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Topic:

Impact of Turkish Dramas on Pakistan.

Group members:
Ammaar Bin Saleem
Natasha Khan
Usbah Yousaf
Amna Mumtaz
Iqra Hannan
Saleha Tariq

Saleem 1
Ammaar Bin Saleem.
Impact of Urdu-Dubbed Turkish Dramas on Pakistani Society
Televising foreign content in the Pakistani media is not a novel event but examples can be
produced from years in the past when Indian channels were granted access to the television sets
of the masses in Pakistan. However, later it was found that such an easy and massive access to
the Indian channels made Pakistani culture vulnerable to the hands of the addiction to those
programs that were aired by the then famous Indian Family channels, Star Plus and Sony. In
addition to that, American sitcoms like Friends, How I Met Your Mother, The Big Bang Theory,
Greys Anatomy and else are still being broadcasted on Star World in here. The question that pops
up now is why was the transmission of Star Plus & Sony abandoned in Pakistan while the
English channels like Star World still reach the publics. The immediate riposte that comes to my
mind is that all the dramas and the programs which were shown by Indian Channels were able to
overcome the most significant cultural barrier, Language. All the Indian content was made in
Hindi, a language that is not difficult to understand for the people of Pakistan and thus made the
Pakistani society more exposed to absorbing and copying parts of the Indian culture that were
portrayed in their dramas and programs.
But probably, the recent intervention in the Pakistani broadcast media by the Turkish
Dramas is by far the most hazardous intervention in society and culture than any previous

Saleem 2
intrusion in the industry. And mind the reason; the shows are being dubbed in the national
language Urdu,
making them remarkably understandable for the many. We as a team have unanimously agreed to
look into the matter of introducing Turk-dramas styled in the local language airing on
Pakistani Urdu entertainment TV channels. The reason we are looking into the matter is
that Pakistan is a developing country and the masses are highly exposed to the content that media
produces. Since, its birth, Pakistan continues to be in a state of confusion as what is the force that
actually unifies the nation. Most people believe it to be the religion, Islam. Islam is not just a
religion but a way of life or say, a culture that directs how an individual should govern the
aspects of his/her life. And in this state of confusion that continues to be the fate since the last six
and a half decades, Pakistani media today broadcasts the dramas of another Islamic country,
Turkey. Apparently, as Pakistan and Turkey both are the Islamic countries, so their way of life
was also expected to be identical but it did not turn out to be the scenario as the dramas that are
being aired today portray Turkey as a country having an entirely different culture.
For instance, the portrayal of the dresses that women wear, the food they eat, the usage of
alcohol (drink forbidden on Muslims), the illegitimate love patterns, the society, their norms and
all the other traits depict Turkey as a nation that stands completely opposed to that of Pakistani
society and culture. In any society especially a developing one like Pakistan, Media is the most
effective and influential social teacher that infuses into the minds of people how they should
believe, think and behave. For a confused nation like Pakistan, it is a time for us to worry that

such dramas that depict a totally different Islamic Society, the local masses here are getting
confused as to recognize what exactly their culture is and how they should talk, get dressed,
follow the family patterns especially as far as the usage of Alcohol is in question.
It turns out to be true that these shows should not only be subject to the criticism because
these dramas are somehow helping the Pakistani television industry to grow and attract a wider
Viewership and lessen the viewership of Indian dramas which picture the culture of a
nation that is not even of the same religion as ours. Along with that, such dramas are generating
employment opportunities for the locals and are strengthening the ties between Pakistan and
Turkey.
But the purpose of the research is to actually realize the threat to the culture that is being
posed by the aforementioned dramas and the research should help fellow Pakistanis to realize
and watch responsibly such matter and empower themselves in deciding what they should engulf
into their lives and what they should abstain from opting into their lifestyles. Also, the research
should help the media pundits and the government officials to do a cost-benefit analysis of
exposing the nation to such westernized content and render more attention and resources to the
innovation of content that must be developed locally focusing on the welfare of the society.
To state the most accurate findings, this term paper has largely incorporated the results of
the previous researchers under the heading of literature review on the topic of cultural
imperialism and has made the public surveys the center of its research. At the end, the findings
of the paper shall be discussed and will be concluded in a summarized fashion.

Mumtaz
Hannan 1
Amna Mumtaz 15-10339. (Literature review- intro , definition, effects, conclusion)
Iqra Hannan 15-10138. (Literature Review- effects, research questions)
LITERATURE REVIEW
INTRODUCTION
Most of the literature that has been found on Cultural Imperialism focuses more on the
cultural transformation of developing countries which are adopting new trends and patterns from
the first world countries mostly from the western society and the US. Cultural Imperialism has
several goals out of which two most important are economic consciousness and political
mindfulness. Moreover, it also involves publication of principles like freedom and democracy.
Cultural

Imperialism primarily targets

the youth

through entertainment

and

advertisement, attracting and encouraging them towards modernity. The 30,000 restaurants of
McDonalds in approximately over hundred different countries are recognized by people
worldwide. Its international slogan Im lovin it is more familiar to children than their religious
and cultural norms and values.
DEFINITION

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Hannan 2
This term is believed to have originated in 1960s and has been the focus of research since
1970s. Different researchers have used several terms for cultural imperialism. Those terms
include media imperialism, structural imperialism, cultural dependency and domination",
"cultural synchronization", "ideological imperialism", electronic colonialism and
economic imperialism all are similar in meaning.
Ogan (1988) saw media imperialism as producing goods in United States and Western
Europe making domestic sales & generating the first profits, then marketing and selling them to
the developing countries at lower costs than those countries would have to bear if they were to
produce the similar products themselves.
Tom McPhail observe electronic colonialism as importation of foreign communication
hardware, software and even the technical team to establish a set of foreign norms, values and
expectations dominating the domestic culture of a society.
In 1976 Herbert Schiller in his work Communication and Cultural Domination defined
cultural imperialism as the sum of the processes by which a society is brought into the modern
world system, and how its dominating stratum is attracted, pressured, forced, and sometimes
bribed into shaping social institutions to correspond to, or even to promote, the values and
structures of the dominant center of the system.

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Hannan 3
Effects of Cultural Imperialism

The term was quite unfamiliar to the people living in Third World countries but it has
always been quite famous in the western countries. The objective of cultural imperialism in
United
States was to get access of foreign markets and it surely got the worlds largest economy.
Not only this, it was believed that through cultural imperialism worlds peace could also be
achieved through commercialization. One such example is of the advertisement of Coca Cola ad
in 1971 featuring children from different countries singing innocently Id like to teach the
world to sing in perfect harmony/Id like to buy the world a Coke to keep it company.
More over according to a research of New World Teen Study in 1996 conducted by
DMB&Bs Brain Waves division it was found that out of 26,700 middle class teens in forty-five
countries that have been surveyed 85 percent teens watch MTV everyday and absorb a diverse
mix culture shown on their television screens. Noami Klien a Canadian author , in his book No
Logo (1999) states that foreign consumers dont passively absorbs whatever America bombards
them with in fact American cultural imperialism has inspired a slow food movement in Italy
and a demonstration involving the burning of chickens outside of the first Kentucky Fried Chick
outlet in India. Through there have been several visible and invisible acts of resistance.

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Hannan 4
David Rothkopf, a former senior official in Clintons Department of Commerce does not see
American cultural imperialism as a negative phenomenon. In 1997 in Foreign Policy Magazine
he supported Americanization. Rothkopf argues that the removal of cultural barriers through U.S.
cultural imperialism will promote a more stable world, one in which American culture reigns
supreme as the most just, the most tolerant, the most willing to constantly reassess and improve
itself, and the best model for the future. But the homogenized culture did not guarantee a
peaceful world without a conflict in fact it would be more of a superficial and unnatural culture.
David Morley in his writing globalization and cultural imperialism reconsidered is of
the view that now trends of cultural imperialism has changed. Modern technology has replaced
old trends that were influencing nations in the past. Ralph H. Bowen in his writing with the title
American cultural imperialism reconsidered says with regarding to past, cultural imperialism
did not influence much to the receiving nations. They were strong enough to reject the influence
of other culture. In his point of view, societies that possess political, military and economic
power, culturally greatly influence weaker nations. He believes that American cultural
imperialism is influential.
Morley points out internet, satellites, television. These technologies have crossed all
cultural boundaries and making a huge difference in the society. He used the word new
disguises for it. Morley considered American culture which he called Americanization a danger.
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Hanan 5

American culture has its influence through media imperialism. Morley considered
American media the powerful media which has its influence on developing and other developed
nations. He in his paper quoted the idea of Americanization from Schiller:Todays world
economy has evolved from, but retains the central characteristics of the original American
pattern (Morleyp33, 2006)
After reading his paper we get the idea that Morley is in favor of cultural imperialism. He
talks about limitations of cultural imperialism. He actually talks about media imperialism. He
again used the quote from Schiller; saying:
Media necessary have straight forward, predictable and automatic effects on their
audiences
Another writer Mia Consalvo believes that cultural imperialism is not a one way flow that
influences developing nations by developed one. She says, the fact is where there are more
cultures and traditions in one nation, these have more tendency to influence even to the
developed and dominant nation (consalvo, p118, 2006)
Julia Galeota in her article cultural imperialism: an American tradition says that media
has its role in the propagation of American culture. She in her writing gave the example of
viacoms MTV who formed strong American network and now there are more than 280 million
subscribers in the world wide. She is of the view that through media Americas cultural influence
is unavoidable.

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Hannan 6

Conclusion:
When we see cultural imperialism in Pakistan we come to realize that our media is
massively influenced by the foreign media. The dramas and programs of foreign countries
appears as a trendsetter for our society and we get to observe terrific change in the form of
dresses, jewelry, language and other cultural values primarily the liberal ones. The research by
the faculty of Media and Communication Department of International Islamic University
Islamabad (2011) also shows that the exposure to foreign culture have a great impact on our
youth thus effecting our cultural identity.
Research questions:

Why there is impression that only politically and economically developed nations has
their cultural influence on other nations?

Role of media seem biased in this regard, why is it so?

Is the purpose of cultural imperialism uprooting the culture and traditions of developing
nations for good?

Those who support cultural imperialism, dont their attitude seem biased towards other
nations?

Khan
Yousaf 1

Work done on research methodology / discussions and results


Natasha Khan 15-10093
Usbah Yousaf 15-10431
Research Methodology
The Research Methodology of this analysis report is based upon the questionnaire of
close- ended questions related to Turkish dramas. Basically, this survey is designed to find out
the impact of Turkish dramas on our society.
First, the survey starts with the question about the most watchable Turkish drama i.e.
Ishq-e- mamnoon, Mera Sultan and Fariah. For the reason that, rating of these dramas are very
high as compared to other Turkish dramas shown on different channels. As well as, there can be
several reasons for watching Turkish dramas so the survey includes the most important
questions. And it is about the storyline of Turkish dramas in order to know how people perceive
Turkish dramas.
Some of the questions are based upon the implementation of the trends and luxurious
lifestyles shown in Turkish dramas. In this way, they survey can easily conclude the impact of
Turkish dramas in our society. That survey also includes a comparison between the Pakistani and

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Turkish dramas. In addition to that, the survey also includes the morally and ethically issues
about Turkish dramas.
Furthermore, many questions are designed to get the people overall view about Turkish
dramas in term of negative or positive. This questionnaire is intended on the basis of recent
observation and changing trends in our society.
In concluding remarks, the future of Turkish dramas in the Pakistani channels and their
impact on the human being and their culture are briefly discussed.

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Yousaf 3

Results

R
1. Do you prefer to watch Turkish
dramas?
a) Yes
b) No
c) Sometimes

Ratio

Percentage

8
10
12

26.6%
33.3%
40%

2. Which Turkish drama do you prefer


to watch?
a) Ishq e mamno
b) Mera Sultan
c) Fariha

Ratio

Percentage

23
4
3

76.6%
13.3%
10%

3. What do you think about the storyline of Turkish


dramas?

Ratio

Percentage

a) entertaining
b) thought provoking
c) boring

11
10
9

4. After watching Turkish dramas, do you think that


our society is adopting their cultural norms?
a) Yes
b) No
c) To some extent

36.6%
33.3%
30%

Ratio

Percentage

12
8
10

40%
26.6%
33.3%

5. Do Turkish dramas have bad impact on our


society?
a) Yes
b) No
c) To some extent

Ratio
12
10
8

6. The houses and luxurious styles shown in the Turkish


drama especially Ishq e mamnoon are tantalizing. Are
teenagers being influenced by those luxurious lifestyles
shown in the Turkish dramas?

Ratio

Percentag
e
40%
33.3%
26.6%

Percentage

a) Yes
b) No
c) To some extent

7. Turkish dramas are censored to some level. So


according to your opinion, is broadcasting Turkish
dramas in Pakistan morally/ethically right?
a) Yes
b) No
c) To some extent

9
11
10

30%
36.6%
33.3%

Ratio

Percentage

2
17
11

6.6%
56.6%
36.6%

8. Is our society being highly influenced by the


Turkish fashion?
a) Yes
b) No
c) To some extent

9. Should Turkish dramas be banned in our TV


channels?
a) Yes

Ratio

Percentage

7
11
12

23.3%
36.6%
40%

Ratio

Percentage

13

43.3%

b) No
C) To some extent

10. Are Turkish dramas playing a vital


role for increase in rating of the
Pakistani channels?
a) Yes
b) No
c) To some extent

10
7

33.3%
23.3%

Ratio

Percentage

16
8
6

53.3%
26.6%
20%

11. Are Turkish


Pakistanis dramas?
a) Yes
b) No
c) To some extent

dramas

better

than

Ratio

Percentage

2
21
7

6.6%
70%
23.3%

12. Do you refer Turkish dramas to your


friends & family member?
a) Yes
b) No
c) To some extent

13. What do you think, Pakistani media


channels are buying foreign dramas in
order to
a) promote channel
b) give entertainment
c) gain profit

Ratio

Percentage

8
17
5

26.6%
56.6%
16.6%

Ratio

Percentage

6
8
16

20%
26.6%
53.3%

14. Are you looking forward for more Turkish


dramas?
a) Yes
b) No
c) To some extent

Ratio

Percentage

10
16
4

33.3%
53.3%
13.3%

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Yousaf 4
Results & Discussion
This analysis report is based upon analytical grading of questionnaire of 14 questions
asked from 30 individuals of different age groups within and outside Forman Christian College
University.
There were 53.3% females and 46.6% of males involved in this study. Following
observations were noted among the two main age groups i.e. group A (19-23) and group B (2427). It concludes that 26.6% of people prefer to watch Turkish dramas while 33.3% of people do
not. On the other hand, 40% of people like to watch Turkish dramas to some extent. In addition
to that, 76.6% of the individuals are interested in watching Turkish drama i.e. Ishq-e-mamnoon.
As well as, 36.6% of the individuals think that the storyline of Turkish dramas is
entertaining rather than boring or though provoking.
Furthermore 40% think that our society is adopting Turkish norms while 26.6% of people
think that our society is not adopting Turkish norms. On the same hand, 33.3% think that our
society is adopting Turkish norms to some level. Additionally, 40% think that Turkish dramas
have bad impact on our society and 33.3% think that Turkish dramas do not. At the same time,
26.6% think that Turkish dramas have bad impact on our society to some point . 30% believes
that teenagers are being influenced by luxurious lifestyles shown in the Turkish dramas, 36.6%
believe that teenagers are not being influenced by luxurious lifestyles shown in the Turkish

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Yousaf 5

dramas and 33.3% believe that to some extent teenagers are being influenced by
luxurious lifestyles shown in the Turkish dramas.
Moreover, 6.6% of the participants think that broadcasting Turkish dramas in Pakistan is
morally/ethically right, 56.6% of the participants think that broadcasting Turkish dramas in
Pakistan is not morally/ethically right and 36.6% of the participants think that to some extent
broadcasting Turkish dramas in Pakistan is morally/ethically right. 23.3 % think that our society
is being highly influenced by the Turkish fashion, 36.6% think that our society is not being
highly influenced by the Turkish fashion and 40% think that as neutral.

Additionally, 43.3%

think that Turkish dramas should be banned on our TV channels, 33.3% think that Turkish
dramas should not be banned on our TV channels and 23.3% think that to some extent Turkish
dramas should be banned on our TV channels. And 53.3% think that
Turkish dramas are playing a vital role for increase in rating of the Pakistani channels,
26.6% think that Turkish dramas are not playing a vital role for increase in rating of the Pakistani
channels and 20% think that to some extent Turkish dramas are playing a vital role for increase
in rating of the Pakistani channels. 6.6% think that Turkish dramas are better than Pakistanis
dramas, more surprisingly 70% of the individuals think that Turkish dramas are not better than
Pakistanis dramas and 23.3% think that to some extent Turkish dramas are better than Pakistanis
dramas.

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As well as, 26.6% people refer Turkish dramas to their friends and family member,
56.6% do not refer Turkish dramas to their friends and family member and 16.6% refer Turkish
dramas to some extent to their friends and family members. 20% think that Pakistani media
channels are buying foreign dramas in order to promote channel, 26.6% think that Pakistani
media channels are not buying foreign dramas in order to give entertainment and 53.3% think
that to some extent Pakistani media channels are buying foreign dramas in order to gain profit.
33.3% of people are looking forward for more Turkish dramas, 53.3% are not looking forward
for more Turkish dramas and 13.3% are to some extent looking forward for more Turkish
dramas.
Overall, people have neutral approach towards Turkish dramas. Some people think that
they are entertaining while other think that they are not ethically right. Some people think that
people are adopting their culture and trends but some people have a view that that they do adopt
their trends and lifestyles but for certain extent. People watch famous Turkish drama ishq e
mamnoon and the survey got highest rating of that drama. But on the other hand, some
peopleare not referring Turkish dramas to their friends and family members. According to them,
Turkish dramas have bad impact on our society.

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Yousaf7
On the whole, people of our society are getting influenced by the Turkish dramas. They
have different views about Turkish dramas. And the results show that Turkish dramas have an
impact on society and it is totally depend on person that how he/she perceives it.

Tariq 1
Saleha Tariq
Conclusion
As the importance of our topic is evident from the name of our research paper, if we go in
depth we come to know that these dramas are on aired in Pakistan to overcome the impact of
Indian dramas like starplus and sony dramas on Pakistan as Turkey is a Muslim country and its
cultural impact is not as strong as of Indian dramas especially in women of Pakistan. It brings
surprising results to our research as we come to a conclusion that most of the people watch
Turkish dramas just for entertainment and to know about the life styles and cultures of Turkish
people, most of the people do not take them seriously. The most likeable Turkish drama as far as
our research says is Ishq e mamnoon and this is probably because the trend of Turkish dramas in
Pakistan started with this drama. And there is also a great ratio of people who think that Pakistani
dramas are much better then Turkish dramas and Turkish dramas should be banned in Pakistan,
but on the other hand people also take them as no big deal in showing them in Pakistan and there
are also people who are highly influenced by foreign dramas and their culture especially youth as
by the research conducted by the faculty of Media and Communication Department of
International Islamic University Islamabad (2011) shows that the exposure to foreign culture
have a great impact on our youth thus effecting our cultural identity norms and values hence
effecting everything so there should be a balance between media also.

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Hanan 7

References (Literature Review)


1 .http://journals.culture

communication.unimelb.edu.au/platform/resources/includes/vol2_1/PlatformVol2Issue1_Movius
.pdf
2. http://www.kotikone.fi/matti.sarmela/culturimperialism.pdf
3 http://politics.as.nyu.edu/docs/IO/4600/rauschenberger_thesis.pdf
4. http://www.thehumanist.org/humanist/articles/essay3mayjune04.pdf

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Yousaf 8
Appendices
Impact of Turkish Dramas on Pakistani Society
Gender: M / F
Age: ___

1. Do you prefer to watch Turkish dramas?


a. Yes
b. No
c. Sometimes

2. Which Turkish drama do you prefer to watch?


a. Ishq e mamno
b. Mera Sultan
c. Fariha

3. What do you think about the storyline of Turkish dramas?


a. entertaining
b. thought provoking
c. boring

4. After watching Turkish dramas, do you think that our society is adopting their cultural norms?
a. Yes
b. No
c. To some extent

5. Do Turkish dramas have bad impact on our society?


a. Yes
b. No

c. To some extent

6. The houses and luxurious styles shown in the Turkish drama especially ' ishq-e-mamnoon' are
tantalizing. Are teenagers being influenced by those luxurious lifestyles shown in the Turkish
dramas?
a. Yes
b. No
c. To some extent

7. Turkish dramas are censored to some level. So according to your opinion, is broadcasting
Turkish dramas in Pakistan morally/ethically right ?
a. Yes
b. No
c. To some extent
8. Is our society being highly influenced by the Turkish fashion?
a. Yes

b. No
c. To some extent

9. Should Turkish dramas be banned in our TV channels?


a. Yes
b. No
c. To some extent

10. Are Turkish dramas playing a vital role for increase in rating of the Pakistani channels?
a. Yes
b. No
c. To some extent
11. Are Turkish dramas better than Pakistanis dramas?
a. Yes
b. No

c. To some extent

12. Do you refer Turkish dramas to your friends & family member?
a. Yes
b. No
c. To some extent

13. What do you think, Pakistani media channels are buying foreign dramas in order to
a. promote channel
b. give entertainment
c. gain profit
14. Are you looking forward for more Turkish dramas?
a. Yes
b. No
c. To some extent