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Characterizing Ionic Networks

Electron Transfer

Atoms of metallic (low) and nonmetallic elements (high) have different


electro negativities.
Larger the value of deltaX, the more likely for ve- to relocate closer to the
more electronegative atom
Most stable state: ve- of metallic transferred to nonmetallic atom.
Actual number of e- that transition metal can lose depends on the condition
of the reaction

Transition metal
Ionic network has NO net charge
Cation and Anion combine to ensure that there is neutrality
Ve- are never fully transferred from one type of atom to another.
o They locate in the vicinity of the nonmetallic atom but still partially
associated with the metallic atoms

Ionic Networks

Ions are packed close together into a repeating array called a crystal lattice.
Ions w same charge arranged into face centered cubic (FCC)
o ions occupy the corners and center of each of the faces of a large set
of stacked imaginary cube

body centered cubic (BCC) ions of the same charge occupy only the
corners of a stacked imaginary cubes with opposite charged ions located at
the center

PE due to ion interactions has a minimum value


Charge and size of ions determine physical properties
o Influence magnitude of the repulsive and attractive electrostatic forces
between particles in the system.
Coulombs law to find magnitude of the electrostatic forces btw cations and
anions F = K q1 q2/ r^2
K = 8.988 E 9 Nm2/C2
The higher the ion charge and the smaller the ion sizes, the larger the
electrostatic force btw particles.
Attractive interactions btw anion
For particles with same electric charges (+ or -), ion size increases as we
move from riht to left and top to bottom

Water Solubility

Aqueous solutions of soluble ionic compounds conduct electricity (so different


from molec compounds)
NaC strong electrolytes as they seem to dissociate completely into free ions
when immersed in water.
Slightly soluble ionic compound (Zinc sulfide) barely conduct electricity
o Weak electrolytes because ionic network remains intact

If ions interact weakly with each other and more strongly with water molec,
they may separate.
Strong interactions btw ions and water molec may reduce number of config
that such molec can adopt
o Reduce that random motion will lead to dissolution of ionic solids
For ionic compound to be soluble in water, at least one of the following
conditions needs to be met:
o Net interactions btw ions and water molecules should be stronger than
the net interactions btw the ions themselves.
Dissolution process results in a state with a lower PE
o Number of config that the ions and water can adopt when mixed is
larger than the total number of configs that they can have if they do
not mix.
Random particles motions are likely to result in dissolution
If satisfied both conditions, ionic compound is likely to be soluble at all
temperatures.
If one met: then one condition is dominant.
Small electric charge = favor solubility
o Small electric charged ions do not strongly constraint the config that
surrounding water
Larger the charged ions, the larger the ion-dipole interactions, the larger
probability that molec movements will be constrained in vicinity of those ions
The lower the # of config that water molec can adopt, the lower the likelihood
that random motions will lead to the formation of such state.

Polyatomic Ions.