CHAPTER 1
STRESS
Chapter Objectives
Understand the concepts of normal and shear stress
Analyze and design of members subjected on axial load
or shear
Chapter 1
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body
1.3 Stress
1.4 Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bar
1.5 Average Sheer Stress
1.6 Allowable Stress Design
1.7 Limit State Design
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body
External Loads

Surface forces (direct contact
of one body with the surface
of another) eg concentrated
force/linear distributed
loading
Body forces (one body exerts
a force on another body
without direct physical
contact) eg weight
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body
Support Reactions
Surface forces that develop at the supports or points of
contact between bodies.
If the support prevents a translation in a direction, then
there is a force.
If the support prevents a rotation, then there exists a
couple moment.
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body
Equations of Equilibrium
Equilibrium of a body requires the balance
of forces and moments.
F 0
F 0
M 0
F 0
M 0
F 0, F 0, F 0
M 0, M 0, M 0
x
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body
Internal Resultant Loadings
The resultant loadings that act within a body.
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body
Normal Force (N) = force
perpendicular to the area. External
loads push/pull on the two segments
of the body.
Shear Force (V) = force that lies in
the plane of the area. External loads
that cause the two segments of the
body to slide over one another.
Torsional Moment/Torque (T) =
External loads tend to twist one
segment of the body with respect to
the other about an axis perpendicular
to the area.
Bending Moment (M) = External
loads tend to bend the body about an
axis lying within the plane of the area.
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body
Coplanar Loadings
(Coplanar = lying in the same plane)
 Body subjected to a coplanar
system of forces
 Only normal force (N), shear
force (V) and bending moment
(M).
N : Fx 0
V : Fy 0
M : MO 0
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
Problem 1.3
The beam AB is fixed to the wall and has a uniform weight of 1200 N/m. If the
trolley supports a load of 6000 N, determine the resultant internal loadings acting
on the cross sections through points C and D.
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
Problem 1.3
Segment BC
Segment BD
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
1.3 Stress
Stress
 intensity of the internal force at a point in the body
 limiting value of force per unit area as the area approaches zero (material
considered continuous and cohesive)
Normal Stress (z)
 Intensity of force acting normal to A. Since Fz is normal to the area:
Fz
z lim
A0 A
 Tensile stress = pulls, compressive stress = pushes
Shear Stress ()
 Intensity of force acting tangent to A.
Fy
Fx
zx lim
, zy lim
A0 A
A0 A
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
1.4 Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bar
Normal Stress () Intensity of force
acting normal to
A.
= average normal stress at any
point on the cross sectional area
P = internal resultant normal force
A = cross sectional area
Prismatic (same crosssection throughout its
length)
Homogeneous (same physical and mechanical
properties throughout its volume)
Isotropic (same properties in all directions)
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
1.5 Average Shear Stress
Shear Stress ()
 Intensity of force acting tangent to A.
avg
avg = average shear stress at the section
V = internal resultant shear force
A = area of the section
Analysis:
1. Section the member where the
average shear force is to be
determined.
2. Draw the FBD
3. Calculate the shear force V
acting at the section necessary to
hold the part in equilibrium.
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
Problem 1.32
The lever is held to the fixed shaft using a tapered pin AB, which has a mean
diameter of 6 mm. If a couple is applied to the lever, determine the average
shear stress in the pin between the pin and lever.
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
Problem 1.32
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
1.6 Allowable Stress Design
F.S. (Factor of Safety)
 Ratio of the failure load Ffail to the allowable load Fall.
F .S .
F fail
Fall
Ffail = Failure load (experimental)
Fall = Allowable load
F.S. = selected based on experience
F.S. > 1 to avoid potential failure
Allowable stress design (ASD) = design based on an allowable stress limit
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
1.6 Allowable Stress Design
Rod in concrete
Crane
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
1.7 Limit State Design
Limit state design (LSD) or load and resistance factor design (LRFD)
 Takes into account uncertainties due to the variability of both materials
properties and loading that must be supported.
Load factors (/gamma)  accounts for load variability
Resistance factors (/phi) probability of material failure
Load factors and resistance factors are design criteria.
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
Problem 1.70
The lever is attached to the shaft A using a key that has a width d and
length of 25 mm. If the shaft is fixed and a vertical force of 200 N is
applied perpendicular to the handle, determine the dimension d if the
allowable shear stress for the key is all = 35 Mpa.
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
Problem 1.70
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)
End of Chapter 1
Chapter 1 (Hanan Mokhtar)