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the units of measurements for civil engineering works are mainly

categorised for their nature, shape and size and for making payments to the
contractor. The principle of units of measurements normally consists the
following:
a) Single units work like doors, windows, trusses etc., are expressed in
numbers.
b) Works consists linear measurements involve length like cornice, fencing,
hand rail, bands of specified width etc., are expressed in running metres
(RM)
c) Works consists areal surface measurements involve area like plastering,
white washing, partitions of specified thickness etc., and are expressed in
square meters (m2)
d) Works consists cubical contents which involve volume like earth work,
cement concrete, Masonry etc are expressed in Cubic metres.
Table below shows units of measurement of various items of civil
engineering works based on IS 1200.
Sl.
No.
1

Particulars of item

Units of
measurement

Units of
payment

Earthwork
1.

Earthwork in excavation

CUM

Per CUM

2.

Earthwork in filling in foundation trenches

CUM

Per CUM

3.

Earth work in filling in plinth

CUM

Per CUM

SQM

Per SQM

Concrete
1.

Lime concrete in foundation

2.

Cement concrete in lintels

3.

RCC in slab

4.

Cement concrete or RCC in chujja, sunshade

5.

Lean concrete in roof terracing (thickness


specified)

6.

CUM

Per CUM

Reinforced concrete sunshade (specified width


and height)

CUM

Per CUM

Damp proof course (DPC) thickness mentioned

SQM

Per SQM

Brick work
CUM

Per CUM

SQM

Per SQM

7.

1.

Brickwork in foundation

2.

Brickwork in plinth

3.

Brickwork in super structure

4.

Thin partition walls

5.

Brickwork in arches

CUM

Per SQM

6.

Reinforced brickwork

CUM

Per CUM

CUM

Per CUM

Stone work
1.

Stone masonry

Wood work
1.

Doors and windows frames or chaukhats,


rafters, beams

CUM

Per CUM

2.

Shutters of doors and windows (thickness


specified)

SQM

Per SQM

3.

Doors and windows fittings (like hinges, tower


bolts, sliding bolts, handles)

Earch

Per Each

Steel work
1.

Steel reinforcement bars etc in RCC and


reinforced brick work

Quintal

Per Quintal

2.

Bending, binding of steel reinforcement

Quintal

Per quintal

3.

Rivets, bolts and nuts, anchor bolts, lewis


bolts, holding down bolts

Quintal

Per quintal

SQM

Per SQM

CUM

Per CUM

SQM

Per SQM

4.

Iron hold fasts

5.

Iron railing (height and types specified)

6.

Iron grills

Roofing
1.
2.

Cement concrete bed

RCC and RB slab roof (excluding steel)


Lean concrete roof over and inclusive of tiles
or brick or stone slab etc (thickness specified)

3.

Centering and shuttering formwork

SQM

Per SQM

4.

AC sheet roofing

SQM

Per SQM

Plastering, points and finishing

1.
2.
3.

10

Plastering cement or lime mortar (thickness


and proportion specified)
Pointing
White washing, colour washing, cement
washing, (number of coats specified)

SQM

Per SQM

SQM

Per SQM

SQM

Per SQM

4.

Distempering (number of coats specified)

SQM

Per SQM

5.

Painting, varnishing (number of coats specified)

SQM

Per SQM

Flooring
1.

25mm cement concrete over 75mm lime


concrete floor (including lean concrete)

SQM

Per SQM

2.

25mm or 40mm cement concrete floor

SQM

Per SQM

SQM

Per SQM

3.

Doors and window sills (CC or cement mortar


plain)

11

Rain water pipe / plain pipe

RM

Per RM

12

Steel wooden truss

Each

Per each

13

Glass panels (supply)

SQM

Per SQM

14

Fixing of glass panels or cleaning

Each

Per Each

Note:
SQM = Square meter

CUM = Cubic meter

RM = Running meter

Methods for Measurement of civil engineering works:


The rules for measurement of each item are invariably described in IS
1200. However some of the general rules are listed below:
1. Measurement shall be made for finished item of work and description of
each item shall include materials, transport, labour, fabrication tools and
plant and all types of overheads for finished the work in required shape, size
and specification.
2. In booking, the order shall be in sequence of length, breadth and height or
thickness.
3. All works shall be measured subject to the following tolerances.

Linear measurement shall be measured to the nearest 0.01m.

Areas shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 SQM

Cubic contents shall be worked out to the nearest 0.01 cum.


4. Same type of work under different conditions and nature shall be
measured separately under separate items.
5. The bill of quantities shall fully describe the materials, proportions,
workmanships and accurately represent the work to be executed.
6. In case of masonry (stone or brick) or structural concrete, the categories
shall be measured separately and the heights shall be described as:

From foundation to plinth level

From plinth to first floor level

From first floor to second floor level and so on.

QUANTITY OF CEMENT & SAND CALCULATION IN MORTAR


Quantity of cement mortar is required for rate analysis of brickwork and plaster or estimation of
masonry work for a building or structure. Cement mortar is used in various proportions, i.e. 1:1,
1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8 etc.
Calculation of quantity of cement mortar in brickwork and plaster:
For the calculation of cement mortar, let us assume that we use 1m3 of cement mortar. Procedure
for calculation is:

1. Calculate the dry volume of materials required for 1m3 cement mortar. Considering voids in
sands, we assume that materials consists of 60% voids. That is, for 1m3 of wet cement mortar,
1.6m3 of materials are required.

2. Now we calculate the volume of materials used in cement mortar based on its proportions.
Lets say, the proportion of cement and sand in mortar is 1:X, where X is the volume of sand
required.
Then, the volume of sand required for 1:X proportion of 1m3 cement mortar will be

3. Volume of cement will be calculated as:

Since the volume of 1 bag of cement is 0.0347 m3, so the number of bag of
cement will be calculated as:

Example:
For cement mortar of 1:6, the quantity calculated will be as below:
Sand quantity:

Quantity of cement (in bags):

Volume of cement =

There number of bags required =

= 6.58 bags.

Compressive strength of concrete: Out of many test applied to the concrete, this is the utmost
important which gives an idea about all the characteristics of concrete. By this single test one
judge that whether Concreting has been done properly or not.
Compressive strength of concrete depends on many factors such as water-cement ratio, cement
strength, quality of concrete material, quality control during production of concrete etc.
Test for compressive strength is carried out either on cube or cylinder. Various standard codes
recommends concrete cylinder or concrete cube as the standard
specimen for the test. American Society for Testing Materials ASTM C39/C39M provides
Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens,
For cube test two types of specimens either cubes of 15 cm X 15 cm X 15 cm or 10cm X 10 cm
x 10 cm depending upon the size of aggregate are used. For most of the works cubical moulds of
size 15 cm x 15cm x 15 cm are commonly used.
This concrete is poured in the mould and tempered properly so as not to have any voids. After 24
hours these moulds are removed and test specimens are put in water for curing. The top surface
of these

specimen should be made even and smooth. This is

done by putting

cement paste and spreading smoothly on whole area of

specimen.

These specimens are tested by compression testing machine after 7 days curing or 28 days
curing. Load should be applied gradually at the rate of 140 kg/cm2 per minute till the Specimens
fails. Load at the failure divided by area of specimen gives the compressive strength of concrete.

Following are the procedure for testing Compressive strength of Concrete Cubes
APPARATUS
Compression testing machine
PREPARATION OF CUBE SPECIMENS
The proportion and material for making these test specimens are from the same concrete used in
the field.
SPECIMEN
6 cubes of 15 cm size Mix. M15 or above
MIXING
Mix the concrete either by hand or in a laboratory batch mixer
HAND MIXING
(i)Mix the cement and fine aggregate on a water tight none-absorbent platform until the mixture
is thoroughly blended and is of uniform color

(ii)Add the coarse aggregate and mix with cement and fine aggregate until the coarse aggregate
is uniformly distributed throughout the batch
(iii)Add water and mix it until the concrete appears to be homogeneous and of the desired
consistency
SAMPLING
(i) Clean the mounds and apply oil
(ii) Fill the concrete in the molds in layers approximately 5cm thick
(iii) Compact each layer with not less than 35strokes per layer using a tamping rod (steel bar
16mm diameter and 60cm long, bullet pointed at lower end)
(iv) Level the top surface and smoothen it with a trowel
CURING
The test specimens are stored in moist air for 24hours and after this period the specimens are
marked and removed from the molds and kept submerged in clear fresh water until taken out
prior to test.
PRECAUTIONS
The water for curing should be tested every 7days and the temperature of water must be at 27+2oC.
PROCEDURE
(I) Remove the specimen from water after specified curing time and wipe out excess water from
the surface.
(II) Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m
(III) Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine

(IV) Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to the
opposite sides of the cube cast.
(V) Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the machine.
(VI) Rotate the movable portion gently by hand so that it touches the top surface of the
specimen.
(VII) Apply the load gradually without shock and continuously at the rate of 140kg/cm2/minute
till the specimen fails
(VIII) Record the maximum load and note any unusual features in the type of failure.

NOTE
Minimum three specimens should be tested at each selected age. If strength of any specimen
varies by more than 15 per cent of average strength, results of such specimen should be rejected.
Average of there specimens gives the crushing strength of concrete. The strength requirements of
concrete.
CALCULATIONS
Size of the cube =15cm x15cm x15cm
Area of the specimen (calculated from the mean size of the specimen )=225cm2
Characteristic compressive strength(f ck)at 7 days =
Expected maximum load =fck x area x f.s
Range to be selected is ..
Similar calculation should be done for 28 day compressive strength
Maximum load applied =.tones = .N
Compressive strength = (Load in N/ Area in mm2)=N/mm2
=.N/mm2

REPORT
a) Identification mark
b) Date of test
c) Age of specimen
d) Curing conditions, including date of manufacture of specimen
f) Appearance of fractured faces of concrete and the type of fracture if they are unusual
RESULT
Average compressive strength of the concrete cube = .N/ mm2 (at 7 days)
Average compressive strength of the concrete cube =. N/mm2 (at 28 days)

Compressive strength of concrete at


various ages:
The strength of concrete increases with age. Table shows the strength of concrete at different
ages in comparison with the strength at 28 days after casting.
Age

Strength per cent

1 day

16%

3 days

40%

7 days

65%

14 days

90%

28 days

99%

Compressive strength of different grades


of concrete at 7 and 28 days
Grade of
Concrete

Minimum compressive strength


N/mm2 at 7 days

Specified characteristic compressive


strength (N/mm2) at 28 days

M15

10

15

M20

13.5

20

M25

17

25

M30

20

30

M35

23.5

35

M40

27

40

M45

30

45

Formwork in concrete construction is used as a mould for a structure in which fresh concrete is
poured only to harden subsequently. Types of formwork for concrete construction depends on
formwork material and type of structural element.
Formworks can also be named based on the type of structural member constructionsuch as slab
formwork for use in slab, beam formwork, column formwork for use in beams and columns
respectively etc.
The construction of formwork takes time and involves expenditure upto 20 to 25% of the cost of
the structure or even more. Design of these temporary structures are made to economic
expenditure. The operation of removing the formwork is known as stripping. Stripped formwork
can be reused. Reusable forms are known as panel forms and non-usable are called stationary
forms.
Timber is the most common material used for formwork. The disadvantage with timber
formwork is that it will warp, swell and shrink. Application of water impermeable cost to the
surface of wood mitigates these defects.

A good formwork should satisfy the


following requirements:
1. It should be strong enough to withstand all types of dead and live loads.
2. It should be rigidly constructed and efficiently propped and braced both horizontally
and vertically, so as to retain its shape.

3. The joints in the formwork should be tight against leakage of cement grout.
4. Construction of formwork should permit removal of various parts in desired
sequences without damage to the concrete.

5.
The material of the formwork should be cheap, easily available and
should be suitable for reuse.
6. The formwork should be set accurately to the desired line and levels
should have plane surface.
7. It should be as light as possible.
8. The material of the formwork should not warp or get distorted when
exposed to the elements.
9. It should rest on firm base.

Economy in Formwork
The following points are to be kept in view to effect economy in the cost of formwork:
1. The plan of the building should imply minimum number of variations in the size of
rooms, floor area etc. so as to permit reuse of the formwork repeatedly.

2. Design should be perfect to use slender sections only in a most economical way.
3. Minimum sawing and cutting of wooden pieces should be made to enable reuse of
the material a number of times. The quantity of surface finish depends on the
quality of the formwork.

Formwork can be made out of timber, plywood, steel, precast concrete or fiberglass used
separately or in combination. Steel forms are used in situation where large numbers of re-use of
the same forms are necessary. For small works, timber formwork proves useful. Fibre glass made

of precast concrete and aluminium are used in cast-in-situ construction such as slabs or members
involving curved surfaces.

Types of Formwork (Shuttering) for


Concrete Construction:
Timber Formwork:
Timber for formwork should satisfy the following requirement:
It should be
1. well seasoned
2. light in weight
3. easily workable with nails without splitting
4. free from loose knots
Timber used for shuttering for exposed concrete work should have smooth and even surface on
all faces which come in contact with concrete.

Normal sizes of members for timber formwork:


Sheeting for slabs, beam, column side and beam bottom

25 mm to 40mm thick

Joints, ledges

50 x 70 mm to 50 x 150 mm

Posts

75 x 100mm to 100 x 100 mm

Plywood Formwork
Resin bonded plywood sheets are attached to timber frames to make up
panels of required sizes. The cost of plywood formwork compares favourably
with that of timber shuttering and it may even prove cheaper in certain
cases in view of the following considerations:

1. It is possible to have smooth finish in which case on cost in surface finishing


is there.
2. By use of large size panels it is possible to effect saving in the labour cost of
fixing and dismantling.
3. Number of reuses are more as compared with timber shuttering. For
estimation purpose, number of reuses can be taken as 20 to 25.

Steel Formwork
This consist of panels fabricated out of thin steel plates stiffened along the edges by small steel
angles. The panel units can be held together through the use of suitable clamps or bolts and nuts.
The panels can be fabricated in large number in any desired modular shape or size. Steel forms
are largely used in large projects or in situation where large number reuses of the shuttering is
possible. This type of shuttering is considered most suitable for circular or curved structures.

Steel forms compared with timber formwork:


1. Steel forms are stronger, durable and have longer life than timber formwork and
their reuses are more in number.

2. Steel forms can be installed and dismantled with greater ease and speed.
3. The quality of exposed concrete surface by using steel forms is good and such
surfaces need no further treatment.

4. Steel formwork does not absorb moisture from concrete.


5. Steel formwork does not shrink or warp.

Construction of Concrete formwork:


This normally involves the following operations:
1. Propping and centring
2. Shuttering
3. Provision of camber
4. Cleaning and surface treatment

Order and method of removing formwork:


The sequence of orders and method of removal of formwork are as follows:
1. Shuttering forming the vertical faces of walls, beams and column sides should be
removed first as they bear no load but only retain the concrete.

2. Shuttering forming soffit of slabs should be removed next.


3. Shuttering forming soffit of beams, girders or other heavily loaded shuttering
should be removed in the end.

Rapid hardening cement, warm weather and light loading conditions allow early
Rapid hardening cement, warm weather and light loading conditions allow early removal of
formwork. The formwork should under no circumstances be allowed to be removed until all the
concrete reaches strength of atleast twice the stresses to which the concrete may be subjected at
the time of removal of formwork. All formworks should be eased gradually and carefully in
order to prevent the load being suddenly transferred to concrete.
Figure 1 to 6 shows formwork for different types of members in civil engineering construction.

Figure 1(a): Details of timber formwork for RCC beam and slab floor

Figure 1(b): Details at section (A) shown in above figure

Figure 2(a): Elevation

Figure 2(b): Details of timber formwork for circular RCC column

Figure 3(a): 150 3D View

Figure 3(b): Details of timber formwork for square or rectangular RCC column

Figure 5: Details of formwork for stair

Figure 6: Timber formwork for RCC wall

Table: Period of removal of formwork


S. No.

Description of structural member

Period of time

Walls, columns and vertical sides of beams

1 to 2 days

Slabs (props left under)

3 days

Beam soffits (props left under)

7 days

Removal of props to slabs

(a) For slabs spanning upto 4.5 m

7 days

(b) For slabs spanning over 4.5 m

14 days

Removal of props to beams and arches


(a) Spanning upto 6 m

14 days

(b) spanning over 6 m

21 days

Regular concrete is too dense. It is heavy and hard to work. After it sets one
cannot cut into it, or nail into it. And it's [sic] surface is ugly, cold, and hard in
feeling unless covered by expensive finishes not integral to the structure.
And yet concrete, in some form, is a fascinating material. It is fluid, strong, and
relatively cheap. It is available in almost every part of the world. A University of
California professor of engineering sciences, P. Kumar Mehta, has even just
recently found a way of converting abandoned rice husks into Portland cement.
Is there any way of combining all these good qualities of concrete and also
having a material which is light in weight, easy to work, with a pleasant finish?
There is. It is possible to use a whole range of ultra-lightweight concretes which
have a density and compressive strength very similar to that of wood. They are
easy to work with, can be nailed with ordinary nails, cut with a saw, drilled with
wood-working tools, easily repaired.
We believe that ultra-lightweight concrete is one of the most fundamental bulk
materials of the future.
The variable density is normally described in kg per m, where regular
concrete is 2400 kg/m. Variable density can be as low as 300 kg/m,
[16]

although at this density it would have no structural integrity at all and

would function as a filler or insulation use only. The variable density

reduces strength[16] to increase thermal[16] and acoustical insulation by


replacing the dense heavy concrete with air or a light material such as
clay, cork granules and vermiculite. There are many competing products
that use a foaming agent that resembles shaving cream to mix air
bubbles in with the concrete. All accomplish the same outcome: to
displace concrete with air.

Properties of Foamed Concrete[18]

Dry

7-day

Thermal

Modulus of

Drying

Density

Compressive

Conductivity*

Elasticity

Shrinkage

(kg/m3)

Strength (N/mm2)

(W/mK)

(kN/mm2)

(%)

400

0.5 1.0

0.10

0.8 1.0

0.30 0.35

600

1.0 1.5

0.11

1.0 1.5

0.22 0.25

800

1.5 2.0

0.17 0.23

2.0 2.5

0.20 0.22

1000

2.5 3.0

0.23 0.30

2.5 3.0

0.18 0.15

1200

4.5 5.5

0.38 0.42

3.5 4.0

0.11 0.19

1400

6.0 8.0

0.50 0.55

5.0 6.0

0.09 0.07

1600

7.5 10.0

0.62 0.66

10.0 12.0

0.07 0.06

Applications of foamed concrete include:

Roof Insulation

Blocks and Panels for Walls

Levelling Floors

Void Filling

Road Sub-Bases and maintenance

Bridge Abutments and repairs

Ground Stabilisation