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When two phases of different compositions are
brought into contact, a transfer of components may
occur from one phase to the other and vice versa. This
is the physical basis of mass transfer. If the two phases
are allowed to remain in contact for a sufficient time,
they will reach an equilibrium where there is no further
net transfer of components between the phases.
Diffusion is the movement, under the influence of a
physical stimulus, of an individual component through
a mixture. The most common cause of diffusion is a
concentration gradient of the diffusing component.
When a concentration gradient exist within a fluid
consisting of two or three components, there is a
tendency for each constituent to flow in such a
direction as to reduce the concentration; this process is
known as mass transfer.

Molecular diffusion is concerned with the

movement of individual molecules through a substance
by virtue of their thermal energy.
The rate of transfer of A in a mixture of two
components A and B, will be determined not only by
the rate of diffusion of A but also by the behaviour of
B. The molar rate of transfer of A per unit area, due to
molecular motion, is given by the equation:
NA = - DAB dCA/dy ( 1 )
Where N is the rate of diffusion ( mol/area(time) )
DAB is the diffusivity of A in solution in B. CA is the molar
concentration of A, y is the distance in the direction of
diffusion. The corresponding rate of diffusion of B is
given by :
NB = - DBA dCB /dy (2)
Where DBA is the diffusivity of B in A.
The negative sign indicates that diffusion occurs in the
direction of a drop in concentration. Equations 1 and 2
are known as Ficks law.
If the total pressure and hence the total molar
concentration is anywhere constant, dCA/dy and

dCB/dy must be equal and opposite and therefore A

and B tend to diffuse in opposite directions. In a
distillation process where the two components have
equal molar latent heats, condensation of one mole of
the less volatile material releases sufficient heat for the
vaporisation of one mole of the more volatile
component, and therefore equimolar counter diffusion
takes place with two components diffusing at equal
and opposite rates.
When the fluid is turbulent, eddy or turbulent
diffusion takes place in addition to molecular and the
rate of diffusion is increased and can be written as:
NA = - ( DAB + ED)dCA/dy 3
Two components diffusing at equal and opposite rates.
Suppose two vapours A and B are diffusing at equal
and opposite rates and PA and PB are their partial
pressures at any point in the system. If A and B are
ideal gases, we can write:
PAV = nART and PBV = nBRT
Where: nA and nB are the number of moles of A and B
in a volume V, so that:

PA = nA RT = CA RT = cA RT 4


PB = nB RT = CBRT = cB RT 5


Where cA and cB are mass concentrations, and MA and

MB are molecular weights of components A and B
respectively. If the total pressure P is everywhere
constant in the system, from equations 4 and 5 we can
P = PA + PB = RT( CA + CB) = RT( cA + cB )
P = RT( CT )
If the total pressure P is everywhere constant
in the system, from equations 3(a) and 3(b) we can get
P = PA + PB = RT (CA + CB) = RT(CA/MA + CB/MB) ..(4)
P = RT(CT) .. (4a)
Where CT is the sum of the molar concentration of A
and B
So that
dPA/dy = - dPB/dy 5(a)
dCA/dy = - dCB/dy . 5(b)

dCA/dy = -dCB/dy . MA/MB 5(c)

By substituting from equations 3(a) and 3(b) into
equations 1(a) and 1(b), the mass transfer rate can be
expressed in terms of partial pressure gradients rather
than concentration gradients.
NA = - DAB/RT . dPA/dy 6(a)
And NB = -DBA/RT . dPA/dy = + DBA/RT . dPA/dy . 6(b)
By eqn. 5(a)
In equimolecular counter diffusion, the total pressure
at any point in the system will remain constant as a
result of diffusion, and therefore equal numbers of
molecules will diffuse in each direction.
i.e. NA = - NB
So that DAB = DBA = D ...


from eqn. 6(a) and 6(b)

NA = - D dCA/dy = + D/RT dPA/dy 7(b)
Integrating at two different points gives
NA = - D (CA2 CA1)/y2 y1 8(a)
Or in terms of pressure
NA = - D (PA2 PA1)/RT (y2 y1) .. 8(b)


The second type of simple mass transfer is called
diffusion through a stationary gas. It involves both
molecular transport and bulk flow. Diffusion through
stationary gas occurs when one boundary of the
diffusion system is permeable to only one component.
As a result there is no net movement of the other
component, which is said to be stationary. In gas
absorption diffusion through a stationary gas occurs,
For example, absorption of ammonia from an air
ammonia mixture by water.
The rate of diffusion of A and B are given by
equations 7(a) and 7(b). If a surface is introduced on
which A is absorbed but B is not, the partial pressure
gradient will be set up causing A to diffuse towards and
B away from the surface. Let us imagine the process
continued for a short interval. A will be absorbed at the
surface and B will try to diffuse away and therefore a
total pressure gradient will be produced causing a bulk
motion of A and B towards the surface, in addition to
the surface by diffusion since there is net motion of B,

the bulk rate of flow must exactly balance its transfer

of diffusion.

Surface absorbing

Diffusion of A

Bulk flow of A
Diffusion of B
Bulk flow of B
Thus the bulk rate of flow of B = - NB
= - D dCA/dy
The Bulk flow of B is accompanied by bulk flow of A
Bulk flow of A = -NB. CA/CB
= -D dCA/dy . CA/( CT CA) ..(9)
The total rate of transfer of A is obtained by summing
the transfer by diffusion and bulk flow
CT = CA + CB
Thus by adding 7(a) and 7(b), the total transfer NA is
given by
NA1 = -D dCA/dy D dCA/dy CA/CT CA
= - D dCA/dy . CT/CT CA .. (10)

This is known as Stefans law integration of

equation(10) between (1) & (2)
NA1 = DG/y2 y1 in CT CA2/CT CA1 (11)
= - D/y2 y1 . CT/(CT CA)m (CA2 CA1)
(CT CA)m = (CT CA1) (CT CA2)
NA1 = -D/y2 y1 . CT/CBM (CA2 CA1).. 11(a)
= -D/RT(y2 y1) . P/Pam (PA2 - PA1) . 11(b)
Where the suffix m denote the log mean value of the
quantity at the positions (1) and (2)
Equation (11) can be simplified when the
concentration of the component A is small. Under
these conditions CA is small compared with the total
concentration CT then equation 11 gives
NA1 = DCT/y2 in(1 (CA2 CA1/CT CA1)
= DCT/y2 y1 (-(CA2 CA1/CT CA1) (CA2 CA1/CT CA)
For small values pf CA, this reduces to
NA1 = - D/y2 y1 (CA2 CA1) .. (12)

This eqn (12) is identical to eqn8(a) for equimolecular

counter diffusion. Thus the effect of bulk flow can be
neglected at low concentrations.

Ammonia gas is diffusing at a constant rate through a
layer of stagnant air 1mm thick. Conditions are fixed so
that the gas contain 50% by volume of ammonia at one
boundary of the stagnant air. The ammonia diffusing to
the other boundary is quickly absorbed and the
concentration is negligible at that plane. The
temperature is 295Ok and atmospheric pressure and
under these conditions the diffusivity of ammonia in air
is 0.18an2/sec. Calculate the rate of diffusion of
ammonia through the air.
Let subscript 1 and 2 refer to the two sides of the
stagnant layer and subscript A and B refer to air and
ammonia respectively.

Assumption: Consider an Ideal gas. The appropriate

equation is
NA = -D/RT(y2 y1) . P/PBM (PA2 PA1)
Take R = 8.314 KJ/(Kmol)(k)
P = 101.3 KN/m3
PA1 = xPT where x = mole fraction
PA1 = 103.3 x 0.5 = 50.65(KN/m2)
D = 0.18 (cm2/s)
PA2 = 0
Y2 Y1 = 1mm = 1x10-3m
PBM = PB2 PB1/In PB2/PB1
= +50.65/In 101/50.65 = 73.07(KN/m2)
PB1 = P PA1
= 101.3 50.65
= 50.65(KN/m2)
PB2 = P PA2
PA2 = 0
... PB2 = 101.3 0 = 101.3(KN/m2)
D = 0.18cm2/s = 0.18 x 10-4m2/s
P B1M = 73.07(KN/m2)

WA = -0.18 x 10-4 / 8.314 x 293x10-3 x 101.3/73.07 x (0

= 5.15 x 10-4(Kmol/(m2)(s)
A simple rectifying column consist of a tube, arranged
vertically and supplied at the button with a mixture of
bezene and toluene as vapour. At the top, a condenser
returns some of the products as are flux which flows in
a thin film down the inner walls of the tube. The tube is
insulated and heat loss can be neglected. At one point
of the column, the vapour contains 70% by mole of
benzene and the adjacent liquid reflux contains 59%
benzene. The temperature at this point is 365ok.
assuming the diffusional resistance to water vapour
transfer to be equivalent to the diffusional resistance
of a stagnant vapour layer of 0.2mm2 thick, calculate
the rate of interchange of benzene and toluene
between vapour and liquid. The molar latent heats of
the two materials can be taken as equal. The vapour
pressure of toluene at 365oK is 54KN/m2 and the
diffusivity of the vapour is 0.051 cm2/s.

Take liquid surface as point, 1 and the vapour side of

the stagnant layer as point 2. This relates to equation
of equimolecular counter diffusion. From equation 8(b)
NA = - D( PA1 - PA2 )
RT( y1 y2 )
D = 0.051 cm2/s = 0.051x 10-4 m2/s
Denote B = benzene and T = Toluene
T = 365OK
R = 8.314 KJ/(Kmol)k
Y2- y1 = 0.2mm = 0.2x10-3m
For toluene :
NT = D ( PT2 PT1 )
RT(y2 y1)
PT1 = ( 1 0.59) x 54
=22.14 ( KN/m2)
PT2 = ( 1 0.7) x 101.3
= 30.39 ( KN/m2)
NT = - 0.051 x 10-4( 30.39 22.14 )
8.314 x365 x0.2 x10-3
= - 6.93 x 10-3 (kmol/(m2)s )

The opposite signs indicate that the two fluids are

diffusing in same magnitude but in opposite directions.
From equation 8a and 8b,
NA = - D( CA2 CA1 )/ (y2 y1) ..8(a)
NA = - D( PA2 PA1)/ RT( y2 y1 ) 8(b)
We can write from 8(a)
NA = - D CA2 CA1 = hD ( CA1 CA2) (13)
Y2 y1
Where hD = D/ y2 -y1
From 8(b)
NA = KG( PA1 PA2 ) .13(a)
Where KG = D/RT(y2 y1 )
hD and kG are mass transfer coefficients. For diffusion
through a stationary gas B, from equation 11a:
NA = - D CA2 CA1 x CT = hD [ CA2 CA1 ] . 14
y2 y1


where hD = D CA2 CA1 x CT

y2 y1


= KG ( PA2 PA1 ) 14 a
Thus NA = CT = KG ..15


Where CA is small compared with CT, it is seen by

comparing equation 8 and 12 that the rate of transfer
of A is the same for equimolar counter diffusion as is
for diffusion through a stationary gas.


Diffusivities of vapours are most conveniently
determined by the method developed by
WINKELMANN. Liquid is allowed to evaporate in a
vertical glass tube over the top of which a stream of
vapour free gas flows, sufficiently rapid for the vapour
pressure to be maintained almost at zero. If the
apparatus is maintained at a steady temperature, there
will be no eddy currents in the vertical tubes and mass
transfer will take place from the surface by molecular
diffusion alone. The rate of evaporation can be
followed by the rate of fall of the liquid surface, and

since the concentration gradient is known, the

diffusivity can then be calculated.


In many cases, the diffusivity D for the transfer of one

gas in another may not be known and experimental
determination may be practicable. Many attempts
have been made to express D in terms of the physical
properties and the following empirical equations of
MAXWELLS modified by GILLILAND gives satisfactory
agreement with the observed figures:
D = 4.3 T1.5 ( 1/MA + 1/MB )
P ( VA1/3 + VB1/3 )2
Where D = diffusivity in cm2/s
T = absolute temperature in kelvin
MA and MB = molecular weight of A and B.

P = total pressure in N/m2

VA, VB = molecular volumes of A and B.
The molecular volume is the volume in m3 of 1 kgmol
of the material in the form of liquid at its boiling point
and is a mixture of the volume occupied by the
molecules themselves. It may not always be known,
but an appropriate value can be obtained by the
application of KOPPS law of additive volumes. Kopp
gave a particular value for the equivalent atomic
volume of each element. When the atomic volumes
of the elements of the molecule in question are added
in their appropriate proportion, the equivalent
molecular volumes is obtained approximately.

In correction the rate of heat transfer from solid
boundary to a fluid is
Q = Ahc (Ts - T) Ts > T
Where hc = heat transfer coefficient

h = f(, , k, Cp, D, U)

where = density
= fluid viscosity
k = thermal conductivity
Cp = Heat capacity
D = dimension
U = velocity of flow
Transport of heat between a solid
boundary and a fluid takes place by
conduction and mass transport. If the
boundary is at a higher temperature than the
fluid, heat flows first by conduction from the
olid to the fluid particles. This transmitted
energy increases the internal energy of the
fluid and is carried away by the motion of the
fluid. When the heated particles reach the
region of lower temperature. They transfer

the heat. Convection is the mode of heat

transfer closely linked with fluid motion and
so is necessary to study the fluid behavior and
motion. It is necessary to establish whether
the fluid is laminar or streamline flow. The
fluid moves in layers, the particle follows a
smooth and continuous path. The particles in
a layer remain in an orderly sequence without
crossing one another.
E.g. Soldiers on a parade provide an analogy
to this. They march along well defined lines
one behind the other and maintain the order
even when they turn over a corner and pass
over an obstacle.
Turbulent flow resembles a crowd of a
commuters at a railroad station during the
rush hour. The general head of motion is from
the gate to the train but superimposed on this
are the derivations of individuals as per their
instantaneous direction and the ability to pass
the less agile members of the crowd.

However, if the statistical average is taken it

could be steady and regular.
When a fluid is laminar motion along a
surface at a temperature different from that
of the fluid, heat is transferred from the
surface by molecular conduction. In turbulent
flow, conduction mechanism is aided by
eddies which carry lumps of fluid across the
streamlines. These act as carriers of energy
and transfer energy by mixing with other
particles of fluid. An increase in the rate of
mixing results in an increase of heat transfer.
The fluid motion can be induced in two ways.

Free or national convection as in the case of

water heated on a stove or like the air heated in a


The second type of motion is by an external

agency like a pump or a blower. Cooling of an
automobile by blowing air by a fan on the radiator
is an example of forced convection.


When a fluid flows along a surface the particles

within the vicinity of the surface are slowed down. The
particles adjacent to the surface stick to it and will have
zero velocity. The rest of the particles attempting to
slide over these surfaces are slowed down due to
viscous shear in streamline flow. In turbulent flow,
lumps fluid particles cause the shear. A short distance
from the surface, the velocity of the particles
approaches that of the free stream. The fluid contained
in the region of substantial velocity change is called a
hydrodynamic boundary layer. The thickness of the
boundary layer is the distance from the leading edge at
which the local velocity approaches 99% of the free
The velocity profile near the leading edge are in
the laminar boundary layer. The flow within the
boundary layer remains laminar only for a certain
distance from the leading edge and then becomes
turbulent. There are always small disturbances, but as
long as the viscous forces are large and dominate the
inertia forces, they prevent disturbances from growing.
As the laminar layer keeps increasing, the ratio of
viscous to inertia forces decreases and eventually a
point is reached where the disturbances will not decay
but grow with time. Then the boundary layer becomes
unstable and the transition from laminar to turbulent

flow begins. Eddies and vortexes are formed and

destroy the laminar regularity of the boundary layer
motion. Quasi-laminar motion exist only in the thin
immediate vicinity of the surface which is known as
laminar sub-layer. The region between laminar sublayer and fully developed turbulent layer is called
buffer layer.

The boundary layer (B.L.) divides the flow the flow field
into two domains: a region where the velocity gradient
is great and region where the velocity gradient is
nearly equal the free stream velocity and the effects of
viscosity are negligible. For some distance the flow is
laminar and later it is turbulent. Even in turbulent flow
there is a laminar sub-layer. The distance from the
leading edge at which the boundary layer becomes
turbulent is called the critical length Xc. It is specified in
terms of the local Reynolds number, known as the
critical Reynolds number.

Critical Reynolds number = U Xcf/

= inertia force/viscous
= DU/
The point of transition depends upon : the surface
roughness, disturbance levels and even heat transfer.
When the flow is calm, no disturbances occur, then
laminar flow is possible even at Reynolds number of 5
106. If the surface is rough and disturbances are
introduced into the flow, the flow becomes turbulent
at a Reynolds number of 8 104. Under average
conditions, the flow over the plate becomes turbulent
at a distance from the leading edge where the local
Reynolds number is 5 105.
Consider a body of fluid in laminar flow over a flat plate
of cross sectional area A. We define the following:
Tw = temperature of the wall (plate).
T = temperature of the free stream fluid.
t = thickness of the wall at which the free stream
attain the body fluid temperature.

t = the imaginary thickness in which the fluid flows by

conduction(i.e heat transfer is by conduction,
otherwise it is by convection).
Q = h A ( Tw - T ) = - K A T/ y
h L/K = - ( T/y)w/ (Tw - T/L)
The quantity h L/K = Nusset number or Nusset
modulus. This quantity is also refered to as Biot
number. Nusset number is used only im convection
while Biot number is used im lumped heat transfer


Consider an elemental control volume inside a thermal
boundary layer. A few assumptions are made which
(a) The thermal conductivity and specific heat of
the fluid are constant.
(b) The heat flow is in the y-direction and is
negligible in the x-direction
The energy balance is:
Energy in = Energy out

The following equations results from the

derivations which are omitted here.
Blassius plotted values of u/u and y/x(ux/
) and obtained a curve. At the point where the
ratio of u/u approaches that of the free
stream velocity i.e 99%, the abscissae becomes
/x Re = 5.0, or
= 5.0 x/Rex
u = velocity at a particular point of interest.
u = free stream velocity.
Shear stress = s = 0.332 u/xRex
Drag coefficient = s /(u2/2) = 0.664/Rex
This is termed as local drag coefficient or local
friction coefficient.
Average drag coefficient over a length L = Cf
= 1/LL0 Cfx. dx
= 1.33/ReL
Thickness of thermal boundary layer
= th = /Pr1/3
Where Pr = Prandtl number = Cp/K

K = thermal conductivity
The thickness of the thermal boundary layer th
is the distance from the surface at which the
temperature difference between the wall and
the fluid approaches 99% of the difference in
temperature between the wall and the free
By knowing hydrodynamics
characteristics we can obtain information for the
heat transfer characteristics.
Analogous to the hydrodynamic case, the
thermal boundary layer thickness t is defined
as the distance required for the temperature T
to reach 99% of its free value T. The following
assumptions apply:
(a) Steady incompressible flow.
(b) Constant fluid properties evaluated at film
(c) Negligible body forces, viscous heating(low
velocity) and conduction in flow direction.
Q/A = - K [ T/ y ]|y=0 = 0.332 (K/x) Re1/2
Pr1/3 (T - Tw)


Total heat transferred from plate width b and
length L is: 0.664 (Tw - T) KRe1/2Pr1/3b
The heat transfer coefficient:
hcx = Q / A ( Tw - T)
= 0.332 k/x Rex1/2 Pr1/3
Local Nusselt number is denoted as Nux
Nux = hc x/k
= 0.332 Rex1/2 Pr1/3
Average Nusselt number is derived from
integrating from 0 to L. L0
hcx = Q/A( Tw - T)
= 0.332(K/x)Rex1/2Pr1/3 (local average)
hc = Q / 6( Tw - T)
= 0.664 ReL1/2Pr1/3(k/2L ) (average)


Air at 15.5OC and 1 atmosphere pressure is

flowing over a plate at a velocity of 6m/s. The
plate is 0.6m wide and at 60oC. Calculate at: x=
0.6m and x= xc
(a) Boundary layer thickness
(b) Local friction coefficient
(c) Average friction coefficient
(d) Local drag stress.
(e) Thickness of thermal boundary layer.
(f) Local convective heat transfer
(g) Average convective heat transfer
(h) Rate of heat transfer by convection.
= 1.137 kg/m2
Cp = 103 kg/kgok
= 1.861 10-5
k = 0.027 w/mk
ReNO at x = 0.6m
(a) Re 0.6 = UX

= 6 x 1.137x 0.6
1.861 x 10-5

= 2.19 x 10-5
At x = xc = critical distance ( exists at NRE = 5 x 105 )
XC = 5 x 105 x
U = 6m
6 x 1.137
= 1.34m
= 5x
At x = 0.6m
= 5 x 0.6
2.19 x 105
= 6.41 x 10-3
At xc = 1.34m
= 5 x 1.34
5 x 105
= 0.009
(b) Local friction coefficient

Cfx = 0.664
At x = 0.6, Cfx = 0.664
2.19 x 105
= 1.4 x 10-3
At x = 1.34
Cfx = 0.664
5 x 105
= 9.39 x 10-4
( c) average friction coefficient
At x = 0.6m, Cf = 2Cfx = 2 x 1.4 x 10-3
At x = 1.34m, Cfx = 2 x 9.39 x 10-4
= 18.78 x 10-6
(d) s = 0.332 U Rexx
At x = 0.6m
s = 0.332 x 6 x 1.861x10-5 2.19x105
= 0.029
At x = 1.34m

s = 0.332 x 6 x 1.861x10-5 5x105

= 0.019
(e) th = / Pr1/3
Pr = 0.69 = Cp/k
Pr1/3 = 0.691/3 = 0.854
At x = 0.6m
th = 6.39x 10-3 = 7.23x 10-3
At x = 1.34m
th = 0.009 = 0.012
(f) Local convective heat coefficient
The local Nusselt number Nux is given as:
Nux = hc x/k = 0.332 Rex1/2Pr1/3
hcx/k = 0.332 Re1/2 Pr1/3
To calculate the Prandtl number
Pr = Cp/k
Pr = 103 x 1.86 x10-5 = 0.69

Pr1/3 = 0.691/3

= 0.884

At x = 0.6m
Nusselt number:
Nux = 0.332 Re1/2 Pr1/3
= 0.332x( 2.19x105)x 0.884 = 137.34
hcx/k = 137.34
hc = 137.34 x k
= 137.34 x 0.027
= 6.18 w/m2s
At x = 1.34m
Nusselt number :
Nux = 0.332 Rex1/2Pr1/3
= 0.332x (5x 105)x 0.884
= 207.53
hcx = 207.53x 0.027
= 4.182 w/m2s
(g) Average convective heat coefficient

At x = 0.6m
hc = 0.664 Rex1/2Pr1/3 k/x
= 0.664x(2.19 x105)x0.884x0.022/0.6
= 12.36w/m2s = 2x the local
At x = 1.34m
hc = 2x 4.182
= 8.364 w/m2s = 2x 4.182
= 8.364 w/m2s = 2 x local value
(h) Rate of heat transfer by convection:
The total heat transferred is given by:
Q = h A ( Tw - T)
Where the average value obtained by calculation
Q/A = h( Tw - T)
At x = 0.6m
Q/A = 12.6 ( 60 15.55)
= 560 watts
At x = 1.34m
Q/A = 8.364(60 15.55)
= 372.19 watts
Heat transfer rate:

Qc = 0.664 k Re1/2Pr1/3( Tw - T)
At x = 0.6m
Qc = 329.67 watts
At x = 1.34m
Qc = 0.664 x 0.027x( 5x105)x0.884x(60 15.55)
=498 watts
Q 1. Nitrous oxide gas diffuses at a constant rate
through a stagnant layer of air 1.2mm thick.
Conditions are fixed so that the gas contain 45% by
volume of nitrous oxide at one boundary of the
stagnant air. The nitrous oxide diffusing to the other
boundary is quickly absorbed and the concentration is
negligible at that plane. The temperature is 293k and
atmospheric pressure. Under these conditions, the
diffusion of nitrous oxide gas in air is 0.20cm2/sec .
Calculate the rate of diffusion of nitrous oxide gas
through the air.
Q 2 (a) Explain the following:


Hydrodynamic boundary layer.

(ii) Thermal boundary layer

(b) Glycerin at 25oC flows over a flat plate 0.5m
wide at a pressure of 1 atmosphere. The velocity of
glycerin is given as 4 m/s. Determine at X=0.5 and X=Xc

Hydrodynamic boundary layer.

Thickness of Thermal boundary layer
Local friction coefficient
Nusselt number
= 1.o15 kg/m3
Cp = 1.5103
=2.0510-5 kg/m.s
k = 0.036 w/m.s

A heat exchanger is any device that effects the transfer
of thermal energy from one fluid to another. In the
simplest exchangers the hot and cold fluids mix
directly; more common are those in which the fluids
are separated by a plane wall. This type, called a
recuperator, may range from a simple plane wall

between two flowing fluids to complex configurations

involving multiple passes, fins, or baffles. In this case
conductive and convective heat transfer, and
sometimes radiation, principles are required to
describe the energy exchange process.
Many factors enter into the design of heat
exchangers, including thermal analysis, size, weight,
structural strength, pressure drop and cost.
Common heat exchangers include the flat- plate, shelland-tube and crossflow types. A double-pipe
exchanger, the simplest form of the shell-and tube
type, is shown in figure below.




Counter Flow

If the fluids both flow in the same direction, it is

referred to as a parallel,-flow type; if they flow in
opposite directions, a counter flow.

In crossflow heat exchangers the fluid flows at right

angles to each other. The sketch below show a
schematic diagram of a counter-flow heat exchanger.



Counter Flow


hot fluid



cold fluid



T1> T2 since hot fluid is losing heat.

t1> t2 since cold fluid is picking up heat.

In the case of countercurrent flow, the difference in

temperature between the two ends of the heat
exchange is almost equal.
In the case of parallel or co-current flow , the
difference in temperature between the two ends is
= (){ }
Now Q is highly dependent on t
In the case of a countercurrent heat exchange the unit
surface will be transferring the same amount of heat
through the length of the exchanger whereas in the
case of a parallel heat exchanger, a unit surface of the
exchanger at the inlet will be transferring more
heat/unit surface than at the exit.
Considering the total amount of heat the heat
exchanger transfers, the counter current flow is better
than the parallel flow heat exchanger.
Assumptions for the derivation of log mean
temperature for counter current flow.
1. U is constant over the entire length of the
2. The flow rates of the fluid are constant.

3. The specific heats of the fluids are constant.

4. There is no change of phase during the period
of heat transfer.
5. There is negligible heat loss.
Consider the surface area of, the heat transferis
given as
= ( )
= ()( )

( mark)
( )

( )

( )

= ( ) {
( )
( )

[ln( )] =

(1 2 )
2 1 )

[ln (

= (1 2 ) = (2 1 )

1 2

2 1


= [(1 2 ) (2 1 )]

{(1 2 ) (2 1 )}

(1 2 )
= [(1 2 ) (2 1 )]
2 1

[(1 2 ) (2 1 )]

ln( 1 2 )
2 1

(1 2 ) (2 1 )

() = [

ln( 1 2)
2 1

= ()

1 2

ln 1

1 = 1 2
2 = 2 1