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CHAPTER 1

STRESS
Chapter Objectives
Understand the concepts of normal and shear stress
Analyze and design of members subjected on axial load
or shear

Chapter 1
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body
1.3 Stress
1.4 Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bar
1.5 Average Sheer Stress
1.6 Allowable Stress Design
1.7 Limit State Design

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body


External Loads
-

Surface forces (direct contact


of one body with the surface
of another) eg concentrated
force/linear distributed
loading

Body forces (one body exerts


a force on another body
without direct physical
contact) eg weight

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body


Support Reactions

Surface forces that develop at the supports or points of


contact between bodies.
If the support prevents a translation in a direction, then
there is a force.
If the support prevents a rotation, then there exists a
couple moment.

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body


Equations of Equilibrium
Equilibrium of a body requires the balance
of forces and moments.

F 0
F 0
M 0

F 0
M 0

F 0, F 0, F 0
M 0, M 0, M 0
x

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body


Internal Resultant Loadings
The resultant loadings that act within a body.

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body


Normal Force (N) = force
perpendicular to the area. External
loads push/pull on the two segments
of the body.
Shear Force (V) = force that lies in
the plane of the area. External loads
that cause the two segments of the
body to slide over one another.
Torsional Moment/Torque (T) =
External loads tend to twist one
segment of the body with respect to
the other about an axis perpendicular
to the area.
Bending Moment (M) = External
loads tend to bend the body about an
axis lying within the plane of the area.
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body


Coplanar Loadings
(Coplanar = lying in the same plane)
- Body subjected to a coplanar
system of forces
- Only normal force (N), shear
force (V) and bending moment
(M).

N : Fx 0

V : Fy 0

M : MO 0

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

Problem 1.3
The beam AB is fixed to the wall and has a uniform weight of 1200 N/m. If the
trolley supports a load of 6000 N, determine the resultant internal loadings acting
on the cross sections through points C and D.

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

Problem 1.3
Segment BC

Segment BD

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

1.3 Stress
Stress
- intensity of the internal force at a point in the body
- limiting value of force per unit area as the area approaches zero (material
considered continuous and cohesive)
Normal Stress (z)
- Intensity of force acting normal to A. Since Fz is normal to the area:

Fz
z lim
A0 A
- Tensile stress = pulls, compressive stress = pushes
Shear Stress ()
- Intensity of force acting tangent to A.

Fy
Fx
zx lim
, zy lim
A0 A
A0 A
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

1.4 Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bar

Normal Stress () Intensity of force


acting normal to
A.

= average normal stress at any


point on the cross sectional area
P = internal resultant normal force
A = cross sectional area

Prismatic (same cross-section throughout its


length)
Homogeneous (same physical and mechanical
properties throughout its volume)
Isotropic (same properties in all directions)
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

1.5 Average Shear Stress


Shear Stress ()
- Intensity of force acting tangent to A.

avg

avg = average shear stress at the section


V = internal resultant shear force
A = area of the section
Analysis:
1. Section the member where the
average shear force is to be
determined.
2. Draw the FBD
3. Calculate the shear force V
acting at the section necessary to
hold the part in equilibrium.
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

Problem 1.32
The lever is held to the fixed shaft using a tapered pin AB, which has a mean
diameter of 6 mm. If a couple is applied to the lever, determine the average
shear stress in the pin between the pin and lever.

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

Problem 1.32

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

1.6 Allowable Stress Design


F.S. (Factor of Safety)
- Ratio of the failure load Ffail to the allowable load Fall.

F .S .

F fail
Fall

Ffail = Failure load (experimental)


Fall = Allowable load
F.S. = selected based on experience
F.S. > 1 to avoid potential failure
Allowable stress design (ASD) = design based on an allowable stress limit

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

1.6 Allowable Stress Design


Rod in concrete

Crane

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

1.7 Limit State Design


Limit state design (LSD) or load and resistance factor design (LRFD)
- Takes into account uncertainties due to the variability of both materials
properties and loading that must be supported.

Load factors (/gamma) - accounts for load variability


Resistance factors (/phi) probability of material failure
Load factors and resistance factors are design criteria.

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

Problem 1.70
The lever is attached to the shaft A using a key that has a width d and
length of 25 mm. If the shaft is fixed and a vertical force of 200 N is
applied perpendicular to the handle, determine the dimension d if the
allowable shear stress for the key is all = 35 Mpa.

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

Problem 1.70

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)

End of Chapter 1

Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)