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ASSESSMENT OF CONNECTIVITIES VARIATIONS EFFECTS IN 3D

RESERVOIR GEOLOGICAL MODELING IN BRAZILIAN NORTHEAST


Ana Beatriz Fanha1
Glauber I.de Melo2
Jos Srgio de A.Cavalcante Filho1
Yoe A.Reyes Perez3
1

PETROBRAS/ UN-RNCE/ATP-M/RES (ana.beatriz@petrobras.com.br;)


2
PETROBRAS/INTER-AFE/UN-NIG/ST
3
SCHLUMBERGER-Brazil

ABSTRACT
The uncertainty analysis has become a very important step in the development of projects at
the petroleum industry, aiming to give a better idea of the possibilities and probabilities of success
(profitability), especially when dealing with expensive projects. In geological modeling, this process
has a high complexity degree because of the great number of variables required and the quality of the
available data. In the present study, an uncertainty analysis of the facies and porosity models was
done, using the STOOIP (Stock tank oil originally in place) as objective function. The influence of the
geostatistical parameters variation in the reservoir connectivity was also analyzed. To generate an
adequate number of data, several models of each reservoir zone were built and the STOOIP was
calculated. The obtained STOOIP values for each zone were combined, using all possible
combinations, and summed in order to obtain a great number of total field STOOIP (106 values). The
distribution of the values was analyzed and the percentiles were generated. After the calculation of the
percentiles, the original parameters used in the geostatistical model of each zone were accessed again
in order to regenerate the complete field model. It was obtained a range of models for each percentile.
LOCATION
The field is located in the northeast of Brazil at the Ceara state, (Figure 01). Discovered in
1979, the field is at offshore Cear Basin, in water depths ranging from 35 to 45 meters.

Figure 01 Location Map


GEOLOGICAL SETTINGS
The field is part of the Munda sub-basin and the structural control for the play is a NW
trending deep-seated fault (throw around 200 m) and a NE dipping ramp with several fault blocks
(Figure 02). The field is divided in two blocks, the high block and the low one. The reservoir rock was

deposited in the Aptiane and is composed of fluvial sandstones and deltaic deposits, that belong to the
Rift/transitional stage in the Munda sub-basin part of Cear basin.

Figure 02 Structural framework of the Munda sub-basin.


3D GEOLOGICAL MODELING
Zone markers, well logs and petrophysical curves from 29 wells were used to build the model.
The structural surfaces were generated using a 50x50 meters cell grid size that allowed to represent a
siliciclastic reservoir, divided into different faults blocks with part of the top partially eroded (Figures
03, 04).

Figure 03 Structural top of geologic grid with


the faults block

Figure 04 Strucutral ramp divided in


different blocks

After create the model is define the stratigraphic unit, in this case six production zones, the
vertical facies proportion curve of Paracuru formation is show in the Figure 05.

Figure 05 Dip and Strike Sections show the


differents layers in stratigraphic model

Figure 06 Vertical facies proportion curve of


Paracuru formation

To spread the lithofacies information across the model it was used the geostatistical sequential
indicator simulation algorithm (SIS), vertical facies proportion curves and seismic atribute (amplitud).
The variographic model have a risk level because the horizontal variogram have a great distance of
each data samples related to well spacing (450 m) in constract of the vertical data samples (1 m). The
lithofacies distribution results in the zones is shown below (Figures 07).

Figure 07 3D Facies Model

TESTING THE RESERVOIR CONNECTIVITY


The productivity of the reservoir is controled by the geometry, quantity, size and degree of
connectivity of the pores. With objective to study the 3D geologic model and to test the sensitivity
range of uncertainties in the geologic parameters had been varied the facies and porosity models,
looking for the uncertainties in the representation of the heterogeneities that affect the calculation of
the STOOIP (Stock tank oil originally in place). A primary difficulty in the construction of the facies
models is know the size of the bodies. The consequent uncertainty is able to capture these dimensions
when the data is scarce and sparce. The variogram models were the way of capturing these dimensions
and incorporating them in the model but in many times this choice are guided by own of the geologic
concepts.
In this study the first uncertainties test is realized in the facies model with pelites facies, for
this, varied the range the different zones in the variogram model using the experimental variogram
(Table 1).

Table 01 Variation the pelitos size


The second uncertainties test is make in relation to the quality of fcies reservoirs and we
decided to vary the porosity model of sandstones facies( AM and AF) using the experimental
variogram (Table 2).

Table 02 Variations in the porosity model


Using workflow of uncertainty were done 100 simulations for each zone. This workflow tested
the two models simultaneously: fcies (varying the pelites size) and the porosity model (varying the
continuity of the sandstones reservoirs).
In the STOOIP combination and for calculate the respective percentile of STOOIP, two
softwares were used: ACCESS and a program create with the programming language PHYNTON.
These programs were used by the difficulty of working with many data (about two million cases). The
six zones is treatment separately and for each one of them is 100 simulations realizations (600 cases).
The obtained STOOIP values for each zone were combined, using all possible combinations, and
summed in order to obtain a great number of total STOOIP cases (1771561).

METHODOLOGY OF OOIP CONBINATION


For each zone of the reservoir respective STOOIP was calculated using the software Petrel. To
generate a quantity of reasonable data for the probabilistic study, reducing the number of simulations,
was used the concept of derivation tree. This concept guaranteed the mutual combination the values
and including, all of the possibilities of calculus of total STOOIP (Figure 08).
The main advantage of the use of this method is the generation a high number of data for the
study and substantial economy in terms of number of simulations and computacional time (only 100
simulations for each zone). Finaly is selected 50 classses inside of this interval and the histogram was
generated (Figure 9).

Figure 08 Derivation tree.

Figure 09
probabilities

Distribuition

histogram

of

We can observe that the percentiles the variation is small in the values of OOIP probably
because the range that they had been used did not vary drastically. After the calculation of the
percentiles, the original parameters used in the geostatistical model of each zone were accesses again
in order to regenerate the complete model (Figure 10) and substitutes the values of range for each zone
and each percentile.

Figure 10 Facies model show the base and best case.


CONCLUSIONS
These probabilistic study may be decomposed into the steps:: identification and quantification
of the key parameters affecting the volumes of hydrocarbons; quantification of impact of these key
parameters and provide results as probability distribution of STOIIP. With objective to study the 3D
geologic model and to test the sensitivity range of uncertainties in the geologic parameters had been
varied the facies and porosity models, looking for the uncertainties in the representation of the
heterogeneities that affect the calculation of the volume of oil in place (STOOIP).

In this context a methodology was developed with a detailed study of the process of risk
analysis in the phase of construction of 3D reservoir model using the relative quantification of
geological uncertainties to the reservoirs connectivity.
The results had allowed to quantify the percentile and return to the geological model for
generating new models and obtain a better representation of the probable differences distribution the
reservoirs for the flow simulator.
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