activities that inherently transpire. The CIA remains immune, while
everyone outside suffers the consequences.
The fact that the CIA, or anyone of the other intelligence community, may
have been involved, does not grant a blanket of immunity over activities which
were not material to protecting our national security. If a company provides a
service to anyone in the intelligence community, our constitution, our laws, and
its respective commercial regulatory authorities, must still have the full sense of
their jurisdiction. The intelligence community may not have the right of

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intervention into the commercial enterprise, or organization, circumventing the


rights of its employees, shareholders, creditors, and customers. No United States
law or statute suggests that there is any involuntary mandate that requires any of
the preceding to compromise their interests in the respective enterprise for the
sake of national security, or the respective intelligence agency. There must be
considerations paid to all involved for those rights and interests that compromise
such a relationship. Otherwise, the CIA could effectively gain control of any
domestic corporation it so desires, without ever owning one share of its
outstanding stock, simply by enlisting its product or services for the sake of
national security. The CIA requires a formal vehicle to enlist the aid of our
domestic commercial enterprises. ISC is a proven and unfortunate example of
that.
This victim was a shareholder of record of International Signal & Control
(ISC) for the previous four years prior to when this tragic ordeal began. The
victim was to purchase the stock from now Republican Pennsylvania Senator
Gib Armstrong, who was in the brokerage business at the time and selling ISC
stock. The stock was sold over the London Securities Exchange, supposedly for
reasons to suppress information. The victim was interested in the stock because
of his appetite for technology, and was more curious about the business of ISC,
than anything. In fact, the victim had never made any inference to any of the
illicit dealings with Iraq. However, the perpetrators of this story, attempt to hide
behind a vale of national security," in an effort to find legal immunity from all
wrongdoing. In accordance, the record will prove that this is merely a smoke
screen used to intimidate and obstruct the victims access for due process of the
law.
The trials and tribulations of this victim are unprecedented in terms
of emotional and psychological duress, fortunately his indestructible faith in God,
and his enduring belief in himself and the truth, endures his life. There was one
attempt on the his life, days within the public disclosure of the CIAs involvement
with the local Lancaster County defense contractor (ISC), which Ted Kopel

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reported on ABC News Nightline, on May 23, 1991, 4 years after the initial cover
up began. This story will depict a series of systematic and strategic offensive
attacks upon this victim and his businesses that will result failed business
enterprises, and a Hollywood motion picture, deserted. An impeccable
professional reputation and a flawless credit rating purposely sabotaged.
Financial opportunities, that in 1987, were almost impossible to extrapolate, Vast
financial opportunities and aspirations forever a part of history. This horrendous
crime was perpetrated for the interest of a cover up, further protecting the corrupt
enterprises of Lancaster County's International Signal & Control (ISC). A quest
for justice that polarized every relationship the victim maintained, in Lancaster
County and beyond, including friends and family. This story demonstrates a
methodology of his perpetrators for keeping this victim quarantined from justice
and public disclosure, through a malicious means of credibility proponents, and
horrendously deceptive tactics. Financial motives prominently displayed in the
hands of all of the perpetrators, which absolves the burden for a traditional
conspiracy..
The emotional response to the truth of this story is compelling, to say
the least. Subsequently, the startling keen sense of perception that the victim
had demonstrated, is even more intriguing. It is this extraordinary quality that is
responsible for saving his life, while yet at the same time providing his
perpetrators with an alibi and a vehicle for discrediting his startling allegations
and his story. This story embellishes a dichotomy of perception that had
Hollywood producers from his film project call his work genius, while his
perpetrators from the Lancaster County Community conveniently and maliciously
labeling him as insane and emotionally disturbed."

THE LANDSCAPE
The perplexing question of the victims intelligence, or lack thereof, is
best analyzed as a question of perception. However it terms of the legal
consequences of the activities contained herein, they are of little if any relevancy.

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The fact of the matter is that the mental deficiencies have very little relevancy to
this story, other than serving as a means to discredit the victim, a vehicle to
facilitate the cover up, and a blanket of immunity for all of the perpetrators.
The heart of this victims legal dogma is best described as follows: If a
person, is perceived to have a mental deficiency; yet whose actions and
decisions are always proven to be instinctually and amazingly prudent, always
abiding within the law, and in the best interest of his affairs, what rights and
protection do the laws afford him from persons abusing that perception, in order
to yield political and financial rewards, as a direct consequence of his demise?
Furthermore, how does the law protect his rights, if any and all malicious acts
against this victim, are constantly and immediately disregarded because he is
perceived to not to be credible? As this story unfolds, these questions will
become even more troubling and appalling. Although the victim could never
describe the pain of his trauma, he would often say that the closest situation that
may compare is that of a woman being continuously raped, night after night,
helplessly praying for relief, struggling to free herself from her captor, all with no
avail. He would call it as being brain f------.
The victim, coming from the lower middle class of Lancaster City, was
only 29 years old when this tragedy began. Coming from a broken home, he was
the third of six boys. While at a very young age, he would help his mother run a
dry cleaning business, in an amazing similarity like Lisa Michelle Lambert, he had
also nursed his mother during bouts of depression. While in high school, he was
nursing his mothers depression, while at same time tending to his older brothers
bouts of schizophrenia. The victim had learned to listen to the obscenities of
mental illness since he was a child. He learned to fill the shoes of his absent
father in helping his mother raise his three younger brothers.. The victim was
often called the little old man because of his extraordinary maturity as a child.
The victim was determined to break the barrier of the Good Ole Boys club or
the power elite, and had always felt a sense of compassion for those less
fortunate, and those neglected by those of material means, the oppressed and

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impoverished. He had an undivided aspiration to someday make a difference to


those that could not help themselves, especially his older brother. Through his
ingenious, resourceful, and honest business approach, he was relentlessly
growing his business and their respective missions, in constant reminder of his
oppression. His in depth understanding of computer technology and his vision
were his most powerful allies. Always pushing the envelope for advanced
technologies and seeking solutions for the most efficient means of his
operations.. He knew that every break was going to be few and far between, he
dedication himself to his work, and married his business affairs, always
embracing his projects with a passion.
In 1986, after serving on the Board of Directors for the Central
Pennsylvania Chapter of International Association of Financial Planners (IAFP),
the victim had made a large contribution to increasing its membership and its
awareness among local professionals, as its vice president. In an effort to
promote the organization, the victim solicited a nationally recognized and
prominent financial planner from Washington, D.C., to be a headline speaker at a
dinner meeting. Ms. Alexandra Armstrong, one of the most nationally recognized
financial planners, often headlined in Money Magazine, attracted 100 industry
professionals to the Treadway Resort Inn. The attendance was unprecedented
for the local IAFP chapter. The IAFP is the authoring organization for certification
as a financial planner. It was through the direct conversations with Ms. Armstrong
regarding his ideas and her experience, that inspired the victim to pursue his
ambitions of growing his own financial firm, which he began in the following
months.
Disgruntled with the conflicts of interest and the lack of incentive for
various professionals to work together in managing ones wealth, a process
which lacked efficiency, this entrepreneur founded the firm Financial
Management Group, Ltd., or FMG as it was often called. The firm was to
incorporate a one-stop-shopping strategy and incorporate financial services,
legal, accounting, tax preparation, real estate, insurance, mortgage banking, and

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estate services all in one firm, all residing in one location, all taking advantage of
the synergistic approach toward managing wealth. And to provide the
professionals long term security and equity participation, all participants were
encouraged to purchase stock in the company. This was a new and innovative
approach that attracted a lot of attention from investors and clients, but also
came a lot of nervous twitches from competitors, especially in conservative
Lancaster County.
The victim began recruiting professionals from all of the other firms, with
great success. He had enlisted two partners whom he had worked with at
IDS/American Express, to carry out his mission, which he began after extensive
market studies and his early version of the company, Pro Financial Group, Ltd.,
His two partners had followed the victim to an independent broker dealer in
Atlanta, named Financial Services Corporation, where Ms. Alexandra Armstrong
was associated, and encouraged the victim to visit, during their discussion after
dinner. Within one year, by June of 1987, the firm had invested over $40 million
for respective clients.
The company had developed satellite offices throughout Pennsylvania and
in several other states, through his unique design. This firm was causing the
other financial services companies and the local banks in Lancaster County a run
for their money. The firm had built a new 20,000 square foot office building just a
few miles north of the city. The firm was attracting clients, associates, and
nervous attention from, well just about everybody. Considering the capabilities,
legal, real estate, insurance, financial services, accounting, FMG was making as
many enemies as it was making friends. And the victim always believed in the
premise that its always better to have people talking about you, regardless of the
matter, than to have no one notice you. And they were talking. The victim was
only in his late twenties when he started this organization,. He held several
positions, he was Executive Vice President and Secretary of Financial
Management Group Ltd, and President of FMG, Advisory, Inc., which was one of
the many subsidiaries parent company owned. The victim acted as the architect

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and legal administrator of the organization, in addition to building his own


financial planning clients. He filed all of the articles of incorporation in the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and submitted all of the tedious and rigorous
filings necessary for the Pennsylvania Securities Commission, which were very
demanding considering the victim was selling stock of his company to his
associates and investors. The victim and his associates had also attracted some
very prominent Lancastrianss to invest in his venture, coming from various
professional circles, all infatuated with this extraordinary and intriguing concept of
this young victim. All had seen its potential for success and financial reward.
Many of his friends were involved, and in Lancaster, everyone knows
everybody, so it seams.. And everyone talks, gossip is as common as jogging.
This exaggerated trait of Lancaster County, will later to come back to haunt this
victim, in a way that is most sickening. In a way that will parallel the attitudes
and sentiments in the Lisa Michelle Lambert story.
In 1987, his business affairs were reaching a point of incredible success.
In fact, most of his family and friends, have always questioned the merits of their
legitimacy. He always conducted his affairs with the presumption that time could
not afford the opportunity to complete his agenda, while at the same time
disclosing his business affairs to persons that were not directly involved..
Accomplishing his mission was first and foremost. But in Lancaster County, that
was difficult. Lancastrianss have a notion to fear what they dont know, and will
always believe what they think they know, regardless of its merits. In Lancaster
County new ideas are shunned unless coming from their own, and their own
ideas are often kept close at bay, inhibiting progress and stymieing learning. By
June of 1987, a majority of his business affairs were conducted out of the grasp
of Lancaster County, his unknown activities made others curious, especially in
Lancaster County, where the blessing of the power elite was essential for
success. But, deep down inside, he knew he could never be accepted, because
he did not descend from a family of social grace. This fueled his aspirations for

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success even further, committed to prove that intelligence was innate and
learned, not a direct correlation to material wealth or social grace.
One of his most cherished testimonials to his concept, his reputation, and
his mission, was provided by an elder attorney, Mr. Kenellm Shirk, a very
respected and prominent older Lancaster attorney, who was part of the status
quo. Mr. Shirk had petitioned the Pennsylvania Bar Association, after meeting
with the victim, to obtain their blessing and their knowledge of any laws which
would forbid his firm to provide a satellite office in the headquarters of Financial
Management Group, Ltd., (FMG) Mr. Shirks firm was to provide a partner, and
estate services to the clients of FMG. The Pennsylvania Bar provided a lengthy
recommendation that did not prohibit a relationship, although cautioned it to
proceed with careful review. The fact that the very young and unknown victim
could attract an elder, conservative Lancaster County attorney to associate with
his firm was an encouraging sign of respect. Ironically, Mr. Shirk is the father of
Roy Shirk Jr., Lisa Michelle Lamberts first attorney who represented her during
trial of 1992, the proceeding which was the center of Judge Dalzalls
controversial and appalling findings.

The victim prided himself on his

entrepreneurship , and after building the foundation for FMG, he set out to take
advantage of its resources and its synergism.
By June of 1987, the victim had developed a fairly substantial mortgage
banking relationship with a Houston, Texas banker. That operation was capable
of providing lending to potential developers and businesses in the range of $ 3
million to $100 million. And the lending packages were as competitive if not
more competitive than the local lending institutions of Lancaster County, capable
with even higher lending limits. In a matter of months of securing this
relationship, the victim and his partner were evaluating deals from Pennsylvania,
New Jersey, New York, Florida, and as far away as California.
There was a uniqueness to his capabilities that was very appealing to
potential borrowers. Because of the vast array of services of FMG, potential

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developers had the opportunity to obtain both debt and equity financing through
his companies. In plain terms, most shopping centers raised capital by raising
funds through investors coupled with a mortgage. This gave potential developers
one place to take down the deal rather than dealing with many other
professionals at the same time. It was a much more efficient process for all. The
victim was capable of providing a mortgage, while at the same time selling
shares in a shopping center through its vast client base of investors at FMG.
This also gave the victim a formidable presence into the venture capital markets,
by way of his strong ability to raise capital through his vast portfolio of clients of
FMG. And this was a rarity that developers and investors loved. Investors were
attracted because they could invest in equity type real estate projects with real
sense of knowing the developer, or kicking the bricks of the project. This was
far different than investing in a nationally syndicated project, with properties
scattered all over the country, and with developers that they did not know. The
synergistic approach to his organization began paying dividends by developing
other peripheral markets and businesses.
Given the complex nature of the victims design of FMG, internal
struggles within the organization readily became the challenge. Orchestrating the
relationships among all of the different professionals, and trying to adhere to the
interests of the clients, the professionals and of the firm, FMG, managing the
daily activities required immense thought and prudence on the part of the
principals. Of, course, the victim assumed honesty and integrity to be a given.
And for most it was. However there were times when the senior partner engaged
in tactical rights of power.
In the later part of 1986, after the victim had developed FMG to the point
where its future was on stable grounds, his two partners conveniently attempted
to circumvent his position and regain control of his stock and the firm. In fact,
after the victim refused to collaborate on a scheme to set up his other partner,
the remaining two partners began to attempt to regain the victims control.
Through intimidating techniques, the partners began to attack his presence. The

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victim became agitated, especially because he played the lead role and was
responsible for the formation of the company, methodically designing and
developing its foundation, with great success. And now after the company was
beyond its point of greatest risk, due to in large part the victims efforts, the
other two partners wanted to take advantage of his work, and take the cream of
the pie for their own financial gain. It was a difficult task to carry out because the
victim was the most respected of all three partners, consistently keeping their
respective policies in the best interest of the firm and of the other associates and
stockholders. In fact, most feared that the loss of control of the victim would
ultimately lead to adverse consequences. However the two partners trued
unsuccessfully to weaken his position, and when that didnt work, they focused
on weakening the victim, via intimidation and humiliation The coup and hostile
environment caused a state of depression for the victim, although he kept to his
daily duties and responsibilities, accordingly, he called a client and friend who
was a psychiatrist, whom he trusted and respected. It was easy access to a
professional, yet on a very informal basis. Because the victim had a family
history of mental deficiencies, he wanted to seek the proper help.
The psychiatrist had diagnosed the victim as having Bi Polar Mood
disorder. The psychiatrist had quickly discounted any correlation between the
current state of affairs, and his partners abuse. The psychiatrist rationale was
that because the startup of the company was so successful in such a short
period of time , and his demonstrated intelligence and creativity, the victim must
have been in a state of mania, and of course now, was subsiding in a state of
depression, the typical cycle for manic depressants. The victim complied with
the psychiatrist. And after refusing to sell out to his partners, vowed to regain his
business and rescind any efforts to give up his claim to his accomplishments.
The depression soon faded. The victim never disclosed the fact that he had
sought help to anyone other than family members. This coup lead to the victims
aggressive approach to grow the business, and to posture himself in projects that
would ultimately remain in his control, out of the influence of his partners.

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Particularly the mortgage banking activities and the digital movie, which he did
successfully, but apparently too successfully.
THE DIGITAL MOVIE
Through an act of fate, in February of 1987, the victim found himself in a
meeting with Tony Bongiovi at Power Station studios. Through one of his
partners, he reluctantly traveled to New York to consider financing a motion
picture. The victims own lack tolerance for the risk associated with film
investments was overshadowed by the opportunity to visit a recording studio.
Although his associate was a friend of Tonys, he was not familiar with his
accomplishments, or his work, so he thought. If nothing else, it was a weekend
away from Lancaster, and a chance to visit the Big Apple. Intriguingly, he found
more than he had ever imagined on that weekend excursion. Tony Bongiovi, a
musical genius, whos credits include one of the most recognized recording
studios in the country, Power Station Studios. Tony Bongiov produced the sound
track for Star Wars, and is responsible for the format of one of the most
successful recording artist of the 80s, Jon Bon Jovi, his cousin. Power Station
has recorded the albums for some of the most influential artists of all time,
including Diana Ross, Madonna, The Rolling Stones, Steve Winwood, Bruce
Springsteen, etc., Tony, an eccentric genius, of Italian decent, had many talents,
from music to aerospace engineering. The victims associates sister met Tony
while he flew his plane into Lancasters airport for repairs. They dated for some
time and the victims associate and Tony became friends, which led the victim
to Tonys Power Station Studios.
Tony was looking to finance his new project, which was to be the first
digital movie. And, given the victims extreme appetite for technologies,
coupled with his amazing sense of perception, he dramatically recognized the
future evolution for the technical merits of delivering digital video and digital audio
entertainment to the mass markets. By June of 1987, the victim was positioned
as the Executive Producer, collaborating with Flatbush Films of Hollywood
California, the movie producers, entrusted with the mission of finding investors to

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provide funding for the first digital movie, and to manage the ensuing business
elements it required.
The movie was to be shot on-location at the Jersey shore points, mostly
in Wildwood. Tony strategically envisioned making a movie in the horror genre.
There were several specific reasons that supported this strategy. First, he
determined that it was the least expensive format to produce, we all estimated a
budget of $4 million for the production and post production. Secondly, the horror
genre would compliment a very intense sound track. The sound track was
important to enhance the new digital format, and also provide the means to
introduce a new band that he had been grooming in his studio for the past
several years, French Lick, his predecessor to Bon Jovi. There had been bad
blood between Tony and his cousin Bon Jovi, which resulted in legal disputes
pertaining to Tonys financial interests in Jons success. It was an unfortunate
situation considering Tonys father and Jons father were brothers living in the
same area. It was a subject that Tony never wanted to discuss, except for his
contributions toward Jons career.
If by another act of fate, the victim had the privilege of meeting one of the
many superstars while working at Power Station studios. While growing up, at an
early age, the victim would sneak up into the bedroom of his oldest brother, and
start up his old General Electric stereo phonograph and listen to his favorite
album - Diana Ross and the Supremes. It was a passion and a ritual that
provided an early infatuation to music, and to Diana Ross. The victim was only
10 or 11 years old. And at this early age, he noticed and listened to the annoying
hiss, that conventional hiss that always seemed to overshadow the music,
whether played on an album, on the radio, 8-track tape, or cassette.
And in a mystical twist of fate, while engrossed in a project dedicated to
delivering music without that hiss (digital) - the victim opened the door to the
recording suite to pack his bags for the journey back to Lancaster; - and there
she sat, with a glowing array of beauty, more beautiful than any picture could

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ever tell, Ms. Diana Ross. She was pregnant and in the middle of a recording
session, for a new album. Her assistant quickly demanded, in a stern and
protective voice, that we leave, and the victim and his associate replied this is
our makeshift bedroom, we are just gathering our belongings. The victim
walked toward Diana Ross, who was seated near his bag, and she asked and
who are you?, the victim calmly replied his name and absorbed as much of her
beauty as his eyes could behold before walking out the door. The room that was
his bedroom the nigh before, and suddenly transfixed into the recording suite of
Diana Ross, thinking back some twenty years earlier, one of the many gifts that
God would bestow upon him. A living memorial and reminder to his older brother,
who died on Christmas day of 1985, his best friend who taught him two of his
greater pleasures in life, Diana Ross, and listening to music. He prayed that his
brother was watching from above.
And so, the digital movie project that the victim had embraced in 1987
had personal significance, and he never ever doubted his instincts regarding the
technical merits of the project. The victims perception that the entertainment
industry would deliver full length motion pictures in a truly digital medium will later
become a truly remarkable vision.
The technical merits of this project and at this particular time with respect
to the victims extreme sense of perception require analysis. To truly understand
this time perception, some of the attributes of digital technologies need to be fully
understood. In 1987, Compact DISC (CD) technology was only now being
introduced to the commercial markets. The victims own crafting of his joint
venture proposals, dominated by the term digital movie, is in itself some 4 or 5
years away. In 1987, there was very little use of the term digital, with the
exception of research and development engineers. The victim will, throughout the
documentation of this story, will have preceded a terminology that has literally
become the root of most technological advancements in the computer and
telecommunications industries of our present day, 10 years after the victims

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vision. Today, digital is found to be part of or referred to in just about every


product available in the commercial markets.
During May of 1987, the victim had created a joint venture proposal for
SONY Entertainment, Inc., for the digital movie. After weeks of researching the
current state-of-affairs within SONY, and after his proposal was completed,
SONY publicly announced their desire to open the markets for new and emerging
technologies on the cover of TIME magazine, another demonstrated sense of
perception. It was this proposal, when delivered to one of the Hollywood
producers in Santa Monica, California, after reading a draft of the proposal she
said you are a genius. The proposal was introduced to Tony Bongiovi at the
Wildwood Boardwalk, where many of scenes were to be shot, and he approved
of the proposal and thought that it had great merits. Tony, who wanted very to do
with the business elements of his project, gave the victim complete authority to
secure the financing of the project, with a salary as Executive Producer, and a
percentage of the profits on the back end.
After review of the victims research and proposals, his vision and his
passion, unfortunately without his efforts, has come to be known as Direct
Satellite System, or DSS, which is Sonys satellite entertainment system (TV),
delivering digital audio and digital video entertainment. That technology is fast
eroding at the cable industry. The victim had his patent research center around
the PSDMS system, the Power Station Digital Movie System. And that was in
1987, some seven years before SONY delivered his dreams. Later the victim
would also accurately predict that the 90s would become the Information Age
because of the direct contributions and advancements of digital technologies,
which is directly responsible for the development of the INTERNET.
The victims obsession with his digital movie has proven to be one of his
most remarkable demonstrations of his keen sense of perception.

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amgroup01@msn.com
www.amgglobalentertainmentgroup.com

Stan Caterbone, Pro Se Litigant


Advanced Media Group
1250 Fremont Street
Lancaster, PA 17603

July 16, 2007


Email to Philadelphia Field Office of the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI)
Federal Bureau of Investigations
Philadelphia, PA
Re:

Important Matters

Dear Sir or Madam:


First of all, I received a personal letter from Senator Arlen Specter on July 11, 2007. It
was held in the mail system or was stolen for almost a full 30 days. I have had so many
complaints regarding the same that I filed a complaint with the United States Postal Inspector
(See Attached). They had written me but I never did receive the follow-up to the investigation
as the letter promise. I am attaching a copy of the letter with the hopes that you could followup and make certain that my complaint is not being subverted.
If you are not aware, I have a Federal Whistle-Blowing and Federal False Claims Act case
that I need to file against the United States Attorney General, as required by law. This case
involves the former Department of Defense contractor International Signal & Control, Plc, (ISC)
formerly of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Unfortunately, I also have an unprecedented case of
obstruction of justice that surrounds that case, and I am evaluating the merits of waiting until
your subcommittee finds a resolution to U.S. Attorney General controversy before I file my
action in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. I am certain
that any filing before would only be subject to further misconduct. My cases now before the
United States District Courts and the various Courts of the Commonwealth have been subject to
an unprecedented array of judicial misconduct. However, I realize that you do not have the
authority or the jurisdiction to intervene, so I am told.
For approximately the past 19 months I have had the ability to communicate
telepathically. I have spent much time researching this ability through the various intelligence
agencies declassified documents. My problem is that I am connected 24/7 with a person (Sheryl
Crow) that is compromising my interests and my intellectual property at a time when I am
litigating civil and criminal proceedings.
My business interests are also greatly compromised.
I do not know how I became telepathic, or if I was trained without my knowledge and or
consent. I need to seek help in trying to disconnect. The person that is connected to me
subjects me to a brutal array of mental and psychological abuse. I firmly believe that they are
being used as a medium for this purpose. I have waited 20 years to resolve my issues in a
Court of Law, and this is not a good time for this ability to assert itself, and of course it is very
suspect considering my Federal False Claims Act allegations.
Unfortunately, I have had personal dealings with the Department of Advanced Research
Projects (DARPA) that dates back to 1990 when I had contracts with the National Institute of
Standards and Technology and DARPA. I know that they study and research paranormal
activities and technologies, including remote channeling. My Whistle-Blowing activities and my
knowledge of the fraud within ISC back in 1987, has put me in direct scrutiny of the Central

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Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the National Security Agency (NSA) due to their relationships with
ISC, and of course my very public condemnation of the fraud. I dont know if any of your
agents have any experience with this type of situation, but there are definitely National Security
issues that may need to be addressed. There are persons that can actually eaves drop on this
type of communication, and I am constantly being question on matters related to ISC, and other
foreign affairs. My knowledge of the Middle East is quite extensive, and there is always the
possibility for someone to glean information for illegitimate reasons.
In the past few weeks I have downloaded a declassified document dump from the Central
Intelligence Agency (CIA) that contained hundreds of bibliographies from the Soviet Union
dating as far back as the 1930s regarding this subject. It appears that they have more
knowledge and expertise than the United States. This brings me to a disclosure that may or
may not be concerning. Over the past several months I have had two contacts and intimate
conversation with an 80-year-old Russian immigrant regarding my problem. She seemed to be
knowledgeable of the subject matter and made several disclosures, which may or not be true.
She said that she was a Psychologist with a Doctorate degree and a former employee of the
Pennsylvania State University System. She also disclosed that her former husband was
imprisoned and tortured by the KGB.
I look forward to your response.

Sincerely,

Stan J. Caterbone
cc:
Enclosures

USPS Certified Mail


Letter of June 15, 2007
May 24, 2007 Letter from United States Postal Inspection Service
February 26, 2007 - Email to DARPA
April 12, 2007 Email Confirmation from CIA
2002 CIA Declassified Document
July 10, 2007 Email from The GAO

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Published by The Advanced Media Group


amgroup01@msn.com
www.amgglobalentertainmentgroup.com

Stan Caterbone, Pro Se Litigant


Advanced Media Group
1250 Fremont Street
Lancaster, PA 17603

July 12, 2007


Arlen Specter
United States Senate
Washington, DC 20510-3802
Re:

Letter of June 15, 2007

Dear Mr. Specter:


I appreciate your letter of June 15, 2007 and the future of the Federal Courthouse in
Lancaster County. I dont think that there is anything more important than the integrity of our
judicial system. As you are aware, I am following the Attorney General controversy and would
hope that your committee is successful in restoring the tradition of respect and integrity into
that institution. I dont see how our great country can function with respect without that
happening. I would hope that Attorney General Gonzales takes the high road and resigns in the
very near future, for the greater good.
Unfortunately, I have some personal and business issues that I consider important
enough for me to seek your help, as being one of my representatives to the United States
Senate. First of all, I received your letter yesterday, July 11, 2007. It was held in the mail
system or was stolen for almost a full 30 days. I have had so many complaints regarding the
same that I filed a complaint with the United States Postal Inspector. They had written me but I
never did receive the follow-up to the investigation as the letter promise.
I am attaching a
copy of the letter with the hopes that you could follow-up and make certain that my complaint is
not being subverted.
If you are not aware, I have a Federal Whistle-Blowing and Federal False Claims Act case
that I need to file against the United States Attorney General, as required by law. This case
involves the former Department of Defense contractor International Signal & Control, Plc, (ISC)
formerly of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Unfortunately, I also have an unprecedented case of
obstruction of justice that surrounds that case, and I am evaluating the merits of waiting until
your subcommittee finds a resolution to U.S. Attorney General controversy before I file my
action in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. I am certain
that any filing before would only be subject to further misconduct. My cases now before the
United States District Courts and the various Courts of the Commonwealth have been subject to
an unprecedented array of judicial misconduct. However, I realize that you do not have the
authority or the jurisdiction to intervene, so I am told.
There is a problem that I must bring to your attention in the hopes that you would be
able to at least refer me to the appropriate committees or agency. For approximately the past
19 months I have had the ability to communicate telepathically.
I have spent much time
researching this ability through the various intelligence agencies declassified documents. My
problem is that I am connected 24/7 with a person that is compromising my interests and my
intellectual property at a time when I am litigating civil and criminal proceedings.
My business
interests are also greatly compromised. I do not know how I became telepathic, or if I was
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July 12, 2007


Senator Arlen Specter
Page 2
trained without my knowledge and or consent. I need to seek help in trying to disconnect. The
person that is connected to me subjects me to a brutal array of mental and psychological abuse.
I firmly believe that they are being used as a medium for this purpose. I have waited 20 years
to resolve my issues in a Court of Law, and this is not a good time for this ability to assert itself,
and of course it is very suspect considering my Federal False Claims Act allegations.
Unfortunately, I have had personal dealings with the Department of Advanced Research
Projects (DARPA) that dates back to 1990 when I had contracts with the National Institute of
Standards and Technology and DARPA. I know that they study and research paranormal
activities and technologies, including remote channeling. My Whistle-Blowing activities and my
knowledge of the fraud within ISC back in 1987, has put me in direct scrutiny of the Central
Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the National Security Agency (NSA) due to their relationships with
ISC, and of course my very public condemnation of the fraud.
In the past few weeks I have downloaded a declassified document dump from the Central
Intelligence Agency (CIA) that contained hundreds of bibliographies from the Soviet Union
dating as far back as the 1930s regarding this subject. It appears that they have more
knowledge and expertise than the United States. This brings me to a disclosure that may or
may not be concerning. Over the past several months I have had two contacts and intimate
conversation with an 80-year-old Russian immigrant regarding my problem. She seemed to be
knowledgeable of the subject matter and made several disclosures, which may or not be true.
She said that she was a Psychologist with a Doctorate degree and a former employee of the
Pennsylvania State University System. She also disclosed that her former husband was
imprisoned and tortured by the KGB.
I will copy Senator Diane Feinstein of California with this letter. The fact that she serves
on the Judiciary Committee with you and the fact that she is also on the Senate Select
Intelligence Committee might help me find a solution to this problem. I would hope that you
both might be able to help me find someone that can help me disconnect from this other
telepathic person, while at the same time taking any making certain there are no National
Security issues.
In another matter, I also will enclose a copy of an email from the Government Accounting
Office (GAO) pertaining a document that I am trying to locate that was sent to me in 1987 from
the GAO. I would appreciate it if you could follow-up on this and make sure I am afforded the
FOIA for this document.
I look forward to your response.

Sincerely,

Stan J. Caterbone
cc:
Enclosures

USPS Certified Mail


Letter of June 15, 2007
May 24, 2007 Letter from United States Postal Inspection Service
February 26, 2007 - Email to DARPA
April 12, 2007 Email Confirmation from CIA
2002 CIA Declassified Document
July 10, 2007 Email from The GAO
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MAY 2 4 2007
Stan J. Caterbone
1250 Fremont Street
Lancaster, PA 17603
Dear Mr. Caterbone:
.

,. . _ The primary responsibility of the U.S. Postal Service Office of Inspector General is to
prevent, detect,and feport fraud, waste, and miscond- and to conduct krdependent
audits and investigations of Postal S e ~ i c eprograms and operations to ensure their
efficiency and integrity.

--*-*

The issues raised in your May 1 6 conespondencs


~
do not fall within the jurisdiction of
this office. These matters do appear to be within the jurisdiction of the office listed
below. Therefore, we are forwarding your complaint to them for their review and direct
response to you.

For further information, please contact:


United States Postal Inspection Service
Administrative Services Coordinator
Finance and Administrative Services1735 N. Lynn Street
Arlington, VA 22209-2020
Thank you for your interest in matters that affectthe Postal Service.

Director

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amgroup01@msn.com

Printed: Monday, February 26, 2007 11:04 AM

From :

Stan Caterbone <amgroup01@msn.com>

Sent :

Monday, February 26, 2007 11:03 AM

To :

webmaster-dso@darpa.mil

Subject :

Programs

Attachment :

WiredNews-ASpyMachineofDARPA_sDreams.pdf (0.03 MB)

I am looking for information of some of your programs regarding the Mind and Remote Channelling. See attached.
I did some work on the "TIMIT" project with the National Istitute for Standards and Technologies, NIST back in 1990, as a
contractor (Advanced Media Group). I was the CD-ROM manufacturer. I believe you were part of that project.
Within the past 14 months I have become telepathic, and I want to be assured your staff has nothing to do with that activity.
I also have a Federal False Claims Act complaint in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvnania
06-cv-3955, it will be amended in due time and refiled.
In July of 2005, I was detained by 2 DIA Agents in Austin, Texas, and questioned about another Federal complaint 05-2288.
I would like some transparency and some answers involving your involvement.
Advanced Media Group
Stan Caterbone
mailto: amgroup01@msn.com
www.amgglobalentertainmentgroup.com
Fax: (717) 427-1621
Advanced Media Group
220 Stone Hill Road
Conestoga, PA 17516

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http://www.foia.cia.gov/browse_docs.asp?

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RE: Records Request?


From: Stan Caterbone (amgroup01@msn.com)
Sent: Tue 7/10/07 12:38 PM
To: Research (research@gao.gov)
I have no telephone.
Advanced Media Group
Stan J. Caterbone
Stan Caterbone mailto: amgroup01@msn.com
www.amgglobalentertainmentgroup.com
Fax: (717) 427-1621
1250 Fremont Street
Lancaster, PA 17603

> Date: Tue, 10 Jul 2007 10:44:52 -0400


> From: Research@gao.gov
> To: amgroup01@msn.com
> Subject: Re: Fwd: Records Request
>
> Hello Mr. Caterbone,
>
> We have unsuccessfully tried to contact you by phone. Please submit a valid telephone number so that
we may discuss your request.
>
> Thank you for contacting GAO Research Services.
>
> Stephanie Compton,
> Research Analyst
>
> >>> Records Request 7/10/2007 5:53 AM >>>
>
>
> >>> Stan Caterbone <amgroup01@msn.com> 7/10/2007 4:24 AM >>>
> Dear Mr. Caterbone: After considerable research, the Office of Public Affairs has not beenable to
locate any record of correspondence with you. But our recordsgoing back to 1987 may not be complete.
If you wish to pursue this, I suggest you review the process of makinga public records request on our
website at: http://www.gao.gov/foia.html Please be as specific as possible in your request. Requests for
GAO records should be submitted in writing by fax, email,or using traditional mail options and
addressed as follows: Chief Quality OfficerU.S. Government Accountability OfficeRoom 6K17Q441 G
Street NWWashington, DC 20548 FAX: (202) 512-4844EMAIL: RecordsRequest@gao.gov Paul
AndersonManaging Director, Office of Public AffairsGAO
>
>
> >>> "Stan Caterbone" <amgroup01@msn.com> 1/25/2005 8:13:53 AM
> >>>Dear Mr. Anderson: I may have lost or destroyed a communication that I have recieved by mail

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> >>>Dear Mr. Anderson: I may have lost or destroyed a communication that I have recieved by mail
from your office to my person in September of 1987. I never didunderstand the communication or what
the contents was meant for. If my memoryserves me correctly it did contain a large indentifying, case, or
accountnumber. Could you please provide a copy thereof. I appreciate yourcooperation in advance. It
was addressed to: Stan J. Caterbone220 Stone Hill RoadConestoga, PA 17516(717) 871-9746
Respectfully, Advanced Media GroupStan J. CaterboneStan Caterbone
> mailto: amgroup01@msn.com
> www.amgglobalentertainmentgroup.com
> Fax: (717) 427-1621
>
> 1250 Fremont StreetLancaster, PA 17603
> _________________________________________________________________
> Local listings, incredible imagery, and driving directions - all in one place! Find it!
> http://maps.live.com/?wip=69&FORM=MGAC01
>

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amgroup01@msn.com

Printed: Saturday, April 21, 2007 10:43 AM

From :

Stan Caterbone <amgroup01@msn.com>

Sent :

Saturday, April 21, 2007 10:43 AM

To :

amazingone35@aol.com

Subject :

Mental Telepathy

Attachment :

DARPAemailofFeb262007.pdf (0.02 MB)

Kreskin,
My father was an admirer of yours and talked about your abilities and accomplishments.
I have a problem which maybe you can offer some help with. I am telepathic and cannot disconnect from someone. We
both have tried, without success. I became telepathic about 15 months ago. My problem is complicated because some years
ago I did work with DARPA, (nothing related to Para normal activity) and I am in the middle of a Federal False Claims Act
filing in US District Court, I am a Federal Whistleblower. I am sure you can understand my dilemma, and theirs.
I have no privacy, and my connection leaks privileged information and unfortunately, we do not know how to disconnect. We
are both helpless in that regard.
Could you provide help in this situation, or do you know of any experts that can help. I talked to someone, and because of
our emotional ties, they said that it is not out of the ordinary, with the exception of never being able to disconnect.
I hope you can help.
Sincerely,
Stan J. Caterbone
Advanced Media Group
Stan Caterbone
mailto: amgroup01@msn.com
www.amgglobalentertainmentgroup.com
Fax: (717) 427-1621
Advanced Media Group
220 Stone Hill Road
Conestoga, PA 17516

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amgroup01@msn.com

Printed: Monday, February 26, 2007 11:04 AM

From :

Stan Caterbone <amgroup01@msn.com>

Sent :

Monday, February 26, 2007 11:03 AM

To :

webmaster-dso@darpa.mil

Subject :

Programs

Attachment :

WiredNews-ASpyMachineofDARPA_sDreams.pdf (0.03 MB)

I am looking for information of some of your programs regarding the Mind and Remote Channelling. See attached.
I did some work on the "TIMIT" project with the National Istitute for Standards and Technologies, NIST back in 1990, as a
contractor (Advanced Media Group). I was the CD-ROM manufacturer. I believe you were part of that project.
Within the past 14 months I have become telepathic, and I want to be assured your staff has nothing to do with that activity.
I also have a Federal False Claims Act complaint in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvnania
06-cv-3955, it will be amended in due time and refiled.
In July of 2005, I was detained by 2 DIA Agents in Austin, Texas, and questioned about another Federal complaint 05-2288.
I would like some transparency and some answers involving your involvement.
Advanced Media Group
Stan Caterbone
mailto: amgroup01@msn.com
www.amgglobalentertainmentgroup.com
Fax: (717) 427-1621
Advanced Media Group
220 Stone Hill Road
Conestoga, PA 17516

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