Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

Atoms, Chemical Bonds and Basic Biomolecules

1
!

Assignment #3 - Biological Sciences 102 Animal Biology

STUDENT NAME:
1. What is a macromolecule? List four major different types of basic macromolecules in cells.
A macromolecule is a molecule containing a very large number of atoms. Four major
different types of basic macromolecules in cells are nucleic acids, carbohydrates,
proteins, and lipids.
2. What are the monomer subunits (building block small molecules) of each of the following
macromolecules (polymers): polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids?
The monomer subunits of polysaccharides are chains of sugar monomers linked
together and they are stored inside the cell for future energy use. The monomer
subunits of proteins are amino acids which contain an amine, a carboxyl acid, and a
side chain. The monomer subunits of nucleic acids are nucleotides which contain a
sugar, a base, and a phosphate group.
3. What is the primary structure of a protein?
The primary structure of a protein refers to the linear sequence of amino acids in the
polypeptide chain. The structure is held together by covalent bonds.
4. What is the secondary structure of a protein?
The secondary structure of a protein are alpha-helices and beta-pleated sheets. These
structures are held together by hydrogen bonds.
5. What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
Tertiary structure has a single polypeptide chain with one or more protein secondary
structures.
6. Structurally, how does a monosaccharide differ from a disaccharide? How does a
disaccharide differ from a polysaccharide? Provide ONE specific example of each.
Monosaccharides are only one molecule of sugar while disaccharides are two molecules
of sugar and are joined by either 1-6 glycosidic bonds or beta 1-4 glycosidic bonds.
Disaccharides differ form polysaccharides because polysaccharides are more than
fifteen molecules and they are branched, helical and unbranched.
7. Carbohydrates and lipids are both organic molecules. What is an organic molecule? At the
molecular level how does a carbohydrate differ from a lipid in its structure?
An organic molecule are calculus of life and are built around chains of carbon atoms.
The difference between carbohydrates and lipids are that lipids are made up of
triglyceride molecules,three molecules of one or more different fatty acids are linked to
the alcohol glycerol, while carbohydrates are simple sugars of monosaccharides.
8. List two different reasons why cholesterol is important to the body?
Cholesterol is used to produce the steroid hormones required for normal development
and functioning. These include sex hormones estrogen and progesterone in women and
testosterone in men.
9. What are two different types of nucleic acids? What is a nucleotide? What are the three
basic parts of a nucleotide?
Two different types of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid. A
nucleotide is a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group.
Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids. Three basic parts of a
nucleotide are a sugar, a phosphate, and one of the four bases.

10. Most of the varied functions of cells are due to the activity of proteins. List five different
general functions of proteins in cells.

Atoms, Chemical Bonds and Basic Biomolecules

2
!

Assignment #3 - Biological Sciences 102 Animal Biology


Five different general functions of proteins in cells are repair, maintenance, enzymes,
hormones, and transportation.
11. List the basic functions of each of the following cell organelles: lysosome, Golgi apparatus,
cell nucleus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and flagellum.
Basic functions of lysosomes are release of enzymes outside of the cell, break-down of
materials from inside the cell. Basic functions of Golgi apparatus is to process and
bundle macromolecules like proteins and lipids as they are synthesized within the cell.
Basic functions of the cell nucleus is the information center of the cel. Rough
endoplasmic reticulum functions as transportation and storage. Mitochondria produces
energy through cellular respiration. Flagellum is used for locomotion but also functions
as a sensory organelle.
12. What is a gamete? What are the two different types of gametes produced in humans and
what organs make each of these gametes?
A gamete is a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with
another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote. The two different
types of gametes produced in humans are eggs, made in the uterus, and sperm, made
in testes.
13. How does an ion differ from an isotope?
An ion is an atom with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more
electrons. An isotope is each of two or more forms of the same element that contains
equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei and differ
in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties.
14. How does a covalent chemical bond differ from an ionic chemical bond?
Covalent chemical bond is a form of chemical bonding between two non metallic
atoms which is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms and
other covalent bonds. Ionic bond is a type of bond formed from the electrostatic
attraction between oppositely charged ions in a chemical bond. These kinds of bonds
occur mainly between a metallic and a non metallic atom.
15. Regarding atoms and molecules, what is electronegativity?
Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of
electrons.
16. How does a polar molecule differ from a nonpolar molecule? Why are most lipid molecules
fairly nonpolar?
A polar molecule differs from a non polar molecule because a polar molecule has bonds
that are partly ionic while non polar bonds arise when the electron negativities of the
two atoms are equal. Most lipid molecules are fairly non polar because lipids are
insoluble biomolecules, defined by an overall lac of clarity necessary for solubility in
water-based solutions.
17. Are proteins also peptides? What is the difference between a peptide and a protein?
Proteins are not also peptides. Proteins are made up of polypeptides while peptides are
made from amino acids which make up polypeptides.

Atoms, Chemical Bonds and Basic Biomolecules

3
!

Assignment #3 - Biological Sciences 102 Animal Biology


18. What is the primary structure of a protein? What is the secondary structure of a protein?
How does the tertiary structure of a protein differ from the quaternary structure of a protein?
The primary structure of a protein refers to the linear sequence of amino acids in the
polypeptide chain. The secondary structure of a protein refers to the interaction of the
hydrogen bond donor and acceptor residues of the repeating peptide unite. The two
important secondary structures of proteins are the alpha helix and the beta sheet. The
difference between the tertiary structure and quaternary structure of a protein are that
a tertiary structure is the entire chain with all the Alpha and beta parts together while
quaternary is more than one tertiary structure put together.
19. List 3 differences in the molecular structure of RNA versus DNA.
DNA is double stranded while RNA is only single stranded. The helix geometry of DNA
is of B-Form and RNA is of A-form. In DNA the four nitrogen containing nucleobases
are adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. Although, in RNA four nitrogen
containing nucleobases are uracil, guanine and cytosine.
20. Most of the varied functions of cells are due to the activity of proteins. Given their
structure, explain why proteins are so well suited to providing the regulation of so many
different, but specific chemical reactions.
The many different types of amino acids that make proteins and their shapes is what
give proteins their purpose. All proteins are created specific for their functions
including the different types of enzymes. One enzyme cannot work with a reaction
other that it was made for. Our DNA is the masterpiece of this ingenuity because each
part of our coddle genes codes for specific proteins.