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List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

was Osman I Khan (leader) of the Kay tribe of the Oghuz


Turks.[2] The eponymous Ottoman dynasty he founded
endured for six centuries through the reigns of 36 sultans.
The Ottoman Empire disappeared as a result of the defeat
of the Central Powers with whom it had allied itself during World War I. The partitioning of the Empire by the
victorious Allies and the ensuing Turkish War of Independence led to the abolition of the sultanate in 1922 and
the birth of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923.[3]

1 State organisation of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Imperial Standard

Main article: State organisation of the Ottoman Empire


The Ottoman Empire was an absolute monarchy during
much of its existence. The sultan was at the apex of the
hierarchical Ottoman system and acted in political, military, judicial, social, and religious capacities under a variety of titles.[a] He was theoretically responsible only to
God and Gods law (the Islamic eriat, known in
Arabic as sharia), of which he was the chief executor. His heavenly mandate was reected in Islamic titles
such as shadow of God on Earth (Turkish:
Allah'n yeryzndeki glgesi), (Arabic: zill
Allah 'l-alem) and caliph on the earth (Persian:
khalife-i ru-yi zemin).[4] All oces were lled
by his authority, and every law was issued by him in
the form of a decree called rman (). He was
the supreme military commander and had the ocial title to all land.[5] Erturul served as the elected leader
of the Ottomans from 1230 until his death in 1281. In
1281, Erturuls son, Osman, became elected leader of
the Ottomans. From 1299 until his death in 1326, Osman served as Osman I "Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman Empire in 1683, at the height of its territorial expansion

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish:


Osmanl padiahlar), made up solely of the members of
the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the
transcontinental empire from its inception in 1299 to its
dissolution in 1922. At its height, the Ottoman Empire spanned from Hungary in the north to Somalia in
the south, and from Algeria in the west to Iran in the
east. Administered at rst from the city of Bursa, the
empires capital was moved to Edirne in 1363 following its conquest by Murad I, and then to Constantinople
(present-day Istanbul) in 1453 following its conquest by
Mehmed II.[1]

After the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed


II, Ottoman sultans came to regard themselves as the successors of the Roman Empire, hence their occasional
use of the titles Caesar ( Qayser) of Rm, and
emperor,[4][6][7] as well as the caliph of Islam. Following
the conquest of Egypt in 1517, Selim I furthered strengthened the claim of caliphal authority.[b] Newly enthroned
Ottoman rulers were girded with the Sword of Osman, an
important ceremony that served as the equivalent of European monarchs coronation.[8] A non-girded sultan was
not eligible to have his children included in the line of
succession.[9]

The Ottoman Empires early years have been the subject of varying narratives due to the diculty of discerning fact from legend; nevertheless, most modern scholars
agree that the empire came into existence around 1299
and that its rst ruler (and the namesake of the Empire)
1

2 LIST OF SULTANS

Although theocratic and absolute in theory and in principle, the sultans powers were limited in practice. Political decisions had to take into account the opinions and
attitudes of important members of the dynasty, the bureaucratic and military establishments, as well as religious
leaders.[5] From the 17th century onwards, the empire entered into a long-term period of stagnation, during which
the sultans were much enfeebled. Many of them ended
up being deposed by the powerful Janissary corps. Despite being barred from inheriting the throne,[10] women
of the Imperial Haremespecially the reigning sultans
mother, known as the Valide Sultanalso played an important behind-the-scenes political role, eectively ruling
the empire during the period known as the Sultanate of
Women.[11]
The declining powers of the sultans are evidenced by
the dierence in reign lengths between early sultans and
later ones. Suleiman I, who ruled the empire when it
was at its zenith in the 16th century, had a reign of 46
years, the longest in Ottoman history. Mehmed Murad
V, who ruled in the late 19th-century period of decline,
had the shortest reign on record: he was in power for
just 93 days before being deposed. Constitutionalism was
only established during the reign of Murad Vs successor,
Abdul Hamid II, who thus became the empires last absolute ruler and its reluctant rst constitutional monarch.[12]
Although Abdul Hamid II abolished the parliament and
the constitution to return to personal rule in 1878, he was
again forced in 1908 to reinstall constitutionalism and was
deposed. Since 2009, the head of the House of Osman
and pretender to the defunct Ottoman throne has been
Bayezid Osman, a great-grandson of Abdlmecid I.[13]

List of sultans

The table below lists Ottoman sultans, as well as the last


Ottoman caliph, in chronological order. The tughras were
the calligraphic seals or signatures used by Ottoman sultans. They were displayed on all ocial documents as
well as on coins, and were far more important in identifying a sultan than his portrait. The Notes column
contains information on each sultans parentage and fate.
When a sultans reign did not end through a natural death,
the reason is indicated in bold. For earlier rulers, there
is usually a time gap between the moment a sultans reign
ended and the moment his successor was enthroned. This
is because the Ottomans in that era practiced what historian Quataert has described as "survival of the ttest, not
eldest, son": when a sultan died, his sons had to ght each
other for the throne until a victor emerged. Because of
the inghting and numerous fratricides that occurred, a
sultans death date therefore did not always coincide with
the accession date of his successor.[14] In 1617, the law of
succession changed from survival of the ttest to a system
based on agnatic seniority ( ekberiyet), whereby
the throne went to the oldest male of the family. This in

turn explains why from the 17th century onwards a deceased sultan was rarely succeeded by his own son, but
usually by an uncle or brother.[15] Agnatic seniority was
retained until the abolition of the sultanate, despite unsuccessful attempts in the 19th century to replace it with
primogeniture.[16]
The ocial full style of the Ottoman Sultans was:
'Ala Hazrat-i-Aqdas-i-Hmayun (
, His Sacred and Imperial
Majesty) Sultan ( )N.N. Khan (),
Padishah (), i.e. Emperor,
Hnkar-i Khanedan-i l-i Osman () , i.e.
Sovereign of the Sublime House of
Osman,
Sultan
us-Selatin
(
), i.e.
Sultan of
Sultans,
Khakan (), i.e. Khan of
Khans,
Amir l-M'minin ve Khalifeh
l-Rasul Rabb al-Aalimin (

), i.e. Commander of
the Faithful and Successor of
the Prophet of the Lord of the
Universe,
Khdim
l-Haramayn
ushSharifayn
(

), i.e.
Custodian
of the Two Noble Sanctuaries (i.e.
the Holy Cities of Mecca, and
Medina),
Qayser-i Rm () , i.e.
Caesar of the Roman Empire (or
the Grecian Ceasar)
Padiah-i
thalath
ehireha-i
Qostantiniyye, Edirne ve Hdavendigr, l ehireyn-i Dimaq
ve Qahira, tamam Azerbayjan,
Marib, Barqah, Kayravan, Haleb,
l-Iraq-i Arab vel Ajam, Basra,
l-dulan-i Lahsa, Rakka, Musul,
Partiyye, Diyrbekir, Kilikiyye, l
vilyatun-i Erzurum, Sivas, Adana,
Karaman, Van, Barbariyye, Habe,
Tunus, Trablus-i Garb, am,
Kbrs, Rodos, Girit, l vilyet-i
Mora, l Bahr-i Sed vel Bahr-i
Siyah ve i-swahil, Anadolu, Rumeli,
Bagdd, Kurdistn, Yunanistan,
Trkistan, Tatariyye, erkesyye,
l mintaqateyn-i Kabarda, Grjistan, l-Det-i Qipaq, tamam
l-mamlikat-i Tatar, Kefe ve

3
tamam l-etraf, Bosna, l ehir
ve hisar-i Belgrat, l vilyet-i
Srbistan bil tamam l-hisareha ve
ehireha, tamam Arnaut, tamam
Ek ve Bodan, ve tamam
l-mustamlak vel-hududeha, ve
muteaddit mamalekat ve ehireha,
i.e. Emperor of The Three Cities
of Constantinople, Adrianople
and Bursa, and of the Cities
of Damascus and Cairo, of all
Azerbaijan, of the Magreb, of
Barca, of Kairouan, of Aleppo, of
the Arabic and the Persian Iraq,
of Basra, of Al-Hasa strip, of Ar
Raqqah, of Mosul, of Diyarbakr,
of Cilicia, of the provinces of
Erzurum, of Sivas, of Adana, of
Karaman, Van, of Barbara, of
Abyssinia, of Tunisia, of Tripoliof-the-West (Tripolitania), of
Sham, of Cyprus, of Rhodes, of
Crete, of the province of Morea,
of the Mediterranean Sea, the
Black Sea and also their coasts,
of Anatolia, Rumelia, Baghdad,
Kurdistan, Greece, Turkistan,
Tartary, Circassia, of the two
regions of Kabarda, of Georgia,
of the steppe of Kypchaks, of the
whole realm of the Tatars, of Kefe
and of all the neighboring regions,
of Bosnia, of the City and Fort of
Belgrade, of the province of Serbia,
with all the castles and cities, of all
Albania, of all Eak and Bogdania,
as well as all the dependencies and
borders, and many other countries
and cities.

Interregnum period (14021413)

See also
Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Dynasty
Line of succession to the Ottoman throne
Ottoman Emperors family tree
The Ottomans: Europes Muslim Emperors
Ottoman family tree (more detailed)
Tura-Sultans Signature
List of Valide Sultans

List of Ottoman Grand Viziers


List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire
List of Ottoman Kaptan Pashas

5 Notes
a1 2 : The full style of the Ottoman ruler was
complex, as it was composed of several titles
and evolved over the centuries. The title of
sultan was used continuously by all rulers almost from the beginning. However, because it
was widespread in the Muslim world, the Ottomans quickly adopted variations of it to dissociate themselves from other Muslim rulers
of lesser status. Murad I, the third Ottoman
monarch, styled himself sultan-i azam (
, the most exalted sultan) and hdavendigar (, emperor), titles used by the
Anatolian Seljuqs and the Mongol Ilkhanids respectively. His son Bayezid I adopted the style
Sultan of Rm, Rm being an old Islamic name
for the Roman Empire. The combining of the
Islamic and Central Asian heritages of the Ottomans led to the adoption of the title that became the standard designation of the Ottoman
ruler: Sultan [Name] Khan.[65] Ironically, although the title of sultan is most often associated in the Western world with the Ottomans,
people within Turkey generally use the title of
padishah far more frequently when referring
to rulers of the Ottoman Dynasty.[66] The full
style of the Ottoman sultan once the empires
frontiers had stabilized became:[67]
Sovereign of The Sublime House of Osman, Sultan
es Selatin (Sultan of Sultans),
Khakhan (Khakan of the Khans),
Commander of the faithful and
Successor of the Prophet of the
lord of the Universe, Custodian
of the Holy Cities of Mecca,
Medina and Kouds (Jerusalem),
Padishah of The Three Cities of
Istanbul (Constantinople), Edirne
(Adrianople) and Bursa, and of the
Cities of Chm (Damascus) and
Cairo (Egypt), of all Azerbaijan,
of the Magreb, of Barkah, of
Kairouan, of Alep, of the Arab
and Persian Iraq, of Basra, of El
Hasa strip, of Raka, of Mosul, of
Parthia, of Diyr- Bekr, of Cilicia,
of the provinces of Erzurum, of
Sivas, of Adana, of Karaman,
of Van, of Barbaria, of Habech

5 NOTES
(Abyssinia), of Tunisia, of Tripoli,
of Chm (Syria), of Cyprus, of
Rhodes, of Crete, of the province
of Morea (Peloponnese), of Bahr-i
Sed (Mediterranean Sea), of
Bahr-i Siyah (Black Sea), of
Anatolia, of Rumelia (the European part of the Empire), of
Bagdad, of Kurdistan, of Greece,
of Turkestan, of Tartary, of
Circassia, of the two regions of
Kabarda, of Gorjestan (Georgia),
of the steppe of Kipchaks, of the
whole country of the Tatars, of
Kefa (Feodosiya) and of all the
neighbouring regions, of Bosnia, of
the City and Fort of Belgrade, of
the province of Sirbistan (Serbia),
with all the castles and cities, of
all Arnaut, of all Eak (Wallachia)
and Bogdania (Moldavia), as
well as all the dependencies and
borders, and many others countries
and cities"
b1 2 3 : The Ottoman Caliphate was one of
the most important positions held by rulers
of the Ottoman Dynasty. The caliphate symbolized their spiritual power, whereas the sultanate represented their temporal power. According to Ottoman historiography, Murad I
acquired the title of caliph during his reign
(1362 to 1389), and Selim I later strengthened
the caliphal authority during his conquest of
Egypt in 1516-1517, after the last Abbasid in
Cairo, Al-Mutawakkil III, surrendered to him.
However, the general consensus among modern scholars is that Ottoman rulers had used
the title of caliph before the conquest of Egypt,
as early as during the reign of Murad I (1362
1389), who brought most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule and established the title of
sultan in 1383. It is currently agreed that
the caliphate disappeared for two-and-a-half
centuries, before being revived with the Treaty
of Kk Kaynarca, signed between the Ottoman Empire and Catherine II of Russia in
1774. The treaty was highly symbolic, since it
marked the rst international recognition of the
Ottomans claim to the caliphate. Although the
treaty ocialised the Ottoman Empires loss
of the Crimean Khanate, it acknowledged the
Ottoman caliphs continuing religious authority over Muslims in Russia.[68] From the 18th
century onwards, Ottoman sultans increasingly
emphasized their status as caliphs in order to
stir Pan-Islamist sentiments among the empires Muslims in the face of encroaching European imperialism. When World War I broke

out, the sultan/caliph issued a call for jihad


in 1914 against the Ottoman Empires Allied
enemies, vainly inciting the subjects of the
French, British and Russian empires to revolt.
Abdlhamid II was by far the Ottoman sultan
who made the most use of his caliphal position,
and was recognized as caliph by many Muslim
heads of state, even as far away as Sumatra.[69]
He had his claim to the title inserted into the
1876 Constitution (Article 4).[70]
c1 2 : Tughras were used by 35 out of 36
Ottoman sultans, starting with Orhan in the
14th century, whose tughra has been found
on two dierent documents. No tughra bearing the name of Osman I, the founder of the
empire, has ever been discovered, although
a coin with the inscription Osman bin Erturul bin Gndz Alp has been identied.[71]
Abdlmecid II, the last Ottoman caliph, also
lacked a tughra of his own, since he did not
serve as head of state (that position being held
by Mustafa Kemal, President of the newly
founded Republic of Turkey) but as a religious
and royal gurehead.
d^ : The Ottoman Interregnum, also known as
the Ottoman Triumvirate (Turkish:
Fetret Devri), was a period of chaos in the Ottoman Empire which lasted from 1402 to 1413.
It started following the defeat and capture
of Bayezid I by the Turco-Mongol warlord
Tamerlane at the Battle of Ankara, which was
fought on 20 July 1402. Bayezids sons fought
each other for over a decade, until Mehmed I
emerged as the undisputed victor in 1413.[72]
e^ : The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
was a gradual process which started with the
abolition of the sultanate and ended with that
of the caliphate 16 months later. The sultanate
was formally abolished on 1 November 1922.
Sultan Mehmed VI ed to Malta on 17 November aboard the British warship Malaya.[56] This
event marked the end of the Ottoman Dynasty,
not of the Ottoman State nor of the Ottoman
Caliphate. On 18 November, the Grand National Assembly (TBMM) elected Mehmed
VIs cousin Abdlmecid II, the then crown
prince, as caliph.[73] The ocial end of the Ottoman State was declared through the Treaty
of Lausanne (24 July 1923), which recognized
the new "Ankara government, and not the old
Istanbul-based Ottoman government, as representing the rightful owner and successor state.
The Republic of Turkey was proclaimed by
the TBMM on 29 October 1923, with Mustafa
Kemal as its rst President.[74] Although Abdlmecid II was a gurehead lacking any political power, he remained in his position of caliph

5
until the oce of the caliphate was abolished
by the TBMM on 3 March 1924.[70] Mehmed
VI later tried unsuccessfully to reinstall himself
as caliph in the Hejaz.[75]

[24] Chronology: Sultan II. Murad Han. Republic of Turkey


Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-04-07.
[25] Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
[26] Kafadar 1996, p. xix

References

[1] Stavrides 2001, p. 21


[2] Glazer 1996, The Ottoman Empire
[3] Glazer 1996, War of Independence
[4] Findley 2005, p. 115
[5] Glazer 1996, Ottoman Institutions
[6] Toynbee 1974, pp. 2223
[7] Stavrides 2001, p. 20
[8] Quataert 2005, p. 93
[9] d'Osman Han 2001, Ottoman Padishah Succession

[27] Chronology: Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han. Republic of


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[30] Kanuni Sultan Sleyman Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
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[10] Quataert 2005, p. 90

[33] Sultan III. Mehmed Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry


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[12] Glazer 1996, External Threats and Internal Transformations


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7 BIBLIOGRAPHY

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978-90-04-06471-3. OCLC 8258992. Retrieved
2009-04-19.
Uur, Ali (2007). Mavi Emperyalizm [Blue Imperialism] (in Turkish). Istanbul: at Publishing.
ISBN 978-975-8845-87-3. OCLC 221203375. Retrieved 2009-04-19.
Toynbee, Arnold J. (1974). The Ottoman Empires
Place in World History. In Karpat, Kemal H. The
Ottoman State and Its Place in World History. Social, Economic and Political Studies of the Middle
East 11. Leiden: Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-90-0403945-2. OCLC 1318483. Retrieved 2009-05-02.

External links
Website of the 700th Anniversary of the Ottoman
Empire. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
Ocial website of the immediate living descendants of the Ottoman Dynasty. Retrieved 200902-06.

9 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

9.1

Text

List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sultans_of_the_Ottoman_Empire?oldid=


717951274 Contributors: Joy, David Koller, Quadell, Discospinster, Bender235, BDD, Bobrayner, Mark J, Bgwhite, Marcus Cyron, Gadget850, BomBom, DHN-bot~enwiki, , Cplakidas, Makyen, Scorpion0422, Reywas92, Gogo Dodo, Nick Number,
Qp10qp, Seaphoto, JAnDbot, Wimstead, , Baba Tabita, Edward321, Chapultepec, CommonsDelinker, Kimdime, VolkovBot, TXiKiBoT, Enozkan, GimmeBot, Ehud Lesar, SieBot, Kafka Liz, Nnemo, Niceguyedc, Cfsenel, P. S. Burton, Takabeg, Yozer1, Redman19, Ism
schism, Addbot, Mnmazur, Abjiklam, Luckas-bot, Yobot, WellsSouth, KamikazeBot, Againme, nfoCan, Rubinbot, Brane.Blokar, Xqbot,
TheCuriousGnome, DSisyphBot, Almabot, Sikander III, Millelacs, Cpwwefan08, RibotBOT, Nedim Ardoa, ~enwiki,
FrescoBot, BenzolBot, Citation bot 1, RedBot, Istcol, Donnyhoca, Discographer, TobeBot, Trappist the monk, Kingpatrick, Nebeviye,
Lotje, Dinamik-bot, Luani 1, Beyond My Ken, Qasim Arif Sethi, Mackay 86, Mevlt Kl, EmausBot, John of Reading, ZxxZxxZ, C16sh,
Sundostund, Chewings72, Ash wki, TRAJAN 117, Khestwol, ClueBot NG, Qara xan, Rachel.dicerbo, Yemreh, 0x010C, GRprefectureshave-been-dissolved, Widr, MerlIwBot, KLBot2, Keivan.f, Erkistreet, Enredados, Maurice Flesier, YFdyh-bot, E4024, Dexbot, DonCova,
Grkem7, HistoryofIran, King Philip V of Spain, Karak1lc1k, Ithinkicahn, Erim Turukku, Monkbot, Nacandaner, Why should I have a
User Name?, HMSLavender, Augustavangusta, CAPTAIN RAJU, Neve-selbert, Hadh Wahyu P, Deliciouspieceoftoast and Anonymous:
82

9.2

Images

File:Abdul-aziz_(cropped).JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Abdul-aziz_%28cropped%29.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: This le has been extracted from another le: Abdul-aziz.jpg
Original artist:
derivative work: BomBom (<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:BomBom' title='User talk:BomBom'>talk</a>)
File:Abdul_Hamid_II_in_Balmoral_Castle_in_1867.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/Abdul_
Hamid_II_in_Balmoral_Castle_in_1867.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: This image is available from the United States Library
of Congress's Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID cph.3b24436.
This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. See Commons:Licensing for more information.

Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718'


src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Abdulhamid_I_minature.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Abdulhamid_I_minature.jpg
License:
Public domain Contributors:
http://www.learningpracticalturkish.com/encyclopedia-a.html Original artist:
Unknown<a
href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https:
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Ahmet_II.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/74/Ahmet_II.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
http://www.sarimehmetli.com/osmanli/20-ahmet-ii.a.jpg Original artist: Kapdal
File:Arolsen_Klebeband_01_449_4.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/Arolsen_Klebeband_01_449_
4.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/fwhb/klebeband1 Original artist: Johann Theodor de Bry
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: Cc-bysa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Gen_Osman.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/75/Gen%C3%A7_Osman.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: Belli deil
File:II._Murat.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/II._Murat.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
http://www.unitedamericanmuslim.org/padisahlar/06.jpg Original artist: Belli deil
File:II_Mustafa.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ab/II_Mustafa.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Badisches Landesmuseum Original artist: Ottoman miniature painter
File:II_Selim.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/II_Selim.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Badisches Landesmuseum Original artist: Ottoman miniature painting
File:II_Suleyman.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/II_Suleyman.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Badisches Landesmuseum Original artist: Ottoman miniature painting
File:IV._Mustafa.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/IV._Mustafa.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: Belli deil
File:IV_Mehmet.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/IV_Mehmet.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Badisches Landesmuseum Original artist: Ottoman miniature painter
File:I_Bayezit_small.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/I_Bayezit_small.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors:
I_Bayezit.jpg Original artist:

9.2

Images

derivative work: Einsamer Schtze (<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Einsamer_Sch%C3%BCtze' title='User talk:


Einsamer Schtze'>talk</a>)
File:I_Mustafa_(cropped).jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/I_Mustafa_%28cropped%29.jpg
License: Public domain Contributors: Badisches Landesmuseum Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Ibrahim_I.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/13/Ibrahim_I.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
? Original artist: ?
File:Imperial_standard_of_the_Ottoman_Sultan.svg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Imperial_
standard_of_the_Ottoman_Sultan.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: [1] Original artist: Buho07
File:Joseph_Warnia-Zarzecki_-_Sultan_Selim_III_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
Public domain Contributors:
commons/a/ac/Joseph_Warnia-Zarzecki_-_Sultan_Selim_III_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg License:
JwESLYZHhl2hWg at Google Cultural Institute maximum zoom level Original artist: Born in Nantes, France.
Details of artist on Google Art Project
File:Levni_002.jpeg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c4/Levni_002.jpeg License: Public domain Contributors: Badisches Landesmuseum Original artist: Levni
File:Mahmud_I_by_John_Young.jpg Source:
jpg License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Mahmud_I_by_John_Young.

Embedding web page: https://www.allposters.com/-sp/Mahmud-I-Posters_i4045485_.htm Original artist: John Young (1755-1825)


File:MahmutII.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b3/MahmutII.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
? Original artist: ?
File:Mehmed_I_miniature.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Mehmed_I_miniature.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: Encyclopdia Britannica website: Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Murad_IV_minature.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Murad_IV_minature.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Levni Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:
Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.
svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/
40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Murat_Hdavendigar.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b8/Murat_H%C3%BCdavendigar.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.muverrih.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/I_Murad.jpg Original artist: Belli deil
File:Musa_elebi.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/23/Musa_%C3%87elebi.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors: [1] Original artist: Belli deil
File:No_image.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/No_image.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
Own work Original artist: SPUI (on English Wikipedia)
File:Office-book.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/Office-book.svg License: Public domain Contributors: This and myself. Original artist: Chris Down/Tango project
File:Orhan_Gazi.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Orhan_Gazi.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: K.K.
File:Osman_Gazi2.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/Osman_Gazi2.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: Bilinmiyor
File:Osman_III_by_John_Young.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Osman_III_by_John_Young.jpg
License: Public domain Contributors:
Embedding web page: https://www.allposters.com/-sp/Othman-Posters_i4045486_.htm Original artist: John Young (1755-1825)
File:Osmanli-nisani.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Osmanli-nisani.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Juris Tiltins
File:OttomanEmpireIn1683.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/OttomanEmpireIn1683.png License:
Public domain Contributors: Self drawn, mainly based on Robert Mantran (ed.), Histoire de l'Empire Ottoman, Paris: Fayard (1989), also
en:List of Ottoman Empire dominated territories, Image:Ottoman 1683.png, [1], and [2]. Background map modied from Image:A large
blank world map with oceans marked in blue.svg. Original artist: Atilim Gunes Baydin
File:Portrait_Caliph_Abdulmecid_II.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Portrait_
Caliph_Abdulmecid_II.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors:
Library of Congress Original artist:
Unknown<a
href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>

10

9 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

File:Portrait_of_Murad_V.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Portrait_of_Murad_V.jpg License:


Public domain Contributors: Topkap Palace Museum Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Semailname_47b.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/Semailname_47b.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors:
Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Original artist: Nakka Osman
File:Sultan_Abdlmecid_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Sultan_Abd%
C3%BClmecid_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: 9wF5fMS7YU4yow at Google Cultural Institute maximum zoom level Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:
Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.
svg.png 1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x'
data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Sultan_I._Ahmet.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Sultan_I._Ahmet.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://www.naqshbandi.org/ottomans/khalifa/s14_portrait.htm Original artist: Bilinmiyor
File:Sultan_II._Bayezit.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Sultan_II._Bayezit.JPG License: Public
domain Contributors: http://www.naqshbandi.org/ottomans/khalifa/s8_portrait.htm Original artist: Belli deil
File:Sultan_Mehmed_II_The_Conqueror.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Sultan_Mehmed_II_
The_Conqueror.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Image from JBO'Cs Historical Reference Original artist: A follower of Gentile
Bellini
File:Sultan_Mehmed_VI_of_the_Ottoman_Empire.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Sultan_
Mehmed_VI_of_the_Ottoman_Empire.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Library of Congress Original artist: Bain News Service,
publisher
File:Sultan_Mehmed_V_of_the_Ottoman_Empire_cropped.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/
Sultan_Mehmed_V_of_the_Ottoman_Empire_cropped.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Library of Congress Original artist: Bain
News Service, publisher
File:Sultan_Mehmet_III_(reigned_1595-1603)_Enthroned,_Attended_by_Two_Janissaries_LACMA_M.85.237.34.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Sultan_Mehmet_III_%28reigned_1595-1603%29_Enthroned%2C_Attended_
by_Two_Janissaries_LACMA_M.85.237.34.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Image: http://collections.lacma.org/sites/default/files/remote_images/piction/ma-31763322-O3.jpg Original artist: ?
File:Sultan_Murad_III.jpeg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Sultan_Murad_III.jpeg License: Public
domain Contributors: Unknown Original artist: Spanish artist
File:Sultan_Mustafa_III.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Sultan_Mustafa_III.jpg License: Public
domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: Silsilename:Levni
File:Symbol_book_class2.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg License: CC
BY-SA 2.5 Contributors: Mad by Lokal_Prol by combining: Original artist: Lokal_Prol
File:Tughra_of_Abdlaziz.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ab/Tughra_of_Abd%C3%BClaziz.JPG
License: Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Abdlhamid_I.JPG
Source:
BClhamid_I.JPG License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Tughra_of_Abd%C3%

Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court


calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Abdlhamid_II.svg
Source:
BClhamid_II.svg License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Tughra_of_Abd%C3%

Egypt State Information Service: [1] Original artist: Calligrapher Sami Efendi [2]. (Vectorised by Fred the Oyster)
File:Tughra_of_Abdlmecid_I.JPG
Source:
BClmecid_I.JPG License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/Tughra_of_Abd%C3%

Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court


calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Ahmed_I.JPG Source:
Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/Tughra_of_Ahmed_I.JPG License:

Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court


calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Ahmed_II.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Tughra_of_Ahmed_II.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.

9.2

Images

11

File:Tughra_of_Ahmed_III.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Tughra_of_Ahmed_III.JPG License:


Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Bayezid_I.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Tughra_of_Bayezid_I.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Bayezid_II.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/Tughra_of_Bayezid_II.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Ibrahim.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Tughra_of_Ibrahim.JPG License: Public
domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Mahmud_I.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Tughra_of_Mahmud_I.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Mahmud_II.JPG Source:
cense: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Tughra_of_Mahmud_II.JPG Li-

Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court


calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Mehmed_I.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Tughra_of_Mehmed_I.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Mehmed_II.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Tughra_of_Mehmed_II.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Mehmed_III.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c8/Tughra_of_Mehmed_III.JPG License: Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Mehmed_IV.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Tughra_of_Mehmed_IV.JPG License: Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Mehmed_V.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/Tughra_of_Mehmed_V.svg License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher. (Vectorised by Fred the Oyster)
File:Tughra_of_Mehmed_VI.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Tughra_of_Mehmed_VI.svg License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher. (Vectorised by Fred the Oyster)
File:Tughra_of_Murad_I.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/Tughra_of_Murad_I.svg License: Public
domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher - vectorized by 0x010C
File:Tughra_of_Murad_II.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Tughra_of_Murad_II.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Murad_III.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Tughra_of_Murad_III.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Murad_IV.svg Source:
Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cf/Tughra_of_Murad_IV.svg License:

12

9 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Tughra_of_Murad_IV.JPG Original artist: Tughra_of_Murad_IV.JPG: Unknown court calligrapher.


File:Tughra_of_Murad_V.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Tughra_of_Murad_V.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Mustafa_I.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/39/Tughra_of_Mustafa_I.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Mustafa_II.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Tughra_of_Mustafa_II.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Mustafa_III.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/Tughra_of_Mustafa_III.JPG License: Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Mustafa_IV.JPG Source:
cense: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c0/Tughra_of_Mustafa_IV.JPG Li-

Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court


calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Orhan.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/23/Tughra_of_Orhan.JPG License: Public
domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Osman_II.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/Tughra_of_Osman_II.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Osman_III.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Tughra_of_Osman_III.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Selim_I.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Tughra_of_Selim_I.JPG License: Public
domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Selim_II.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/Tughra_of_Selim_II.JPG License: Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Selim_III.JPG Source:
Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Tughra_of_Selim_III.JPG License:

Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court


calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Suleiman_II.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Tughra_of_Suleiman_II.JPG License: Public domain Contributors:
Egypt State Information Service: http://www.sis.gov.eg/PDF/Ar/History/0809000000000000210002.pdf Original artist: Unknown court
calligrapher.
File:Tughra_of_Suleiman_I_the_Magnificent.svg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Tughra_of_
Suleiman_I_the_Magnificent.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
Tughra_of_Suleiman_I_the_Magnicent.JPG Original artist: Tughra_of_Suleiman_I_the_Magnicent.JPG: Unknown court calligrapher.
File:Yavuz_Sultan_I._Selim_Han.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/Yavuz_Sultan_I._Selim_Han.
jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.nkfu.com/resimler/yavuz-sultan-selim.jpg Original artist: Konstantin Kapdal
( )

9.3

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