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Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

Chapter (4)

1 ST Law of Thermodynamics (Open system)

Recall

"Closed System"

Thermodynamics (Open system) Recall "Closed System" constant (fixed amount) mass  No mass crosses its

constant (fixed amount) mass

No mass crosses its boundary

Energy (heat and work) cross the boundary

Example

Remarks:

Q in
Q
in
(heat and work) cross the boundary Example Remarks: Q in Q i n Mass = constant
(heat and work) cross the boundary Example Remarks: Q in Q i n Mass = constant

Q in

Mass = constant

volume

, leads to output work

Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

Now

Open system, or a control volume (C.V):

a properly selected region in space. It usually encloses a device that involves mass flow such as a compressor, turbine, or nozzle.

Mass can cross boundary

Energy can cross boundary

Mass does not have to be fixed

Example

hot water

water

heater

in
in

cold water

to be fixed Example hot water water heater in cold water Q In this example: Volume

Q

In this example: Volume = constant, Q in , m in, m out

Applications of Open System

A water heater

A car radiator

Turbines and compressors

involve mass flow

Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

Boundary of an open system

The boundaries of a control volume are called a control surface, and they can be real or imaginary. In the case of a nozzle, the inner surface of the nozzle forms the real part of the boundary, and the entrance and exit areas form the imaginary part, since there are no physical surfaces there:

real

part, since there are no physical surfaces there: real nozzle imaginary A control volume can be
part, since there are no physical surfaces there: real nozzle imaginary A control volume can be
part, since there are no physical surfaces there: real nozzle imaginary A control volume can be

nozzle

imaginary

A control volume can be fixed in size and shape, as in the case of a nozzle, or it may involve a moving boundary:

the case of a nozzle, or it may involve a moving boundary: Most control volumes, however,

Most control volumes, however, have fixed boundaries and thus do not involve any moving boundaries. A control volume can also involve heat and work interactions just as a closed system, in addition to mass interaction.

Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

Important terms

Steady: no change with time.

The opposite of steady is unsteady, or transient.

. The opposite of steady is unsteady , or transient . Under steady-state conditions, the mass

Under steady-state conditions, the mass and energy contents of a control volume remain constant.

and energy contents of a control volume remain constant. Uniform: no change with location over a

Uniform: no change with location over a specified region.

Conservation of mass principle

Mass is a conserved property that we cannot create or destroy (like energy),

region. Conservation of mass principle Mass is a conserved property that we cannot create or destroy

Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

For an open system (control volume)

Conservation of mass principle for a control volume:

The net mass transfer to or from a control volume during a time interval Δt is equal to the net change (increase or decrease) in the total mass within the control volume during Δt.

mi me mCV (kg) m e Where m cv mCV  m final  minitial
mi me mCV
(kg)
m
e
Where
m cv
mCV  m
final  minitial
m
i
In the rate form:
 
dm
m 
m 
CV
i
e
dt
(kg/s)
dm
dt
CV is the time rate of change of mass within the C.V. boundaries

Mass and Volume Flow Rates

Mass flow rate

mass densityxvolume

m ( )( dxA)

dm dt

dx

dt

A

mVA

(1)

also

VVA

(2)

mass flowing per unit time (m)

dx
dx

Mass flow rate in kg/s Volumetric flow rate in m 3 /s

From equations (1) & (2),

V  m    V 
V
m
  
V

v

A

Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

Conservation of Energy Principle

For a closed system

Q-W = E

For open system

 

W

Closed

system

Q

Mass leaving and mass entering contribute to the energy change

leaving and mass entering contribute to the energy change Total Energy of an Open System Recall

Total Energy of an Open System

Recall that the total energy of a closed system (non-flowing fluid) is given by:

e u kepe

For a flowing fluid (for open systems):

Work Flow (W flow ): It is the work required to push the mass into or out of the control volume.

The work flow per unit mass is given by:

w Pv

[kJ/kg]

The total energy of a flowing fluid (for an open system) on a unit-mass basis becomes:

 

e

Pv

u  Pv

h

h kepe

ke

pe

(kJ/kg)

where h = specific enthalpy = u + pv

Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

Energy Transport by Mass

Amount of energy transport:

The total energy of a flowing fluid of mass m is simply mθ

E

mass

m

m

h

V

2

2

gz

(kJ)

Rate of energy transport:

When a fluid stream with uniform properties is flowing at a mass flow rate of

the rate of energy flow with that stream is

m

E m

mass

m

h

V

2

2

gz

(kJ/s

or kW)

Conservation of Mass Principle for an Open System During a steady flow process

_

Recall that we have previously shown that:

m

i

m

e

m

cv

m

,

But for steady flow process, no intensive or extensive properties within the

control volume change with time. Thus, the volume V, the mass m, and the total

energy content E of the control volume remain constant. As a result,

the total mass entering the control volume should be equal to the total mass

leaving it (since m CV = constant)

m cv =const
m
cv =const

m mV A

i

cv

i

i

i

0.0 m

V

1 A 1 /v 1

e

For one inlet & one outlet

V A

e

e

e

V

2 A 2 /v 2

Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

Conservation of Energy Principle for an Open System During a steady flow process

_

Q

in

Q

out

W

in

W

out

E

in

E

out

Q

W

E

in

In the rate form:

Q

W

E

out

E

in



E

CV

,

E

out

dE

CV

kJ

dt

,



E

CV

kW

But for steady flow process, the total mass or energy entering the control

volume should be equal to the total mass or energy leaving it (since m CV = constant and E CV = constant). The amount of energy entering a control volume in all forms (by heat, work, and mass) should be equal to the amount of energy leaving it.

mCV 0 min mout ;

ECV 0

;

dE dt CV

| and it can easily be shown that

dm

CV

0

dt

0

 

2

2

Q

W

out

m h

(

V

2

gz

)

in

m h

(

V

2

gz

),

kJ

 

2

2

V

V

Q

W

out

m h

(

2

gz

)

in

m h

(

2

gz

),

kW

In the rate form:

In the case of 1 inlet and 1 outlet:

min mout m

 

o 2

V

V

i

2

kW

Q

W

m

h

o

h

i

2

gz

o

z

i

 

Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

Example

In rural areas, water is often extracted from underground by pumps. Consider an underground water source whose free surface is 20 m below ground level. Water is to be raised 30 m above the ground by a pump at a rate of 1.5 m 3 /min. If the diameter of the pipe is 15 cm, determine

a) the pumping speed

b) the power input to the pump required for a steady flow of water.

The local atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa and ambient temperature is 25°C.

Given:

z2 z1 50m

V

3

1.5m / min

d 0.15m

Assumptions

3

(1.5/ 60)m / s

0.025m

3

/ s

No heat transfer

No change in pressure and temperature between (1) and (2)

The pipe diameter is constant Solution:

a) The water is in the subcooled phase.

υ = 0.001003 m 3 /kg (Table A-4)

A

V

4

d

AV

2

4

V

0.15

2

0.0177 m

2

V

0.025

A

0.0177

1.412

m

/

s

(2) (1)
(2)
(1)

Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

b) Energy balance for the CV:

Q

W

m

V

 

2

2

2

V

1

2

h

h

1

2

No heat transfer is involved,

Q0

g

(

z

2

z

1

)

h1 h2

(same pressure and temperature)

V1 V2

(constant pipe area and constant density)

0

W

W

 

m

0

 

0

25 9.81

g

(

50

1000

z

2

)

z

1

)

12.26

kW

W  12.26 kW

The pump requires a power input of 12.26 kW in order to raise the water to 30 m above the ground.

Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

Problems set # 4

(1) A tank of water of density 1000 kg/m 3 sits on the roof of a building 85 m high. A 50 cm diameter pipe connects this tank to another tank situated on the ground floor. The lower tank is used for watering the lawns and is normally filled by rain-water. Where there is excessive rainfall, it is necessary to pump the water from the ground floor tank into the roof tank, and a pump is placed in the pipeline to do this. If the water is pumped up at a velocity of 0.6 m/s, what is the power input required at the pump if it has an energy transfer efficiency of 70%. Neglect the pipe frictional losses.

the power input required at the pump if it has an energy transfer efficiency of 70%.

Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

(2)

(3)

rural areas, water is often

extracted from underground by pumps. Consider an underground water source whose free surface is 60 m below ground level. The water is to be raised 5m above the ground by a pump. The diameter of the pipe is 10 cm at the inlet and 15 cm at the exit. Neglecting any heat interaction with the surroundings and frictional heating effects, determine the power input to the pump required for a steady flow of water at a rate of 15 L/s (0.015 m 3 /s).

In

flow of water at a rate of 15 L/s (0.015 m 3 /s). In Water is

Water is to be pumped from a well to the top of a 200-m-tall building. There is a 15- kW pump available in the basement, and the water surface level in the well is 40 m below ground level. Neglecting any heat transfer and frictional effects, determine the maximum flow rate of water that can be maintained by this pump.

any heat transfer and frictional effects, determine the maximum flow rate of water that can be

Beirut Arab University Department of Mechanical Engineering MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2015-2016

(4)

What is the maximum possible power output of the water turbine shown in the figure ?

power output of the water turbine shown in the figure ? (5) Steam expands in a

(5) Steam expands in a turbine as shown below. Determine the power output and the

turbine inlet diameter.

in the figure ? (5) Steam expands in a turbine as shown below. Determine the power