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Name: ________________________

Intro to Isotopes PhET Lab

Name: ________________________ Intro to Isotopes PhET Lab INTRODUCTION: Breathe in…Breathe out. Again! When you inhale air,https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/isotopes-and-atomic-mass You may have to DOWNLOAD first to open, but if possible, just click the PLAY symbol on the video image to open the program. Be sure to activate to each. and by clicking the + next 1. To begin, select the MAKE ISOTOPES tab. " id="pdf-obj-0-6" src="pdf-obj-0-6.jpg">

INTRODUCTION: Breathe in…Breathe out. Again! When you inhale air, you are not just inhaling a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, and trace gasses, but a mixture of different oxygen atoms and different nitrogen atoms. It turns out that all oxygen atoms have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of neutrons. These different-but-still-oxygen atoms are called isotopes. Some atoms have just two isotopes; some have dozens!

Name: ________________________ Intro to Isotopes PhET Lab INTRODUCTION: Breathe in…Breathe out. Again! When you inhale air,https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/isotopes-and-atomic-mass You may have to DOWNLOAD first to open, but if possible, just click the PLAY symbol on the video image to open the program. Be sure to activate to each. and by clicking the + next 1. To begin, select the MAKE ISOTOPES tab. " id="pdf-obj-0-11" src="pdf-obj-0-11.jpg">

Be sure you can define these terms before completing the activity!

Proton: A positively charged atom Neutron: A neutrally charged atom

Isotope: An atom of a given element may have a wide range in its number of neutrons

Atomic Mass: is the mass of an atomic particle, sub-atomic particle, or molecule Radioactive: emitting or relating to the emission of ionizing radiation or particles. Natural Abundance: abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.

PROCEDURE & OBSERVATIONS:

Open the program found at the following link:

You may have to DOWNLOAD first to open, but if possible, just click the PLAY symbol on the

video image to open the program.

Be sure to activate to each.

Name: ________________________ Intro to Isotopes PhET Lab INTRODUCTION: Breathe in…Breathe out. Again! When you inhale air,https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/isotopes-and-atomic-mass You may have to DOWNLOAD first to open, but if possible, just click the PLAY symbol on the video image to open the program. Be sure to activate to each. and by clicking the + next 1. To begin, select the MAKE ISOTOPES tab. " id="pdf-obj-0-33" src="pdf-obj-0-33.jpg">

and

Name: ________________________ Intro to Isotopes PhET Lab INTRODUCTION: Breathe in…Breathe out. Again! When you inhale air,https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/isotopes-and-atomic-mass You may have to DOWNLOAD first to open, but if possible, just click the PLAY symbol on the video image to open the program. Be sure to activate to each. and by clicking the + next 1. To begin, select the MAKE ISOTOPES tab. " id="pdf-obj-0-37" src="pdf-obj-0-37.jpg">

by clicking the + next

1. To begin, select the MAKE ISOTOPES tab.

Name: ________________________

Name: ________________________ 2. Add neutrons to the hydrogen isotope according to Table 1 by dragging and

2.

Add neutrons to the hydrogen isotope according to Table 1 by dragging and dropping them from the tray titled “Neutrons” to the center of the atom shown. Use functions in the app to view the isotope’s symbol, abundance in nature, mass number, and atomic mass in this table. RECORD YOUR OBSERVATIONS in Table 1, below.

TABLE 1: Isotopes of Hydrogen (2 pts)

 

Isotope

Number

Symbol

Abundance

Mass

Atomic

Stable

Ratio

of

in Nature

Number

Mass

?

of

Neutro

(amu)

(Y/N)

neutro

ns

ns to

proton

s

Hydrogen

 

1 1 H

  • 1 99.9885%

 
  • 1 Y

    • 1.00783 0N:1P

   

-1

Protium

Hydrogen

-2

 

2 1 H

  • 2 0.0115%

   
  • 2 Y

    • 2.01410 1N:1P

   

Deuteriu

m

Hydrogen

 

3 1 H

  • 3 Very small

 
  • 3 N

    • 3.01605 2N:1P

   

-3

Tritium

3.

Choose ONE other element to investigate. You can select a new element by using the periodic table at the top right. Complete the first row of Table 2, below, using information about the element shown immediately after you select it. Then, add a neutron to create a new isotope of that element and record that information. Continue adding neutrons and recording data for each until you have added all of them. You may or may not use all of the rows in Table 2.

Table 2: Isotopes of Your Chosen Element (2 pts)

Name: ________________________

Isotope

Number

Symbol

Abundance

Mass

Atomic

Stable

Ratio

of

in Nature

Number

Mass

?

of

Neutro

(amu)

(Y/N)

neutro

ns

ns to

proton

s

Carbon-

12 6 C

  • 6 98.93%

12

12.0000

Y

6N:6P

12

Carbon-

13 6 C

  • 7 1.07%

13

13.00335

Y

7N:6P

13

Carbon-

14 6 C

  • 8 Very small

14

14.00324

Y

8N:6P

14

 
 
  • 4. Next, select the MIX ISOTOPES tab and make sure your screen looks like this before proceeding, with “My Mix of Isotopes” selected at the bottom right corner.

Name: ________________________ Isotope Number Symbol Abundance Mass Atomic Stable Ratio of in Nature Number Mass ?
  • 5. Drag hydrogen isotopes (purple and green atoms) into the black box according to Table 3, below. To add larger amounts, click “More” and use the slider bar or numerically enter data. Record percent composition and corresponding average atomic mass data in Table 3.

Table 3 – Percent Composition and Corresponding Average Atomic Mass (2 pt)

Name: ________________________

# of

# of

%

%

 

Hydrogen-1

Hydrogen-2

Hydrogen-

Hydrogen-

Average Atomic

atoms

atoms

1

2

Mass

(purple)

(green)

(purple)

(green)

(amu)

  • 1 1

50%

50%

1.51096 amu

  • 5 5

50%

50%

1.51096 amu

  • 5 10

33.3%

66.7%

1.67868 amu

10

5

66.7%

33.3%

1.34325 amu

1

10

9.1%

90.9%

1.92262 amu

  • 10 1

90.9%

9.1%

1.09930 amu

  • 20 1

95.2%

4.8%

1.05574 amu

  • 50 1

98%

2%

1.02756 amu

  • 6. The average atomic mass for hydrogen is listed as 1.007 amu on the periodic table. Based on your last investigation, predict the approximate combination of purple and green atoms required to achieve this mass (how many of each would produce this

average atomic mass?).

Check your prediction by clicking on “Nature’s mix of

isotopes”.

Enter this information into Table 4, below.

Table 4 – Average Atomic Mass of Hydrogen (2 pt)

 

Your Prediction

Nature’s Mix of Isotopes

Hydrogen

Number of

Number of

Number of

Number of

Average

Hydrogen-1

Hydrogen-2

Hydrogen-1

Hydrogen-2

Atomic Mass

Atoms

Atoms

Atoms

Atoms

1.007

98.5%

1.5%

99.9885%

0.0115%

ANALYSIS:

Refer to the data you entered in Tables 1 and 2 to answer the following questions: (1 pt each)

  • 1. How does adding neutrons affect isotope symbols? It changes the mass number.

  • 2. What effect does adding a neutron have on the atom’s identity? Neutrons don’t change the identity. Protons do.

Name: ________________________

  • 4. How does adding neutrons affect the stability of an isotope? Too many or too few can make an isotope unstable.

  • 5. How does the stability of an isotope relate to its abundance in nature? For unstable isotopes are, abundance will be very small.

  • 6. Observe the atoms you determined to be unstable. What can you conclude about the ratio of neutrons to protons and a nucleus’ stability? Stable isotopes have more similar numbers of protons compared to neutrons. Les stable isotopes have different numbers of protons compared to neutrons.

Refer to the data you entered in Tables 3 and 4 to answer the following question: (1 pt each)

  • 7. Look at the table you completed in Step 6 as well as the information on this page. What conclusions can you draw between abundance in nature, percent composition, and average atomic mass?

The average atomic mass is closes to the mass of the most abundant isotope.

CONCLUSION: (5 pts)

Below, summarize the purpose(s), procedure(s), observation(s), analysis, and conclusion(s) of this lab activity.