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Electromagnetic waves are the waves in which electric and magnetic fields vary with time and

space with the same frequency. The variations of electric and magnetic fields are sinusoidal in

character and both of them vibrate perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction

of propagation of the wave.

(1) Electromagnetic waves can travel through vacuum.

(2) These waves are produced by accelerated or oscillating electric charge.

(3) The sinusoidal variations of and occur with the same frequency and hence they attain the

maxima and minima at the same time .

(4) The amplitudes of electric and magnetic fields bear a constant ratio of the speed of light i.e.

Eo/Bo = c

(5) The speed of electromagnetic waves is a function of the electric and magnetic properties of

the medium in which these waves travel and is independent of the amplitude of the field vectors.

(6) The velocity of light in free space is given by

Conduction current is the electric current which exists in a conductor when the electrons flow in

the conductor at a uniform rate. So, it is the current in a conductor when the electric field remains

constant with respect to time.

Suppose E is changing w.r.t. time, then is also changing w.r.t. time. In this case the current in the

region is a displacement current (ID).

The current existing between the plates of a parallel plate capacitor is the displacement current.

Note that the conduction current is due to the flow of electrons, whereas the displacement

current is due to displacement of electrons in a time-varying electric field.

The importance of displacement current lies in maintaining a continuity to the path of current

flow through the capacitor.

Example 1.In a region in space, closed loops of are found. What is your conclusion regarding

flowing of actual charges across the area bounded by the loop.

Solution : Just because there are closed loops of present in a region in space, it does not

necessarily imply that actual charges flow across the area bounded by the loop. A displacement

current (such as that between the plates of a parallel-plate capacitor) can also produce loops of .

and dE/dt regarding whether they are non-zero at all points on the loop and in the area

enclosed by the loop.

[Hint: The basic idea is to have a time-varying total electric flux through the area enclosed by

the loop. On the loop, in particular, there should be no electric field]

Amperes Circuital law & Maxwells modification

Maxwells observation : Conduction current I and the displacement current ID together possess

the property of continuity along any closed path. Hence

Remember:

(1) Like conduction current displacement current is also a source of magnetic field.

(2) Even though (I + ID) is always continuous along any closed path, individually I and ID may

not be continuous.

Maxwells equations :( Four basic laws of electricity and magnetism )

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