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# Chapter 21

Electric Field

Spring 2015/16

## Bashar Issa - General Physics II

Objectives
Can we calculate E and F for a continuous
charge distribution?
Or
Can we modify Coulombs law for point
charges to be used with continuous charge
distribution?

Fall 2010/11

## Many Point Charges (already saw this before)

Continuous charge Distribution
Motion of Charged objects in Uniform Electric
Fields - Applications

Spring 2015/16

## Imagine a charge q is made up from a million

electrons (i.e. q = 1.6 x 10-13 C)
I can put all million es at 1 point, and hence
giving a point charge, or spread these million
electrons into a larger space, but each
electron is very close to another, and hence we
have a continuous charge distribution
Spring 2013/14

## Continuous Charge Distribution:

Uniform or Variable

## Distribute total charge Q over a line, e.g. thin

object of length L
Two options:
either same dQ per every dL uniform
density, or
most of Q in small part of L and rest is
empty of Q nonuniform density
dq/d(space) = constant or Not
Space: 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional; i.e. length,
area
(surface), orBashar
volume
Spring 2013/14
Issa - General Physics II
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Charge Density

## Line charge density: l = dq/dx = constant = Q/L

(uniform charge distribution) or

Units:

## Surface charge density: s = dq/dA = constant =

Q/A or s(A) = s(x,y) variable - sigma
Units:

## Volume charge density: r = dq/dV = constant =

Q/V or r(V) = r(x,y,z) - variable rho
Units:
Spring 2013/14

## Continuous Line Charge Distribution:

Uniform or Variable
Uniform charge
+++++++++++++++++++
distribution:
dq/dL = constant
Nonuniform:
dq/dL = Not
constant
Nonuniform:
dq/dL=
exponential

Spring 2013/14

+ ++++++++++
+ + ++

++++ + + + + + + + +
Bashar Issa - General Physics II

+
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## Example: Uniform Line Density l(x)

+++++++++++++++++++

## Ex. 1: Given l(x)=constant = 0.37 nC/cm, what is the

total charge in a length of 2.8 cm?

## 16.0 mC distributed uniformly, what is the line

charge density l(x)?

Spring 2013/14

1.2 cm

## Ex. 1: Given s(x,y)=constant = 0.45 nC/cm2, what is

the total charge in an area of 1.2 cm by 0.75 cm?
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

0.75 cm

Spring 2013/14

## Examples: Direction of Field: from

vector to scalar
Calculate E at position P
due to uniform line
charge distribution.

Q, uniform l, l

## i.e. given Q, uniform l, l,

as shown, What is E?

## Direction is known for the whole distribution

(i.e. it is the same for all elements DE)
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Distribution

## If distances between charges are smaller than r from group of

charges to point P, then system of charges is continuous

## Divide q into many small Dq (i.e. regard Dq as a point

charge)
Use Coulomb formula of point q to calculate elemental E
(i.e. DE) at P for one element Dq vector formula
Total Electric field = E = sum of elemental Es = sum all
DEs= DEi for all i (i.e. all elements)
Careful: vector summation, i.e. direction may change:
use symmetry if you can
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1.

Choose dq

2.

3.

4.
5.
6.

## Apply Coulombs law to dq

Check if formula applies to all elements
Check direction: known! i.e. symmetry
Integrate E = dE (Hope scalar not vector! If
5 above applies)
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Q, uniform l, l

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## Symmetry is Very Important

to Simplify Integration14
Bashar Issa - General Physics II

Spring 2015/16

## Symmetry is Very Important

to Simplify Integration15
Bashar Issa - General Physics II

Spring 2015/16

## Example 9: Direction of Field

Charge Q is uniformly distributed around a conducting ring of
radius (Fig. 21.23). Find the electric field at a point P on the
ring axis at a distance from its center.

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Use of Symmetry:

## Each dE has 2 components one along x and the other normal

to x.
Components along x add up together but those normal cancel
each other.
Resultant is along x.
dE = Ke dq/r2 Note r is same for all elements
dEx = dE cosq for all components q is constant
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## Examples: Continuous Surface Charge

Two infinite plane sheets with uniform surface charge densities
+s and s are placed parallel to each other with separation d
(Fig. 21.26). Find the electric field between the sheets, above the
upper sheet, and below the lower sheet.

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rs a or rs < a

## Notice distance r from each point charge dq

(millions of them) to point x varies significantly
|r| and angle are not constant for all dqs
a
r
X

Continuous charge
distribution: many point
charges close together
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P
Point P where EF is to
be calculated

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## Most rs are close to each other in magnitude

Angles from dqs to P are similar
easy integration

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## Electric Field Lines (EFLs)

Concept
Diagrams
Importance and how to use them

## Definition of Uniform Field

Numerical Examples: Particles Acceleration GP1
Devices

Fall 2010/11

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## 21.6 Electric Field Lines (EFLs):

Description & Properties

## Curved imaginary lines parallel to electric field

vectors at any point in space (i.e. E is tangent
to E.F.L.)
Number of lines passing normally
(perpendicularly) through unit area is
proportional to magnitude (strength) of E

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## Lines begin at +ve and terminate at ve charges

Number of lines is proportional to magnitude of
charge (N |q| or N = C |q| where C is
proportionality constant)
No 2 field lines can cross. Why!

Summer 2014

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+2q
+

-q
-

## Quick Quiz 23.7 Rank

magnitude of electric field at
points A, B, and C.

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Revision

## Have objectives been achieved?

Use what we know! Law for point charges!
Convert continuous charge distribution into many
point charges stacked together calculus
Use symmetry if possible to determine
direction of net E
EFLs Importance & Usage:
Remember to use definition first! and then may
be go to equations, combine equations, etc.
Later on in Ch 22: flux
Later on in Ch 23: gradient of E wrt space
Later on in Ch 24: capacitors
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