Sie sind auf Seite 1von 35

DYNAMICS

BDA 2013 LECTURE 2


NORIHAN BIN IBRAHIM@TAMRIN
KHAIRULNIZAM BIN NGADIMON
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

INTRODUCTION

Mechanics
- the state of rest or motion of bodies
subjected to the action of forces
- branch of physical sciences
Static
- equilibrium of a body that is either at . .
. rest or moves with constant velocity

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

Branches of mechanics
Mechanics

Rigid Bodies
(Things that do not change shape)

Statics

FKMP - UTHM

Deformable Bodies
(Things that do change shape)

Dynamics

Fluids

Incompressible Compressible

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

Dynamics
Dynamics consists two distinct parts:
kinematics and kinetics.

Kinematics deals with the study of


motion without reference to the force
which cause motions
Kinetics relate the action of forces on
bodies to their resulting motions
FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

Kinematics: Motion only

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

Kinetics: Interaction force - motion

Force

Path of motion because of the


force

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

Particle and rigid body


A particle is a point mass. This means the mass
is concentrated at a single point and the particle
has neither dimensions (height, width, etc) nor
orientation (angular position)

Under certain conditions a physical body can be


modeled as a particle; for example,
a.when considering translation of a body, or
b. when all forces acting on a body pass
through the centre of mass, or

c. when the dimensions of a body are very


much smaller than those of its path of motion
FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

When a body can be replaced by a particle

Replace by a particle (no rotation involved)

The body motion cannot be replaced by a particle


(rotation involved)

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

Translation - Rotation

Translation

FKMP - UTHM

Combination Translation
and Rotation

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

Kinematic of a particle : Translation


straight, curve and circular paths

There is no
orientation of
the body
Straight
path

Curve path

Circular
path

Can be
simplified as
particle
Straight
path
FKMP - UTHM

Curve path

Circular
path
MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

10

Rectilinear Kinematics:
Continuous Motion

Rectilinear Kinematics specifying at any


instant, the particles position, velocity, and
acceleration

Position
1) Single coordinate axis, s
2) Origin, O
3) Position vector r specific location of
particle P at any instant

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

11

Continue.
4) Algebraic Scalar s in metres

Note : - Magnitude of s = Dist from O to P


- The sense (arrowhead dir of r) is defined
by algebraic sign on s
=> +ve = right of origin, -ve = left of origin
FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

12

Continue.

Displacement change in its position,


vector quantity

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

13

Continue.

If particle moves from P to P


=> r r r
s s

s is +ve if particles position is right of its

initial position
s is -ve if particles position is left of its initial
position
FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

14

Continue.

Velocity
Average velocity,

vavg

r
t

Instantaneous velocity is defined as


vins
vins

FKMP - UTHM

lim
t

r/ t

dr
dt
MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

15

Continue.
Representing vins as an algebraic scalar,

ds
dt

Velocity is +ve = particle moving to the


right
Velocity is ve = Particle moving to the left
Magnitude of velocity is the speed (m/s)
FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

16

Continue.
Average speed is defined as total
distance traveled by a particle, sT, divided
by the elapsed time t .
vsp

avg

sT
t

The particle travels along


the path of length sT in time
vsp

=>

FKMP - UTHM

vavg

avg

sT
t
s
t

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

17

Continue.

Acceleration velocity of particle is known


at points P and P during time interval t,
v
a
average acceleration is
t
avg

aavg

v
t

v represents difference in the velocity


during the time interval t, ie

v v' v
FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

18

Continue.
Instantaneous acceleration at time t is found
by taking smaller and smaller values of t
and corresponding smaller and smaller
values of v, a lim v / t
t

a
a

FKMP - UTHM

dv
dt
d 2s
dt 2
MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

19

Continue.

Particle is slowing down, its speed is


decreasing => decelerating => v v'
will be negative.
Consequently, a will also be negative,
therefore it will act to the left, in the
opposite sense to v
If velocity is constant,
acceleration is zero

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

20

Average and Instantaneous


Average v
Velocity avg

Position (m)

s
t

Instantaneous
velocity
s

s
t

FKMP - UTHM

time (s)

lim
t

s
t

ds
v
dt
v s

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

Average
a
Acceleration avg

v
t

Instantaneous
acceleration

lim
t

v
t

dv d 2 s
a
dt dt 2
a v
s

21

Calculating distance and velocity,


graphically
s

ds
s0

t0

vdt
t0

t
v

dv
v0

t0

The area under v(t) is


the DISTANCE TRAVEL

adt
t0

t1

FKMP - UTHM

The area under a(t) is


the NET CHANGE IN VELOCITY
t

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

22

Differential equation of motion


dv

adt
Multiply by v

v dv

v a dt

ds
a dt
dt

a ds

v dv

a ds

or

s ds
s ds

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

23

EXAMPLE 12.1
The car moves in a straight line such that for a
short time its velocity is defined by v = (0.9t2 +
0.6t) m/s where t is in sec. Determine it position
and acceleration when t = 3s. When t = 0, s = 0.

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

24

EXAMPLE 12.1
Solution:
Coordinate System. The position coordinate
extends from the fixed origin O to the car,
positive to the right.

Position. Since v = f(t), the cars position can


be determined from v = ds/dt, since this equation
relates v, s and t. Noting that s = 0 when t = 0, we
have
ds
v
0.9t 2 0.6t
dt
FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

25

EXAMPLE 12.1
s
0

ds

0.3t

0.9t 2 0.6t dt
3

0.3t

t
0

0.3t

0.3t

When t = 3s,
s = 10.8m

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

26

EXAMPLE 12.1
Acceleration.
Knowing v = f(t), the acceleration
is determined from a = dv/dt, since this equation
relates a, v and t.
dv d
a
0.9t 2 0.6t
dt dt
1.8t 0.6

When t = 3s,
a = 6m/s2
FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

27

QUIZ.
1.

Some objects can be considered as particles provided motion of the body is characterized by motion
of its mass center and any rotation of the body can be neglected.
True
False

2.

If the acceleration is zero, the particle cannot move.


True
False

3.

Kinematics is concerned with the forces that cause the motion.


True
False

4.

A partices that is speeding up is deceleratring


True
False

5.

A partices that is slowing down is deceleratring


True
False

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

28

Rectilinear motion
at constant velocity
s

ds
s0

t0

s s0
s

FKMP - UTHM

vdt

v (t t0 )

s0 + v (t t0 )

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

29

Velocity at constant acceleration


v

dv
v0

adt

v v0

a t t0

t0

v
v

v dv
v0

a ds
s0

1 2
v
2

v0 2

a s s0

v2
FKMP - UTHM

v 0 + a t t0

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

v0 2 + 2a s s0
30

Distance at constant acceleration


s

ds
s0

vdt
t0

ds
s0

( v0 + a t t0 )dt
t0
t

s s0

v0 dt a t t0 dt
t0

t0

v0 dt a tdt at0 dt
t0

s
FKMP - UTHM

t0

s0 v0 (t t0 )
MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

t0

1
a t 2 t0 2
2

at0 t t0
31

Practical situation
0

Usually a particle start moving


when the time is set to 0 and the
distance goes from 0

v 0 + a t t0

v0 + a t

v2

v0 2 + 2a s s0

v2

v 0 2 + 2a s

t0

0 and s0

FKMP - UTHM

s0 v0 (t t0 )

at t and distance s
s v0 (t )

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

01

a t

t0

at0 t t0

1
a t2
2

32

Problem 1
The displacement of a mechanical component follows a
ruled path as a function of time. The function dis(t) = 2t3
24t + 6 meter.
a.Derive the velocity and acceleration based on the
given
displacement function dis(t).
b.Calculate the time to reach velocity of 72 m/s.
Calculate the
corresponding acceleration at that time.
c.Plot the displacement, velocity and acceleration
versus time for
the first 4 seconds every 1 second.
FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

33

Problem 2
A car starts from rest and reaches a
speed of 20m/s after traveling 125m
along a straight road. Determine its
constant acceleration and the time of
travel.

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

34

See U again in.Lecture 3.

FKMP - UTHM

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

35