0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

7 Aufrufe40 Seitentransport phenomena

Sep 26, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

transport phenomena

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

7 Aufrufe

transport phenomena

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- yu.docx
- Boundary Layer
- Experiment 9 New
- FPE
- Enhanced Turbulence Model in FloEFD
- fm
- Local Correlation
- sensors-12-14292
- Shear
- Turbulence 1
- AIAA Journal. Vol. 1 3 Issue 1 (1963)
- 2010_CiS_papers.pdf
- Water Resources Engineering
- Laminar
- 1993_Menter_Zonal Two Equation k-w Turbulence Models for Aerodynamic Flows(2).pdf
- Zhou Dissertation
- Lucy Bennett.pdf
- Reynolds No
- Bedforms Slides
- Fixity

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 40

When two phases of different compositions are

brought into contact, a transfer of components may

occur from one phase to the other and vice versa. This

is the physical basis of mass transfer. If the two phases

are allowed to remain in contact for a sufficient time,

they will reach an equilibrium where there is no further

net transfer of components between the phases.

DIFFUSION

Diffusion is the movement, under the influence of a

physical stimulus, of an individual component through

a mixture. The most common cause of diffusion is a

concentration gradient of the diffusing component.

MOLECULAR DIFFUSION AND TURBULENT OR EDDY

DIFFUSION

When a concentration gradient exist within a fluid

consisting of two or three components, there is a

tendency for each constituent to flow in such a

direction as to reduce the concentration; this process is

known as mass transfer.

movement of individual molecules through a substance

by virtue of their thermal energy.

FICKS LAW OF DIFFUSION

The rate of transfer of A in a mixture of two

components A and B, will be determined not only by

the rate of diffusion of A but also by the behaviour of

B. The molar rate of transfer of A per unit area, due to

molecular motion, is given by the equation:

NA = - DAB dCA/dy ( 1 )

Where N is the rate of diffusion ( mol/area(time) )

DAB is the diffusivity of A in solution in B. CA is the molar

concentration of A, y is the distance in the direction of

diffusion. The corresponding rate of diffusion of B is

given by :

NB = - DBA dCB /dy (2)

Where DBA is the diffusivity of B in A.

The negative sign indicates that diffusion occurs in the

direction of a drop in concentration. Equations 1 and 2

are known as Ficks law.

If the total pressure and hence the total molar

concentration is anywhere constant, dCA/dy and

and B tend to diffuse in opposite directions. In a

distillation process where the two components have

equal molar latent heats, condensation of one mole of

the less volatile material releases sufficient heat for the

vaporisation of one mole of the more volatile

component, and therefore equimolar counter diffusion

takes place with two components diffusing at equal

and opposite rates.

When the fluid is turbulent, eddy or turbulent

diffusion takes place in addition to molecular and the

rate of diffusion is increased and can be written as:

NA = - ( DAB + ED)dCA/dy 3

DIFFUSION IN GAS PHASE

EQUIMOLECULAR COUNTER DIFFUSION

Two components diffusing at equal and opposite rates.

Suppose two vapours A and B are diffusing at equal

and opposite rates and PA and PB are their partial

pressures at any point in the system. If A and B are

ideal gases, we can write:

PAV = nART and PBV = nBRT

Where: nA and nB are the number of moles of A and B

in a volume V, so that:

PA = nA RT = CA RT = cA RT 4

V

MA

PB = nB RT = CBRT = cB RT 5

V

MB

MB are molecular weights of components A and B

respectively. If the total pressure P is everywhere

constant in the system, from equations 4 and 5 we can

get:

P = PA + PB = RT( CA + CB) = RT( cA + cB )

MA MB

P = RT( CT )

If the total pressure P is everywhere constant

in the system, from equations 3(a) and 3(b) we can get

P = PA + PB = RT (CA + CB) = RT(CA/MA + CB/MB) ..(4)

P = RT(CT) .. (4a)

Where CT is the sum of the molar concentration of A

and B

So that

dPA/dy = - dPB/dy 5(a)

dCA/dy = - dCB/dy . 5(b)

and

By substituting from equations 3(a) and 3(b) into

equations 1(a) and 1(b), the mass transfer rate can be

expressed in terms of partial pressure gradients rather

than concentration gradients.

Thus

NA = - DAB/RT . dPA/dy 6(a)

And NB = -DBA/RT . dPA/dy = + DBA/RT . dPA/dy . 6(b)

By eqn. 5(a)

In equimolecular counter diffusion, the total pressure

at any point in the system will remain constant as a

result of diffusion, and therefore equal numbers of

molecules will diffuse in each direction.

i.e. NA = - NB

So that DAB = DBA = D ...

7(a)

Thus

NA = - D dCA/dy = + D/RT dPA/dy 7(b)

Integrating at two different points gives

NA = - D (CA2 CA1)/y2 y1 8(a)

Or in terms of pressure

NA = - D (PA2 PA1)/RT (y2 y1) .. 8(b)

The second type of simple mass transfer is called

diffusion through a stationary gas. It involves both

molecular transport and bulk flow. Diffusion through

stationary gas occurs when one boundary of the

diffusion system is permeable to only one component.

As a result there is no net movement of the other

component, which is said to be stationary. In gas

absorption diffusion through a stationary gas occurs,

For example, absorption of ammonia from an air

ammonia mixture by water.

The rate of diffusion of A and B are given by

equations 7(a) and 7(b). If a surface is introduced on

which A is absorbed but B is not, the partial pressure

gradient will be set up causing A to diffuse towards and

B away from the surface. Let us imagine the process

continued for a short interval. A will be absorbed at the

surface and B will try to diffuse away and therefore a

total pressure gradient will be produced causing a bulk

motion of A and B towards the surface, in addition to

the surface by diffusion since there is net motion of B,

of diffusion.

Surface absorbing

Diffusion of A

Bulk flow of A

Diffusion of B

Bulk flow of B

Thus the bulk rate of flow of B = - NB

= - D dCA/dy

The Bulk flow of B is accompanied by bulk flow of A

Bulk flow of A = -NB. CA/CB

= -D dCA/dy . CA/( CT CA) ..(9)

The total rate of transfer of A is obtained by summing

the transfer by diffusion and bulk flow

CT = CA + CB

Thus by adding 7(a) and 7(b), the total transfer NA is

given by

NA1 = -D dCA/dy D dCA/dy CA/CT CA

= - D dCA/dy . CT/CT CA .. (10)

equation(10) between (1) & (2)

NA1 = DG/y2 y1 in CT CA2/CT CA1 (11)

= - D/y2 y1 . CT/(CT CA)m (CA2 CA1)

Where

(CT CA)m = (CT CA1) (CT CA2)

In CT CA1/CT CA2

NA1 = -D/y2 y1 . CT/CBM (CA2 CA1).. 11(a)

= -D/RT(y2 y1) . P/Pam (PA2 - PA1) . 11(b)

Where the suffix m denote the log mean value of the

quantity at the positions (1) and (2)

Equation (11) can be simplified when the

concentration of the component A is small. Under

these conditions CA is small compared with the total

concentration CT then equation 11 gives

NA1 = DCT/y2 in(1 (CA2 CA1/CT CA1)

= DCT/y2 y1 (-(CA2 CA1/CT CA1) (CA2 CA1/CT CA)

For small values pf CA, this reduces to

NA1 = - D/y2 y1 (CA2 CA1) .. (12)

counter diffusion. Thus the effect of bulk flow can be

neglected at low concentrations.

PROBLEM 1

Ammonia gas is diffusing at a constant rate through a

layer of stagnant air 1mm thick. Conditions are fixed so

that the gas contain 50% by volume of ammonia at one

boundary of the stagnant air. The ammonia diffusing to

the other boundary is quickly absorbed and the

concentration is negligible at that plane. The

temperature is 295Ok and atmospheric pressure and

under these conditions the diffusivity of ammonia in air

is 0.18an2/sec. Calculate the rate of diffusion of

ammonia through the air.

SOLUTION

Let subscript 1 and 2 refer to the two sides of the

stagnant layer and subscript A and B refer to air and

ammonia respectively.

equation is

NA = -D/RT(y2 y1) . P/PBM (PA2 PA1)

Take R = 8.314 KJ/(Kmol)(k)

P = 101.3 KN/m3

PA1 = xPT where x = mole fraction

PA1 = 103.3 x 0.5 = 50.65(KN/m2)

D = 0.18 (cm2/s)

PA2 = 0

Y2 Y1 = 1mm = 1x10-3m

PBM = PB2 PB1/In PB2/PB1

= +50.65/In 101/50.65 = 73.07(KN/m2)

PB1 = P PA1

= 101.3 50.65

= 50.65(KN/m2)

PB2 = P PA2

PA2 = 0

... PB2 = 101.3 0 = 101.3(KN/m2)

D = 0.18cm2/s = 0.18 x 10-4m2/s

P B1M = 73.07(KN/m2)

50.65)

= 5.15 x 10-4(Kmol/(m2)(s)

PROBLEM 2

A simple rectifying column consist of a tube, arranged

vertically and supplied at the button with a mixture of

bezene and toluene as vapour. At the top, a condenser

returns some of the products as are flux which flows in

a thin film down the inner walls of the tube. The tube is

insulated and heat loss can be neglected. At one point

of the column, the vapour contains 70% by mole of

benzene and the adjacent liquid reflux contains 59%

benzene. The temperature at this point is 365ok.

assuming the diffusional resistance to water vapour

transfer to be equivalent to the diffusional resistance

of a stagnant vapour layer of 0.2mm2 thick, calculate

the rate of interchange of benzene and toluene

between vapour and liquid. The molar latent heats of

the two materials can be taken as equal. The vapour

pressure of toluene at 365oK is 54KN/m2 and the

diffusivity of the vapour is 0.051 cm2/s.

SOLUTION

the stagnant layer as point 2. This relates to equation

of equimolecular counter diffusion. From equation 8(b)

NA = - D( PA1 - PA2 )

RT( y1 y2 )

D = 0.051 cm2/s = 0.051x 10-4 m2/s

Denote B = benzene and T = Toluene

T = 365OK

R = 8.314 KJ/(Kmol)k

Y2- y1 = 0.2mm = 0.2x10-3m

For toluene :

NT = D ( PT2 PT1 )

RT(y2 y1)

PT1 = ( 1 0.59) x 54

=22.14 ( KN/m2)

PT2 = ( 1 0.7) x 101.3

= 30.39 ( KN/m2)

NT = - 0.051 x 10-4( 30.39 22.14 )

8.314 x365 x0.2 x10-3

= - 6.93 x 10-3 (kmol/(m2)s )

diffusing in same magnitude but in opposite directions.

COMPARISON OF RATE OF MASS TRANSFER IN

EQIUMOLECULAR COUNTER- DIFFUSION AND IN

DIFFUSION THROUGH A STATIONARY GAS

From equation 8a and 8b,

NA = - D( CA2 CA1 )/ (y2 y1) ..8(a)

NA = - D( PA2 PA1)/ RT( y2 y1 ) 8(b)

We can write from 8(a)

NA = - D CA2 CA1 = hD ( CA1 CA2) (13)

Y2 y1

Where hD = D/ y2 -y1

From 8(b)

NA = KG( PA1 PA2 ) .13(a)

Where KG = D/RT(y2 y1 )

hD and kG are mass transfer coefficients. For diffusion

through a stationary gas B, from equation 11a:

NA = - D CA2 CA1 x CT = hD [ CA2 CA1 ] . 14

y2 y1

CBM

y2 y1

CBM

= KG ( PA2 PA1 ) 14 a

Thus NA = CT = KG ..15

NA

CBM KGM

comparing equation 8 and 12 that the rate of transfer

of A is the same for equimolar counter diffusion as is

for diffusion through a stationary gas.

Diffusivities of vapours are most conveniently

determined by the method developed by

WINKELMANN. Liquid is allowed to evaporate in a

vertical glass tube over the top of which a stream of

vapour free gas flows, sufficiently rapid for the vapour

pressure to be maintained almost at zero. If the

apparatus is maintained at a steady temperature, there

will be no eddy currents in the vertical tubes and mass

transfer will take place from the surface by molecular

diffusion alone. The rate of evaporation can be

followed by the rate of fall of the liquid surface, and

diffusivity can then be calculated.

DIAGRAM

gas in another may not be known and experimental

determination may be practicable. Many attempts

have been made to express D in terms of the physical

properties and the following empirical equations of

MAXWELLS modified by GILLILAND gives satisfactory

agreement with the observed figures:

D = 4.3 T1.5 ( 1/MA + 1/MB )

P ( VA1/3 + VB1/3 )2

Where D = diffusivity in cm2/s

T = absolute temperature in kelvin

MA and MB = molecular weight of A and B.

VA, VB = molecular volumes of A and B.

The molecular volume is the volume in m3 of 1 kgmol

of the material in the form of liquid at its boiling point

and is a mixture of the volume occupied by the

molecules themselves. It may not always be known,

but an appropriate value can be obtained by the

application of KOPPS law of additive volumes. Kopp

gave a particular value for the equivalent atomic

volume of each element. When the atomic volumes

of the elements of the molecule in question are added

in their appropriate proportion, the equivalent

molecular volumes is obtained approximately.

CONVECTION

In correction the rate of heat transfer from solid

boundary to a fluid is

Q = Ahc (Ts - T) Ts > T

Where hc = heat transfer coefficient

h = f(, , k, Cp, D, U)

where = density

= fluid viscosity

k = thermal conductivity

Cp = Heat capacity

D = dimension

U = velocity of flow

ENERGY TRANSPORT

Transport of heat between a solid

boundary and a fluid takes place by

conduction and mass transport. If the

boundary is at a higher temperature than the

fluid, heat flows first by conduction from the

olid to the fluid particles. This transmitted

energy increases the internal energy of the

fluid and is carried away by the motion of the

fluid. When the heated particles reach the

region of lower temperature. They transfer

transfer closely linked with fluid motion and

so is necessary to study the fluid behavior and

motion. It is necessary to establish whether

the fluid is laminar or streamline flow. The

fluid moves in layers, the particle follows a

smooth and continuous path. The particles in

a layer remain in an orderly sequence without

crossing one another.

E.g. Soldiers on a parade provide an analogy

to this. They march along well defined lines

one behind the other and maintain the order

even when they turn over a corner and pass

over an obstacle.

Turbulent flow resembles a crowd of a

commuters at a railroad station during the

rush hour. The general head of motion is from

the gate to the train but superimposed on this

are the derivations of individuals as per their

instantaneous direction and the ability to pass

the less agile members of the crowd.

could be steady and regular.

When a fluid is laminar motion along a

surface at a temperature different from that

of the fluid, heat is transferred from the

surface by molecular conduction. In turbulent

flow, conduction mechanism is aided by

eddies which carry lumps of fluid across the

streamlines. These act as carriers of energy

and transfer energy by mixing with other

particles of fluid. An increase in the rate of

mixing results in an increase of heat transfer.

The fluid motion can be induced in two ways.

1.

water heated on a stove or like the air heated in a

desert.

2.

agency like a pump or a blower. Cooling of an

automobile by blowing air by a fan on the radiator

is an example of forced convection.

BOUNDARY LAYER

within the vicinity of the surface are slowed down. The

particles adjacent to the surface stick to it and will have

zero velocity. The rest of the particles attempting to

slide over these surfaces are slowed down due to

viscous shear in streamline flow. In turbulent flow,

lumps fluid particles cause the shear. A short distance

from the surface, the velocity of the particles

approaches that of the free stream. The fluid contained

in the region of substantial velocity change is called a

hydrodynamic boundary layer. The thickness of the

boundary layer is the distance from the leading edge at

which the local velocity approaches 99% of the free

stream.

The velocity profile near the leading edge are in

the laminar boundary layer. The flow within the

boundary layer remains laminar only for a certain

distance from the leading edge and then becomes

turbulent. There are always small disturbances, but as

long as the viscous forces are large and dominate the

inertia forces, they prevent disturbances from growing.

As the laminar layer keeps increasing, the ratio of

viscous to inertia forces decreases and eventually a

point is reached where the disturbances will not decay

but grow with time. Then the boundary layer becomes

unstable and the transition from laminar to turbulent

destroy the laminar regularity of the boundary layer

motion. Quasi-laminar motion exist only in the thin

immediate vicinity of the surface which is known as

laminar sub-layer. The region between laminar sublayer and fully developed turbulent layer is called

buffer layer.

The boundary layer (B.L.) divides the flow the flow field

into two domains: a region where the velocity gradient

is great and region where the velocity gradient is

nearly equal the free stream velocity and the effects of

viscosity are negligible. For some distance the flow is

laminar and later it is turbulent. Even in turbulent flow

there is a laminar sub-layer. The distance from the

leading edge at which the boundary layer becomes

turbulent is called the critical length Xc. It is specified in

terms of the local Reynolds number, known as the

critical Reynolds number.

= inertia force/viscous

force

= DU/

The point of transition depends upon : the surface

roughness, disturbance levels and even heat transfer.

When the flow is calm, no disturbances occur, then

laminar flow is possible even at Reynolds number of 5

106. If the surface is rough and disturbances are

introduced into the flow, the flow becomes turbulent

at a Reynolds number of 8 104. Under average

conditions, the flow over the plate becomes turbulent

at a distance from the leading edge where the local

Reynolds number is 5 105.

Consider a body of fluid in laminar flow over a flat plate

of cross sectional area A. We define the following:

Tw = temperature of the wall (plate).

T = temperature of the free stream fluid.

t = thickness of the wall at which the free stream

attain the body fluid temperature.

conduction(i.e heat transfer is by conduction,

otherwise it is by convection).

Q = h A ( Tw - T ) = - K A T/ y

h L/K = - ( T/y)w/ (Tw - T/L)

The quantity h L/K = Nusset number or Nusset

modulus. This quantity is also refered to as Biot

number. Nusset number is used only im convection

while Biot number is used im lumped heat transfer

Consider an elemental control volume inside a thermal

boundary layer. A few assumptions are made which

are:

(a) The thermal conductivity and specific heat of

the fluid are constant.

(b) The heat flow is in the y-direction and is

negligible in the x-direction

The energy balance is:

Energy in = Energy out

derivations which are omitted here.

Blassius plotted values of u/u and y/x(ux/

) and obtained a curve. At the point where the

ratio of u/u approaches that of the free

stream velocity i.e 99%, the abscissae becomes

5.0

/x Re = 5.0, or

= 5.0 x/Rex

u = velocity at a particular point of interest.

u = free stream velocity.

SHEAR STRESS

Shear stress = s = 0.332 u/xRex

Drag coefficient = s /(u2/2) = 0.664/Rex

This is termed as local drag coefficient or local

friction coefficient.

Average drag coefficient over a length L = Cf

= 1/LL0 Cfx. dx

= 1.33/ReL

THICKNESS OF THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER

Thickness of thermal boundary layer

= th = /Pr1/3

Where Pr = Prandtl number = Cp/K

K = thermal conductivity

The thickness of the thermal boundary layer th

is the distance from the surface at which the

temperature difference between the wall and

the fluid approaches 99% of the difference in

temperature between the wall and the free

stream.

By knowing hydrodynamics

characteristics we can obtain information for the

heat transfer characteristics.

Analogous to the hydrodynamic case, the

thermal boundary layer thickness t is defined

as the distance required for the temperature T

to reach 99% of its free value T. The following

assumptions apply:

(a) Steady incompressible flow.

(b) Constant fluid properties evaluated at film

temperature.

(c) Negligible body forces, viscous heating(low

velocity) and conduction in flow direction.

HEAT FLUX

Q/A = - K [ T/ y ]|y=0 = 0.332 (K/x) Re1/2

Pr1/3 (T - Tw)

Total heat transferred from plate width b and

length L is: 0.664 (Tw - T) KRe1/2Pr1/3b

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

The heat transfer coefficient:

hcx = Q / A ( Tw - T)

= 0.332 k/x Rex1/2 Pr1/3

LOCAL NUSSELT NUMBER

Local Nusselt number is denoted as Nux

Nux = hc x/k

= 0.332 Rex1/2 Pr1/3

AVERAGE NUSSELT NUMBER

Average Nusselt number is derived from

integrating from 0 to L. L0

hcx = Q/A( Tw - T)

= 0.332(K/x)Rex1/2Pr1/3 (local average)

hc = Q / 6( Tw - T)

= 0.664 ReL1/2Pr1/3(k/2L ) (average)

EXAMPLE 1

flowing over a plate at a velocity of 6m/s. The

plate is 0.6m wide and at 60oC. Calculate at: x=

0.6m and x= xc

(a) Boundary layer thickness

(b) Local friction coefficient

(c) Average friction coefficient

(d) Local drag stress.

(e) Thickness of thermal boundary layer.

(f) Local convective heat transfer

(g) Average convective heat transfer

(h) Rate of heat transfer by convection.

= 1.137 kg/m2

Cp = 103 kg/kgok

= 1.861 10-5

k = 0.027 w/mk

SOLUTION

ReNO at x = 0.6m

(a) Re 0.6 = UX

= 6 x 1.137x 0.6

1.861 x 10-5

= 2.19 x 10-5

At x = xc = critical distance ( exists at NRE = 5 x 105 )

XC = 5 x 105 x

U

U = 6m

6 x 1.137

= 1.34m

= 5x

Rex

At x = 0.6m

= 5 x 0.6

2.19 x 105

= 6.41 x 10-3

At xc = 1.34m

= 5 x 1.34

5 x 105

= 0.009

(b) Local friction coefficient

Cfx = 0.664

Rex

At x = 0.6, Cfx = 0.664

2.19 x 105

= 1.4 x 10-3

At x = 1.34

Cfx = 0.664

5 x 105

= 9.39 x 10-4

( c) average friction coefficient

At x = 0.6m, Cf = 2Cfx = 2 x 1.4 x 10-3

At x = 1.34m, Cfx = 2 x 9.39 x 10-4

= 18.78 x 10-6

(d) s = 0.332 U Rexx

X

At x = 0.6m

s = 0.332 x 6 x 1.861x10-5 2.19x105

0.6

= 0.029

At x = 1.34m

1.34

= 0.019

(e) th = / Pr1/3

Pr = 0.69 = Cp/k

Pr1/3 = 0.691/3 = 0.854

At x = 0.6m

th = 6.39x 10-3 = 7.23x 10-3

0.884

At x = 1.34m

th = 0.009 = 0.012

0.884

(f) Local convective heat coefficient

The local Nusselt number Nux is given as:

Nux = hc x/k = 0.332 Rex1/2Pr1/3

hcx/k = 0.332 Re1/2 Pr1/3

To calculate the Prandtl number

Pr = Cp/k

Pr = 103 x 1.86 x10-5 = 0.69

0.027

Pr1/3 = 0.691/3

= 0.884

At x = 0.6m

Nusselt number:

Nux = 0.332 Re1/2 Pr1/3

= 0.332x( 2.19x105)x 0.884 = 137.34

hcx/k = 137.34

hc = 137.34 x k

x

= 137.34 x 0.027

0.6

= 6.18 w/m2s

At x = 1.34m

Nusselt number :

Nux = 0.332 Rex1/2Pr1/3

= 0.332x (5x 105)x 0.884

= 207.53

hcx = 207.53x 0.027

1.34

= 4.182 w/m2s

(g) Average convective heat coefficient

At x = 0.6m

hc = 0.664 Rex1/2Pr1/3 k/x

= 0.664x(2.19 x105)x0.884x0.022/0.6

= 12.36w/m2s = 2x the local

At x = 1.34m

hc = 2x 4.182

= 8.364 w/m2s = 2x 4.182

= 8.364 w/m2s = 2 x local value

(h) Rate of heat transfer by convection:

The total heat transferred is given by:

Q = h A ( Tw - T)

Where the average value obtained by calculation

Q/A = h( Tw - T)

At x = 0.6m

Q/A = 12.6 ( 60 15.55)

= 560 watts

At x = 1.34m

Q/A = 8.364(60 15.55)

= 372.19 watts

Heat transfer rate:

Qc = 0.664 k Re1/2Pr1/3( Tw - T)

At x = 0.6m

Qc = 329.67 watts

At x = 1.34m

Qc = 0.664 x 0.027x( 5x105)x0.884x(60 15.55)

=498 watts

REVISION QUESTIONS

Q 1. Nitrous oxide gas diffuses at a constant rate

through a stagnant layer of air 1.2mm thick.

Conditions are fixed so that the gas contain 45% by

volume of nitrous oxide at one boundary of the

stagnant air. The nitrous oxide diffusing to the other

boundary is quickly absorbed and the concentration is

negligible at that plane. The temperature is 293k and

atmospheric pressure. Under these conditions, the

diffusion of nitrous oxide gas in air is 0.20cm2/sec .

Calculate the rate of diffusion of nitrous oxide gas

through the air.

Q 2 (a) Explain the following:

(i)

(b) Glycerin at 25oC flows over a flat plate 0.5m

wide at a pressure of 1 atmosphere. The velocity of

glycerin is given as 4 m/s. Determine at X=0.5 and X=Xc

:

i)

Thickness of Thermal boundary layer

Local friction coefficient

Nusselt number

= 1.o15 kg/m3

Cp = 1.5103

=2.0510-5 kg/m.s

k = 0.036 w/m.s

HEAT EXCHANGERS

A heat exchanger is any device that effects the transfer

of thermal energy from one fluid to another. In the

simplest exchangers the hot and cold fluids mix

directly; more common are those in which the fluids

are separated by a plane wall. This type, called a

recuperator, may range from a simple plane wall

involving multiple passes, fins, or baffles. In this case

conductive and convective heat transfer, and

sometimes radiation, principles are required to

describe the energy exchange process.

Many factors enter into the design of heat

exchangers, including thermal analysis, size, weight,

structural strength, pressure drop and cost.

TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

Common heat exchangers include the flat- plate, shelland-tube and crossflow types. A double-pipe

exchanger, the simplest form of the shell-and tube

type, is shown in figure below.

t2

T1

T2

Counter Flow

t1

referred to as a parallel,-flow type; if they flow in

opposite directions, a counter flow.

angles to each other. The sketch below show a

schematic diagram of a counter-flow heat exchanger.

t2

T1

T2

Counter Flow

t1

Temperature

T1

t1

hot fluid

T2

t2

t2

cold fluid

t2

Distance

t1> t2 since cold fluid is picking up heat.

temperature between the two ends of the heat

exchange is almost equal.

In the case of parallel or co-current flow , the

difference in temperature between the two ends is

large.

= (){ }

Now Q is highly dependent on t

In the case of a countercurrent heat exchange the unit

surface will be transferring the same amount of heat

through the length of the exchanger whereas in the

case of a parallel heat exchanger, a unit surface of the

exchanger at the inlet will be transferring more

heat/unit surface than at the exit.

Considering the total amount of heat the heat

exchanger transfers, the counter current flow is better

than the parallel flow heat exchanger.

LOG MEAN TEMPERATURE

Assumptions for the derivation of log mean

temperature for counter current flow.

1. U is constant over the entire length of the

exchanger.

2. The flow rates of the fluid are constant.

4. There is no change of phase during the period

of heat transfer.

5. There is negligible heat loss.

Consider the surface area of, the heat transferis

given as

= ( )

= ()( )

( mark)

( )

( )

( )

= ( ) {

( )

( )

[ln( )] =

(1 2 )

]

2 1 )

[ln (

= (1 2 ) = (2 1 )

1

1 2

2 1

1

1

1

=

= [(1 2 ) (2 1 )]

{(1 2 ) (2 1 )}

(1 2 )

1

ln

= [(1 2 ) (2 1 )]

2 1

[(1 2 ) (2 1 )]

ln( 1 2 )

2 1

()

(1 2 ) (2 1 )

() = [

ln( 1 2)

2 1

= ()

1 2

ln 1

2

1 = 1 2

2 = 2 1

- yu.docxHochgeladen vonrawad
- Boundary LayerHochgeladen vonulicqel_droma
- Experiment 9 NewHochgeladen vonSyahiran Saleh
- FPEHochgeladen vonAhmad Syazni Bin Moktar
- Enhanced Turbulence Model in FloEFDHochgeladen vonrianima-omb
- fmHochgeladen vonNellai Vpr
- Local CorrelationHochgeladen vonItalo Adotti
- sensors-12-14292Hochgeladen vonsaurav kumar
- ShearHochgeladen vonpallavs4u
- Turbulence 1Hochgeladen vonyoussef_pc
- AIAA Journal. Vol. 1 3 Issue 1 (1963)Hochgeladen vonBatulzi Choijilsuren
- 2010_CiS_papers.pdfHochgeladen vonDigvijay
- Water Resources EngineeringHochgeladen vonbaitong
- LaminarHochgeladen vonHitesh Bahl
- 1993_Menter_Zonal Two Equation k-w Turbulence Models for Aerodynamic Flows(2).pdfHochgeladen vonMayra Zezatti
- Zhou DissertationHochgeladen vonk_jairaj
- Lucy Bennett.pdfHochgeladen vonlucybennett54
- Reynolds NoHochgeladen von23mh283991
- Bedforms SlidesHochgeladen vonrivai sargawi
- FixityHochgeladen vonriemanndisk
- Chapter 9 - Flow Over Immersed Bodies(1)Hochgeladen vonLim KElvin
- An Investigative Study of Gurney Flaps on a NACA 0036 AirfoilHochgeladen vonFauzi Hussin Leo
- External flowsHochgeladen vonSüleyman Birgi
- ChapterHochgeladen vonmidju dugassa
- Boundary Layer Theory_2Hochgeladen vonYimkum Ozzy
- 211493208-Turbulent-Flows-StephenT-B-Pope.pdfHochgeladen vonHenry Asencios
- A General One-equation Turbulence Model for Free Shear and Wall-bounded FlowsHochgeladen vonLuis Alejandro Alvarez Zapata
- Technical ReferenceHochgeladen vonFabiano Lebkuchen
- IJMF2009Hochgeladen vonSK Yadav
- Term Project Report CFDHochgeladen vonAbu Ali

- 01_ the Startup Way 2015Hochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- 16.03.2017 TMC421 CompatibilityHochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- Tmc521 Fundamentals of Marriage and Family- Lecture 1 (1)Hochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- 23.02.2017-TMC 421-521 Lecture-Series_2017Hochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- CheM 465Hochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- Seth Godin - Purple Cow 2004Hochgeladen vonjuan
- CHE 415 Note 2Hochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- Che 415 Part1aHochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- LOA TotalHochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- SamanthaHochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- NewHochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- 25_4_SAN FRANCISCO_08-80_0264Hochgeladen vonTrinh Gia
- 6. Enzyme Inhibition and ToxicityHochgeladen vonDan Lewa
- Lecture 1 Pulp and Paper Technology CHE 510Hochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- Heterogeneous Reaction KineticHochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- Che516 Lecture Notes (1)Hochgeladen vonifiok
- Basics on ProbabilityHochgeladen vonnvine
- CHE 413Hochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- Che416 Lecture Notes AiHochgeladen vonIwuoha Maxrofuzo Chibueze
- CHE 431 Course CompactHochgeladen vonCharles Bailey
- Week 4Hochgeladen vonIwuoha Maxrofuzo Chibueze
- CheM 465.pdfHochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- compact CHM411.docxHochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- CHG 471 NOHochgeladen vonChristian Nweke
- CHE 411.docxHochgeladen vonDan Lewa
- AbsorptionA.pptx CHE 411.pptxHochgeladen vonDan Lewa
- Distillation AHochgeladen vonIwuoha Maxrofuzo Chibueze
- ChE 411Unit OpHochgeladen vonChristian Nweke

- Effect of Fire on Concrete and Concrete StructuresHochgeladen von조해정
- M1KHochgeladen vondasha962
- Seismic Analysis of Low to Medium Rise Building for Base-libreHochgeladen vonIlham Hussein Rasyid
- Adams Motor TheoryHochgeladen vonSebastian Gaviorno Viapiana
- Emd Torque ChartHochgeladen vonSubramanyam Vangara
- jl-82-november-december-5.pdfHochgeladen vonganesh
- End plate front, overhaul.pdfHochgeladen vonEsam Phlipe
- Cosibo Volvo en WebHochgeladen vonВиктор Долгов
- Eaton Hybrid Drive System Model TRTS2500Hochgeladen vonClifton Jamison
- 10 Parachute Flight Dynamics and Trajectory Simulation DoherHochgeladen vonAdesh003
- 02_N63 Engine_WB.pdfHochgeladen vonGeorge Mietus
- HotRolledCoil-Gunung Raja PaksiHochgeladen vonAbdul Jabbar
- Simplified Procedures for Designing Composite Bolted JointsHochgeladen vonkhudhayer1970
- 2910Hochgeladen vonMessouaf Fouad
- Helicopter Systems QuizHochgeladen vonedwin
- Accelerometer ComparisonHochgeladen vonWajahat Ffbl
- Mastering Physics Hw 6Hochgeladen vonebaysellerweng
- Honeywell ENRAF MeQ-PakHochgeladen vonpmmparana
- s EquationsHochgeladen vonsiege
- Magnetic UnitsHochgeladen vonaryamesa
- MTU Datasheet s4000px3 Constant SpeedHochgeladen vonKrish
- Tianjin Soright Technology Product CatalogueHochgeladen voncacalot93
- Machinability of Nickel and Titanium Alloys Under OfHochgeladen vonInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Atlas of Fatigue CurvesHochgeladen vonДимитрина Киндова-Петрова
- 2x18 AWG Shielded Fire Alarm and Control Cable___5M11802103Hochgeladen vonAlvaro Coy H.
- Soal ProductionHochgeladen vonshabila gadis
- TB Boom Lift Service ManualHochgeladen vonKhaled Kamel
- STATIC LOAD TEST – A COMPARISON OF ULTIMATE LOAD BETWEENHochgeladen vonNik M Farid
- System and Boundary in ThermodynamicHochgeladen vonMuhammed Sulfeek
- Ch4.1 Plumbing Lecture NoteHochgeladen vonashe zinab

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.