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METHOD GASPEY-OTTO-SAUER.

OTTOMAN-TURKISH

CONVERSATION-GRAMMAR
A PRACTICAL METHOD OF LEARNING
THE OTTOMAN-TURKISH LANGUAGE.
BY
V. H.

HAGOPIAN, M.

A.

PROFESSOR OF THE TURKISH, ARABIC AND PERSIAN LANGUAGES


IN ANATOLIA COLLEGE, MERZIFOUN, TURKEY;
AUTHOR OF ENGLISH - ARMENIAN DICTIONARY etc.

S/ASJS

t,

K (V

LONDON.
DAVID NUTT, 57-59 Long Acre.

DULAU & CO., 37 Soho Square


SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & CO., 100 Southwark Street.
NEW YORK: BRENTANO'S, 5-9 Union Square.
DYBSEN& PFEIFFER (F. W. Christern) 16 West 33eL Street. G. E. STECHERT

&

Co.,

129-133

BOSTON:

West 20!L
C. A.

Street.

E.

KCEHLER &

STEIGER &

CO., 25 Park Place.

CO., 149a, Treraont Street.

HEIDELBERG.
JULIUS GROOS.
1907.

JAN

5-

j> ^&>

3=9-^^

3 -*

fj

'

OF

MEDMf

U-^>-^j\

Jjul
t^rJj*-

WJ^J^

</-*"

J>wJ

"

-ki^*

aJI ^-j^

-s-Us

>

3>j*>-

o^li-M

<^LJ-l

ilj'o

^>

4.1 lkt\

t^nljoU)

The Gaspey-Otto-Saner Method has become my sole property by


right of purchase. These books are continually revised. All rights,
especially those of adaptation and translation into any language, are
reserved. Imitations and copies are forbidden by law. Suitable
communications always thankfully received.
Heidelberg

Julius Groos.

III

Preface.
ihe Turkish language
Turks came from Central

is

origin, as the

of Tartar

Asia,

and

consequently

is

quite distinct from Arabic and Persian,

although

it

is

modern times the Arabic characters have


been adopted for all three languages, and that the
Turkish language is now half filled with Arabic and
Persian words. Yet these words have been incorporated
true that in

without affecting the nature or framework of the Turkish,

which

is

Saxon

dialects are

as different from Arabic

pure Turkish

is

is

Turanian, while Arabic

compounded not only

of representatives

The

guages.

as Anglo-

from Hebrew or Hungarian.

Persian Aryan, and the resulting


kish

and Persian
is

In fact

Semitic and

modern Ottoman-Tur-

of three languages but

of the three great families

original Turkish tongue,

which

of lanis

called

Chaghata (Jagatai), was somewhat barbarous, but extremely forcible and concise when spoken. The adoption of
Arabic and Persian words is arbitrary. To master the
language it is necessary to have at least an elementary
knowledge of the Arabic and Persian languages.
It

is

an

extraordinary and lamentable fact that

the language of the Turks has hitherto received

no attention

little

or

spoken by millions of people belonging to a vast empire with which


we are closely connected by mutual vital interests, and
is more or less used, in official circles, from Tunis in
in

England, although

Africa to the walls of China.


of Persia,

and

South Russia

in

many

It is

it

is

the court language

provinces of that country, of

and Afghanistan

is

spoken

much

as
i*

IV

Preface aaJj* Mouqaddeme.

as Persian.

It is

difficult to

account for the absolute

neglect of the study of such an important language, considering that

it is

half the world,

who have

used by a people who once influenced

who overturned and

established empires,

possessed the thrones of Persia, Greece, Egypt

and Arabia; whose power was once dreaded by Italy,


Germany and France, and to whom our proud Queen
Elizabeth applied for aid against the Spanish Armada.

The Turkish has always been

of the greatest consequence

and commercial relations with the Ottoman Empire, and the


complete ignorance of it on the part of our countrymen has greatly impeded proper communication and
intercourse between the two nations and given rise to
most serious misunderstandings and difficulties both
in the diplomatic and commercial world. [Br. Ch. Wells.)
Besides, not a small body of earnest men from

to us,

owing

to the

importance of our

the great Anglo-Saxon

republic

political

of the Trans-Atlantic

continent have long been established in Constantinople

and in the provinces of Turkey, labouring to unfold


the treasures of modern science, temporal and spiritual,
to the

people of Turkey; losing no opportunity to place

communication both with the


governing Ottoman element and with the numerous
races and religious denominations subject to the Imthemselves

in

friendly

perial sway.

To meet
two great

the need

nationalities

of the representatives of these


in Turkey,

there arose the ne-

grammars and lexicons.


There have appeared a number of Turkish grammars
and other books in the English language, but they seem
cessity for conversation-books,

acquaint the learner fully with Turkish,


chiefly because they are not sufficiently practical in the
strict sense of the word, or they are composed only of

little

rules.

fitted

to

The appearance

of a

new Ottoman-Turkish Gram-

Preface

&

mar which combines

o.jJU

Mouqadd&mi.

in itself the theoretical

practical elements of the language,

it

is

and the

expected will

be cheerfully welcomed.

The
Drs.

so-called

Gaspey and

Conversation-method,

Otto,

is

now

originated

applied for the

first

by

time

book to the Ottoman-Turkish language also. It is his mother tongue and besides
for more than 20 years he has practised this method
in teaching the language in an important American
institution to the natives of Turkey and to Englishby the writer of

this present

speaking foreigners. Therefore his

him

He

to

speak with some

little

own

experience enables

authority on this subject.

new element

thinks he has introduced a

too in the

Gaspey-Otto conversation-method, by inserting the word

which appear on pp. 121 125, 215, 256 etc.


The First Part of this work is devoted to conversational language and in it all the peculiarities of the
language are given in a very easy and comprehensive

exercises

way.

The study

of the First Part being finished

soon be seen that Turkish

is

it

will

a very regular language,

more easy than is generally thought.


In the Second Part the elements of the Persian

and that

it

is

far

and Arabic languages are treated of as they are used in


Ottoman -Turkish, and all the difficulties of both languages are explained, in a concise way.
Literary and Official language.

This

is

the

There are then added

some very valuable matters and a vocabulary.


As to the Exercises and Reading Lessons for
translation, most of them are on subjects referring to
Turkey and Turkish literature. Many characteristic specimens of poetry and prose illustrative of the literature
and of the country, especially in modern phraseology,
are given, so that the learner will feel himself in Turkey,

and

have a glimpse into the geography, the history and the manners and customs of the country.
will

PL
\^'b
.v\5


VI

Preface <ujJU Mouqqadd&ne.

recommend

as a help to the student the excel-

Redhouse and
Samy Bey, which

lent Turkish-English Dictionary of Sir J.

the valuable Turkish Dictionary of


latter

is

the most reliable guide to the student after

Grammar. And as a
recommend that of Mihran

finishing the First Part of this

Grammar I
Effendi Apigian (Mihri), to which I am much indebted.
1 am much indebted also to Rev. Dr. W. St Clairpurely Turkish

Tisdall, the C.

who has

M.

S.

missionary at Ispahan, Persia,

carefully revised the

MS. and has made valuable

Himself being a

suggestions.

ripe scholar in the lan-

guage, these have been of great service to me.


I

must

also

express

my

sincere thanks to Dr. J.

Wright, of Oxford, for the kindness and care with which

he has looked over the proofs of

this work.

V. H. Hagopian.
Anatolia College, Merzifoun (Marsovan), Turkey.

List of

Books indispensable

to the Student

of the Turkish Language.


Redhouse's Turkish-English Lexicon
W. W. Peet: Bible House, Constantinople.
Samy Bey's Turkish Dictionary (Qamouson Turl-i)
Mihri's Larger Turkish Grammar {Moutawil Sarf) ....
Turkish Reader: 1, 2, 3 parts {Talimi Qra'at)
Turkish Reader: With Nesikh and Riqa (Rehberi Qra'at)
Turkish Reader: With 6 different characters (Qra'at ojasi)
Penmanship Master (Yazi Hojast)
Blanks for Penmanship (Rehberi Subian, by Mihri) 1, 2, 3 parts
Library Tefeyyuz, 36 Grand Rue de la Sublime Porte,
.

Constantinople.

25/

8/
1/

/8
2/

-i

VII

^
Contents.
Pa se

Introduction.
A. Letters of the Alphabet
B. Pronunciation of Letters
C. Other Orthographic Signs

D. Accent
E. Euphony or
F.

Harmony

of the Vowels

Orthography

1.

Lesson.

2.

First Part. Turkish Grammar.


The Definite and Indefinite Articles
The Substantive Verb

3.

4.

Declension of Nouns

5.

The Pronouns

1.

2.

The

7.

8.

The Family
The verb To Have
The Pronouns (continued)

47

49
55
58

Izafet

3.

Adjectival Pronouns

4.

Demonstrative Pronouns

5.

Reflexive Pronouns

61
69

69
70
72
75
75
77
82
82

The Adjective
Derivative Adjectives

10.

Nouns
The Pronouns (continued)

6.
7.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

Interrogative Pronouns
Indefinite Pronouns

84

Numeral Adjectives
1. Cardinal numbers
Numeral Adjectives
2. Fractional numbers
3. Ordinal numbers
4.

Distributive numerals

The Ottoman-Turkish Calendar


Degrees of Comparison
Nouns with Prepositions
The Substantive Verb (continued)
The Infinitives
I

27
31
35

39
47

Personal Pronouns
Possessive Pronouns

....

(continued)

6.

9.

20
23
24
25

....

89
89
94
94
95
96
96
100
105
109
114

Reading Exercise: The Story of the


117
Cat and the Camel

VIII

Contents ^--^i Fihrist.

7-

Page
17.

Lesson.

Primitive and Derivative Verbs


mek,

4.

119

Yazdirmaq, 3. IchirTaranmaq, 5. Yazilmaq, 6. Geb-

Oqoutmaq,

1.

2.

121125

rtishmek

The Divisions of

Y Reading Exercise:
18.

Turkey
Compound Verbs
Potential Verbs
Accelerative Verbs

r Reading

126
127
131
132

The Provinces

Exercise;

133

19.

20.

The Derivative forms of the Infinitive


135
The Continuative Tenses
139
The Finite Verb
141
The Moods of the Verb and Imperative 142-144
*u Reading Exercise: Religions and De-

21.

The Present Tense

nominations
e
22.

The

146
147

Reading Exercise: The Use of Animals

Aorist Tense

152

1 Reading Exercise: Voices of Animals


23.

24.

The Past Tenses


The Categorical Past
The Dubitative Past
The Future Tense
V Reading Exercise:

26.

The Optative Tense


The Suppositive Tense

Sermon of Nasr-

(Subjunctive)

A Reading Exercise:

A Sermon

....

170
171
176

of Nasr-

ed-din (Continued)
27.

158

159
159
162
166

ed-din
25.

151

179
180

The Necessitative Tense


^ Reading Exercise The Marriage of the
Teacher
:

28.

The

Participles
I.

Subjective

Mood

Comparison
)* Reading Exercise:
a line
29.

The

To hang

flour

Participles (continued)
II.

Objective

Mood

Comparisons

M
30.

Reading Exercise: Jack's House.

Gerunds
The Table of

185
185
186
189

on
192
193
193
195-200
.

)Y Reading Exercise: The Distinction between Man and Beast

203

204
206
210

Contents si

Ja

31.

Lesson.

IX

Fihrist.

Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs


1. The Regular Verbal Adjective

2. The Irregular
3. The Noun of Excess
.

...

Location
Instrumental Nouns

4.
5.

tr Reading Exercise:
32.

Prepositions
)

33.

The

a.

223

Reading Exercise TheVillage Room,

b.

229

224
:

230

T Reading Exercise TheVillage Room,


:

c.

d,

238
241
242
242
245
247
251
251
252

Salutations

Onomatopoeia

Ezan
The Christian Services

The Elements
Introductory Remarks
37. Lesson." The Persian Plural
Second Part.

of Arabic

and Persian.
254
255

A Reading Exercise: The Match

The Persian

Girl

Reading Exercise:
ciples,

39.

Persian

264
Franklin's Prin-

266
267

Compound

256
261

Izafet

Persian Numerals

236
236

V Reading Exercise: TheVillage Room,


e,f,g
Appendices
Congratulations
Modes of Address
Honorific Titles

38.

218

Reading Exercise TheVillage Room,

Interjections

212
214
214
214

219

Postpositions

36.

Conjunctions
1

35.

Adverbs
)

34.

<u

v.

An Anecdote

Page
211
211

Adjectives

Y* Reading Exercise: Franklin's Prin272

ciples, b

40.

:>

The Persian Derivative Nouns

274

Y) Reading Exercise: The Story of the


41.

Donkev and Fox


The Persian Verb

277
280

Objective and Subjective Participles

.281

The verbal Noun

281

Verbal Adjectives
The Persian Roots

282
282

YY Reading Exercise:
and Praise

Supplication

287

Contents

c^i

Fihrist.

<

Page
42. Lesson.

The Persian Prepositions

288
289

Substitution; Omission

43.

rr Reading Exercise: The Hunter


The Gender of Arabic Nouns
The Number of Arabic Nouns

292

294
296
296

....
Dual; Regular Masculine; Fern. Plural
Reading Exercise: A Poem ....

302

ft,

44.

The Arabic Nisbe


Abstract

45.

re Reading Exercise: Columbus' Egg,


The Arabic Infinitive

The Primitive
The Primitive

I.

II.

Quadriliterals

Nouns derived from Primitive


I. Nouns with Mim
II.

III.

Noun
Noun

308

...

310
313
316

317

Triliterals

of Location
of Instrument

rv Reading Exercise:
47.

a.

Triliterals

Reading Exercise: Psalm 84

r*\

46.

303
305

Noun

Psalm of Life

Subjective Participle (Fayil)

II. Objective
(Mefoul)
III. Adjective of Quality (Mushebbihe)
IV. Adjective of Colour and Defect
V. Noun of Superiority {Ismi Tafzil)
VI. Noun of Excess {Mubalagha)
I.

48.

The Derivative
II.

III.

Triliteral Infinitives

Tefil
Mufa'ale

IV. Ifal
V. Tefa'oul
r\

49.

A Litany

Reading Exercise:

=
=
=
=

Tefqeel

Mufaqale

The Derivative

IX. If Hal
X. Istifal

Ifqat
Tefaqoul

=
=
=
=
=

Tefaqqoul

....

Nobility

Participles of Derivative Infinitives

rt

Infiqal

The

Iftiqal
Ifqilal
Istifqal

r Reading Exercise True


50.

....
....

Triliteral Infinitives (continued)

VI. Tefa'oul
VII. Infi'al
VIII. IftVal

of Praise

Reading Exercise: Friendship

Reading

Exercise:

51.

332
332
333
334
335
338
339
339
340
341
342
342

345

346

Administrative

352

353

Broken or Irregular Plurals

rt Reading

331

Councils

322
324
824
325
326
327
327
328

Arabic Participles

X/\

318
318
319
320

Exercise: Columbus' Egg,

b.

360

Contents

XI

Fihrist.

Page
52.

Lesson.

The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns


rr Heading Exercise: The Inventions
.

53.

The Arabic Definite Article


The Arabic Preposition

54.

Arabic and Persian Pronouns

r"u

Reading Exercise:

Arabic and Persian Adverbs

56.

Arabic Numerals
I. Cardinal numbers
II. Ordinal numbers

361

365
366
371

An Anecdote

etc.

....

rv Reading Exercise: Home


Arabic Compound Words
.

I.

II.

t~A

58.

....

Reading Exercise: The Overthrow.


poem)

Synonymous Words
II. Svmphoniou3 Terminations
III. Antonyms
r*\ Reading Exercise: Tirkibi Bend
The Euphonic Changes of the Letters
I. The Assimilation of Letters
II. The Modification of Weak Letters
a. Modification of Yav

398

I.

b. Modification of Ye
^* Reading Exercise: The Ceremony of
the Coronation of the King of England

60.

393
395
395
396

Arabic system
Persian system

59.

385
387
387
387
388
389

III. Fractional numbers


The Diminutive Noun

380
382

r^ Reading Exercise: Newton

57.

375
375

ro Reading Exercise: Regulations


55.

Miscellaneous Idiomatic Phrases

400
402
402
405
407
407
410
411
413
415

418

Appendices.

The Ottoman Literature


Sultans of the House of Osman

420
423
424
425
426

Arabic Calendar

Ottoman Financial Calendar


Parsing
H.1

Reading Exercise: The Prophet's Speech

Conjugation of Turkish Verbs

The

426
431

Official Part.

The Imperial Palace


His Imperial Majesty the Sultan

434
434

XII

Contents

c-^5

Fihrist.

Page

The Sublime Porte


The Council of Ministers
The Grand Viziriate
The Council of State
The Foreign Office
The Ministry of Internal Affairs
The Sheikh-ul Islamate
The Ministry of Finance
The Imperial Mint
The Customs Administration
The Ministry of Public Instruction
The Ministry of Justice and Public Worship
The Prefecture of Police
The Ministry of Commerce
The Council of International Sanitation
The Ministry of Religious Funds
The Administration of Posts and Telegraphs
The Ministry of War
Military Grades

Arms
The Admiralty; Naval
The Imperial Arsenal
Different

Officers

Kinds of Ships

The Provinces
Diplomatic terms
Festivals: Moslem Festivals
Christian Festivals
Jewish Festivals
Orders of the Ottoman Empire

Medals

Ottoman Empire
Grades of Nobility
Military and Naval Grades
Grades of the Religious Hierarchy

The Ranks

in the

Civil

Official Titles

Of Functionaries of Civil and Military Grades


Of Moslem Clergy
Of Non-Moslem Clergy
Commercial Terms
Vocabulary
.

435
435
436
437
437
437
438
438
438
439
439
440
441
442
442
442
443
443
444
445
446
447
447
449
450
454
455
456
456
456
457
458
458
458
459
460
461
462
462
465
489

General-Index

*>*<

Introduction.
A.

Letters of the Alphabet.

1. The following table shows the shape of the


Ottoman -Turkish letters, when they are connected with
a preceding or a following letter, or with both, and when
isolated

Xames

Isolated

Final Medial Initial

elif

be

~rT

>

pe
-

te

-*

se

jim
E.

chim
<L

ha
khi

C
c
i

re

ze

zlu*

40

500

Remarks

See 29.

Tur.,Pers.

Arabic.

3t

>

55

>

ch

Tur.,Pers.

9=

>

Arabic.

se

>

kh

600

700

200

zh

11,

S
c
6

dal
zal

Proper ^ umer
ical
j
sounds values

Turkish Conv. -Grammar.

i.

Arabic.

Persian.

Letters of the Alphabet.

Mames

Isolated

"

Final Medial Initial

Numer
Proper
l
ical
sounds values

"
i

Remarks

-,

sin

cr

uT

A-

j.

shin

cr

60

sh

300

90

sad

d>

dad

U*

.a

J*

*2L

d,

800

t,

ti

J.

J*

zi

Ii

ayn

ft

-A

ghayn

*.

gh

fe

i-Jl

c?

kef

ii

dl

sC

lsc:

ST

gef

lam

mini

.
)

vav

he

4.

ye

C5

J
*

Arabic.

70

35.

1000

100

20

20

30

40

50

10

0-

noun

900

80

SL

qaf

Arabic.

Tut., Pers.

"

f
*

2. The letters of the Ottoman -Turkish Alphabet


are 32 in number, and consist of 28 Arabic letters,
together with some which the Persians have added

(^3 -

,_,).

The Turks,

as

most other Oriental nations,

read and write from right to

left,

instead of from

left

Letters of the Alphabet.

right as we do; and a book consequently begins


Capital letters are
where it would end in English.
marks
have been adopted
unknown, and the punctuation
They are the same as in English.
recently.
3, There are four kinds of writing:
I. Riqd, which is the ordinary current handwritingused in letters and in all kinds of civil and official
documents.
to

Nesikh

II.

papers

is

the

common

print

of books,

news-

etc.

Divanee, is a style of large handwriting used


in the Imperial Chancery for engrossing letters-patent.
IV. Taliq, is the Persian model of Arabic characters,
and also in documents of the
it is used by Persians,
Ottoman Canonical court. Examples of these and other
forms of rarer occurence are given at the end of this work.
III.

4. There is always more or less difficulty in


representing the sounds of one language by those of
another. This is true also in the case of the OttomanTurkish language. It belongs to a family or group of
tongues different from the English, possessing sounds
entirely foreign to English ears. To express these sounds,
we have made some modifications of some of the English
vowels and consonants. It is necessary to master these
sounds before going on.
They must be pronounced
fully; all having only one regular sound. For instance:
a has only one sound, and not five or more as in English: e has only one, as in pet. though the name itself
will cause some blunder.
, o, u also have only one
sound each.
There are eight vowel sounds in Turkish.

The

vast population of Turkey, especially the


not all use the Ottoman characters in
The Armenians and the Greeks have
adapted them to their characters. There are books and
papers in Turkish, in Armenian and Greek characters.
published in Constantinople.
Most of the Englishmen
and Americans, resident in Turkey, find it easier to
begin Turkish with English or Armenian characters,
and after mastering the pronunciation and the elements
of the language, they turn to begin it with the Arabic

5.

Christians, do
their writing.

Letters of the Alphabet.

characters,

which they find very easy then. The method


this work, will remove all these diffi-

adapted by ns in
culties.

Single and Double Towels.

In reading the names in the above Table


and
pronouncing the proper sounds, written in the
English characters, the learner must always remember:
1. Not to pronounce a, as in fate, mortal or all;
but as in far, art or father.
2. e is always as e in met or send. Take care not
to pronounce it as in mere, verb or cane.
3. i is always i, as in pin or ship ; never as I, or

6.

in

as in tire.
4. i must be pronounced as o in seldom and e in heaven.
5. o must not be pronounced long as in oat, prose;
but very short as in no.
6. on pronounce always as in youth, bouquet, foot;
and not as in pour, couple, about.
is not as that of pure, turn, rule; it has no
7.
equivalent in English, but is the French tu, sur.
8. eb has no equivalent in English, it is in French
feu, coeur; or German 6 in Zollner, vollig.

Compound Consonants.
7. Turkish orthography does not employ combinations of two or three consonants and vowels to
represent a single sound; we are under the necessity,
however, of making use in this work of some combinations to represent Turkish sounds, for which there is
no equivalent in English. These combinations are made
by the addition of some vowels and consonants to h or y.

kh

has the sound of

ch,

as in the Scotch loch.

Greek y, Armenian t_.


zh must be pronounced as z in azure.
8. The combinations tch and dj, so often to be
seen in the transliteration of Turkish words, are but
French notations of the English ch and j in church
and joy.
9. y must always be considered a consonant,
and never allowed to degrade the sound of any vowel
that may precede it; particular care must be taken by
ah, as the

Letters of the Alphabet.

Englishmen

matter.

in this

It

is

always as in

yett,

yoke, buy.

10. y is combined with other vowels to form


a diphthong as will be seen in the next Table.
ay Ex.: qaymaq; as in lime, high, I.

ey

dcymek;

fate,

iy
iy

chhj

here, clear.

qiyma;

doymaq;
douymaq;
guya;

oy
ouy

uy

prey, hey.

boy, toy, going.


cooing, doing.
Fr. essuyer, Gnyot.

Fr. deuil.
eoy
eoyJen;
11. In the transliteration of Ottoman words, h
must be emphasized at the beginning, middle and end

of words; at the end of the syllables it is generally


accented; as: Al-lah', qah've, liekim.
This is a most
particular rule and requires a good deal of attention
and practice in Englishmen; as a pernicious mode of
orthography prevails among Englishmen, of introducing h mute very frequently at the beginning or end
of words; as in honest, Jehovah etc. ( 49 V.)
is
used as in English; except that it must
never be allowed to be uttered obscurely; it must be
pronounced fully and strongly; it is generally accented
at the end of syllables. ( 17.) Take care not to vitiate
the pure sound of any vowel that may precede it.
G is always hard; as in give, got, yet.

Numerals and Numeration by Letters.

12. The numerical figures, ten in number, have


been adapted by the Ottomans from the Arabs. They

same that we make use of, calling them Arabic,


because we took them from the Arabs. Their forms,
are the

however, differ considerably from thoses, which our digits


have assumed, as the following table shows:
l
r u
o
r
v
n
K *n
r*
t
*

They

are

our numerals,

compounded

ivr

9;

10,

20,

in exactly the

30;

100

same way

as

1902.

13. The apparent strangeness of the fact that


those numbers seem to be written and read not from

Letters of the Alphabet.

">

but from

left to right is due to the circumstance that, in Arabic, the smaller numbers are read
as well as written first.
Thus an Arab would read

right to

left,

two and nine hundred and a thousand'.


however, a Turk does not do. ( 691.)
)\*r

This,

14. If the Arabic alphabet is arranged according


numerical values, there appeares the ancient order,
which is still used for notation and numeration. In
to

Hebrew, Syriac,
Greek and Latin alphabets: the first nine letters represent
the units; the second nine the tens; the third nine the

this order, that of the old Phoenician,

hundreds and the

last

one

the Table of the Alphabet,

j*e*~.

yjS^

Jz>- 3y*

'

j zJ^t

qaresJiet,

letters,

hevvez,

JEbjed,

called

Ebjed

j^\

hout'ti,

Mlemen,

safes,

Therefore the numeration by

sakheg, dazighi.

is

*Jl^

compare

one thousand;

*-,

hisabi.

15. The method of numeration by the letters


of the alphabet was a great task; it is fast going, if not
entirely gone, out of practice, as puerile; but formerly
great significance was attached to any combination of
letters that expresses in one or more words an event or

Thus ^1

date.

the Hejira date

Ul

and ajuU

2.

Miarab

is

GOO

when Timurleng
beldcyi tayyibe

laid

is

+ + 2 = 803,

200

Damascus

30

in 'ruins'

+ 4 + 400 +

9
10
400
2
857, date of the year when
the 'Beautiful City', Constantinople, was taken by the

Ottomans.
Exercise

a.

Write and give the names of the following letters;


they are arranged according to their numeral value:

'

^}e Jo

si)

*!>

J*-

j> J

Division of the Letters.

classes:

The Ottoman alphabet is divided into


vowels; hard, soft,- and neuter letters.

16.

four

Pronunciation of Letters.

Vowel

when they
Hard

letters

is

letters:

when

I,

J?

Vu

^r*-J

beginning of the syllables; as

and w

English language.

in the

Pronunciation of Letters.

17. All the

Ottoman letters

and

are often used as vowels,

29

f r

o* Cj

Table

in the Alphabetical

are considered to be consonants

Jj

JauJj'J^J^

at the

the case with y

which are vowels generally,

I,

dT 6

Neuter
j

are the second letter of the syllable.

Soft letters

and

letters:

^o

except

I,

which

call for further elucidation.

ff.)

We now

proceed

value

phonetic

the

to

of

the

consonants
^j be has the value of English &, as:

But when ending a

birader brother.
it

anomalously,

sometimes,

i^Li sharap
this

the

gitlip,

p4

si)

te

the

German

takes the value of p,

Gerunds

t,

as:

jfrfr

sometimes changed into

is

is

originally final; as:

w^J (jto)

nounced

is

(/('//>

found

as s; as:

-rjim

syllable or word,

in

^_>j

as:

Especially
,

is

^jjS^

as:

the English p, as: jJb peeler father.

is

It

Also

j^U

( 435.)

alip.

is

bed bad,

wine, Ij&l iptida beginning.

case with the

^>J

ji>

is

in

c^

jf

fafor a Tartar; courier.


in derivation

git go,

iron,

<u

j-xi^ gider

(*o)

when

he goes.

elepe a hill.

Arabic words only, and


setbit

pronounced as

firm,
j,

it

J\U

is

pro-

em&iZ proverbs.

as: J\>- jcut soul.

Pronunciation of Letters.

chim

-K

has the value of the English ch, in church

as: a\>- chain the pine,

ha

t-

AU

chali bush.

( 8.)

has the harshly aspirated sound of English

h, in horse.

It

is

chiefly used in Arabic words;

as:

i^-U- ^aj pilgrim.

&7ii has no equivalent in English.

*-

It

is

the

counterpart of the Scotch ch in loch and German Bachc.


But there are a good
It is generally transliterated Mi.
many words in which it is commonly pronounced as h,
as:

is

dal

is

German

#a

is

found in Arabic words alone;

as:

#,

re

hoja teacher; 4JU- heme house.

4>.\*Z.

as: $j$ derd.

<Z,

its

value

ji ser're atom.
in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual

is

There are two important remarks, however,


necessary for the English student to bear in

as in rain.

which

is

mind with respect to this, to him, peculiar letter.


it
must always be pronounced and accented

Firstly,

(never
as in the pronunciation of
part, pat); and secondly, the value of the vowel before
it in the same syllable must never be corrupted (as when
it is pronounced pot pat; for far; cur car), but always

dropped or slurred over,

kept pure, as with any other consonant; thus wS qor,


J& 9}r \

it is

J>13

ze

zhe

8&r\ not qo\


English

is

is

#,

qi

as:

_p

za

49 V.)

gez.

only found in Persian and French words;

of the value of the English s in treasure, and

transliterated

zh;

is

as:

b y''y*

miizhde tidings, j^ j\ azh'der

dragon, Jfcjjj zhournal journal.

It is

often pronounced

Pronunciation of Letters.

2jjiva quicksilver, ^ujUiJ

J, as: j lo} jenger verdigris,

jandarma a county policeman.


,- *iii

a soft

is

Ottoman words,

in all

shin

Jl

a hard s,

is

as: j-L? sagh right,

^
ally
<7;

<f^Z

J^>

1>I

s^

vowel

work.

designates a hard vowel,

it

so? left.

used in Arabic words only.

is

soft

u~* sebz word.

as:

English sh, as:

is

p s^

always followed by a

s,

pronounced as a hard

It is

gener-

but sometimes as a hard

thus: .Ja'j razee content, 4JL*b sapbiye a gendarme,

^Ul

.> grade judge,

a>- khidir elyas St. Elias.

pronounced as

_t 2 is

f,

sometimes in Turkish words


flL (J-b)

ip

^^L ^;

thus:
it

But

pronounced as d.

is

mountain, ^Ljl (bjl)

r?r/7j

ball.

room.

ocZa

used in Arabic words only, as a very hard z>

is

thus: lit zalhn cruel.

ayn,

9-

^i

/e

?am

mini

ij

is

the English

is

noun

But before
pembe

the English /, in

is

ghayn, J qaf\

6e

is

the English
like the

it

is

light rose colour,

I,

il

fee/.

See 3336.

all cases,

/e>w.

in all cases.

m,

as:

J'u

English n, as:

pronounced as

ia?.

jl*

m.

wa bread.

Thus

*Jj

J^tL-l istamhul Constantinople

(Stambul).

18. JYbfe. The reason why so many s and p


sounds occur in Ottoman is that Arabic words intro-

The Orthographic

10

Signs.

cluced into the language have to be written as in Arabic.

In the

tongue the sounds of

latter

again those of
another,

as are

Jo

'

_k

'

those

'

of

'

i are quite distinct


r-

and

of

a,

'

-o

from one

and

and

But

5-.

these distinctions are not observed by the Ottoman.

C1

The Orthographic

There are

Signs.

kinds of orthographic signs


used in Ottoman -Turkish.
The vowel signs, Jezma,
Medda, Shedda and Nunation. These are put under
or over the letters.

19.

five

The Vowel Signs.

There are three kinds of vowel signs ustun,


These are named hareke 'movements'; but
by the Europeans they are commonly called vowel points.
21. These three vowel signs have two values each.
I. With a soft or neuter consonant, ustun has the
value of 6; and with a hard consonant a.
II. With a soft or neuter consonant, esre has the
value of i; and with a hard consonant i.
III. With a soft or neuter consonant, eotre has the
value of &, eb; and with a hard one o, ou.

esre,

20.

eotre.

Hard Vowels.

a)

I.

to

left,

22.

Hard vowels

TJstun

are used with hard letters.

a diagonal

is

stroke

drawn from

placed above the letter thus

it

right

indicates

that the hard letter over which it is placed, is to be


followed in pronunciation by a, as in English bar, star.

Key.
II.
it

is

Ha

3 t

pronounced

Ha

^^

t c

ustun ha, khi ustun Ma, ayn ustun

This sign

Key.

L -k ^

i,

is

called es-re,

under hard

a,

etc.

letters

as e in heaven.

es-re hi,

khi es-re khi, sad es-re

si,

etc.

The Orthographic

This sign JLi

III.
is

pronounced o or on, as
\

>

Ha

Key.

ebtre

>

>

>

khi ebtre

/*om,

/*o,

it

in cold, could.

>

11

over the hard letters

ebtre,

is

Signs.

Icho,

dad

Jchou,

ebtre do, don, etc.


b) Soft Vowels.

Soft vowels

23.

neuter

pronounced with

are

or

soft

letters.

when put

XIstun

I.

pronounced

Sin ustun

iTe?/.

jEsr^

II.

pronounced

over a soft or neuter

letter,

is

as in met.

like e,

kef ustun

se,

when put under

Id,

gef ustun

ge,

etc.

a soft or neuter letter,

is

as in pit, him.

i,

Mini esre mt, lam esre li, ze esre ^j, etc.


III. Eotre when put over a soft or neuter letter,
pronounced u, eo, which have no equivalent in
Key.

is

English.

7. 8.)

( 6,

>

r u
Dal

Key.

>

>

ebtre

J.

h_J

J-

du,

^.

_^

pe ebtre

ded,

W,

shin

^>eo,

ebtre shu, shed, etc.

Exercise
^

>

>

>

J 3 3

3
>

>.

cjlc

f
^

r,

>

d>

>

I i.

I>

r
^

>

'

Ml

Ml

^
<*

^J"

^_j

LLC

Jj

k)

w>

*t.

J*

4 a

i
t-

j*

I J

The Connection of the Letters.

24. The letters of the Ottoman alphabet are divided


into two other divisions connected and unconnected letters.
:

The Orthographic

12

The

I.

unconnected

letters

are

Signs.

jjj j

i 3

which are

I,

never joined to the following letter, and when they


occur the word is broken that is, the pen is taken up,
and the second part of the word is resumed unconnected.
They may be joined only to the letter preceding them,
;

thus

as

exhibited jbl

braqdhn

(I

(administration)

idare

'

f-U

left).

The

connected or jolnable letters are those which


may be joined to the letters which follow or precede
them; the remaining letters are connected letters; as:
II.

J^UA

munfasil (unconnected)
Exercise

^3

&

"*)
>

>

^5

JJ

J3

63

crJ>

JJ

J3

03

U-J

Dal kef ustun

ila

fb

r,

>

>

>

Jj

JTey.

c.

03
del',

dal kef esre

diJc,

dal kef

ebtre duk, dwJc.

25. In dealing with the letters of the Ottoman


alphabet on the preceding pages, we have shown only the
shapes they take when standing alone; when they are
combined with other letters, they are sometimes slightly
modified, according as they stand at the beginning, in
the middle, or at the end of the word. These various
changes will be seen from the Table of the Alphabet
(P.

and

2).

There is also a compound character in use,


always to be found inserted in alphabets, and
which, for that reason, cannot be passed over in silence.

which
It

is

26.

is

the character V,

called lam

being, in

elif,

fact,

nothing more than J lam joined calligraphically to a


following

elif,

in

a similar

manner

to

that

whereby

the English printers continue to join the f and I in


or /' and i in fi, etc.
When this double character

fl,

is

The Orthographic

)r

connected with a preceding

as:

letter,

iV

Sb

RJ

Ai

be,

~3

~~i

>^**

>

~*

has the shape of

it

initial,

9tli

rt

V ? f ^

Ji (J J)

Be

ft/7,

etc.

'

\ 5*

iCq/.

ebtre

final;

I'M medial;

noun

^^^

Mi

initial,

te

initial, ye,

te,

elif final.

'

Jfi)

Exercise (Connected Monosyllables)


[

>-

initial,

noun, pe medial,

ye,

se,

te

IJJUJllj
*?

noun

initial;

d.

il^

by. ye
medial; noun
lean,

13

beta (evil).

Mj

Exercise
J\,\
* ^

Signs.

e.

^ ^
'

^^

ji C^ J.) d^ Cfl
!

lam

shin ustun besh; pe re ustun per] te

Towel Letters.

letters

is

it

i i

are used, to indicate vowel sounds.

Elif

I.

that

Besides the vowel signs, sometimes the vowel

27.

indicates the hard vowel ustun, provided


the second letter of the syllable.
Instead of

written it

is

iL

U-

here

elif is

substituted

for ustun.
II.

Ye, sometimes when

it

is

the second letter of

the syllable, indicates the vowel esre.


is

written
III.

*.

J,

^3

here

Vav, generally when

of the syllable, indicates the


is

written

?/e

^y

is

substituted

it

is

is

the

^ J

for esre.

second

letter

Instead of \p

eofr-e.

here vav

Instead of

substituted for o^re.

IV. He, when it is the second letter of the syllable


generally indicates the ustun, either hard or soft. Instead
of

j i is written

ustun {pe,

re,

de).

*>

j s

here he

is

substituted for

The Orthographic

14

are represented

ft

The Arabic and Persian long vowels

Note.

28.

Signs.

by the Letters of Prolongation

<_

These

I.

correspond respectively with the vowel points:


ustun, esre, ebtre ( 2931). But there are no letters
of prolongation in purely Turkish words; the use of
these letters is limited only to indicating the vowel signs,
as has been said above.
Therefore they are called in
Turkish orthographic letters also, as they serve only for
the correction of the orthography.
letters

Exercise

Read and

write the following exercises:

J
#

fo ,
'

4J

y>

Be elif ustun
ifr?/.
be vav ebtre boa, bo

= J

J^

Jy

J^

\p

y^

4i

be he ustun

I*

j^

be ye esre

be,

etc.

J^

^J

^j!

^ 4p

ba,

'

J*

Jl

f.

J5-

-y

Js

'

J*

>

J^s

IL

^t

Qaf lam ustun qal, which is equivalent to


qaf elif lam ustun qal qaf lam esre qil, or with a vowel
letter qaf ye lam esre qil etc.
iTq/.

J^

'

Jji

^j>-

/&>?/.

Jy

'

Jj>-

Sad vav lam

J^

Short sentences.

ebtre

sol,

III.

qaf vav lam ebtre

qol,

sol qol etc.

3h
-^

'

JStaf

Jjy

'

<jtl

Chim

j^-ji

elif

'

til

*i

ifo?/.

'

'

\Zj[
M

llL

'

<Jl

<m

(3l>.
^

'

ustun c/m, qaf ye esre

j^j

j^j

yy yy

qi,

IV.

cha-qi etc.

uyy

V.

::

15

Pronunciation of Letters.

Te vav

Key.
tu-tun etc.

B2

29.

hemse

initial or

Like

a vowel.

it

ebtre

There are four kinds of

Elif.

which

elif,

any of the

takes the three vowel points

Cil

vav noun

te

til,

tun,

Pronunciation of Letters (continued).

Ottoman
a) The
not

ebtre

and

in

a consonant,,
consonants, it

is

initial

letters;

elif

^1

as:

et

meat,

dog, Ojl ot grass ( 38).

not generally indicated in


it
being understood that whenever an
Ottoman word begins with a vowel, in the original it
begins with elif.
Xote.

Initial

is

elif

transcription,

b) Orthographic or vowel

only the hard ustun vowel:

elif,
it

Turkish and foreign words;

is

which stands to show


used exclusively for

JI

as:

honey,

bal

^jl

parts Paris, IjjjI avropa Europe.


c)

Shortened

shape of

in Arabic

which

elif,

is

written generally in the

but pronounced short

ye,

words;

Vj* or

as:

J,*,*

it

is

used only

mevla God, L.Ac or

ec-sa Jesus.

,< p

Elongated elif, which is found only in Arabic


and Persian words; it lengthens the hard ustun vowel; as:
d)

p.

Ill pasha,

30.
Ottoman
a)

a.

a meen,

Vav.

*\

p.

all

a bad.

There are four kinds of vav in

Consonantal vav,

it

has the phonetic value of v\ as:

ev house, jjij vaqit time, J\ alev flame.


b) Orthographic or vowel vav,

vowel

ebtre;

it

is

used only in

words; as: jo yol way,


c)

jJojl

which stands for the


Turkish and foreign

londra London.

Elongated vai\ which lenghtens the vowel eofn\

and
p.

Pronunciation of Letters.

16

is

found only

c~<j z do

^y memnoon

friend, a.

st

which

d) Silent vav,

words, between the

pronounced;

Arabic and Persian words; as:

in

as:

is

letters

found only in some Persian

and

khi

elif,

I'haje teacher,

a-\j>-

glad.

and

is

not

Manendi

eJ^lj^.

singer.

a)

^ Ye

31.

has three sounds:

Consonantal

sonant y, whether
or reduplicated
mey wine.
b)

yel wind,

Jj

esre,

Elongated

which stands

ye,

a)

as the
b)

ustun;

He

is

used only in Arabic and

he,

which

Orthographic
as:

>

p.

peer

a guttural and aspirated

vowel

skill,

which

lit,

vine, p. aJu

^s qahve coffee.

stands

for

bende slave.

when in the middle or at the end


joined
to the next letter in writing;
never

The vowel
is

or

asma

<u.ol

is

jU huner

in horse; as: p.

of words,

as:

has three sounds:

Consonantal

show

to

Jjj valee governor.

a.

32.

j>

dnLo Dublin.

Persian words and lengthens the esre;


old man,

simple

ju* seyr looking,

epsh winter,

which

ye,

final,

used only in Turkish and

is

it

1J

foreign words; as:

medial or

initial,

Orthographic or vowel

only the vowel

c)

be

it

as

which has the value of the con-

ye,

he,

as: J^2**\f gelejeyim, a,a+^\ asmaya.


c)

is

Substitutive he,

found only

at

which

is

changed from Zj

the end of Arabic words;

as:

te,

and

4j15C>.

hikyaiye for *15C hfkyaiyet story.

33.

qaf,

lJ

lief.

The

Ottoman

alphabet

distinguishes sharply between the hard letter qaf

and

Pronunciation of Letters.

IV

the soft letter

kef.

The

transliteration of this present

in accordance with the

judgment

J by q and

represents the

17

fj

work

of the ripest scholars,

The common

with A\

people pronounce the qaf as ghayn at the beginning


and the middle of words, and as kJu at the end. The
kef also at the end of words is pronounced kh by the

common
oS

people.

Ex.: JjU-y qochaq com. ghocliakh (brave),

com. ghan (blood),

qcin

*l$

qayish com. ghayish (thong),

gidejek com. gedejekh (he will go).

dJ>-oJio

34.

A'e/

fj

is

appropriate only to soft syllables

or words; it is so pronounced as to represent in Turkish


four different sounds; to distinguish these four sounds
the letter may be slightly modified in form.
But in
general,
all

Ottoman, the

in

fj

alone

used

is

and the student can learn


only by practice.

four sounds,

nounce
I.

kaif

it

to

express

how

to pro-

The

(kefi

first of these four forms is called kef or


Arabia Arabic kef, by the grammarians); it is

pronounced as

Ex.

k.

kedr blind, ^>\l.f kitab book,

hul ashes.

j}

II. The second is called gef or giaf {kefi Far i si.


Persian kef, by the grammarians), and it is pronounced
as hard (j it is sometimes distinguished by a modi\

fication in shape, thus <T.

lake,

Note.

gel

Ex.

jjf

geor see,

J^f

geol

come.

When

represents the sound either of

fj

k or of

hard, and is followed by an Rif, it takes before the


vowel a short and incipient sound of
which we have
?',

united thus m. Ex.: Jitf* ktaghid paper,


a-gicih

cause

fj

being a

vowel

aware: not ka-ghid,

ol$^l

fect,

soft

letter

\^ kiamil per-

lea-mil,

a-gah; be-

cannot go with a hard

( 22, 37).

Turkish Conv. -Grammar.

Pronunciation of Letters.

18

The

III.

and

a nasal n,

times written

kef,

represented by n.

is

with three dots over

found elsewhere than

to be.

The fourth

the middle of Turkish

at

Ex.:

initial.

words.

Ex.: J> ^

di bey

prince.

deyil

it

and

pronounced
found only in Turkish

called yaf\

is

y consonant;

English

like the

never

It is

it.

*$d\t valndz alone, di;~, senin vour.

dents sea,

IV.

some-

It is

and consequently never can be

words;
*J^

called saglur

or nef (surd kef),


as ng in the words ring, sing etc.

is

pronounced
and

is

is

it

third

tA

it is

^Sj^eyri crooked,

not,

is

is

Exercise g.
2

y>

0}
Jj>}l

Y. JU
4

2,4

^ '%

^i ^J

* J*

>1 i^l

j^5o

J^ 'X' jS

its'

^S"

1.4
1

'dfil

j^L

'

v>

2.

'

>y

'or
4

j\3>

4,1.

m
.

i^: **f:
~

Qaf

jl5^

;4

'.

''^^

k
:

2,4

<

<

^:^r

vav ustun qav, gef elif vav ustun gtav;


aqmaq, ekmek, eymel\ anmaq; qol, geol; qcu\ ITar etc.
2Te^.

elif

35.

ayn.

The ayn has no equivalent

in

European languages;

it characterizes only Arabic words.


value
in
Arabic and in the mouth of an
phonetic
Its
Arab, is a harsh guttural catch or hiatus. As pronounced

by

Turkish

scholar the letter is either entirely


The
silent or only the slightest hiatus is perceptible.
common people pronounce it like an elif, and there is
no harm in pronouncing so. In this work sometimes,
when necessary, the vowel sound is accompanied by
a

the sign

f^*A

p-

and

ma-lum

36.

it is

generally

or ma-^a-lum,

yliayn

is

marked

lW

b}T an apostrophe.

'a'-lem or a-fa-lem.

represented by

gh

as

i*1

a-gha

19

Pronunciation of Letters.

l^

a-d

or com.

sir,

bagh vineyard, J^kc^\ ogh'lan com.

After a vowel vav

has very

on,

much

j,

with the sounds

the sound of w]

the gh

like

f-

Thus J^pjl

of throughout.

not

(/oi-a

?\*

ou-lan boy.

o'lan,

o,

ty qovmaq

to expel;

4^.3

Jji^> sovouq not soghouq cold;

(a pail);

2or/7^

ov-laq or ogh-Iaq kid;

j^Va^jI ovalamaq to rub.

37. JVbte. In the transliteration of the foreign


proper names or nouns, the hard </, when followed by
a hard vowel,

Hugo

is

represented by

y^yfc hou-gho,

Gladstone

dian Olojlt ghardiyaii,

gas

is

jl&

cy-^s^

The

gldacVtston,

Ex.
guar-

elif,

which

is

(M)

is

Jl

is

Ci!

Jl,

The combination

39.

is

not generally written.

e-ser is Jl,

Jy, Jl

beginning of words
called hemze or hemze
a sign of hemze over the

SlifaX the

which

because naturally there

as: jlll

Jjl ol

is

^l

expressed by medda, which

is

= jll
if it

elif

almaq, j #, CJ\

But when hemze

40.

originally

is

of hemze elif with a vowel

put over the consonant hemze

words,

5".

gazetta *te ghazeta newspaper,

elif,

eftjf

and not by

gr/ifl*.

38. * Hemze.
a consonant ( 29),

9-

is

ends the syllable,

the vowel elif

( 29 d, 47)

= CJ
found
it

is

is

or Z*\
in the

like

1=1;

middle of

an accent or

Ex.: jut te-e-sir influence, jj*U mr-e-mour

a hiatus.
officer.

At the beginning of

41.

nounced

as

Note.

consonant; as:

The pronunciation

13 V5

syllables
qayil,

of hemze

jb

it

is

pro-

dayir.

and the changes

Other Orthographic Signs.

20

undergoes, are in accordance with the rules of Arabic

it

Grammar.
C2

Other Orthographic Signs.

Jezma

a)

rj-

42. The letters in a syllable are either vowelled


or quiescent; the first letter of any syllable is naturally
vowelled, the others quiescent. The voivelled letters are
accompanied by a vowel sign, but those which are quiescent, are marked with the sign (), called Jezma. Ex.:
and J

dAl~j l/sh-Pk: the letters ^j b

as they are the

and

fj

Jc

first

are quiescent;

j j r-r
^5C m
J

Jcef

k-t e b

and

res quiescent

(school)

be

two ^j

the

t sh

syllables;

marked with Jezma.

therefore

(barber):

and both of the

two

letters of the

are vowelled,

and

mini and

bes are

vowelled

therefore marked.
te

are vowelled,

quiescent.

43. The vowel letters cannot have the mark of


quiescence, as they are substituted for the vowel signs,

and

indicate their kind;

as

jll b a l l q

(fish),

where

elif

stands for ustun, and does not need the sign.


Exercise

Read and

'

^jdT' cij

'

li.

write the following exercises:

dflo

'

dlU

'

d'**>.

'

j>Jj

'

JJU J^B
'

Sin elif ustun sa, ayn te ustun at, sa-at;


ustun la, ye qaf esre yiq, la-yiq; Ti elif ustun
fa, vav qaf ebtre vouq, ta-vonq: ye and vav are consonants,
because they begins the syllable.
-STcy.

Lam

elif

Other Orthographic Signs.

Elif khi ustun a/^, shin elif

iTq/.
alch-sham]

s-l

m,

r a r,

q-b a l,

s-b a t,

21

mim

s-r a f,

ustun sham

Wn;

t'b-cN,

Vsh-rtf etc.

Kef

iTi??/.

esre

Av,

te

elif

esre

&t,

ustun

be ustan a&, lei-tab; kef


li-ta, be ye esre bi, li-ta-br,

te elif

to,

Lit aba etc.


1

.^iJfc
llL

,/lT
L-yb

'

*jl-A5"'

db,hf

^"^

'

t!j3

'

jtajj*-

'

4Uj

'

aJul5C

ifo?/.

Shin re ustun

jim ye esre

J/,

IV.

slier,

slirr-bct-ji;

be

te

ustun

JlJI*^

ta'^,

ster-bet,

Id-ta-bi-mn, Li-tab-jl-da etc.

44. In most cases, indeed, the vowel points are


not inserted, except in quotations from the Qoran, or
in writing a foreign word or name, and in some poetical
works.
This at first causes a little embarrassment to
the learner; he must accustom himself to pronounce
the word as if such vowels did not exist, until he can
supply them by a knowledge of the word. The difficulty will vanish by dint of a little practice.
b)

Shedda

J^JLir

consonant which is to be doubled without


45.
the interposition of a vowel, is written only once, but

marked with the sign

which

is

called shed' da

or

This reduplication is not a


matter of orthography as it is in the English
language; when a letter is doubled in writing, it must
be doubled in pronunciation, as is done in English
with the letters d, I, n in the words mid-day, mad dog,
tesh-deed (strengthening).

mere

full

lij>s,

thin

nose.

Other Orthographic Signs.

22

46.

in

(700),

shedda belongs only to Arabic


Turkish words the letter is simply written

twice,

as:

CoJbj

is

sign

j^MJL?

not

saV-la-maq

changed into the form

J\*,

The

zX\

j^Vl^-

as

Ex.:

JjJb; hid'det (anger),

mil-let nation.

Exercise

i.

Write and read the following


1

rr

'^

'^

exercise:
^

'

Jim

ifc?/.

jer-rah'

ustun jer,

is

it

c)

Medda

This sign

is

called

put over

elif to

nounced with hard ustun


Arabic and Persian words
( 39, 603, 701 d);

elif
is

few;

et

Zj\

(faithful), a.

j
j

ha ustun rah\

elif

med'da _n, which means

show that it must be


and not as e, t, o.

In

it

serves

(horse),

at

lengthen the
but

ez (crush),

j\

t.

to

a.

az

3T

Jul emeen

(amen).

weew

alas

hand

el

tl

al take

JJ

esfc

companion

ash food

sow

et?

house

^1 ey hallo!

ill

eh

cu*

hunting

^1 ay mouth

aq white

i-Tl ^jJT
Zigy.

pro-

write the following exercises:

eh well!
a/^

x.

r/,

as:

^1

(meat),

Jul a

Read and
\

re

etc.

47.
long;

re

a.

oT

p.

3 lT

a.

Elif he ustun eh, elif he


d)

Nunation

j/|

p.JJl

medda ustun ah

etc.

when doubled, are

en,
pronounced with the addition of the sound n,
48.

The marks

of vowels

rr

Accent.

tft,

This

un.

sound of noun

is

23

called ten-veen

i.

'giving the

e.

occurs only at the end of an Arabic


are spoken of as iki
iki ebtre respectively ( 670, 681). Ex.:
it

The vowels thus doubled

word.

ustun, iki esre,


^

ustun

Cj te

ustun

s dal

ebtre

fe

J*

j or

de:

fir.

J$

iTe?/.

ustun

iew,

ustun den.

iki ebtre fun.

fe

'

'

'

or i te iki ustun ten.

3 dal iki

Uy liia! a>Noun esre *",

Lift

elif iki

te:

'

IjU-

zi

<3U^

'

Lib

ustun

elif

5a,

Ullai
w/-.a,

mini

ni-za-nini etc.

D. Accent.
It is difficult and wearisome to give absolute
and their exceptions in regard to the accent in
Ottoman Turkish, as it varies much. Some general

49.

rules

are given in the following lines, while in all


cases which cannot be included under these rules, the
accent will be indicated.

rules

Usually every Turkish word

I.

last syllable;

as: j\ ev house, d\>

accented on the

is

keb-pek

vv}Ul

',

agh-

la-maq.

Words with double consonants have

II.

on the
a.

sJI

first

sar'-raf banker,

,^>

qad-dum

a!

sal'-la-maq to shake,

is'-siz

lonelv,

a-us

te-

progress.

Xote.

accent (
III.

^Mll^

consonant; as:

the accent

The shedda

in

Arabic words serves as an

45).

In Persian and Arabic, the vowel letters or the


are pronounced long and are

Letters of Prolongation

accented
reetri

( 28);

merciful,

a point, respect.

a.

p.

Ul>- ja -Ml ignorant,

p\ a

-tesh

fire, a.

a.

^^u^.

*y

h'-

hhou-soos

:
,

Euphony

24

Harmony

or

In case of emphasis

IV.

of the Vowels.

ft,

among words

the accent

on that word which receives prominence.


Ex.
Sen dun mu geldin? Was it yesterday that you
came? 2. Dun sen' mi geldin? Was it you that came
yesterday?
3.
Did you come
Sen dun geldin mi?
is

1.

yesterday?

( 66).

V. The

and

when they

r,

the end of words,

at

are in the middle

are accented;

oJt qalive coffee (pp.

al'lali,

aJlII

letters h,

as yS\ a-lir

5, 8).

Euphony or Harmony of the Towels.

E.

yery remarkable peculiarity of Ottoman is


the attention paid to euphony in pronunciation, and the
changes of the sounds of yowels and consonants which
take place in consequence. Thus the collision of hard
and soft letters in the same word is always avoided.
And when one declines a word or adds a particle or
letter to it, whatever be the leading letter the others
must be pronounced so as to agree with it ( 87).

50.

51. There are two simple rules of euphony in


the language for the words of purely Turkish origin:
a)

cjJjI

the vowels

all

ol-dou

glii-mi-zi

saw,

j-lll

so-zi,

el-ler

al-ti

x!l

our credit; not

soft also.

that

in

became,

it

b) If the first

be

word contains a hard


word should be hard.

If the first syllable of the

vowel,

ol-di,

vowel be

c3^~-

six,

al-ti,

soft,

\<J&-d\

a-la-ja-

a-le-je-glii-mi-zi etc.

then the others should

seo-m the word, ^jj>

geor-du he

hands, UiCi- oji^y geos-tc-rc-jr-yi-miz

not

el-lar etc.

52. Remark: 1. On the above principles, when


one declines a word or adds a particle to it, the vowel
of the syllable added is generally so pronounced that:

^lU

comes

after

a:

*ulL

e:

^ll'jj'

ou

o:

4jy'J,y'

'

'

^It

dam,

dami,

el,

eli,

e-le;

Jy

qol,

qolou, qola;

dama;

Orthography.

r
u

comes

after

o,ou:

, eo:

On

2.

eo: jJLt*
4J

choula, qola;

<*Jj>-

uj}

t$y

same requirements of euphony,

the

changed

georen.

ofi-lfy*'

of Turkish origin which end in


are

gebrnr;

geolfi,

ciX
'

25

J,

fj,

in

words

Cj these letters

into y. gh, d ( 88, 89).

53. When a word ending in a vowel receives


a grammatical ending beginning with a vowel, a hiatus
results, which is practically a difficulty in pronunciation.
This is very common in Ottoman. To avoid this difficulty

necessary to insert a consonant

is

it

91, 284, 287, 528,

ana:

1*1

4itl

a
As a
54
.

543

anaya,

list

p.

is still

so

while ^3 qah'-ve coffee,


iij+J li-mon (lemon)

54 b
ending

As

of the

(see

Ijl

ara:

jljl

arayisk.

of words supposed to be exceptions

some grammarians, we note


alma apple', and

etc.):

111

by

elm a, which was originally

pronounced

j}L>

in

many

lim-yon,

oy*J*

pi-1-av,

places;

are not Turkish.

real

exceptions to these rules are the

Present

tense

jy

which

pronounced
yor, and the pronominal
which is never changed ( 140, 319).
F.

is

particle

always

ht

Orthography.

As the orthography of every Arabic and


Persian Ottoman word is fixed and unchangeable, it is
only in pure Turkish and foreign Ottoman words that
the orthography varies.
The Vowel or Orthographic

letters

any

55.

(I

^) as they are called in Ottoman without

inflexible rule are

cyy and
all

OP

admissible.

added or

butun; ^jl^JLs

'

left

^jclU

out arbitrarily; as:


'

^xJi

qUindi, arc

26

Orthography.

r^

56. The true rule is: 1. Never introduce a


vowel letter into a Turkish or foreign Ottoman word
without removing a possible doubt as to pronunciation;
*2. Never leave out a vowel in such a word, if by omission
a doubt is created as to the pronunciation.
57.

The following two

points

must be regarded

as exceptions to this rule:


a) In any syllable which is
composed of two
consonants, if the vowel is soft ustun, none of the
orthographic (vowel) letters is added; but. if it is

composed of one
vowel; as: ^j.o

None

b)

he

letter

gel-di,

is

added

indicate the

to

besh, dL<C~>l i--mek.

L*

of the grammatical affixes take the ortho-

graphic or vowel

letters; as

M.O gel-dim, JX bash-lav,

dJUjI uch-luk, jll al-maq.

The use of the orthographic or vowel


16.
discussed and shown on pages 13

Note.
is fully

letters

58. There are some words in Ottoman, the orthography of which is the same, but the pronunciation
and meanings are different; as:
ojl on ten; oun flour;

un fame.

5Cl

sheker sugar;

a.

iff

geoz eye; guz

autumn;

shukur thanks.
Iceoz

an ember.

Jj>. choul sackcloth; cheol desert, wilderness.

Jy
i

-Mj
J>

qoiil

servant; qol arm;

gevrik biscuit;
bellows.
gel

come;

a.

kurk fur;

kel scald-head;

Jj\ eolu dead; oidoa big.

qavl word,

kurek shovel;

p.

gul rose;

a.

kebmk
kull

all.

rv

27

First Part,

Turkish Grammar.

u^^>

Lesson

The Definite and

There

59.

nouns,

is

considered as definite.

j\

J^^J
The

60.

in

Ex.:

all

are usually

babi the father,

ana

fcl

qardash the brother.

Indefinite Article

bir at a horse,

is

Ex.:

bir a, an.

d\,j

bir kedpek a dog,

j*

bir

j&j

bir

adem a man.

The Adjective always precedes the noun. Ex.

61.

guzel beautiful, y\

'

^1

eyi

good,

62.
tinction of

As

in English,

Gender

there

bad,

dis-

names
females feminine, and
is

of males are masculine; those of


those of inanimate objects, neuter.

boy' masculine.

Iceotii

no unnatural

is

in Turkish, that

culine, ana feminine,

yfT

adem the good man,

guzel qiz the beautiful girl, e-yi


bir kebtu chojouq a bad boy.

<J

in Turkish

sentence,

qiz a girl, ,o>

J3y

Articles.

Indefinite

no Definite Article

when used alone

the mother,

1.

j\j>

to say: the

Thus: baba

is

qiz feminine, oM&jl ogh-lan

tS ^ de-friz

the sea,

p.

^1

she-Mr the

masc

the

city,

keoy 'the village', are neuter.

The Personal Pronouns

63.
Ben thou,

j\

onlar they.

o he, she,

it.

biz

are:

we,

fam

ben

I,

y*

siz you, J&jfr

28

that (near by),

sJioii

rA

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns

64.
JL

Lesson

^rjs

j\

are:

bou this,

j>

that (distant).

The Present Tense of the Turkish Substantive


the following:

65.

Verb

is

Affirmative Present

ben

im

sen'

sm

thou art

pjl

i>-

dour be

j\ o

j:>

J*| J*

oi-z'

^ we

J^- J-

s? ^'

sifiiz

am

are

you are

Jjj Jt>j\ onlar dirlar they are.

is.

Interrogative Affirmative Present.

? pj\

?i>-<

? J>\

j>_

?uj

J* jl

<_.

j-

As

66.

thou?

art

I?

by adding

will

'

?jJu

f*

^L

?jAr Jp

Jf

jr.

?jj^. jj

i>.

j>

J^

oe n

'

^-

sew'

mi siw?

jA-* j\

mou dour?
2/w?

?j J-

SMf'

sifiiz?

onlar

0->"4*J^
he?

is

mi dirlar?

etc.

be seen, the question

wl *

( 53).

?wi

is

expressed

word emphasized by

after the

Ex.:

Am

2/twi?

gul beyaz

mi

I?

( 53).

dir? Is the rose white?

bou bir guV mfi dur? Is this a rose?


<jw

The

67.

49 IV).

mi yim?

friz'

mou

mt,

the question

>:>

ben

? J\*
Jj

?Jj^ t,*J^^

Am

f*

fj

iy.

*?

(j-

?ji

^# or

bo it'

mo

it

dour?

Is this the rose?

third person j^

the

is

governed by the

pronunciation, like that of mi

*,

preceding vowel, and


case may be ( 52).

dir,

dir,

is:

Copula;

is

clour,

dar,

as

J&J Loughetler, Words.


j>

ve

and

j\ ev the

house

i2jj\

ev'-vit

yes

jjf^j\ eb-Tcuz the

ox

its

the

The

r^

Definite

J^J

qoush the bird

,US

qalem the pen

a.
a.

7m ivi

and Indefinite

J| a^ white
^3 qara black

weather

air,

tS/V* qirrnhl red

Jrtaj5 J}* gJr qardash a sister

*=*""

ku- chul-

i>5^j zengin rich

pjS genj young

little

jL=5^ s^og warm, hot

mountain

(,9-b) c?a#7i

s.U

ouzaq far

(j\j-?l

poor

^nii /agi'r

a.

i-Lj; beo-yiik great


i)

29

Articles.

Jj*-3 so-vouq cold

ujSl yaqin near

36

p. aj;> de're valley.

These words, as well as those contained in the


iVote 1.
preceding rules, must be thoroughly committed to memory, before
doing the exercise and translation.
Note 2. Those words without any mark are Turkish in
origin, those with an a Arabic, those with a p Persian, and those
with an f foreign in origin.

^Ui Taleem,

c*j>-j>- ji

'

-P

*4?"

1^

Black)

J^>- jr i'

J. y.

>^
?

i>

j^*

jJu

^
^!

J U*^

i)9-5^ i>

yiaj

-*

lyb

j^

!>' jr

_p ujj

* fjjj

4}

-,^

y
n

^yrj^yJ

O'

- i313lj'

^Montenegro)

flL jT. (vulture)


1

1.

j^ ^r^

Li'

Exercise

.p

IT

i-lL ji

ijjj

j-^yry?

-*

Zj\

t' jj

fc!

(eagle)

jT. (Mediterranean)

Observe that a parenthesis

f ^ $

Jl*l

J-*5'3j' j4r

Jo J

"

J-^-*

tla J

'

JLy

jS^i J'

y}

*^.j

encloses a word

(S
to

>

be

30

Y
1.

horse.

The

4J5~j

horse.

horse and

Lesson

Lr j^
,

r*

1.

Terjeme, Translation

horse.
an ox. 2.

2.

A good horse. The good


A house. A large house.
is large.
The
3. A man.

The house
man.
man. A white
The white man. 4. The Black
Sea. The Black Mountain. The White Sea. The White
Mountain. 5. A white rose. The white rose. The red
6. A bad boy.
This is a bad boy. This is the
rose.
7.
The house is near. The city is far.
bad boy.
The good horse and
8. A horse, a bird and an ox.

The

large house.

This bird

white?
10. The brother is young.
He is a good
It is black.
man. 11. The eagle is a large bird. That bird is a
12. The Mediterranean is a great sea.
beautiful eagle.
the big ox.

9.

is

white.

Is this bird

Correct the following sentences.

4l!$S MtiMalemi, Conversation.


Jl^~- #waZ,

Question

Sen zengin'mi sin?


Qardash faqir'ini dir?
Ogh'-lan -yi'mi dir?

Sen 6-yi'mi

sin,

kebtu'mu sun?

Qiz qardash e -yi'mi?

Bou dagh yuksek'mi?


Onlar genj'mi dir?
Siz faqir'ini sifiiz?

Aq-Deniz beoyuk'mu?
Aq baba beoyuk bir qoueh'mou
dour?
translated, or
"leave out".
1

be

an

annotation,

^jk>- Jevdb,

Answer

Ev'vet, zengin'im.
Ev'vet, faqir'dir.
Ev'vet, oghlan e-yi'dir.
Ben e-yi'yim ( 53).
Ev'vet, qiz qardash eyi'bir qiz dir.
Ev'vet, yuksek'dir.
Ev'vet, genj'dirler.
Biz z^ngin'iz.
Qara-Deniz' kuchuk dur.

Ev'vet,

beoyuk

whereas brackets

bir qoush'dour.

[.

.]

In such answers the predicate cannot be omitted.

evvet, sijaq dir.

signify
Jt

must

The Substantive Verb.

r)

u^^>

31

Lesson

2.

The Substantive Verb.

68.

the affix J

The Turkish Plural


to the

This

singular.

affix

hard vowels, and Mr after

lar, after

^l j-iy

bridge:

69.

cats.

kebpruler bridges.

JL-*- klxi-simlar relatives.

khi-sim relative:

-*>.

'

sticks.

J^.s qapoular doors.

qapou door:

_^J

Ex.:

soft ones.

J^JSkediifo

iSsS^kedi cat:

iS^J^keopru

pronounced

is

^>15^> deynekler

deynek stick:

iXl5*o

formed by adding

is

of

Titles

according to their dignity,

given

are

respect
office

persons

to

and occupation. X&\

peculiar to clergymen

and educated

efferidi Sir,

Mr.,

people.

a-gha or vulg. a- a, to tradesmen, labourers

Icl

and old men;

is

it

means

Mr., Esq.

dl

prince,

bey,

is

given to civil functionaries and popularly to any person of supposed distinction.


Each of these titles is
put after the name of the person himself, not after his
family name, as in English ( 495).
lc-1

-u>-l

di jw>-1 Alt' mail effendi,

70.

When

omitted ( 120).
I

am

well;

tenbel' siniz

the subject

Ex.:

;^L

you are

Ay\
L*

^xi\

Ex.:

ju^-I

Atimed agha, Ah'medbey.

is

a pronoun

ben eyi'yim or

it

A y\

sis teribeT situs or

is

eyi'yim

^CL

often

L:l

idle.

71. In Turkish, as in English, the adjective


precedes the noun, and never varies, being the same
whether it qualifies a singular or a plural substantive,
a

masculine or a feminine

guzel chichek beautiful flower:

noun.

Ex.:

di?^ djy

\<^^. ^jfTguzel

ehichekler

32

beautiful flowers; ^l&l

Lesson

~j->

rr

2.

beoyuh a-ghaj a big tree:

fjj*j>

fjjj^j

bebyuk aghajlar big trees.

J>-lcl

The Negative

72.

Substantive verb

is

of the Present
as follows:

Tense of the

Negative Present.

jT^

pi)

or

JS^

deyil'im,

i>- J^i

i>1S^>

dey'iX sin,

ji Jpz

jaIS^

cleyil'dir,

am

not,

J:

j>}

:>
J>.~. Jp.

Jjs J>*

thou art not, he

or

jJS"S deyil'iz.

j>~j"S deyil'siniz.

^&"S deyiller

is not, etc.

Interrogative Negative Present.


? *j\

?i>-

J> ^

t/jP-5

^Jll (J'cP-5

>;i

?j:>

Ij*-

Am

or

u*Jpi
(j*

^l^S

deyil'mi

O^J^^

yim?

deyil'mi sin?

?j-L.*i$^S deyil'mi

dir?

?-*o-&^> deyil'mi yiz?

deyil'mi sifiiz?

J>*

?J> .JS^S

?Jjz fjfjp*

?JjA-*."S deyil'mi dirler?

not?

(j

art thou not?

is

he not?

etc.

.Afote.
It is very useful for the learner to conjugate the
adjective with the verb and to write the latter in both its forms,
the full and the abbreviated ones; as:

pi I

Oj^Jx

or

(**J*-)jS

'

H!*

J^J
!

^li.

^ni. fc/myr'

oj^Jjt or

^'^^Ji

no!

r xii

j&.khayr

ojl

9ef yes!

^\ oj\
f

j^.5^3 qon-sliou neighbour

.^io dushmen enemy

p.
p.

c^-j^
1

ciation

c?os

^^

effendim! Yes,

JL*^ y aV racL
p.

4.-*s&lj

*1>\

bah'-je

ea f

garden

a-da island

is the common pronunciation, the correct pronunkhas-ta, ikh'-ti-yar, kliosh'-noud, bagh'-che (p. 8).

This
is:

friend

effendim! No,
Sir
[Sir!
I

or

Words.

t.

'^ o^Jji

33

The Substantive Verb.

a.

J*-^

Cjy-jy yorghouri tired

asker soldier

^j^ jeomerd'

j qah've coffee

^j
J*7j\

ao

'

jli^L tama'Jciar avaricious

a. p.

p. ojL* tase fresh

Artin Pascal

<J tepe
y9

give

ver

depe

^liiJU. chalishqan diligent

hill

j{jL\ ih'-ti-yar l old (age)

sow water

a.

^l. 7ia2?r' ready, present

jTyJ^S
t

&

>

dl

(Artin) OCjT

ut- jr5 dl

\r

jjJfS

See the Note page 32.

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

content,

hasta' 1 sick
pefc eyi

very well!

v-

f-^

j^Id

4L>

happy

^Jt*V ^Exercise 3.

.jZj&j oy>Jfm > Jr$

jl2-I

liosh'-noud

_^\ *UL

very

p.

:>^~-=-

p.

JJLj yeshil' green


vll pefc

generous

> Ji

.^1

-5-

*j3

u^JW- j^3

^^ j

>^ J** ^

'

^5- 5~* Jr>

cj:>

J^

a3\

j\>-

34

Lesson

u-j->

43"J?

Red

rt

2.

Translation

4.

The green

leaves and
the beautiful gardens.
2. Is not the house large?
Yes, Sir, it is large.
3. The islands are small.
That
island is not small. 4. The coffee is very good. It is
Little hills.

1.

flowers.

not 3 (a) iVery 2 gd 4 coffee. 5. The gardens and the trees


are very nice. 6. Is the coffee ready?
No, Sir! 7. Are
Yes, gentlemen! I am ready. 8.
you ready?
He is a good neighbour. 9. Is the
is Mr. Charles?
No, Sir, it is not fresh.
water fresh?
Give (a)
fresh water. 10. Is the garden very far?
No, Sir, it
11. Ahmed Bey is a good
is not very far, it is near.

12.

soldier.
is

He

Who

a generous man. 13. That gentleman


14. Master Georgie is very young.

is

not avaricious.

To be corrected.

JibfM

r *</*

J? l>-

^ Ja

y~*

->*

i^x

j^ccu

AX

<~)\j>-

Jevab

jj^

&f\ Cfij tit

'

jIsIjI jliLi)

j\<*S

Jj^jlol

Conyersation.

Answer

iJLTj'i

j-bj-o

.'dli

p-^ j^

Jl} Sival Question

^ ^-^

Q^

-?

ro

The Substantive Verb.

u^i>

Lesson

The Substantive Verb.


73. The Preterite
Verb is as follows:

f-M

^ sm'

iJjuil

idim

ben

ie?i7t

idi

iS^A j\ o

JJjI Jfc
iiJu|

J$i

^w

sen

siz'

idik

we were

idiniz

you were

Negative Past Tense.

idiw

j\ o deyil' idi

was

Tense of the Substantive

JjJb\ Jjjl onlar' idiler they were.

deyi7' *^* wl
de'i/z7'

(Continued.)

j>.iJj\

he was

j> Oi *^ n

3.

i)_M J biz

thou wast

T/ie
* Jul

or Past

was

35

J^ y.
J^i-M J^ JJ".-^} J^ Jol

biz deyil' idik

^-*il

not, thou wast not,

he was

s0 de't/iT idiniz

onlar deyil'

idiler.

not, etc.

Hie Interrogative Forms of the Same.

Ben mi idim?
Biz mi idik?

Was

it

I?

Ben

deyil'

Biz

deyil'

idiler?

sen
siz'

mi idin? 6 mou idi?


mi idiniz? onlar ml idiler?

was it thou?
mi idim? sen
mi idik? siz

etc.

deyil'
deyil'

or deyil ler miyidi?


it not I?
was it not thou?

Was

74.

adjectives.

noun

etc.

The Numerals

are used just like all other


they precede the noun.
The
cardinals always remains in the

Like them,

qualified

by

singular (71). Ex.:


iki

mi idin? o deyil' mi idi?


mi idiniz? onlar deyil' mi

oljr

bir

adem a man, 3y?j>-

chojouq two boys.


jCj\ iki

T j\ uch

Oji

two
three

debrt four

^t> bisli five

j)

<iJo

alti six

yedi seven

J^.- sekiz eight

jjiL doqouz nine


3*

^^}

36

oj\ on

<J>^I

r*\

cr

half"

is

ways, by sj[ yarim and by 3f-y. bonchouq


is

used before a noun

gun half a day, ^^L111

an

like
<rj[

on

,jjl

expressed in two

Yavian
off^ yarim

( 207).

adjective:

yarim saat half an hour,

yarim lima half an apple.

fj\>

JBoticJiotiq

always used in connexion with a

is

<jO

bonchouq two and a half,

number.

Ex.:

j^pL,

rjl tick bonchouq saat three hours

Jj>-j>

3j>-y.

?'Av

cy cyy. /$ a ^ bonchouq gun

is

76.

The English phrase


1

expressed in Turkish by

its

negative being

Jy

j\j

J->

jjijj

'

is,

not.

is

varldl there was,

idi,

there was not.

?/o# idi

^a

c5Jol

j\j ^liS"^ for

fo'too

var idt there was a book.

fcitofr

?/of/,

<

u<r

77.
de,

-^-

a* ---*

i^jol ,J^i

^l^""^

The
da

to

for
is

&

a book,

is

for fcitao yoq

dour there

not a book,

&r Jcitab

Locative case

the

^f* C^Jr^ there

yoq
is

idi there

was not

made by

end of the word

evde in the house, joti


1

a).

J^J ^-^0i ^ ir

ajl

exists':

is,

J-i

^
j^ v lT,

of <o

half.

not' ( 126

Jjj yo#, ?/o^ dowr there

cju\ Jj^j

is

half,

there are'' etc.

is,

var 'there

j\j

yoq 'there

<i-M j\j var

"there

j\j var, var dir there

'

and a

days and a

six

'

eleven

feir

twelve, etc.

iki

The English word

75.

3.

on ten

<jji

Lesson

u-J-*

kitabda

a book.

the addition

in

84).

Ex.:

the book,

The word var is called the Verb of Existence and NonVerb of Presence and Absence by some European

existence, or

Grammarians, but there are no such verbs

in Turkish.

The Substantive Verb.

rV

3<bt&l hah'-je-de in the

there

dir,

Evde

garden.

adem

bir

var,

man in the house.


o kitabda tasvirler

is

37

var dir. there are


pictures in that book.
Bah'-jede chichek yoq dour, there are
J
o*3^Vi
jMy_
nQ flowerg in the g ard en.
Bah'-jede bir aid' var idi, there was
i
-i
fSM J\J J> j>. og*li
a rose in the garden
Bir guzel ve bebyuk' evde idik, we were
<-"
j
-?1 J-*-K J Jj
in a nice [and] big house.

J^bja^'^ ^
.

J\

^^
V
,

<

JJi)
.

^ ^

In asking the hour,

78.

said:

is

it

?jJb-\5

j^pL, 5-a^ qactidir?

What

j-xjCl

o^L

is

sa-a

,5d

Sa-at means
sa-at

two

it?

is

o'clock.

means:

How many

hours are there?

5L

jjCcL,

it

qach' sa-at dir?

i-

iJci'dir,

o'clock

/A'/'

also

'a

sa-crf

^pL-

watch':

an old watch, j^&L,

there are two hours.

dir,

jjl

far

jj

_/.

/^-*

es-gi' bir

altoun

sa-at

gold watch.

Jdi
p.

Words.

oL- si-yah' black


iSj>\

Jo
(J^.

big

i-ri large,

new

2/e-/7i

c7iO(Z

a.

p.

;
.

how many?

s<d

*j~.

meyve

^^

J J*j~

Ujy

Hasan

S^i^-l^l

es-<7*

old
bi raz a little

him? who?

*^

^-13

fruit

^J*}
JwIji

oitfaq small

white

j\ az few,

milk

3j-

a.

J^jl

much, many

qach?

Prop, names,

6e]/a^

y~\

lijU sari yellow


?t-IS

_^L

y for jc7t

some

a.

a.

._:. mekteb school

a.

il

,5

f^^""

sharab wine

fcertJH

Grace.

Exercise 5.

l^"^

tilt'

3*becl

38

3jl jJu^a^-

Jj2

u-j->

o^jl ojJIj

Lesson

j jJj

rA

3.

JC*I jv^-

(?

JjJuJfS)

.
*\

A^j* Translation

6.

No, Sir (Be-yim), he was not


Was he sick?
2. Is Ahmed Bey at
the soldier was very sick.
home?
No, Sir, he is in the garden, 3. Who is
there at home?
Hassan Effendi is at home. 4. Seven
days and nine hours. Eight and [a] half days. 5. Was
the coffee hot?
Yes, Sir, the coffee and the milk
are hot; they are not cold.
6. Who is this young
1.

sick;

gentleman?

He

is

Kerim

Effendi.

7.

Three and

seven are ten; five and six are eleven. 8. There are
9. Aq-Shehir, Esgi-Shehir and
twelve hours in a day.
Yeni-Shehir are large [and] fine cities. 10. How many
islands are there in the Mediterranean Sea? 11. How
There are
many islands are there in the Black Sea?

two

[or]

three

bad

islands.

To be corrected.

Declension of Nouns.

r\

39

j^j: fj^

41^

Conversation.

Selam *>L, Salutation


Good morning!
Good evening!
Good day!
How do you do?

Sabah'lar khayr' olsoun!


Akh'shamlar khayr' olsoun!
Vaqitlar khayr' olsoun!
Na'sil sirnz, eyi'mi siniz?
Eyi'yim, tesh6k'kur ede>im.
Siz na'sil siniz, eyi'mi sifiiz?
Choq'eyiyim effendim.
El-ham'dul-lah' eyi'yim.
Rija'ederim, otourounouz'.
Thesh^k'kur ed^rim.

Yes,

Lesson

l^><>

j'^

Sir.

Good night!
You are welcome.

geldiiiiz.

thank yon!
are you well?

very well, Sir!


I am very well.
Please take a seat.
Thank you!
Come in. Sir; take a seat.
Mr. Hassan, where are vou?

Gejeler khayr' olsoun!

well,

are you?

Thank God,

Bouyou'roun effendim,otou'rouFi.
Hassan' Effendi, nerde siniz?
Bouyou'roun effendim

Hosh'

am

How
I am

4.

Declension of Nouns.

79. There are two numbers in Turkish: Singular


Plural; and six cases, expressing the different
relations of words to each other; namely: the Nominative,

and

Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Locative

80.

The Nominative

to the questions:

o^jl

cases.

case (or the Subject) answers

who? or what?

subject of the verb; as:

and Ablative

Who

is

J*

Mm?

learning?

4S

ne? as the

The boy

ogtilan.

81.

The Genitive

to the questions

(or

Possessive) case answers

whose? or of which? d\+2

Idmih? dX<>

40

u-j->

H.

Ex.:

nenin.

To

*%.

The

dWpjl

boy's book

to the questions

toivhich? 4jT hime? Ai ne-ye?

give it?

4.

Icitabi.

The Dative answers

82.

Whose book?

oghlanin 1

(J,tj

Lesson

To whom

Ex.:

the boy Ai^j\

whom?

to

shall I

ogldana.

83. The Accusative (or Objective case) marks


the object of an action, and answers to the questions:

whom?

or what?

<J>

what do you see?


ogh-lani

l
,

84.

^j\ evi

Jcimi?

Ex.:

neyi?

J^a>

Whom

or

the house <jMs^l

I see the boy,

1
.

The Locative answers


Ex.

wherein? oz&} nerede?

to the questions:

Where

is

where?

the boy?

He

in the school Jul5C mektebde.

is

85.

The Ablative answers

to the questions:

whom? from what? i>s<jT Jcimden?


From whom did you take this book?
jG

X^j

0^

Ex.:

neden?

From

from

the boy

oghlandan.

86.

There

is

only one declension in Turkish, with

four variations:

First Form.
87.

The

form

first

ending in consonants (except


a)

Nouns ending

jjf peder

4jJu pederiri of

G.

D.

djJu pe'dere

to

il

&,

and

all

nouns

q):

in soft syllables.

Singular zju* Mufred'


N.

comprehends

Plural

Jem

Jjju pederler
iJJj-x..

pederleriri of

oJj-X; pederlere' to

-c

The Genitive and the Accusative do not always take the


terminations -in, -i. These are required only when the noun in
1

Declension of Nouns.

i.)

A.

(jJU pederi'

41
3D

tijjju pederleri'

a>

L.
A.

o^jju pederde
(jZjA*

b)
N.
G.

in

o^Jjjui

pederderi from

Nouns ending

hard

jUlt

A.

*i.U

iiJU.lt tashlariri of

tashiri of

tasha to

BQ

JUU taslilara to

t-ilt tasftf

(ijUlL tashlart

2
53

L.

A.

oAilL taslida
O-^-lis

tashdari from

vowels ou or
N.
G.
D.

fJ*
viX.j^

o in

moumouri

of

L.

o-L.j^

moumda

A.

0-^j^

in

o$J.j*

.itaj

D.

o^j

in syllables

moumlar da

in

which have the

J^j

oj^j sudlere

to

<S*j~> sudfi

of
CD
^4!

to

iSjij-* sudleri'

--5

L.

A.

soft

sudler

6J^j^ sudlerin
>

A.

>s

moumlari

in them.

swcWm' of
s?<c?e'

moumlarin' of

OAj^v* moumlardari from

:>j Slid'

G.

moumlar'

>\j* moumlar a to

iSj^j*

Nouns ending
?/,

tashlardan' from

moumdan' from

eo or

which have the hard

$J^*j*

>

moumou

in

them.

to

oV

vowels

in syllables

jljv

V mouma

d)

<j.>jUAl>

mourn

A.

N.

o^Ult tashlarda'

in

Nouns ending

c)

_e

tashlar'

rti

D.

syllables.

iJ-U task'
viU.tl>

in

jj^jjju pederlerderi from

JZ

in

pederlerde

o^^j- sudde in

^o^j sudden from

*I

oJ}j~. sudler de

^^J^j

in

sudle'rderi from

the Genitive or Accusative is definite. When the -in or -i is omitted,


the Genitive or Accusative is the same as the Nominative in form
109, 251). When the Indefinite form of these two cases is to
be described, it is styled by some Orientalists the Nominatival
form of the Genitive or Accusative. But the indefinite forms of
those two cases are called by the native grammarians simply

Nominative.

42

\.

Lesson

u-j-

4.

Second Form.
The second form

88.

all

consonants ending in

the

first

declension

gh, whenever

*>

jll ba-liq: here

The

q.

that

this,

is

J q

J q

the third syllable


therefore
li-gha.

it

Ex.

2).

begins with
-

gr/i,

ba-ll-qa: here

<uJl

J q and

is

vo welled,

thus we have

^ill

6a-

This change takes place in the Genitive, Dative


cases: in the Locative

in the plural the

in those cases
Note.

is

Jq

cases

remains unchanged, because

In Arabic and Persian words and in


,J

Singular :i Mufred

q remains

JLiiL

ba-ll-ghm of

iljl-ftll

all

words borrowed

unaltered.

Plural

jJL ba-liq
vlLillj

and Ablative

not followed by a vowel.

from foreign languages, the

N.

changed into

is

not followed by a vowel, because

is

changes into

and Accusative

and

from

difference

followed by a vowel ( 52,

it is

stands at the end of the syllable.

it

comprises

of declension

eTei'

.>?-

ba-Uq-lar
ba-liq-la-rtn of
32

0>

D.

ba-Vi-gha to

oJUJlj ba-liq-la-ra to

><*

A.

of'

ba-U-gM

-a
-4-3

(ij-allj

ba-liq-la-ri

IS

o
-a
-4-3

L.

A.

ba-liq-da in
(jJ^il

The

eoJLiJlj

ba-Uq-lar-da in

o^JUll ba-Uq-lar-dan from

ba-liq-dan from

fire-place

dUM

^jl

o-jaq-dan

o-jaq-da

.Ujl
<X
o-ja-ghi o-ja-gha o-ja-ghifi

jU-jl
o-jaq.

The boy
tjT.JT
cho-jou-ghou

^V?"

dU
^J^-J*

clio-jou-gha

cho-jou-ghoun

cho-jouq-dan

cho-jouq-da.

cho-jouq

43

Declension of Nouns.

<tr

Third Form.

89.

The

nouns ending
yaf,

because

third form contains

in
is

it

k.

fj

The

y.

Ex.:

at the

end of the second

wrong, for the

is

the syllable

changed into

not vowelled,

is

aS^SjjI

it

is

edr-de-ke

is

would begin with

must be changed

therefore the h

J:

syllable.

syllable

last

i!

changed into

when

is,

the

l\

fj

eor-dek: here

"itajjl

letter Tcef is

vowelled: that

would otherwise begin with

the soft syllabled

all

into y,

a5"SjjI

fj

A*;

eor-de-ye

This is noticed only in the pronunciation,


( 52, 2).
as there are no different forms for ftef and yaf ( 34).

In the plural and in the Locative and Ablative cases


is unchangeable, as a vowel does not immediately

follow the

( 88).

Singular

;>

Mfifred'

N.

^ijj\ ebr'-dek the duck

G.

*L\Sijj\ ebr'-de-yin of the

J).

*5ijj\ eor-de-ye to the

oj>S}jj\ ebr'-dek-de in the

L.

i)J>S}jj\ ebr'-dek-den

Plural j^

iJ^ojjl

duck

from the duck.

Jem

^IT!>jj\ ebr -dek-ler the

N.
G.

duck

(_^jjl ebr-de-yi the duck

A.

A.

duck

ebr' -dik-lerin

ducks

of the ducks

o^liojjl eor'-dek-le'-re to the

D.

ducks

A.

<Sj5zjj\ ebr -dek-le-ri the ducks

L.

o^irSjjl eor -dek'ler-de in the ducks

A.

u^t^^-^

ebr'-dek-ler-den from the ducks.

The bread

oj^I

ojiCs"!

ek-mek-den ek-mek-de

jZs\

<s^\

^Kl^i

ius"!

ik-me-yl

ek-me-ye

ek-me'-yin

t'k-mek.

44

The

whistle

&

^j*

Lesson

I't

>J*

du-duye

du-dii-yu

4.

du-du-yuii

du-dxik-den

du-diih

dii-duk-de.

J j\ oq arrow. JjL toq satiated, ,J_y qirq forty, 6y


yuk load, ^J^keok a root, are exceptions to the above rules, as
they do not change q into gh, and k into y.
Note.

Fourth Form.
90 a

The fourth

ending in the vowel


the Genitive
4i

-ye

is

is

form

letters

comprises

to

nouns

In the singular,

formed by adding d\j -nin;

added

all

in the

Dative

the Nom., in the Ace. J^ -yi (53).

No change takes place in the remaining cases or in


the plural ( 88, 89).

When a word ending in a vowel receives


90 b
a grammatical ending beginning with a vowel, a hiatus
results, which is practically a difficulty in pronunciation.
This is very common in Turkish ( 53). To avoid this
.

difficulty

it

is

usual to insert a consonant ^

in the Genitive

This

o n.

is

really

(and only

the retention of

part of the original genitive termination -nth).

Singular ^ X*
N.

li\

MufrhT

Plural

a-na

Jill

G.

vUuU a-na-nin of

D.

aX\ a-na-ya to

iJJL'l
<*Jl;i
>

A.

2
oli\

A.

o&\
The

ke-di-den

a-na-da

+-*

in

Jem

a-na-lar

a-na-la-rin of
a-na-la-ra to

jX\ a-na-yl

L.

mjr-

a-na- dan from

">

(iJM a-na-la-ri
0?
,3

oJli\ a-na-lar-da in

O-iJM a-na-lar-dan from

cat

ke-di-de

kt-di -yi

ke-di-ye

ke-di-nin

ke-d\

Declension of Nouns.

t^o

The

well

qou-you-noun

qou-you-ya

qou-you-you

qou-you-dan

The

45

qou-you

qou-you-da.

hill

j^*ji

o^-oj

<->^i-i

<*<o

*iAl*o

de-pe-den

de'-pe-de

de-pe-yi

de-pe-ye

de-pe-nin

<*.o

de-pe.

The water
sou-dan
Xote

1.

sou-you

sou-da

sou-ya

Singulars ending in the vowel

this letter to the sign of the plural or the

Note

2.

sou-youn

The word y& sou forms

^Jt}

Exercise

sou.

-e do not join

endings of cases 32 b
its

Genitive irregularly.

7.

Decline the following words, writing them in Turkish


characters: and also indicate their pronunciation in English characters, with their meanings.

'

dA^fS deynek a stick

jjj

li

/>a^

a franc

'

JyL^ Jb=~>^

l^>

Translate into English.

'

/'<*%

'

village

46

u~J*

4j?"J?

Lesson

4.

Translation 8.

The mountains; of the mountains; to the mounfrom the mountain. 2. Four [or] five trees; on
the three trees; of the good tree, of the good trees,
from the good trees. 3. Give the book (ace.) to the
big [one]. From the big [one]. 4. In the valley, to the
1.

tains;

The valleys are green. 5. 6 I saw 2 the green


the
black mountains 4 and 5 the white flowers
3
from the village. 6. In the hot, to the hot; the hot
x
(ace); the hot (nom.). 7. 2 I saw t the gentlemen (ace);
to the gentleman; of the gentlemen on the gentleman.
8. The green leaf (ace); on the green leaves; on many
green and nice leaves. 9. Of the coffee; in the coffee;
from the coffee. To the coffee-houses (qativelere), 9. From
the hot; from the cold; from the little and on the great.
10. To the great men. 11. To the white and the black

valleys.
hills,

(ace).

12.

To

five francs.

Correct the following words.


'

hu-chu-Jcu
did

,)l

43j>-j;

'

ij^j->

<Sj*-j>

^}

Jiff-

'

,)l

**\j

JpU:*^

a! |$S

Hoshja

Hosh
Sedam

qaliii

6ffendim.

geldiniz, sfa geldiniz.

sebyle.

u-

^y*

<L}J1>\2

'

*M

dij>^2

V-ijlc-l

tne arrow

^j\

^jJLj

iJ

dl^jtjjs

Conversation.

Good bye, Sir!


You are welcome.
Give

my salutations (to the home

circle).

my

Pede>e" choq selani sebyle.

Give

Bash

father.
Very well, Sir.

ustune" effendim.

salutations

to

your

The Pronouns.

t,Y

\jrt*>\>

Ol>o

Lesson

5.

The Pronouns.

Turkish Pronouns are divided into seven

91.
classes

47

Personal,

1.

strative.

2.

possessive, 3. adjectival, 4. demon6. indefinite and 7. interrogative

reflexive,

5.

pronouns.

Personal Pronouns.

1.

They

92.

They

are: fa ben,

Jci j^Js

sen, j\

o,

kendL

tJL3

are declined as follows:


First Person.

Singular ^ X* Mufrect
N.

&

G.

li

D.

lx>

A.
L.

A.

Jj
o-Uo

Plural

%*

we

ben I

my

be'nim

me

ba-na to
fo'-m

f>-

us

us

tfj: bizi

me

*J:

from me.

,jXi bende'n

&fctm our

>. &te to

me

be'nde in

fo'.s

Jan'

a* J:

&&<&

in us

from

biz den

us.

Second Person.
N.

^-

sen thou

G.

lAl se-niti

D.

lC- sa-wa

A.
L.

A.

se'-m

you

jr* st 2

thy
to thee

thee

Al~ sen-de in thee


tjjj sen-den from thee.

>

sizifi

sizi

S&dl

o*>

you

size to

*>
:-

yours

you

sizde'n

in

from you

Third Person.

Singular ^i Mufrect
X.
G.

j\ o

he she,

you

it

vUui'viijjl onoun, antn his, hers, its

48

i^T
6

r\
D.

^r-js

Lesson

w^
bj\o-na,
'

a-na

tA

5.

A.

Jl

L.

oX\

'

oA jl on-da,

A.

(jX\

'

i>Xj\ on- dan

(jjl o-woit',

'

to

'

him, him
..

'

to her, to

a-wf

him, her

an-de

in

an-deri

from him.

it

him

r>

Jem

Plural mjt
N.

J*
4/T

G.
D.

'

*J,\

A.
L.

o^l

'

A.

U-^l

'

.^-^ onlar,

anler

them

iJ^iijl

onlarin,

anlerin

of

them

o^Iijl

onlar a

anlere

to

them

<sj^j\ onlari',

anleri'

them

o^lljl onlarda,

anler de"

in

anlerden

from them.

u-t>^j\ onlar dan

them

Reflexive form of the Third Person.

Singular $

\*

Mufred'

Plural

iSXS' kendi
G.

vill,

^Lj Al5"^

kendinin of

jjj

D.

<L>xS^ kendine

^j JJL^

^}J\jX^

*^L .xl}

to

.^ Jem'

kendiler

kendilerin of
kendilere to
>

kendini

L.

o J.;

Jud

fcew efo'w de

A.

(jXi

Xz

kendinden from

93.

in

The English

(i^li Al^

kendileri

osJsXz

kendiler de in

jjj^LjJo

CO

kendilerden from

conversational form of address

y u 'i m Turkish, however, there are two forms: sen


and sis. Sen is employed in addressing parents, near
relatives, children, servants, pupils, and intimate friends,
such as would be addressed by their Christian names
in England.
Siz is used in addressing strangers, or
mere acquaintances ( 494).
c

is

'

94.

J} Jy*

bizler, sizler

cases.

Instead of biz and

siz their

double plural

are sometimes used in

all

the six

This cannot be expressed in English. They are


out of politeness, instead of ben and sen.

-even used,

The Pronouns.

u^

49

Possessive Pronouns. jUl jy*>


The Possessive Pronouns of the Turkish

2.

95.
language do not really correspond to those of the
English, but are merely possessive affixes. Possessive
affixes are used instead of the English possessive pronouns. They consist of syllables added at the end of
nouns. They have the value of pronouns, and cannot
stand alone.

The

96.

a_ Sing.

*L
tS-

person

my

J*- Plur.

person our

I.

:>

II.

thy

Xi

II.

your

>

III.

his.

iSj-

III.

their,

>

Ex.

I.

possessive affixes are the following:

Sing.

elim

1|

my
Plur.

viXll

J\

eliii

thy hand,

hand,

j{\ e-limi:

J>JI

our hands,

your hands.

e-liniz

e-li

his hand;
<jju\

el'-Uri

their bands.

The pronunciation of the Possessive


way ( 52):

97.

Affixes

varies in the following

If the word to which they are added end in


1.
a consonant, the affixes are pronounced: im, iii, i;
imiz, iiiiz, leri, as in the above.
If the

2.

on

be

or o,

preceding predominant vowel in the word


although written in the same way, they

oum, onn, on; onmouz, onnouz,

are pronounced:

Qouslionm, qoushoun, qouskou; qoushonmonz, qoush-

ounouz,
3.

If the

'

i!l;T

'

^tT

bird etc.

word end

only the value of the


aIiT

My

qoushlari.

letters

j*t7

'

in

m,

vTtT

'

a vowel,

they have then

n, si; miz, niz, leri. Ex.

^fcl Anam,

a-namiz, a-naiitz, a-nalarl.

My

mother

email, anasl;
etc.

4. If the predominant vowel in the word be eo ft,


the vowel of the affix is pronounced n, to agree with
y

it;

as:

'

il3jT

&f\ yt>f' jS^/"' jJjfGed-s&m,

Turkish Conv. -Grammar.

50

My

eye

'

illli

My

Singular

but

cases,

^tf'dkitS^

water

word ends

If the

letters ( 24) the suffix

in

the word

is

sou-you-nouz, soidari.
99.

^U

The only

ba-ba-l).

y&

sow,

as:

^^s

as:

Sou-youm, sou-youn, sou-you; son-you-mouz

*-^

-v

geoz-le-ri.

inserted for euphony,

is

ba-ba-si (and not

^-1)1)

'

exception to this rule

dX j^>

geo-zii-niiz,

In the third person singular, when the word

ends in a vowel,

o*

5.

etc.

98.

geo-zu-muz,

geo-zii;

(leo-zuh,

Lesson

l,-jj

the

is

etc.

in one of the connected

when

not written

sound

declined

retained;

is

J^tS^' Oifef*

AifcT'

as:

J^^Kitabi,

-bi-nin, -M-na, -bi-m, -bindan, -binda.

100.
(

If

the

j 3 j ^)
k

Aj_l

ijjjj^l

'

e,

it

( 32);

not

i is

If

retained; as: ^*\

'

dbjl

letters
'

<U>jl

e-vi-nin, e-vi-ne, e-vi-ni etc.

e-tra,

the final vowel

of the substantive is

never joined on to the possessive in writing

is

as:

j*o3

oX^I

101.
*

ends in one of the unconnected

it

'

acOS

vl*o:>

102.

'

ile3^

My

^-3 3

'

grandfather

de-dem,

de-den,

de-desi

etc.

The

genitives of the Personal pronoun are


required, to emphasize and corroborate the

used, when
possessive affixes of the same number and person. They
are never used alone, without their equivalent possessive
affixes to corroborate

brother

my

(not

my

brother (not

103.
declension,

them; thus ^l^jlU qardasMm

sister

your
final

etc.), ^-ItajlS *j

benim qardasMm

brother or his brother)

changes into

q,
-

in

gh

polysyllable,

before

my

120).

as

in

the possessive

The Pronouns.

ot

person plural

Ex.

( 53).

so also

Jly

'

fj

*kky

vtl^fcy

'

d^CLl ',/CjI
irfie-yi;

My

'-J^il

'

i-ne-yi-miz,

in like cases

^fcy

'

yh^J* J^e^y
qo-na-glii: qo-na-glu-

mansion

',5C5Cjjl

'

changes into

Qo-naq, qo-na-gliun, qo-na-ghin,


qo-na-ghi-niz

51

excepting that of the third

singular or plural,

affixes,

miz,

..

dA^I

etc.

'

*$C*>I

I-nek, i-nr-yim, i-nt-yih,

My

i-nc-gi-hiz.

cow

etc.

With Singular Nouns.


pJ\

Jo

dil\ viAl semVl

J\

viijjl

my

benini a-tim
rt-^i/7

onoun

horse

thy horse

a-ti his

horse

jEl *J &i#tm a-ti-miz our horse

J>J\ iljil^lljl

<i^l"\

your horse

sizttf a-ti-iliz

&/Vw

onlarin at-la-ri their horse.

With Plural Xouns.


*^J\

jo

benim atlar'im

my

horses

i)Jjl ill- senin atlarin thy horses


<^,l"|

vilijl

onoun atlarl his horses

J*^tl pj; frmm atlarlmlz our horses

LWr\

il

:- si>*>7 atlarnliz

vour horses

-^kjl onlarin atlari their horses.

i^jt]

104. In some words the vowel of the last syllable


eliminated when the possessive affix is added, except
in the third person plural.

is

'

<sf

oy y

a-ghiz,

agh-i'iTt

bo-yoiin,

boy-nou neck, his

^ j>

uJJy Jr^Oy
'

mouth, thy

^}ji

'J-Utjl o- ghoul,

Ji^jl

geon-lum heart,

'

J\i\

my

r&jycv-nf L

ogh-lou-mouz son, our

bou-roun, bour-nou-nouz nose, your

4.

52

a.
a.

Jlc.

v^Jj

a.
a.

pl

p.

.$

L?<

vaq-tin time, thy

ql-sim,

qis-m'i

i-sun,

is-mi-miz name, our

J-o-o
'

va-git,

'

aq-Vim mind, sense,

<i\z$j

'

j5^i

or

5.

a-qil,

p-lib

'

Lesson

myji

she-Mr

my

part, his

shell -ri-niz city,

your

But in the third person geb-uul-Uri, a-ghiz-lari, bo-younlan, oghoul'lan, bourounlarl, aqU'lari etc.

As

has been seen, the possessives are


affixed to the substantives they qualify, and form one
word with them. That compound word is then declined
like a simple substantive; as:

105.

it

1.

Singular $
N.

\*

Affixes of the First Person.

Mufred

dXz.[zS^]:itabUnhl of

D.

*s.\skitabima to

L.

A.

G.

<_c

A.

,*lli

L.

oJiXiha

A.

u J^j 'c5

J^bi

~kita~bimizdan

j^ibi

A*^at>7

from

kitabifia to

kitabifii

kitabuliza to

V;*C

hitabinizi

li*>

\^T kitabimzda in

kitabifida in

'

kitabhldan from

^'S^VS^kitab'tmzdan
U^r

Affixes of the

d\^\zS^kitabhi tu of

kitabimzin of

oj_C li3
e5

kitabi

kitaMniz

iJj-CLi

44

>

G.

kitabhn'izda in

Affixes of the Second Person.

3.

N.

kitabim'izt

tj^jilx^

dAx>b5^ Iti-ta-bi-yift of
^jUS^

jtl:}

osjfis

(jjs}c5l:itabhnclan from

D.

Mtabinriza to

o jtfco

oJ>s)<r~kitabim(la in

vlAj IzS^"

Jem'

^jt\zST Idiabimizm of

L s)cS^hitabimt

5.

N.

,^-

\t\zS^ kitab%m\z

*n\zz~kitdb\m

G.

A.

Plural

fr

Third Person.
(i^ljlir" kitablari

5
*lL

i* ttf""

kitablarinifi of

D.

Citskitabbna

to

om

S
-L^ljl^^fciia&Zamja to

or

The Pronouns.

A.

kitabini

Jf^S

Jd-^ ^* kitablar'nu

e^J^iz^kitablarinda in

\m

kitablnda in

sX^iib

L.

53

m
A.

kitabindan from

tjjujlli

^jJ^lbi Ji'{aWfMlla from

Trt^* vaqtimin, raqtima, vaqtiml. -Vimda, -dan My time ...


Euiu, e-vi-i/irt, e-vifie. eviui, e-vinde, evinden Thy house
Qaponsou, qapousounouu, -sauna, -sounou, -soundan, -da His door
Ba-Yi-glri-miz, -mizhl, -miza, -mizi, mizda, -mizdan Our fish
Ek-me-yi-niz, -nizin, -nize, -nizi, -ilizde. -nizden Your bread
Ortnarilari, -larin'ol, -larina, -larinl, -larinda, -dan Their forest
.

106. The Accusative Singular of a noun agrees


form and in pronunciation with the third person

in

singular possessive affix added.


The noun with this
however, is always the subject in a sentence, while
the other similar form is always object.
Ex.:
affix,

,L^

^j k

t\.
.

iK^/i-il Alinin

<.!

tij,)jj

In the

means

dir

The book of

oldou

The book of

kitabi bourada
\i L [Eli] is here.

Aliniu

ii

kitabi

gliayb

Kitabi AU bouldou

Jlc (ibi

AH

has found the book.

and second examples


the word
*

first

book

j\3

Li"

(Nom. third person), and is the subject of the sentence: in the third example the word is
'his

the objective case of the word

^t^

J&J Words.
<.*Ja>.
i>lj.9

f.

f.

\jjj.]y
P-

r^i^i

chiz'mt (out of door) boot


fotin boots

V^f"

qoundoura shoe

u^ /^jcm

pabouj slipper

a-ya^ foot

^15"^ dey-nek

stick

r
j

a
c offee- 1 ,ot

coffee-cup

(_cU

c7rt^/

j^U

cfta^ brook.

>Ui Exercise 9.

iC

stockings

u^ _^- choban shepherd


f.

c ^ ora ^

,jjs* jezve {

f.^jJlS qalosh over-shoe, galoche

^M

J^jW- chariq sandal

tea (Chinese)

54

t^)W-

>j

'

'

irU

*J:

J-j **JJ>-

deordmniiz

^jU
<j\x^3

jf

^jl

acc -)

oJ^pU

y$&

dU)lj>-

^V

*j

Lesson

u-j:>

dtajl

^
A

'

dtjl

J5&

'

y^\

'

j*-5Cl

^^3 oJiJjl>-

4~J?

o-

ondan oS>j\

JS J^W-

.jIj ^l^l^l

^Ly j fb^y

j>X3jj

'

5.

JjjT J

'

<5>W.

ij\

-j^ )lj

evinden

3p

j>U
4cpI

>jfjSC^

*lp evimizde

oJil ej*>- JJ&j'

:>Jcj!

L <*

ii

J' > -

Translation 10.

Me, he, they, you, thou, my, her, his, thy, ours,
2. To me; to thee; to you; on thee; in
you; on me; from me. 3. Him, himself; to him; in
him; from him. 4. The cat (acc.), the cat (nom.); his
1.

yours, their.

cat (nom.), his cat (acc); his cats (nom.), his cats (acc);
their cats, their cat (nom.).
5. His daughter (nom.);
his daughter (acc), the daughter (acc), your daughter

In their valley, in our house, to your garden,


7. My son, to my son, to his son; his
children (pi. nom.).
8. In your time; from your time;
to his time.
9. His nose, of his nose; to your nose,
their noses. 10. In the city, in your city, to your city,
from our city. 11. On my head, on his head, my head
(nom.), my head (acc).
12. The tea (acc. and nom.),
(acc).

to

6.

your horse.

The

00

and nom.);

55

Izafet.

in our brook.

13.

their shepherd, their shepherds (nom.

and

his tea (ace.

Tbe shepherd,
14.

ace.).

My

over-shoes, thy shoes; his sandals; her stockings and


boots; our coffee-cup, your coffee-pot.

To be corrected.
<y*

'

cfcl

Uju^jlS^ C

oglioulounouz

*^j5C3U

Per'sbembe,

Jouma-a', Jouma-a ertesi.


S. Senenili debrt mevsimlerini
sebyle!
J.

Bahar, Yaz, Guz, Qish.

S.

Gunuii taqsimlerini sebyle!


Sabah', Qoushlouq,
Akhsham,
Ikindi,
Yat'si, Geje yarisi or

J. Shafaq,

(third pers.)

^S-^

Eoylen,

noon

Geje,

noon, Evening, Night, Bedtime (two hours after sunset),


Mid-night.

u^l>
^liL*!

(9

Lesson
The

a.m.),

Noon, After-

6.

Izafet.

107. The possession or connexion of one thing


person with another is called in Turkish, Izafet,

which means 'addition or annexation'.


One substantive is governed by another
different ways:
is

Q. Tell me the days of the week.


A. Sunday, Monday, Tuesday,
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday,
Saturday.
Q. Tell me the four seasons of
the year.
A. Spring, Summer, Autumn,
Winter.
Q. Tell me the divisions of the
day.
A. The Dawn, Morning, Fore-

Yari geje.

or

Icjl

Conversation.

S. Haftanifi gOnlerini sebyle!


Pazar'-e>tesi,
Sali,
J. Pazar,
,

oglwidou j

jiX\ r

AX |^S

Ohar'shamba

'

in

three

108. I. By juxtaposition, without change. This


used to shew the relation between a material and

the thing

composed of

it.

The name

of the material

56

is

Lesson

1 u-J-*

simply put,
Ex.

oT

6.

like

an

(jj6

altoun qoutou a golden box.

adjective,

before the other sub-

stantive.

jby
Jjjd*

sJL_\

i-pelc

mendil a silk handkerchief.

gu-mush

c-c-U- Jrj*J>

sa'at a silver watch.

Or the noun expressing

the material

put in the

is

ablative case; as:


i\i~,jT <JX,j6

altoundan

'kebsteJ:

a chain of gold.

o_l-IU elmasdan bilSzik a bracelet of diamond.

viA)j*.L

^>\jj>.

Cj^y youndan chorab woollen stockings.

109. II. By placing the first substantive in the


nominative or unaltered form, and adding to the second
the pronominal affix of the third person (^ or

This

-i

or

-si).

used to indicate not only possession but also

is

genus and
( 81,

species, the

name

of the species

coming

first

Ex.:

Note).

'

ijr'j?

J\

ey

qapousou a house-door

(indefinite).

Jj^j jlj? qouyou sou-you well water.


js-ltl

j*j\

^lll 4.^-U

armoud

a-gha-ji pear tree.

Amasiya elmasi Amassia

The names

of countries, rivers, mountains,


are formed in this way, the first of the two

110.
cities etc.

nouns remaining unchanged;


jJjj> Jilc^

^*9sJ\/
tSJ^

apple.

Osmanli

devleti

as:

The Ottoman government.

J^lxil In-gi-liz qralichasi


ls~\j

'

jd ^.jl

Sivas sheh'ri

Ermeni

The

mil'leti

The queen of England.


city of Sivas.

The Armenian

nation.

^U? u-^-jl Er-ji-yas da-ghi Mount Argeas.


tjj^'i

<3\

<>j.\s

Touna

neh'ri

^-jL

May is

a-yl

111.

and adding

III.

By

The

river

Danube.

The month of May.

placing the first in the Genitive,


the pronominal affix of the

to the second

The

oY

third person (^ or

-i

or

57

Izafet.

This indicates the relation

-si).

of possession and is essentially definite, and is generally


used when the article 'the' would be put before the first
noun in English.

The name

of the possessor is placed first, as


Ex.:
the possessive case is used in English.

^Js
<j>.lc.\

e-vin

ilji

when

qapousou The door of the house (definite

elmanin a-ghaji The tree of the apple.

dfcllj

^j^> ^i;jjy qou-younoun souyou The water of the

well.

AVhen the two nouns come together


English, with the word of between them, the first
112.

in
ex-

pressing the quantity of the second, the phrase is translated into Turkish by simply putting the name of the
quantity before the other noun and omitting 'of as
in German they say Eine Flasche Weill,
a bottle
of wine'.
(jU.

r-ji j>
m

hir

^.xi <ojl

r jl uch

y. J*_~j\

(jj)\

cilji-jj ^-i^Jjl Jjj

ujty

qadeh chay a cup of tea.


oq'qa

$he-lce'r

three okes of sugar.

on arshin biz ten yards of

cloth,

yuz eblchek boughday a hundred bushels of wheat.

JJj~* j. &M" suru qoyoun a flock of sheep.

113. The following construction


tween a noun and a cardinal number.
<i^j^ vlijl^r or (Sijz <J}Ji\^>

Jcitahhl

is

frequent be-

deordu or kitahJardan

deordu four of the books, or four books.

^^A
ikisi

vllj-Jajl

or

(jr

>j|

j}Ja.\sj\

or odaJarhl ikisi or o-dalardan

or

^^x,\

ikisi

<JzJ<bj\

o-da-mn

two of the rooms, or

two rooms.

These constructions are declined:

114.

Evift qapousou, -noun, -na, -nou, -sounda, -soundan.

115. There are two words 3 (-<7r, -dri) in


Turkish; one is used with the nouns to form the Locative
case,

and

baghda

is

always accented

( 84):

in the house, in the vineyard.

cojl ev-de\ j^I*

58

Lesson

1 t^ja

The

other -de is a conjunctioD, meaning


never connected with the noun, nor is
that is, the accent is at the end of the

116.
r

and'
accented;

also,
it

is

it

preceding word;

as:

pederim

de

*jji)

house

j\j
is in

oMi

me and

j\j <o

'

i.

Da-khi

('also,

too');
e

dahhi, sende

in

daJchi

'

io
as:

me
Jdi

'

benim de; meaning 'The

<o

my

mine

father also,

have and you have'

da

bagti

*-l

is

also'.
f

var There

bende' de var, sende de

oJl~,
e.

de

ev

j\

in you',

117.

meaning

the vineyard too,

also,

6.

( 477).

same

also used with the

L$

ju>

io -U

'

bende

also, in thee too' ( 477).

Words.

Familya LL The Family.


1A

I; \

a Cs^J valideyn
-

LI baba

Jo

Jlbjli

a-na baba

qiz

qardash
]

parents

s ister

p. oj*Jl

Mmshire

Jijl oghoul son

father
p. jJui
111

o%jl

pederj

a-na

(J^s-^

oghlan boy
chojoitq

child

g? girl,

daughter

mother
a.

Jo

jJIj valide
j

ill

aw'- we

mamma

LI 4^'^' bebyuk baba

OO'OJ

de'de

2ran(j
father

a.

AZjlz&rimi daughter
iSji qari wife,

uncle

JS- em'mi

a.

woman

(father's
J

4J4.;

4II

4j\

I)

^yS- amou-ja)

wewe

grand
mother

e-be

^jiy, bebyiik

ana

*j<;

teyze\

4IU- 7t7iaZa
I

^^^
,

ojjjh

toroun grand child

a.
,

aiint

>

(mother's

sister)

;(

aunt
-

Ufutlier s S i 8 ter)
uncle (mobrother)

^^Uher's

J-bjli qardash
<J\X>j& qa-rindash

brother)

brother

,> qa-yin

\
>

p.

jM^. birader

j^l^ O:^ ga-i/m fttrader)

brother-

in-law

The

o^
r
L\ 0-> 2i/*" a ' a
-

i.-r

ll

^ *^ **{
^jT
*

>

^Ub damad

O^l

,,

,,

*^jf-

-J

^
<3

husband's

sigter

relative

by

dunur [^ennarriage
/ V^en, yegen>f a nephew;
Cfi
niece
y

jfji

amjazade\

p.

o\J JU. khalazade cousin

p.

olj

-*l*l
a.

'

famlm Lady, Miss. Mrs.

number

U? sa-yi

JJ>^

jU
i

a. 4j

servant

^.J\ 0&* r olbir the other

Wtala-ytq
\

maid

jan-ye

ijJi\ e'jfendi

servant

gentleman, Sir

a.^il* miisafir

.truest

Jb

c?a?/f

^a^e

(jjiS

Exercise

chichi eldest sister

j*i*Ji khizmetji

ther's wife

ah'la elder sister

a.t.

band

~*X>/ georumje

olj

husband

a.p.jtSCLj^ JcM:metJ:uir\

husband's bro-

2i a

,i sister's hus-

eltl

%\

fto&ife wife's sister

p.

^.ajs^

the son-in-law

emshte

JoJl

husband)

in . law

I'-

groom

^-

mothe

(wife's sister's

flfc/m

law
i

brother-in-law

jLUlfeajawag

the bride; the


ldaughtei-i n -law
bridei the

,,.

...

father-in-

qaym ana

s*

o-yT

i-

o->

59

Izafet.

J5 ,v^-

*}

r/rt/V'.s

cage.

11.

J J3 j<-J^B dijL-^/- dull j^-JI slUaJb

iJjii j.;

60

> j
^bjli

u-J-*

*je^l3

^jb

L&jl

^>b

J13

cfijUs-J

4llpjl di.lbj'\5 J15

1.

(.c).

'.

JjO 3

'Jjp **

Icjl

4~J?

Translation

Cow's milk;

Icjl

4>^3

Jb

jj^jjlii dil-Hbjl3 dX'iA^-il

Coffee-pot, coffee-cup;
2.

"V

6.

(derler is called)

^4-JjfT

^T

Lesson

xJI

4,

12.

an oke of

the milk of the

coffee of

cow;

Yemen

in

cow's

milk, in the milk of the cow.


3. Three of them; two
of the oxen; the ten (of the) gold watches.
4. Two
bottles of wine; a glass of water.
5. Three pounds
(okes) of tea; three and a half yards of cloth.
6. The
children of the village; the village children. 7. Both of
them; my father and my grand father. 8. The English
government; the English nation. The city of Paris.
10. Two
a garden door.
9. The door of the garden;
11. Four of
of those children; two of your children.
my cousins. 12. The number of the books of my
I not your son, and are
brother's son. is great. 13.
my
parents?
Yes, my son! thou art my son,
you not
14. Nejibe
I am your father and .she is your mother.

Hanim

my

Am

and Miss Mary

her sister-in-law.
15. A city-door; the door of the city; the door of a
city; a door of a city; a door of the city.
is

sister

is

To be corrected.

jo..-

^v

f-

J*

The verb To Have.

<U Ig^a

jJUub

p-^l

61

Conversation.

j*

J-V vULf

u^^

Lesson

The verb

To

vlL^. e$jjil

j^\

7.

Have*.

The English verb

'To Have' is expressed in


ways,
according
to the object of the verb.
Turkish in two

118.

If the object is indefinite the adjectives j\j var

and Jy yoq 'absent: non-existent' are


express that sense. These may be followed by

'present: existent'

used to

the verbal particle of affirmative j3 dir, which in this


as in many other cases
versation ( 76).
case,

If the object
is

employed
1.

is

may be

omitted in con-

definite the Substantive verb

127).

The verb To Have with an

Indefinite Object.

119. In such phrases as: I have a book, he


has a dog, it is expressed in two ways.
I.

By

putting the subject in the Genitive, followed

by the

object with

var> var

jh^J^jh

jjijlj 0nbS\j>

Aj

\\^J

the possessive

Jy

dfar ]

'

_)Sy

ir

7.

babamin

bir Jcltabi

and the verb

affix

yoq, yoq dour;

benim bir Jcitabim vard.tr

dJLLL

J-^Ji ^.

have

My

yoqdour

as:

a book.

father has

notabook.

me

Literally: of
is

Lesson

V ^rjj

62

there

is

a book, of

my

father there

no book.

120. Sometimes the subject, when a pronoun,


omitted, especially when the subject is not accented
or emphasized
then the affix of the object indicates
the subject ( 70, 102); as:

is

J-*

j\j

The

&*r kitdbim

pjfcS""!/.

affix

var dir I

have

shows the person of the

a book.

subject.

121. When the subject is a noun it is always


considered as in the third person, therefore the object
must end with the pronominal affix of the third person,

_v

or

v;

....

-*

t?^

Effendiniil bir

<>vi

vardlr

The gentleman has

ehnasi

a house.
var The bov has

'

Chojouqhoinl

s\-

i,i

-"-'

*i.

-y-w/i^ \jpji

or si).

(i

bir

an apple.

-?.-T5

The words

Jy>-j>-

'

S^

being substantives, are of

course in the third person.


II. The verb To Have with an indefinite
rendered in Turkish in another way also. In
the first way the subject was in the Genitive case; in
the second, the subject must be put in the Locative; as:

122.

object

js j\j

is

t-jbi

J* J I? p&

^j

j.

123.
cally,

there

o_x!j

bend 4 bir kitab var dir I have a book.

oj^jjj pederimdebir qalem car dir

My father has a pen.

Although it is not very correct grammatia custom among the common people not

is

append to the noun the possessive affixes of the first


and second persons plural. Instead of saying correctly
Sism atiniz, bizim ivimiz, they say Sizin at, bizim ev
just as in English. Bizim evin penjeresi the window of
our house, for Bizim evimizin penjerisi. Bizim peder
our father, for Bizim pederimiz, or merely peder; as:
to

6a

The verb To Have.

\r

The Plural Locative forms of the Personal


sometimes
give the sense of house, home'.
Pronouns
Bizde bir i-nek var means both 'We have a cow' and
'There is a cow in our house'. Lit.: in us'.
124.

But the rendering

125.

for

nouns

is

my father's" or 'in my father's house',


of my father's house", are expressed by adding
'at

i^^- f
ojli
)j

with j3

my

bajanagliim gilde at

ail

as
ray

my

'There
'

var

J j>

_p

sister's.

The familv of
our house.

there are'

is,

brother-in-law's house..

bizde dir

jlj

JSgil;

father's family.

dayim

people

The people of my fathers house,

p*.

126.
tive

gil

{oj^tJ' liemshirem gile to

\^

babam

pi-llU-L

v- v:

'

different:

'the

is

uncle is

rendered by the Loca-

yoq dour

dir,

mv

( 76).

But onda

denote possession; as: Evde bir at var


There is a horse in the house. But Bende bir at var
I have a horse. In the first sentence it expresses location
and in the second possession.
var, bende var,

Hal

126a.
'

'

J->

J>*

j\j

j\j

j\j

^j\

J->

'

'ji jlj *j,


'

jlj

J-i

j\j oXj\ onoun var dir,

jo j\j

ozjr,

j* j\j <oJ~

'

jij\j i)J*jl*j* j\j


I have,

Ju~- senifi

o^jl

bende var

dir,

sende var dir,

var dir,

'j->

'

j* j\j i)j-

Present,

j\j oJw benim var dir,

'j->

jj

Jl>-

onda var

dir.

bizim var dir,

bizde var dir,

var

sizde var dir,

sizin

dir,

onlarin var dir, onlarda var dir.

thou hast, he has a

etc.

The Negative Form.


jjijj
I

'

have not a

<i-M

iSM

j>\j

j>\j

oJ,1j

benim yoqdour, bende yoqdour.

etc.

Mazije\* Past

126b.
'

jaKj

'

ij

'

^L"

iJjA j\j dX>j\

'

'

(Preterite).

iJJA j\j oXj benim var


<JJj\

(jjo\

j\j e-C~ senin var


j\j eXj\ onouii var

idi,
idi,

idi,

bende var idi

sende var

idi.

onda var

idi.

64

iSM

'

'

^jo

j\j

<i-M jij ilj-

- ciJj]

jb

iSM

'

r y.

-^A-jl

tS-M

'

jb

o^'jl

sm$

var

onlarifl

had, thou hadst, he had a

7.

*y bizim var

j\j

iS^A j\j oJ*<

'

Lesson

bizde var idi.

idi,

sizde var idi,

idi,

var

idi,

onlarda var

idi.

etc.

The Negative Form.


'

ii-M (jji

c_M

Jjj

or

f\

oJJo

fS^ji

or (iJu&^j

had not a

fi

oJJ.j

benim yoq idi or -yo'ghoudou,


bende yoq

idi or -yo glioudou.

etc.

The Interrogative Forms.


?
'?

j-L^ j\j

jA-^ijj

Jj

Jo

<5Jw jlj oJl~. or ? t5 Jul

Have la
2.

benim var mi dir* benim yoq moudour?


*

Have

j|j sende var' miyidi? or far' mi idi?

not a

The verb To Hate with a

etc.

Definite Object.

When

127.

-definite,

hadst thou not a

it

is

verb j$ dir

the object of the verb To Have is


rendered in Turkish by the substantive

( 118).

128. The order of the construction is this: first


comes the object, then the subject, and the verb in
the third place.

129. This is a general rule in the OttomanTurkish language. In every case when the object
is indefinite, the subject comes first; and when
the object is definite the object comes first; Ex.:
ji j\j pjb5"\/

j3

oJJ.)

Aj

^li^

benim bir kitabim' var dir


kitab bende' dir I

have a book.

have the book.

In the first instance the object (a book) is indefinite,


therefore the subject comes first; in the second the
object (the book) is definite, therefore the object comes
first and the subject follows it.

130.

Remarks: The English Conjunction but

expressed either by putting the Arabic words

JaS em -ma or
i-se dc,

all

am ma,

meaning

JaJcin,

is
'

U'

'

J>Cj

faqat or the Turkish' d 4~o

'but' ( 239, 476);

as:

The verb To Have.

lo
!

j:>

j\

param

Jaai

var

j\j fjt

am ma

jT C^J

j:>

rc

one by p.

^a

jlj pajL

jj j\

az dir: par am var lakin jj jl

a dir: par am var faqat az dir;


but a little money.

131.

65

Any'

Inch,

is

param var

i-se

U\ jlj

pojl

jlj

aojI

<u.j\

de az dir I have

expressed in Turkish in two ways:

and the other without using

that word,

but by simply using the object of the verb ( 188); as:


Have vou any bread? ^ j\j *iLSl oJJ ? jj~. j\j dXS\ tc-a
Ju
~.'?

He has

not any

"Not any, not

132.
jj>

<c~:>.

money jJfy

i3j*"

<JP

>

73- A

jil

c<-

at

J^ ^>j\ 'J-^y. cr^-A

J-^ji

expressed by

is

all'

cr

dour ; hich e-yi deyil choq hasta dir.


not at all well: he is very sick.

-^ -

He

'^r*

'liC

^>j\

75-*

y^j* Inch.

^ P ar asi yog-

has not any money;

He

is

"How many?'

133.

is

expressed by

Ex.:

( 174).

How many

piastres

How many

books has he?

have you?

bread have we?

"Some"

135.

js j\j jliC^^lS

j\j

expressed by

is

j* j\j ~tXtj^ -^i

134. "How much?" is expressed by


ne qadarP ( 179); as:
How much sugar have you?
? j\j 4_^~

How much

qach?

*-\i!

j*xS|

jjJ^G

jjiJ
jjJaJ

hir as

}ljr

'

jjuLj

a little,

a small piece of anything', in reference to inanimate


objects ( 182);

^XS\

But

as:
j\

j>.

az ekmek

used

^lo\ Jom
[

Jixll tz^jl

j>\jf-

136.

<J***>

181);

ha' zi

"Both"

( 469); as:
I have both bread and

ademler some people.

some gentlemen.

hayvanlar some animals.


is

rendered by

p.

a a hem
r

salt.

hem

j\j jj\s a j vi-LSl

aunt has both paper and pen. j* j\j LJi} aj


Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

-r\i

as:

bir qach' effendilir


ba'zi

some bread.

animate objects Jsn& bazi,

in reference to

hir qach is

My

oir

tiJi-5

o-xL

>il.Jl>.

66

Lesson

V Lrj^

137. "Either
"Neither

or

'
.

is

.' ?
.

You have

rendered by *

jj

oJJ;

j:> ojJL-

js

oX,j\

JU

Hal

bende

salt.

have the

dir,

ya-ya-

(472); as:

j\j

oJJo

*j

Is I

oJJL-

Present.
j* <o_x

&i<2e dir,

oj

si^de dir,

j:>

j*

dir.

j\j <Z\S\

<vj

J*5

sende dir,

onda

nene

<G

j>Jb

pen or paper.

either

137a.

rendered by p. 1

is

have neither bread nor

nor

7.

thou Last the

ov

l'jl

onlarda

he has the

dir.
etc.

Negative Form.
jjJS"^ oJJo
dir,

'

j-AiS^ oJJ

onda deyil dir

137b.
cJj1 oJJj

ijj| ojjjl

cmda

had the

<JJj\

etc.

bizde idi,

oj-

si.zde t^i,

tfJuj aj^lljl

thou hadst the

sende deyil

dir,

o^J'.

eSJM

idz",

idi.
,

(Preterite).

oAl~ sende idi,

iSJj\

Masi Jo\a Past

&ewde

bende deyil

oJujl

have not the

etc.

jJ^S

'

onlarda

he had the

idi.

etc.

Negative Form.
ijo\ Jj> oJJj

sende deyil

idi,

'

iJj\

oJlL-

Jfz

onda deyil

'

Jf.:> ojJjl bende deyil idi,

iJJj\

had not the

idi etc.

etc.

Examples,
i.

o
?

j-U* oJjjl

? (iJ^.

Jp ^

i-^-"o
^L5
0-4*

-*
<

i.*-"*!

-5

I.."-'

J-V

oJ~ ^j\^ kitab sizde deyil

-H

miyidi?

have the book

i-<*"'

1"5

Have

Did you not ha ve


the book? etc.

A2J Words.
111

e'Z?a

apple

^j\

armoud pear

vDjjl

e'-riX*

plum

the

book'? etc

c?^^ qa-yi-si apricot


p. Jliii- shef-ta-li

peach

fjjjl #-iti grapes

The verb To Have.

\V

JUT**

eherries

67

..
t <~I.

f.

Ojiy qoyoun sheep

o^

cftofcui

shepherd

^j^ youmourta

egg

jjXi pey-nir cheese


Jcestane

*]\lJ>

f.

jT

dl

e-C^-ltT

*^j 3U

pB

fl>-

*JC*I Jji

^Jj

^ji

tive

j\j

aS jl

jJL3y

^-lU^k fo?waf& tomato

o jl:JI

<~<o^

fjjj'

L!l*

'

^Cil

jIj

jij

*c

(Sj+'cS'

sCljJ*

ti^l jL*

i! *,?Cj l5Cl J^-

i>JO<>y'

eXA>^

ja

j3 jlj

fjju Jj>- ji

r^*

Hi

rjl ^jGjl

43jl

'

jlj fj3jl *^l;

j-X~ jlj sjl

>MT3

ur-^J !?"'*& potato

^CjUjU Jj^T'o-U^-lcT

-j> J^o>

*<" lemon

'Exercise 13.

J\[\

ilip

^Jbl

viU-

jlj

jlj fjojl)

^C

c^Jbl jlj

dhs-Ol A

?^

^jT

o^J

^jhojt tire yaglil butter.

chestnuts ^Gr.j

\V Ju>

* "^ n S es

J%^JI P

"

<TSl- 8*fW vinegar

f.

(nmoijlj

f*"

Ifisnne) the morella


cherry (Slavonic)

dU-

%5CJ

'

jj

oZjS

jlj jl)

J3 oSsy>2>- S.S3

jJt|T3 eJLi jIj

<<->'-*

1
Student must practice using both the Locative and Geniforms ( 119, 122
.

5*

68

jOu

^js

Lesson

OJUJ

j3 oJuL^U-

1A

7.

J^Lj^y

oJGl) >.

1.

I.

A^J'

^.J

^a>I e^y

Translation 14.

have an apple; thou hast some

cherries;

he has the oranges. 2. My brother has the dog; your


aunt has a cat; they have three horses. 3. How much
money have you?
I have seventeen piasters.
4. Have
No, Sir, I have not any. 5. I had
you any sugar?
no pen. I had the pen. I had not the pen. 6. Give
me some bread and grapes.
Have you any bread
and grapes? 7. Plow many children has your grandson?
He has two children; one a boy, the other

girl.

Have

I a

dog?

Yes,

II.-

8.

and

my

No,

Sir,

brother has a horse.


he has no pen. 10.

It is at

my

uncle's.

your money.

12.

11.

Who

Is there

Sir,

you have a dog,

Has he the pen?


Where is your book?
has my money?
I have
9.

any servant in the kitchen?

in the kitchen? 13. The servant is in


the kitchen. There is a servant in the kitchen. 14. Who
Your father had the
has the pen and the paper?
pen and I have the paper. 15. Are there any eggs?
Yes, Sir, there are plenty of them.
Is the servant

*l
Mat-bakhda ne var?

Conversation.
Bir az totnates ve patates var.
Hich e-yi deyil, choq hasta dir.

Sizin birader nasil dir?


Onoun ati kiinde dir?

Babam

Guzel qoush qardashinda ml?

Khayr, chojoughoun qafesinde

Qafesde ne var?

Bir yeshil, bir siyah ve bir beyaz

Ekmek

qousb var.
Khayr, ekmek bende devil

gilde dir.

dir.

sende mi dir?
See the Note page 67.

dir.

69

The Pronouns.

A u^^> Lesson
The Pronouns.

vl>l>0

The

138.

according as
to

'the

which,

nouns and pronouns

in

is

the word

that

a noun or an adjective.

is

it

;^j j*J&

Adjectival Pronominal affix

signifying

-Jti,

(Continued.)

Adjectival Pronoun.

3.

8.

which',

It is

attached

two ways; by putting them

either in the Genitive or in the Locative case.

instance it is used always like


a substantive, and signifies 'that which belongs to'.
In the second case, it is sometimes used substantively
and signifying 'that which exists": when it is attached to a substantive, it is an adjective, signifying
'the
which exists'. Ex.:

In the

139.

first

I.

father;

baba

*UjIIj

babanhl-ki that or the

babanin

^xjll

of the father;

one which belongs

to the father.

oil babada in the father; jo^ babadaki that


one which exists in (the possession of) the father.

j o JlL bendeki that whichlhave,

or

the

or

isinmy possession.

140. The separate possessive pronouns corresponding to those of the English language are formed
in the first way; as:
^C*Jo benimki, <Jovl~ seninki,

S*S". bizimki,

jS^r

si~inki,

^S^>j\ onounki

mine, thine,
7

^o^L'jl onlarinlci
J

Both of these forms, when used

our8
\ ?
<

is

eliminated, retaining the sound i ( 99).

of

euphony

<j

-ki never varies in

54

'

as substantives.

have plurals and declensions as usual; but the

Note.

his.

last

pronunciation for the sake

70

Declension of

jC

N.

Lesson

i_r*J->

with the Genitive preceding.

-fci

^ lC

benimki
benimkinin of

D.

aIx^.

A.

(_5^-^

Y*

8.

benimkile'r

benimkilerin of

iJ^iis-^lj

benimkine to

o^lx^Jj benimkilere to
/

binimkini

c^LxoJLj benimkileri
C

L.

benimkinde in

ftj.lC._lj

^p*-- benimkilerde

A. jjj.l.C^j benimJcindenfrom

Declension of
N.

benimkilerden from

tj .^1jC>_1>

with the Locative preceding

-fti

bendeki'

(5*Al>

in

^LSoAlj bendekiler'

G.

vULioJJa bcndekinifl' of

D.

<C5oJJ) bendekine" to

i3^l5oj,lj

bendekiler in' of
o

o^liiojjj bendekiler e" to


'

A.
L.

^- ^
)

c^LSTjuj bendekiler

be'nde'kini'

bendekinde" in

a.il5oJJj

i'

Oh

ll

o^LSftjJd bendekile'rde" in
of

A. (j-C^j^ bendekinden from i

tj^liejjj bendekilerden from

Examples.
hojanin

vUlIa^Ij^.

^Lxxl^^p-

of the teacher.

hojaninkiler those

^SC^Ua-lji- hojalariminki those of


?

J^J

^xIa^!^

of the teacher.

ci^V^^l^*"

my

A ~^"_^ J^J (J

hojaninki that
the

of

teacher.

teachers.
^*-^

/^

Jl-~'

sende benim

qalemim mi var, yokh'sa hojalariminki mi var? have you

my

or that of

iixSjp<- \J>qalemin var,

ne"

o3

jlj

vi-L-b

de hojanizinkiler

nor those of your teacher.


A (5*-^ sendeki para the

vLL^,

^;

my

have neither your pen,

money you

have.

which

brother's.

Bah'jedeki aghajlar the trees which are in the


Shimdiki the present.
E'vdekiler those at the house.
Evvelki the former.
Sonraki the latter.

4.

Demonstrative Pronouns.

141.

pen

bende ne senin

_xlj

Jl^s ^jlS"" i-bj^ qardashim gildeki qoush the bird


is at

my

teachers?

Zjj^

The Demonstrative Pronouns

garden.

*~>\

are:

bou used for things which are near the speaker, This.

The Pronouns.

Yi

Jjt

'

Jjl j\

used for things which are near the person


spoken to, This.

shol

shou,

i.

ol

o,

71

are

some distance

off,

That (yonder).
ish'bou

t\

This present (person

or thing).

The Demonstratives when they modify

142.

a noun, are regarded as adjectives.

jJL\

'

jj\

J^l

are

used only as adjectives, and they never undergo any


change.

Declension of Demonstrative Pronouns.


Singular ^

jt shou

bou this

N.

G.

vlljjj

D.

'6j>

A.

jjj bounou this

L.

ojjji

A.

u-*Mj

Mufred?

dXljt shown oio'i of this

bounoun of this

'6jt shouna to this

bouna to this

bounda in

,A*J

^LrJ!

A^

i^j i

bounlar,
Xote.

-hi,

^.y- shounda

this

in this

c-^^ shoundan

this.

from

this.

s/*Ji

^^.

^Ji

O-^jj

^J-

^fAr

^Ar*

u^Ar

-a,

shounou this

j^i-

boundan from

la

this

...

shounlar,

The declension of

j\ o

-1/7,

that,

...

-,

is

the same as that of

the third person of the Personal Pronoun, page 47.

Other Demonstratives:

143.
'

Lf^LJi

LT^y*

^A

'

<_$-<** j\

^tji beby'le, bebylesi

'

*hj\

such, such as this.

sheby'le, shebylesi'
eby'le,

eoylesi'

as this.

as that.

Adverbial Demonstratives:

144.

place

\jy boura

here,

\jjt shoura

here, this or that place

\jj\

ora

oJ> ne're

this

there, that place

where? what place

(contracted from

b^)

UlAO*

\j jl).

\j\<*)-

Lesson

A i^j*

72

vr

8.

Examples.
'

U>bj\' b>\jj^ 0>\JJ.

objl'

>l>j-

rom here fr0m there

o*>\ J. u-^j!

^ jj^u*^
0X3\ ^jt

gundS on such a day.

bir

&%#

&tr

ademden from such a man.

such

edylesikebtubirchojouq
shol effendiden

X>i\
J dfc\S Jj\ oZ

serf**

bad boy.

from that gentleman.

<?i>tfw

in

the house of that

gentleman.

^A">y

Reflexive Pronouns.

5.

'

spot; there.
**by. here, in this

oXjT'j. *kj> bebyle

J^ji.

myself, himself,
145. The English words
when
yourself etc. are termed Reflexive Pronouns,

subject or the
they represent the same person as the
They are expressed in Turkish by the
nominative.

pronoun
I

&^ kendi:
f-^Cn h ^

myself

Myself

f-^
Ax^Cr*

Thou thyself

&xf

Thyself

1'

*******

IsenMm.
sSn

'

^ndin

&**&'

Himself

^X^
^.^ #**

We

jXf j.

j\ o

He himself
ourselves

'

JJ^

Ourselves

You yourselves

jCxS^j*

J^.^

Yourselves

They themselves iSjtXS^Jl^

tendisi.

&**'

Undimiz.

lendimiz.
sis'

Undifiis.

kendi ft i:'.

onlar lendilen.

^j\^ Tcendilen.
^X^ iSX^' ^X^ %SX^'\X^ iSX^l myself...

Themselves
Also:

ourselves
\>XS^iSXS^' \xS^<JXS^ J6JuT\$XS^We
English word "own" is also expressed
1

<i

146.

by (SxS^;

The

as:

The Pronouns.

vr

My own book

^cST

With his own hand

<L\

($$>

^\

*>

73

be'nim kendi kitabim.

kendi

i_xl}

eli He.

147. Kendi is usually employed after the subor to limit or specialize the
to emphasize it,
meaning; as:

ject

Be'dros

Peter

is

kendi'

bashin'i

yiyqayor Jji^-^

washing his own

J~\

<5-^o

t_rJJ-^>

head.

basMni yiyqayor Jjt^rt lt-^ ^j\ ltJJ-^


Peter is washing his head, denotes another person's head.
Effendikendi' odasmda dir Them aster isinhisownroom.
Effendi onoun odasinda dir The master is in his room
(some one else's).
Be'dros

onoun

JC*)

TJst
a.

f.

Words.

t[ c~j! Apparel,

bash

<^\y\ esvab clothes

f.

jj^k pantalon pants


<L&J>

gebmlek shirt

j J >-!

ich'

ijji*1Uj

se'tri

f.

donou drawsers
frock-coat

*l>\t

fistan

gown

[Gr.]

shapqa hat [Slav/

(jjlX baston
<u_.s

Jcese

stick,

cane

[It.]

purse

*Sjs duyme button


O**. chouqa broad cloth

OjjjJI eldive'n gloves

mendil handkerchief

<*-*a\>

basma

print, calico

c --^5i ekmekji baker.

jlstJ bichaq knife


>-i~*j

f.

f.

yelek waistcoat

Prop. Nouns

<j\i

[It.]

f.j~~ miso petticoat [Gr.]

jb~\ astar lining

a. Jj-X1*

Ijj rouba clothes

yousouf Joseph.

^Jui

Exercise 15.

a<H Ahmed.

74

uf-J-i

Lesson

Vu

8.

A
it

jlj <U)L-/^v o^ljjl J j\ *\

Of

jf

Translation 16.

^js-J'

those of that; those of those [men].


2. That which is in this; that which is there; that
w hich is here. 3. Have you our coats or those of our
neighbours?
I have not your coats; I have those of
my father. 4. That of my sister; those of my mother;
from those of my uncle. 5. The oxen which are here;
the cows which are there. 6. These houses are large;
that house is little; from that house. 7. Where are my
overshoes, and where are those of my aunt? 8. Yours
are here and those of your aunt are there. 9. To yourself;
from himself; in ourselves. 10. My mother is in her
garden; my sister is in her house; my sister is in his
house. 11. My own cane; his own book; in his own room.
1.

that;

Ai

<XS^

jSb*
Lt

oi\jj,

.HjjuH

Conversation.

*XJ\ jte.
>jji\

^ni

All sentences enclosed


idiomatic sayings or proverbs.
1

jJu* *\jy vlllli

jju* iSj*\j> ^-L JJ.il *-*~j*

Q J*H

by quotation marks are

either

The

Vo

JJ>

oJj

Adjective.

75

<ijl (iJJo

Ji oX

^jl

<iaj|

u^C>
j>^

j:>

y ^y y

Jl

Oo J>

Jli. (^jL.
'X>.

ojjlj

9.

The Adjective.
whether used as
remains unchanged, as

adjective

a predicate or as an attribute,
in English ( 79):
j ^ 6y*.^" j\ ec kuchuk ditr the house
?z\

J^ o^o^'

Lesson

The Turkish

148.

is

little.

beoyuh bir ade'm a great man.

JJ^^llIl ehnalar

tatli

dir the apples are sweet.

^Lo\ iKi j, bebyuk ademler the

men.

great,

The Derivative
149.
in

Adjective.
The derivative adjective which

Turkish ^j^ju^J

made by

is

is

called

the addition of the

following particles to the nouns.

150.

I.

J,

'

of the thing designated

j&

-lou indicates possession

by the noun;

^j^s soulou watery,

as:

fluid.

y. y&f place,

J^_

yerli fixed in a place; native.

j\ ev house,

Jjl

eoli that

o\
a.

sou water,

-It,

-li,

ojc

at horse,
iz'zet

J&\

honour.

'

has a house; married.

JI' atli, atlou

y^j*

iz'zetlou

horseman.

honorable.

151. With the proper names of men or places,


the same affix indicates a native or an inhabitant of
those places or connexion of those persons; as:
lL^\ Ameriqa,
1

Is

Jll^.\ Ameriqali American.

mi Mensoub Noun

(or adjective) of relationship.

76

Lesson

V'Lr-Ji

(jLic

Osman

j&\*J'c-'

L5\/ Turkiya
(jjki'^A

V\

9.

^{J:c Osmanli Ottoman.

JLS"^/ Turkiyali an inhab. of Turkey, Turk.

J'j-*^ Merzifounlou a

Merzifoun

native of Merzifoun.

152. The names of some European nations are


formed differently, as they were introduced by the Venetians or Genoese;
J^ixll ingiliz

J1\ i fransiz
A^zi

k^JjI^ja

as:

Jnj^- j'inivizGenoeBe; Roman.

Englishman.

Frenchman.

J^jL-1 ispanyol Spaniard.

u^"

nemtse, nemcli? Austrian.

talyan Italian.

mosgof Russian; Muscovite. dll^Li filemeng Dutch.

153.

II.

4j>-

-je

added

names

to the

forms the names of their languages;


olU alman a German:

jt

'

ijjjl

turk Turk:

^j\ ermeni

Armenian:

154.

a>-

as:

<s&jlU

almanja the German language.

*^\J:

turkje the Turkish language.

ermenije the Armenian language.

a*z-^*j\

added

-je if

to

of nations), expresses relation;


ocll. mil'letje national.
4j><

of nations

nouns (except the names


as:
a=-j\ evje

^kiliseje ecclesiastical.

<u=c.;U

household.

lisanja linguistic.

155. III. 4>- -je added to the adjectives and


nouns forms the Diminutive, expressing rather, some-

what, slightly,
<^Jlj-^-

-ish;

as:

hayvanja brutal,

o=.^jL beyazja whitish.

156.

j>.

dU-

k-^j^j^- chojouqja childish.


-ocjVjS qolayja rather easy.

-jiq, -J4k\ -jaq, -jek, -juk. This

a modification of the above form, dictated by the

is

principal of
or

fj

euphony

these letters are omitted;

^&.4*9j qisajiq rather short.


jja-ljl

If the

( 52).

azajiq just a

little.

A/'Ji youmrou globular

word ends

tumour:

as:

^L.jjT' giizeljik beautiful

^-U^.

in

birijik

^J^ji

little

thing,

only (begotten).

youmroujaq the plague.

The Adjective.

YV

dXs^jjj, bebyiijek rather large.

beoyuk:

$j> j>

*Sy*^

kuchuk: <Z\*-j=*.S^

>

IV.

157.

77

kiiclrujek,

-jon added

-ji,

-JL

-juk smallish,

tin}-.

noun

to

indicates the individual who exercises a trade or calliDg


connected with the first noun; as:

j^Lsy

(j^X-jT^ ekmekji baker

water

^y-j-^ soitjou

gun maker.

tufenk'ji

bekmezji treacle

seller ^p-j.jC

seller.

> -ji is also used for making adjectives


158.
or nouns designating persons who practise something
expressed by the noun to which it is appended; as:
=-l0 douvaji who prays.
(j*-^^ yedanji, -clu liar.
j-lii

159.

'

^.a-Afl.ai

shaqaji, latifeji joker, storyteller.

~y

V.

-lik

-liq,

dXi

added

denotes a condition, nature or quality


denoted by the original noun; as:
dX>^S^ gejelik (night) gown.
diJujT^ gunluk
(jL'jl

^i-Uj^i

onlouq a coin of ten paras.

(jlij

noun,

of the

thing

to

daily (pay

yitUq yearly (pay.

yuzluk a coin of 100 paras. (jLjlliL panta lonlouq stuff

,../'
wUS.j be'ylik belonging to the state,

Food

Yirmi adamliq ydmek.

160.

adjectival suffix,

pan-

government.

sufficient for 20 persons.

-souz,

is

meaning without, void

free from, -less;

for)

talons.

t- s$&, -siz,

VI.

of,

privative

lacking,

as:

j-ojL paras'iz moneyless.

JJ\ etsiz fleshless, thin.

,,

Jyuz'suz

who has no

face;

^ sousouz wateness,' thirstv.


7^-7
-j~o*o

jj
s-^j'.

jJjj

J~^U saghsiz unhealthy, weakly.

2/oJscw.z

roadless; impolite.

r
.

shameless.

Derivative Xouns.
Derivative nouns are made by the addition

161.
of the following particles to the nouns;
162.

I.

ji

'

dO -Uq,

-Wk.

as:

Joined

to

nouns

it expresses a place peculiar to the thing named, or a


place where it abounds; as:

78

Lesson

^ o-j^

VA

9.

jJs-^L paboujlouq the place where the slippers or boots are


j^a-ltl aghajliq, agliachliq a

^jiilb tashliq a place

its

place where the trees abound.

kebmiirluk a place where coal

<ZXijja

left.

deposited.

is

where stone abounds, stony;

stone-pit.

163. This -lik, -liq added to an adjective, forms


abstract noun; as:
^j>\

redness; rouge.

jiljj\5 qizil'liq

iSWJ?

>\

^^

chojouqlouq childishness,
childhood.

^-U

'

s\\

eyilik kindness.

7T
fa 9* rhh Poverty.

164. Names of trades or professions are also


formed by adding lih, liq to the words denoting the

who

persons

exercise them.

Ex.:

vllL^xjTl ekmeJcjilik the occupation of a baker.


j^Ls-.M

ashjiliq the occupation of a cook, cooking.

165.
companion.

J^bM

Jib

ad' dash, adash

tJ.Ul.jG

Jlbxj

II.

'

JtlT

-dash,

-tash a

fellow,

namesake. JMj1 yashdash of the same age.

J^jJ^S JlbjG qarindash, qardash (womb-fellow) a brother.


'

the fellow of a prince.

beg' tash, be'gdash

J^bojl arqadash companion, comrade.


JM-L-j.}

dersdash, sinifdash a class-mate.

^J-\jju^>

'

166.

III.

j>.

'

dU

j;r

'

j5C. -J2#, -jik; -jighaz,

Diminutive nouns are


-jiye&.
of these particles to the nouns.
i

viU-jl

J>^j\

ji- j

ment;

little

house.

J^-^jl odajiq a

little

room.

Some Diminutives

167.

the addition

evjik, evjiyez, evjighaz

y^>\iS^ Jcitabjiq booklet.


l

made by

are terms of endear-

as:

j.Uj

'

j^-LL babajiq, babajighaz papa.

j^-lll 'Ji*-ll\

'

jix>.4jj\

ji.Jo qlzjighaz poor

anajiq, anajighaz, arinejiyiz


little girl.

mama.

The

v^

Adjective.

Ail TVords.
MU'letler

j^

a. v

Shekirler

a rob Arab.

^iijjij venediJ:

clierkes Circassian.

^j\f?

<>

jjfcjl

^r-ji

China.

and

oghlou

IpjI

juH

Lcjl

*y~->-

the

to

name

often to the

i^W

<ilj viyana Vienna.

Surnames are formed

Note.

\ij\

Hasan

name

sade

^I3

of the father,

used;

is

as:

Nfttii

Gentleman (Mon-

?r"-5<

'-

a.

f.

( 668,

JYbfe).

Ktmal

a foreigner.

a.

a.

Jit rt-^n sense, wisdom,

w^t

gliarib stranger, poor.

craft,

jlj cliezar Caesar.

a. ij^-i.

a.

JUL

JuS Exercise

JeoJCj

sheytan Satan.

jll yapar he makes.

sells.

^jlio duk'kian shop.

1.

JU

a.jUel tuj'jar merchant.

trademan.

sari at vulg. zenahat art,

jlJLs sata/* he
a.

for the dig-

sieur) [Fr.].

^\lye\ esnaf artisan,

a. ,l^~*3

family

e^j 111

e'jnebi

tleman.

But

Ahmed.

clieltbi a no n -Moslem gen-

by

oghlou Ali, Ali the son of Hassan,

Pasha zade, son of Kemal Pasha.


**"

in Turkish

of the trade or occupation; as:

^sjLIS Qaiftqji oghlou

nitaries p.

qoudous Jerusalem.
gr>rtd Crete.

_b^*}

jU^'jUL majar Hungarian.

adding

tsmir Smyrna.

wis- 7m7e'& Aleppo.

'j^j) boid'ghar Bulgarian.

168.

Alexandria.

ajem Persian.

Oj. chin

Cities

Venice.

;_xix iske'nde'riye

rJJ roum Greek.

jLL

^j*seJyi mounjousoun Pontusa.

sjkj\ arnavoud Albanian.


a. pj>tt

JJK

istcunbol Constantinople,

J^jL-1

Kurd.

Jciird

>J>

Nations

JcL*

!->.

'

Byi

'

baq'qal grocer.

17.

UjjI

tinopolitan. a native of Amassia, of

2.

Constau-

Smyrna, of Aleppo,

80

Lesson

^-jji

A*

9.

of Alexandria, of Japan, of China, of Montenegro, of


Pontusa, of Jerusalem; a Viennese, a Cretan, a Hungarian,
a Roman. 3. The Kurdish, German, Circassian, Italian,
Arabian, Albanian, Persian, Greek, Bulgarian, Armenian

languages; Chinese, Turkish.


a?=^:^^
craft,

'

*ol

Axilla.

5.

donkey -driver,

devilish.

warm;

rather

coldish;

stationer;

a-jj

<^:o

'

'

^^CjuT

Pertaining to the country, trade,

wisdom;

artisan,

quite well;
7.

'

4.

a mender of old
horse-rider.

Slightly sweet;
rather high; fleshy.
things; mule -driver,
6.

One who

8.

sells

oil;

who

keeps a vineyard, a garden; one who sells bread, coffee,


sugar, tomatoes, potatoes, milk, tobacco.
9.
Stuff
10. Ten
for a cloak, shirt, girdle, shoe, handkerchief.
paras' worth; 1000 piastres' worth; 500 piastres' worth;
a piastres' worth; one para's worth; changes [small
pieces of money] (smaliness). 11. Without house, horse,
books, donkey, coffee, tea; coffee without milk, coffee
with milk. 12. Rather white, black, high, much, pretty,
well. 13. Humanity; height; blackness; the profession of
a teacher, cooking; boatmanship. 14. Fellow-traveller;
15. Beautiful
co-religionist; sharer of the same room.
little hands; a little pen; my dear grandmother.

\A A*A

<S^^

J*-

ii,T[clerk]db*4)^

Exercise 18.

^liy T*

j.

T
*

<o ii^T

dL-

^*

'lS^ uJCil^l^-jGi

jtU ><j ^-><j jtU otS^-t^ Y

J,W

~J

g\ ^Tjr ^ije

.ITS

*j3

^~~A

<-k)

c^

fj^J^*

Joy 3j ^i

^-4* ^jA*

The Adjective.

,Ai

\^ ^^V

Translati(>n

Do you know French?

81

19,

No, Sir, I know a little


English. 2. I am a Constantiuopolitan I know Turkish
well.
3. What" does that shopkeeper sell?
He sells
1.

to the villagers

and

citizens grapes, sugar, coffee; there

many such

shops and shopkeepers in the villages


and cities. 4.
grocer! give me 20 paras' worth of
bread, 10 paras' worth of cheese, 15 paras' worth of
grapes and 2 piastres' worth of sugar. 5. Give me five
piastres' worth of paper; this paper is rather yellow.
It is here (bourada).
6. Where is the salt-cellar?

are

7.

There

coaling

is

no coal

is

in the coal-seller's shop, the trade of


rc

not a clean

one.

Art thou moneyless?


are a very wise man; you
8.

thou art friendless'


9. You
have sense, but your servant is a fool (without sense).
10. Who is this cheesemonger and who is that iron.

monger?

They

are

AX

my

friends.

Conversation.

J3 \$j\ "Ji-ji Mj

r+*\

o-^-^*

.JX^OJ^ J-J^d
jlj

fA

f^\
^^

<_rl^ jiiLifr jt

J> 1>

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

^tT^jt

ll/.

r-j\ p.iL

*%*M tf->>U^ 4

JfB

^T

^ jU

4j!

Jj*

? t*Jd

jfojJjfi

J-J>

82

l^A>

oU:^
The

169.
[The

Af

10.

Lesson

The Pronouns.

10.

(Continued.)

Interrogative Pronouns.

0.

ing.

Lesson

u-j^

^l^iJ

j\^>

Interrogative Pronouns are the follow-

sign

Interrogative

-mi

never used

is

with them.]

170. JT kim? who? whoever?


This is applied to persons, and is declined alone
and with possessive affixes.
? i>- X^Cr* se n him sin? who art thou?
'

? j\

Xjl

f^l

j\

j\

S^ kim

J*

dir o? him o? o ~kim o?

who

is it?

Sometimes when there is no question, khn


expresses the meaning of 'some
{Xi^ ijtjZ^ iSS& ^S^kimi geldi Tcimi gitdi, some came others went.
171.

j\j

j^^?

j\j vlA*^'? j\j p-^^" kimim var? kimin var?

whom

have

whom

I?

hast thou?

Icimi'

whom

var?

has he?

J^j ^-u^jf" kimsesi yoq he has nobody.


kiminki' ?

? ,53*-i

172.

*>

ne? How?

whose ?

(with nouns).
It is applied to inanimate object
alone and with possessives.
? j\
?

Nem

ne'

j~,JL~)\

4J

ne istersiniz?

? j\

and

o? ne" dir o? What

j^

<!

what?

(with adjectives);

is

is

declined

it?

What do you want?

nem'? nen? nesi'? nemiz ? neniz ? neleri?


var? nin var? nesi' var? What have I? What hast thou?
What has he?

NSmiz dir?

neniz' dir?

What

thing,

part or

belonging to us r

to you, is it?
?

o<J

ojJ

ne'de" ?

at or in

what?

J
The Pronouns.

Ar

J<;
?

ne'demek? "What does

vUIoaj

173.

jCU

applied to

It is

mean?

it

What wonderful

things!

Why?

1
JLS harigi? harighi? Which?
persons and to inanimate objects

without distinctions.
with possessives, and

It
is

^^U

things!

For what?

ne'ichin? ni'clwun? ni'cliin?

OJ^

{jjypWi =*

What

nele'r'!

Jl'>

83

may

be used either alone or

declined:

Which?

han'gisi?

JoJsJU han'gimiz? Which of us?

?j.vxiU han'gihiz? Which of you?

cSjuxlU harig'dan?

-^

0^1*

5^U

^-^ U

Which

?^15

Which? of

wliT*JjL han'giJcitab? Which book?

174.

them?

of

of

from

$\\*

Which man?

qach? How many?

applied to pronouns and to inanimate objects,


and may be used either alone or with possessives, and
it is declined:
It is

^liga'cftlfirfc? qa'chrniz? qa'chi'? How many


of us, of you, of them?
oJJjJ^VlS gwc.V gihide? In how many days?

j^fi

?j.l3

ay'in

? eju>-l5 viij^

qachinda? On what (day) of the mouth?

How? What

175. ? VJ* na'sil?


thing? What kind?
:^T-

j^ >o\

j;

<j\

na'sil s'tniz?

Usi

na'sU

J^al

_)^aJ

^,a

/je'r

Wr

How

na'sil ise In

What

ocJ o\

^
k?jjui\

r-lc.j

177.

jj

&om

sort of a person is he?

whatever way

2^nije? What

176.

jjc^lc.^ 4.^.;

are you?

arfe'm titr?

ac?c'm nije

kind?

It is

be.

How?
is

What

may

it

ademdir? What kind of

'

jj

sort of a

sort of a tree

is

this

man

Qanghi

is

also used indefinitely:

the old form,

now

it

is

this (tree)?
it

then means

how much? how manv?


1

man

obsolete.
6*

84

niche or

^IajJ^ <tcJ

'

Jui|

wi'^e'

10.

A<u

How many

def atari

nijeyedek? nicheye'dekl

iJ^4jA.^.l

^U?cJ

Lesson

u-j:>

ni'jeler? ni'cheler?

a^-.!

how many

Till

ni'che

times!

ademler?

times

How many
peoples?

7. Indefinite

The

Pronouns.

Pronouns

Indefinite

^^

juJ?

are:

178. <c~*J> 4_^5 Zs fonse, kimesne anybody.


These are applied to persons only, and are declined
alone and with possessives.

*jlj 4.~^.S

,Jjj

'C-.^-.i

'

,j

oljjl orada bir Tcimse var'mi? Is there anybody


there?
Icimse yoq, ki' mesne yoq. There is nobody.
<<~*J

j~.<~^5T kimsesiz' without anybody, without patron;


friendless.

179.
?

qadar.

jS

Expresses quantity or number ( 199, 229).


dJL5| jji *J we" qadar ekmek? How much bread?

u*

J*

<>

jji

J-^ Jjl J-W jl jji ji


jjjs ;A

'

'

'

'

'

tishejek'
'

jjJj Jj^jli

jji

<i

2/e'teV'

qadar,

qadar So much as

eshek' qadar,

ayY qadar As

parmaq' qadar As (small as a

yetejek'

qadar,

will suffice,

(big) as

ye-

enough.

an ass as a bear.

finger.

little)

Zier each, every, -soever.

180.

p.

Her

always an adjective and

is

days?

So much.

jjJj j)

jjj dJU-<i jj5 dU.4jL.L

jjjj tlii.1

How many

qadar? ne" qadar gun?

we"

*.j'

.a

is

used with

all

other indefinite pronouns.


jo\ ys,

'

a^J"^*

'

ura

^a

7ieV

fce's,

7ieV kimse,

^a

Tier

we" whatsoever.

^U ^a

7ie7

ha'ngi whichever

4J

J.

y*

Mr adem

her' bir each, every.

J: J y* her' birimiz every one of us.


1

*\X j A
^5

^a

her

yerde every where.

7teV ftim

whoever, whosoever.

everybody.

The Pronouns.

ao

:fCcJ;

whoever of vou.

her ki'miniz

.&

85

<Sj ^a her' biri every one of them.

181.

Bazi
^lol Jom

j
means

number

a certain

ademler

oj

'

Ja^

iSjLk* 'j^L^iiu

'

j^-^.r^

U^J*w ba'zimiz,

'

as

-Bir

182.

of persons or tilings.

ba'zi kimseler

ba'zi de'fa, bazl Iter re

ba'zimz,

some

^.Jnu ba'zisi

( 135).

ba'zi

*i^ ^Jz*}

bir az, ba'zi some

jsao

a.

'

j\

each, either.

ikisi both,

y* her

fjr >^i\

Some

people.

sometimes.

ba'z'ilari

some

of us,

of you, of them.
people, some of them.

expresses

small

quantity,

a few ( 135).
j^> j\ ^j

'

tX<S^\ j\ ji bir az eknu'Jc, bir' az sou a


j\

J^i

183.
\J-jjS-

*.M

<i J>

^j

Mr

&*'**

r^^>!

r-15

bir qach' ade'm a

gun

bir qach

a!1\ or

184.

*!>

jj

iSji<kt\

'

tS^j~\

185.

it.

a$\

*!>

jj-\

'

'

a.

135).

few persons.

a, j-\

'

several days ago.

e'v'vel

'

p.

5Co bashqa,

as:

oljj ^5Co another man.

bashqa' bashqa' separately.

Aili *1Lj

some of

ghouroush a few piastres.

flflc/t'

a-kher', diger' other, another;


/ol

a*?

bread, water.

k$j. bir qach a few, several

Offfij.

i}j\

some money;

little

*-4aj

somewhat

apart.

iSjtJ^t* bashqalarl, akhe'rleri. digerleri others.

0% filan a certain (definite or indefinite

person or thing), so-and-so.


**\
fj>

oJ^j

186.
lie <L*-

'

lie

o^

filari

adem

u^s

filan

shey such a such a thing.

0^ filan
a.

43^

o5

so-and-so, such a one.

vaqitda at such and such a time.


a. J*-

Piaffe, jurnle, hep

all.

kiaf'feyi ale'm, jiim'le alem all the world.

86

Lesson

l*.-u"JJ

><!*' Jy**b

'

J*a.jft

^a_.a

^a

*x-'^a}\

^J*}\

^aJL*-'

'

/)?'/;

*>

6 w"j

Lo 6jjj
^-^JVjI
ji

viliojlji

butun*

dunya the whole world.

paranin olanjasi

<5

~/

~-a

my money. ^S\

a-*JT

none.

&tri

^Jij

T^jfc

7^*c/i'

t^-a

.,

bir vacnt not at

OU'da.4 JMfda-Ja-at
after

is

oyj\

--(!.-

&.'

of

of us.

it.

the money.

nothing,

hicli

all

day.

olarijam bou dour this

r^>

/iic7i'

all

men.

butun whole.

un the whole

pojlj <9c.lVjl all

188.

all

&'***'

a^VjI

j.

u^jj olaiija,

all

hepimiz

kiaf'femiz, jum'lemiz,

4^'jVjI

a*\

ademler, jum'le ademler

fj^^^Maf'f^sif jumlesi, he'pisi

187.
<j

10.

all

^e

have.

whole loaf

[never] (
fcicft'

(aec.)

131 132).

bir kimse

nobodv.

any time, never.

Remarks.

189. a) The English pronoun one [pi. ones]


an adjective is not expressed in Turkish; as:
fresh loaf? No! I have the old one.
Taze somoun sendemi? Khayr ! bayati' bcndc dir.
Two old lions and two young ones. The little ones.
Iki ikhtiyar ve iki genj arslanlar. Kuchukler.
The great ones of the world. Dunyanm beoyukUri.

Have you the

190.

Somebody

b)

is

expressed by

Inn, birisi.

Somebody
Somebody

191.

by

p.

knocking

Each other, one another,

c)

^J^jSC

'

'

iSj.j.

They love each

We
You

are expressed

(Sjj.X yeMigeri, birbiri, birbirlcri.

other.

Birbirini sevirler.

help each other. Birbiri erimize yardim'Mejcyiz.


Yekdigerifiizi georur'siuliiz.
see one another.

will

jUll*
Chiftjinin
var'm'i?

asking for you. Biri seni cJwgJnnyor.


at the door. Qapouyou vourouyorlar.

is
is

^ ^x

beyaz

Misal'Ur

qoyounlari

Examples.
Has the farmer the white sheep?

Khayr', siyahlar onda dir.


Hojanin bebyuk oghlou bourada
ml dir?

No! he has the black ones.


Is the teacher's elder son here?

The Pronouns.

AY

87

rada dir.
Bou qaUmlerin her han'glsi.

that one (= the other)


here.
Either of these pens.

Hang'isinx istersiftia?
Han'gisi oloursa oUoun.
Dostlarhninliieli'birisi ecde deyil

Either, whichever it may be.


Neither of my friends was at

Khayr

ifendim!

ol

No,

bou-

biri'

Which

What

j.

J*

'

a.

e>jL dolou

full.

p. *li.

^1*. jins kind.

j'^ji

a. 1-u-L.

^^u.

ma

j^ jjI Jj9-

'

Jill
'

j~^~*fj

-*

**

\j\

^^

da except.

.jJui

Ij^U

j^Ui

^s

o*j>^
L>'

<o^

pounar fountain,
ara relation,
chift pair,

Exercise 20.

O^jw si- (^jU^

'

kham unripe,

jy*jfo-lclursh thief.

sliayird pupil.

%yj\

the matter?

C*>-2> yetgin ripe.

^l^J> qiymet value.

a.

p.

is

Words.

workman.

ishji

you have?

I will

ol'birini.

JC^J

usK.t>\

will

home.
have neither.

idi.

Xc onoii interim, ne
Nevar? derdifi ne"

Sir,

is

J 3U5""

j^jut

r~

vl^OjUid

vj,fijjj

&

Jul

^S

cf^i ^jL<2u

*^^ ^#

*J->^ r^* J*.***

~v

ji

v"*

-^

88

^rj^

Lesson

A^-j Translation

AA

10.

21.

How many

lessons have the boys? They have


five lessons every clay.
2. There are many thieves in
these mountains.
3. God is the father of all men.
He is a man
4. What kind of a young man is he?
1.

sometimes good, sometimes bad. 5. ''Everything has its


time". "Everything has its place'
6. Who were with
Mr. Joseph?
His wife and some of his grandchildren,
7. There were two thieves: one on one side, the other
on the other side. 8. Are Mary and Ann here to-day
5

Neither of them is here.


9. Have you
any friend in this village?
Yes, several of the rich
families in this village are my friends. 10. Has Nejibe
a white rose?
No, but she has a red one. 11. Are
there many mosques and churches in this country?
Yes, Sir, every city and village has some churches or
day)?

(this

mosques.

a!^
.

j^

yy

<o <uj1 j\j

y\^^ y\ JUa; jj>


^Ji

z^y
oyy

*jS^

'

l
-

-^JiJ^j

J-^ y\
?

JJ&* y\

jjjLu

viii.U (Jj[a

^fcil

'

r^\

y*

>V ->b

^-*-

? J-*1*j*

J^J^

(Qui vive?)

<o <Jy r*J*


.

J* iSy?

*~*jf~^

jSgl J!y&

jJJy.j*> j\

fjm^t]

Conyersation.

? j\

gj\

tf iSj^J) J* J** yj-^iU

O
lj

? j:>

j5*i

y3

<3AlM>

y$yr

Numeral Adjectives.

A\

Lesson

\jrtJl>

*LJ

*\s\

Fractional, Ordinal

11.

Numeral Adjectives.

The numerals

192.

89

are of four kinds: Cardinal,

and Distributive numbers

['aIL^I $\j&\

Cardinal numbers.

1.
1

rjl

oji

u^i

6e-<ft

jl

aft

t5J^

Adadl

30

jjTj\

weft

50

JH

c7eo/-

t,

60

62'r

^poJ

asliye.

ofOMZ

#7t

altmisli

yetmish

V*

70

u~*-*i

80

0^-

seksen

A*

2/ecZi

90

<jLiL

doqsan

J.x~

sefc/2

100

jj>_

jy\s

doqpuz

200

jj^l

10

uj\

on

300

Jjr?j\

11

^rijl

on

12

uJl

13

rj\

<jj\

20
21

oV

o*J^

J5o?<

Mr

!
M

1000

on

-**

If

10000

on

6eft

ir

100000

yi rm i

dL

2/*

rw * Wf f

&'*'

y&8

uchyuz

on 6i#

<jj|

j*

viL

ytte bin

r**

dL 5m

million

i/ii^f

0.^ m ity n
jUu

milliard

milyar

sene Kristosoun bin doqouz

This

is

yuz

senesi dir

iJci

the year 1902 (of Christ).

A. D.

Hijretinbin uchyuz yirmi senesinde oM~,4l- fjj^i Jjf*j\ *^J -^-v^t4


In the 1320th year of the Hejira.
v

193a.

'

hundred, one hundred; a thousand, one

thousand are in Turkish simply jy

'

dL

ynz, bin.

90

It is

twenty

cial circles

For the sum of 100,000

the

word

in the olden

called <uJ>
i)

(jj\

yfilz j]y

is

used,

of 500 piastres was

hese bag, purse.

pressed as follows
Sa'at qach dir?
is 12.30 o'clock.
Sa'at debrt diir.
It is 7.30 o'clock.

<u~T

ojl>

The hours

194.

,JLj

of the

besh kese para 2500 piastres.

78):

What
It is

o'clock

and night

da}'
is?

it

4 o'clock.

are ex-

Sa'at yarim dir.

It

Sa'at yedi bouchouq dour.

Minutes are reckoned as follows:

195.

Beshe on var
besh'

piastres in finan-

burden

load,

sum

times the

on yuk one million.

Iliiyi

*v

11.

common

193b.

and

Lesson

in Turkish to say twelve hundred,


but
hundred,
simply bin iki yu#, iJci bin beshyuz.

not

five

t>ji

j\j jjl *1>

gechmish JL+sp

\jii

J^l

Ten minutes

to five.

Five minutes past two.

196. A person's age is expressed thus:


?l>-oJ^L
qach yashinda sh'i? How old are you?

pi\

197.
Alz

'

e)

J^3 qirq yashindayim.

oJlilj

Numeral Adverbs

Mr re

def'a,

am

40 years

are formed

to the cardinals;

old.

by joining

as:

Bir def'a once; iki def'a twice; uch ker're thrice.


def'a besh yirmi eder four times five makes twenty.

The Tariative numerals

198.
adding

{ja*j&.

'

J^>-

^xJi>-

cheshid'den.
Bir jinsden of one kind;
jins, uch jinsden three sorts.

199.

by

Some

jjS qadar;

'

are formed

by

Jul>- jins, jinsden; cheshid,


cheshid'den of two kinds; uch

iki

thirty,

Debrt

some

forty

is

expressed

as ( 179, 229):

Otouz qadar, qirq qadar.

Some

fifty

persons El'li adem qadar.

The word or between two numbers in


omitted in Turkish.
Jki uch gun some two or three days. Besh on adem qadar
some five or ten men. Debrt besh ghouroush some four or five piastres.
200.

English

is

Numeral Adjectives.

The Multiplicative numbers

201.

formed by the addition of 0 qat fold


dL* tek simple, single.

J^JL

yalhliz only, single.

oG rj\
o oj^

of.

oj:

ji-jU. * U-

ols jy_

debrt qat quadruple.

The

yuzlerje

debrt kebslie

of.

"CjJj^ douzina a
crl Afcj

e'Z:

boots).

a hundred fold.

yiiz qat

ill>

double.

dozen

e7mm charshlj

numbers

Collective

p. CjL. c/n/^c paired,

'

^JLx-j birderje thousands

Jjy

square.

p. cJL>. c&tfi a pair of

Mj

of.

<iji

qat triple.

licit

202.

f.

to the cardinals; as:

o-jkjJu milynnlarja millions

qat twice.

iki

are generally

hundreds

*.

vIWj^x birijik only (begotten).


CjIS $>\

91

are:
a set,

fciQtjn

lot.

^Xiy> <cLzr double-barrelled gun.

[It.].

f.

mate one of the


;

<~- j^c.

grosa a gross

[It.].

jjj~> suru a flock.

pair.

203. When using a numeral with a noun, the


Turks frequently introduce a secoud noun between the
two, which is quite superfluous in European languages,
but occasionally employed in English, as ten head of
c

This noun varies according


nature of the things denned by the numeral.

six sail of ships' etc.

cattle,

to the

For men
res

head;

fields,

ships
4ita

it

'

is

3Jic

nefer individual; for beasts

for bulbs

it

is

maps

it

is

letters,

and

ju

villages,

it is

JH

Mi

Si}

for ships,

-uL* qit'a piece;

jl pare,

dane, tane, aded]

S*~s' J"

bash]

for

it

is

^,\j

gardens,

cannons,

para] for things usually

as:

nefer aske'r two

soldiers;

debrt res bargir

four pack-horses; uch qit'a mektonb three letters; altl (qit'a tarla six
pieces of ground; ye'di bash sogli an seven bulbs of onions; on pare'
keby ten villages; se'kiz aded tufeng eight guns; bir bab maghaza
a magazine (store); bir qUa arzouhal a petition.

The common people


different

words

as:

iki

uses the

dane

word 4Jb

asger, debrt

for ail these

done bargir

etc.

92

<jjs-jb
ojasi*

r*>*j^
f.

^rj^

Lesson

Jdi

Words.

doghdou was born.

p. iS\_j^ sir ay castle, palace,

a.^c

I wrote.

ojt gazeta newspaper.

uJ^
aU-

a.

fouroun oven.

hamam

VjL? torZa

\r

\j+X\ el-hamra Alhambra.

a.

penjere window.

yazdim

11,

bath.

p.

asr century,

a.

Ajz dirhem dram,

p.

<jli.

khan inn.

<jL^j deyirman

mill.

^_U- cliayir pasture,

field.

jji.1 aJchor stable.

a.

YY

*J^}

s?/ir zero.

.i*a

Exercise 22.

'

'

O^

jj-b ojl oOiJjrU

^u *b

A^iajjU-

a^L

'

4*la3

^,\rt

Oj2

j'j

4*1=;

JW>

sr-\

<^3^

jjbl 3jpOj'

jj-lj

'

Vjt 4*L;

^yS^*

^^ uj

4*Ja3

-j*

^Ji^

JJI eSj^j^-l

va

'

.^^

M,

JW^

Oj d^j' 3^ A

T,rio,*\YA

'

AAV,i\o

Numeral Adjectives.

\r

XT 4&j

An

93

Translation 23.

400 drams; a batman is six okes.


2. My father is 70 years old, my mother 62, my brother
40 years old. 3. Take 200 (units) eggs, 500 walnuts,
50 pounds of apples and three batmans of pears.
It is the Thou4. What is the name of that book?
Nights.
The
palace
of
Alhambra has
sand and One
5.
999 windows. 6. Here are two sets of cloths. 7. There
were two kinds of handkerchiefs, a blue one and a black
9. There are 40
one.
8. This cloth has three folds.
10. I have three dozen
loads of money in the bank.
Twelve dozens make a gross. 11. The shoepencils.
1.

oke

is

maker has three

make a

pairs of shoes.

j\j W^j" CLa* 3 J*

jt.

paras

.jj ojjj^S
.jjjpjl

^-bj^y 3<ob^
^Xaw^

lijJu3)

.j^
r\

Conversation.

^->j\

.jJul (_rj/- iXj

How many

piastre?
Ax |$S

12.

jfOlj

'

r*-'^"

j-V3ji

j-L\

J-J^ r^
?jj

4i

b Oji

*j J 5 6 '

?J^

J*

Al^i""

<^{jj\

^bj-^y

"r*--^

oXtyj\

?jjJUfl]
? J->

?
?

**b

J^ ^-aLjjU-

<j *Jai

j<bj\

r^ ^JJ^

j\j 4ib 7T^

*>

<^<o*kj|

?j\j

JjjS Jjj

Jj-<iaJjU- Ljjj\

vlA>.lfl*7

?jJu-5^(iJui\ ^-4-

Jl&

js fib 5i^ uJl


j\j

ojl

oift^' 5*-"

J^ J-->V r^-

jJ^ jlj

,/.

0<~J^ ^

Jli

S #JL^T'

94

*LJ

^l-ul

Lesson

u-J->

u^i>

Lesson

12.

Numeral Adjectives.

(Continued.)

Adadi

Fractional numbers.

2.

12.

The Fractional numbers

are derived from


put in the locative

204.

the Cardinals; the denominator is


and the numerator in the nominative,
follows the former.
j- oX>j\

onda

Yuzde

^jC

205.

^A

one tenth,

bir

V,.

oAX-j

=
=Y

iki,

/0

6mtfe yirmi

and the
two

beslide iki

oj-tj

/.

fifths,

= **/

20 %0

Sometimes one of the words


^JJ qisim,

latter

y*o, 7o

a. *>-jfiz, a. 4.^a>- ft&s'se, a.


is

kesriye.

all

'

p.

meaning

^l

^>a?/,

a portion

5
,

introduced:

Deort pay da

debrt juzde biri, debrt liissede biri,

biri,

Yirmi parchada on

206.
iSj[>

'

'

fj[>"
r

debrdii,

14

A>0

jl

z==

'/ i

/V

Other fractional numbers are as follows:

J j.a-r y

'

a.

v_i^

'

p.

a. ajJ

r
'

pJ fr<m

p. iljja.
a. *jj

yaro, yarim, bouchouq, nisif,


'

nim

half,

whole (number).

cheyrek a quarter.
ro?Z>,

ouroub one fourth.

OUJUL* Muta-la-at Remarks.


There are three Turkish, one Arabic and
one Persian word used for half ( 75). Yarim is used
before a noun, like an adjective: yarim sa'at, yarim
(Ima.
jBouchouq is always used in conjunction with
a cardinal number: iki bouchouq gun.
Yarl, nisif
are used like a noun: elmantn yarisi, hitabifo nisfi the
207.

Numeral Adjectives.

\9

95

The use of
half of the apple, the half of the book.
nim resmiv half
is very rare in Osmanli-Turkish

nim

official (sources,

papers).

208. The Persian fractional number

commonly

a quarter,

of an hour

a quarter
is

spelt

or

dij\. char y eh

cheyrek

J^>.

of a mejidiye:

f.

used also for a quarter of a mejidiye:

used for

is

Cjj^

a.

qart

*_p roub,

used to express one fourth of an arshin (yard)


and sometimes of a piastre.
on roub

is

It is a

Sa'at bire cheyrek var.

Bir arshin uch ouroub.

Elmanin
j:>

oqqasi debrtden

<<li"!

fuj

(jJSj* tr<5j\ vllilU

;4

piastres.

Adadi

vasfiye.

These are formed from the cardinals by

adding the termination

is

Five quarters of a mejidiye.

Ordinal numbers.

209.

The

3
J

Three quarters of a mejidiye.

Uch mejidiye qarti.


Besh mejidiye cheyreyi.
3.

quarter to one.

One and three quarter yards.


roub eksiye diV|Qneokeof applesis worth

<-

-m&i, -inji, -ounjou, -imjii.

first has, however, an irregular form also,

diJbl
1 st

ilk,

which

corrupted from

is

d?"Ji birinji.

2 nd

<j*^>\

3 rd

tjx*>.j\

4 th

^scJjji deordunju.

5 th

u?^-i;

ikinji.

uchunju.

beshinji.

j^lT <*?/*.

6th
7 th

Ingiliz Qlrali yedinji

evvelki

'first'

8 th

(^J^-

9 th

u*&l3j3L doqouzounjou.

10 th

sekizinji

fj&Zj\ onounjou.

20 th utei*>j; yirminji.

100 tlx

1000^
the last

yedinji.

i-*j

^Ojl

which

c^'^ji yuzunju.

^^j
iJj^a

bftltitfi.

soft.

Edward. Edward VII, king of England.

OUilL* Muta-la-at Remarks.


unit

In compound numbers, only the last


210.
assumes the ordinal form; all the others remain

cardinals, as:
acld

<jj\

jy

jj">jz vlL

Bin doqouz yuz on

altinji

1916 tb

96

)Y

Lesson

i_rj:>

12.

211. The date is expressed as follows:


Bou gun ayin qachinji gunu dur? Bou gun agin qacM dir?
Agin qacliV dir? What day of the month it is to-day?
Bou gun ayin sekizi dir. To-day is the 8 of the month.
tlx

Mayisin yirmi debr'dunju gunu dur.

There

Distinctive.

212.

the distinctive adverbs,

the

is

the 24 th of May.

It is

no

special

form

for

ordinals are used directly

without any alteration:


Firstly Birinji; Secondly Ikinji] Tenthly Onounjou.

4.

Acladi tevziyiye.
numerals are formed by the

Distributive numerals.

213.

Distributive

addition of j_i_ -er, -ar to the cardinal


in consonant,

and jl

-slier,

-shar

numbers ending
to those

ending

in fS y-

one each;

hirer

jj>,

j^

jj> hirer
%

hirer

one by one.

^Lf.>\ ikisher' two each;^Lx\^A^o\ ikisher' ikisher

three each; j>-j\ j>-j\ ucher

jr?j\ uclier

two by two.

ucher three by three.

jsj* deordir' four each; jsj* jzj* deorder deorder four by


^t.:\\ altishar

six each ;^t.:\

jjy yuzer 100

each.

j2~d

four.

altishar' altishar six at a time.

^f~t hiner' a

thousand each.

214. When there are hundreds or thousands


number, the ar or shar comes after the numeral
expressing the number of hundreds, or thousands, and
nothing is put after yuz or bin.

in the

vlL)

^JLUl jjj yuz el'lisher hin 150000 each,

jjj

^ZJ^A ikisher yuz 200 each.

vlLj

^rj\

uclier hin

3000 each.

215. The Ottoman -Turkish Calendar. There


are three principal calendars or reckonings of time in
Turkey. The Christians usually observe the Christian
calendar, which

is

called either ^>L

70 jt tarikhi mcelacl

the date of the Birth (of Christ) [mcelad meaning birthday, Christmas -day], or Kristosoun tarikhi the date of
Christ.
In this are used the Latin months: January,
February etc. (Iloanvar, Pedirvar).

Numeral Adjectives.

*v

;_

S-.

P-*

CD

00

XI

u
J03

c3

97

<

c
l-j

>s

"3

CD
t*

CD

Si

'o

C3

<

CO

X5

>>

CD

>%

s
a
o

CD

fc

S-.

aS

03

o3
-s

pEl

cc

oS

03

*>
o3

oc

<_

s;

n
X

a
03

a
c

cr

X)
!

03

o3

*c
o3

a
"03

O
>

<

03

N
<3

St
03

03

'a
o3

<3

5s

o3

c N O

Ph

^3

>

"8
o3
oc

'3
**

s
3

ed

O
S

x
O

T3

Fh

03
to

*N

03

O
>

ffl

<<

._

Cj
'a:

3
O
c
3
o
a

3
a
3

O
O
03

o3

IS

+=
03

X3
O
X
CO

!>

*H

J
o

->
t <

3 ^3

3-

'']

*>
*)

is

"0

>

03

XI

C*

>0J

i-

S3

"5

o3

XI

"3

>

Eh

-5

o3

03

3
2

a
OB

3
05

X
CO

vCD

o3

>

03

cr

c3

CO

S
cd

O
o3

CO

A'

*,

5*
*>

^
5?

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

.n

i
""D

-4

-3

<s

1.
^

98

ir _rj:>

Lesson

12.

216. Among the Ottoman Turks there are two


calendars, the Sacred and the Civil.
The lunar year
is adopted for the sacred and the solar for the civil.
The Sacred year is dated from the Hejira or Flight, the
first year of which Era began with the new moon of
the 15 th of July A. D. 622. The lunar year is 10 days
shorter than the solar year, it is used in religious

The months
chronology and religious Law (sher'i).
are reckoned differently from ours; they run thus: Muhar'rem, Sefer etc.; and sherif 'sacred is always added
3

to their

names;

as:

Shabani

sherif.

The other

is the Civil or the Financial


of
which coincides with the first
calendar: the first day
day of March 0. S., and is now two years behind the
Sacred. It is commonly used in all matters except those
pertaining to religion.
The months are: March, Nisan
the old Arabic and Syrian calendar, with slight
etc.
changes. The year 1902 corresponds to the year 1320
of the Hejira and 1318 of the Financial or Civil year.

217.

The common people have a different


218.
reckoning of the months, running thus: Zamharir etc.
(See the Table.)

There

219.

is

year into two parts: the

^1$

Qasim,

St.

another popular division of the


summer and the winter divisions:

Demetrius' Day, the 26 th Oct. 0.

S.,

is

popularly reckoned as the beginning of the winter season,


this

has 180 days.

Day, the 23

,j*UI j&>- I'hidlr-el'lez, St.

George's

rd

April 0. S., is celebrated as the beginning


of the summer season, which lasts for 185 or 186 days.

220. The New Style calendar is called in Turkish


alafranqa and the Old Style round (Greek).
221.
The Ottoman Turks commence their
reckoning of time from sunset. This is with them the
twelfth hour, an hour later it is one o'clock, and so
on till the twelfth hour in the morning (6 a. m.), when
they begin again. This is called alatourqa (Turkish), to
distinguish it from European time, which is called
alafranqa (French, European).

Numeral Adjectives.

99

ij Words.
tojLT tarifch date.

a.
a.

<ijL~.

b\

'

*M

a. v_5^Ual.

a.

a(7a island.

ojla

mutesadif corresponding,

dL.,U *uj/ilT

^4^

4Ja>.)

p.

JL uer

li^'j'.

oj* qara land.

'

o-r-^i bakh'shish present.

^t

^-^J'

f] 3

Ufo

^ ti^

4^J?

Jj*fcJ

^jdT

<C~- j>

p aj ei ^l^J.J j^ ^i gjl o*p dk Lo


T

dt died,

Exercise 24.

^-JU>

^fAov dL~^*

jJ33Ual*

t'e'/ai

iXH alindi was taken.

musavi equal.

Y t

_,^

tJloly

<j,f

& Z*

jj

Jr^^

u^a^J ^

J^~^7

^Jf

Translation 25.

1. April is the fourth month of the year, October


the tenth and December the twelfth.
2. He is in his

my

sixtieth year;

and

them each 10

piastres.

his 68 th year.

3. Give
Give those children a present of
five piastres each.
4. A para is one fortieth of the
piastre. A month is one twelfth of the year. 5. Come
six by six. In the middle of the year. 6. Six per cent,

father

is in

7*

)r

100

o-J-i

Lesson

13.

We

are in the third year of the


50 per thousand. 7.
twentieth century. 8. Is Ali a good man?
No, Sir!
he is in prison four fifths of the time. 9. At twelve
o'clock, or a quarter to twelve, I shall be here (I am).
10. 4 Leon VI., the Jast 3 king of ^ilicia, died at Paris
in 1393, Nov. 19 th in the 60 th year of his age.

<u(5^ Conversation.

cilS

oj^

~j\

d\ijli

*jj

*J

^
^-i^j

222.

dX.ll

jl ,jjl jjJ

?iijj

AJOjl >13

^}^t> Lesson

oUj^

ji jjjj

^J-^>\

iJojl dJii-

dXi<*_*>l jj

13.

Degrees of Comparison.

In Turkish, as in English, there are three


the Positive, the Comparative

degrees of comparison,
and the Superlative.

223. The Comparative degree is generally expressed by putting the word with which the comparison
is made in the ablative case, and leaving the adjective
unaltered.

The word U>

drr/m

put before the adiatftaa^ 'for the


to prevent

ambieank^x

as:

'more'

is

sometimes

saW/qK emphasis,
,

or

Degrees of Comparison.

}yy u-^

\yy

Cx ben senden

U^ u-^-

&* w

^>.

101

bebyug'um (bebyiXyum)

jS}>y.^a tao tjjkixlj^ \ja <jj>

am

]^ er

an

beoyug urn

senden dalia

ou#

j-^y^o Cj^S-'ijz

uy y

\j&

Bou gun hava dunkinden

Bou gun hava dunkinden

daha sovouq dour.

is

sovouq dour,
To-day the weather

The

224.

Superlative degree

pressed by the word

fjl

is

in general ex-

en, prefixed to the adjective; as:

^XS^i J| en yuksek dagh the highest mountain.

* Us
\ja

colder than yesterday.

^y-j^s

iJi

sovouq hava the coldest weather.

en

225. The word en is sometimes omitted:


^Li i)^Lo\ adamlarhl qabasi the rudest of men.
jjJLi

Sjiy ^^y*- Hayvanlarin


Elmalarln

e'yisini

226.

The words

^>ll

bebyiiyu

fil'dir.

sech

dl>

pek very,

'exceedingly' are used

asliiri

The

largest of

a.

:>\>5

to signify

cess of any quality above what is requisite, as


in English by prefixing the adverbs 'too' or
adjectives;

siyade,

an

ex-

done
Very' to

it is

as:

jjjjtjjj
jjjly.

[all]

the animals is the elephant.


Choose the best of the apples.

vll.

pek' yorghoundour he is very tired.

<oljj ziyade" bdhalidir

jjjjko ty.\ a shirt sovouqdour

it

it

is

is

too expensive.
too cold.

Other superlatives are formed in a way

227.

peculiar to Turkish, by prefixing to certain adjectives


a syllable somewhat similar in sound, commencing with
the same vowel and consonant, or the same vowel, and

ending with
,jtfLi

pj

j,;

as:

bim beyaz very white, exceedingly white.

ap achiq very open.

qap qara quite black.

yam

sip* sivri

yassi very

flat.

sap saghlam very healthy, sound,


tas' tamam very complete.
beds' beoyuk very big, great.

Oliis-M*

228.

very sharp.

sim' siyah very black.

dop
dos'

[right.
dolou quite full.
doghrou quite straight, quite

Mulahazat Observations.

Spoken Turkish has the singular usage

Lesson

)r ^rjz

102

13.

of repeating nouns, adjectives and verbs, substituting


for the first letter of the word,
in the repetition an
if it begins with a consonant, and prefixing an
if it
begins with a vowel, for the purpose of generalizing
the idea contained in the word so repeated [compare the
English shilly-shally, the French pele-mele, etc.]; as:

Kitab mitab boul'madim.


the kind, but found nothing.

sought for books or anything of

Duk'kian mukian ev mev bir shey qal'madi. Not a shop or


anything like one remained.
Eoinizin qouyousou mouyousou yoq'mou? Has your house a
well, a cistern, a fountain? etc.
Ekmeyi getir, qourou mourou ne'oloursa olsoun. Bring the
bread, no matter if it be somewhat dry or crumbled.
He has not a hair nor anything
Sacln niacin yoq'dour.
like one.

Further:

Oufaq tefeq.
Eyri biiyru.

Little trifling matters.

Zigzag, serpentine.

Certain idiomatic English phrases used in


expressing comparison are expressed in the following

229.

way

179).

as ... as ...

as

much

as

little

is

expressed by jji qadar,

as

as

as few as

as far as

as near as

as long as
as short as

UJJJ\ J-

1-

which

is

not repeated

as in English.

qadar choq
qadar Jcuchuk

qadar ouzaq

qadar yaqin

qadar ouzoun

qadar q\ssa

qadar az

Shekerim qadar qalivem var. I have as much coffee as sugar.


Sheker bal qadar tatli dir. Sugar is as sweet as honey.
01 qadinin qizlari qadar [choq] oghlanlart var dir. That
lady has as many boys as girls.
Atimiz bou at qadar eyi deyil dir. Our horse is not good as this.
Ingilterra qadar ouzaq bir mahale gitdi. He went to a place
as far as England.
Gunler shimdi qishdaki qadar qis'sa dir. The days are now
as short as in the winter.
E.shek qadar iri idi. It was as big as an ass.
01 vaz Bebyulc Perhiz qadar ouzoun oudou. That sermon was
as long as Lent,

Degrees of Comparison.

*r

Words.

JrJo
a.

J-ilo sadta loyal, true.


^rtt\

heavy.

a.

0-^

advantage.

ojjli faij'de use,

a.

'^-*~' SM"fc^ vinegar.

^Juk^. hafif light (in weight),

a.

f.

(//i?r

103

>U1 o7a best, excellent,

a.

^aS^

rim den metal.

t>T>L_: platin platinum.

lieyfli

gay.

Jcmmil sober, grave.

a.JVs

a. lli
t

zalim cruel.

a. ojli

/are mouse.

Jj

Oj^jy

qourshown lead.

a. A-iJ!

CrvfC^S"

hiskin sharp.

a.t.aL%i qouc'vetli strong.

[risonwith.

Proper Names

ojj^ Haroon

js jLTlU vJjJI

UaSju- ^juj&

.P -A3

*l^l

j^

aj^-jI

<

jjui^~-iil>

JjA3l

Ai8jlj

4jr

>**

db^

]!

^aS^

OjI

j^->1j ^

Oj^

ti^'U Hanri Henry.

JaS

j)

j.x~ jlj

i)i

.j3

jJbjtel ill

<fju- j

jJU*

d^V-

j3

Aaron.

leJbte iJ

60// stature.

of course.

Exercise 26.

di*^ jj^yCL,^ }W

elbet'te

Nooriye Lucy.

<>jj>

^A

T^

baqaraq looking, in compa-

<i^

<jy Noori Luke, Lucas.

C-C5djl JU; *~

jlj (5jj^lT"jr

b^s^y

JJ^I J_}U J^jl

{J^>t* ex
^,J

j^ J n

ill

Jj^j,

fjl

J U-iil

ill

A
f\
*

j^ ^Li>-

U3 e :U

.j3 M^i 3j>-

>**

,-**>

l^^ lS^ VliC)

>&&$

(juMo

&?
jIj <^J

jj

Lesson

\r u*js

104

TV

4J3-J

13.

Translation

*\,

27.

Mr. Luke is taller than I am, but he is not the best


2. To-day is hotter than yesterday.
3. Iron
is heavier than stone.
Gold is more precious than silver,
but iron is the most useful metal in the world. 4. Which
is lighter: a pound of wool or a pound of lead?
Of
course a pound of wool is as light as a pound of lead.
5. Your knife is as sharp as mine: but it is not as long
as mine. 6. This young gentleman is much gayer than
his friend. 7. The last week has been the worst of the
8. What kind of a man is
year; it was very cold.
Mr. Joseph?
He is a very good and useful man.
9. That mountain is higher than the other mountains
1.

in the class.

of the country.
10. Henry
is the richest of all.

is

rich,

Hassan

is

richer,

and Ali

<U I^S

JJ.3jj

ajJT

i<

y
%

oJl

jLi dU:

ojlji

Conversation.

oAlj

jli^i j**>_

? iJjJ

j\j ojL

a;

oJJL-.

^j^jU.

Noun with

t*o

*l

4l

y>.

105

Prepositions.

\jrL>$ Lesson 14.


^i

Noun with Prepositions.

Iu the Turkish language there are no


prepositions, properly so called, but their place is
supplied by words or syllables, called post-positions,
placed after the words which they govern.

230.

231. Post-positious, as well as prepositions, are


which serve to show the relation which exists
between two words. These relations being of different
kinds, the post-positions indicating them are used with

particles

namely the Genitive, Dative or Ablative,


with the uninflected form of the noun.

different cases,

and

also

appended to the un-

1. Post-positions
232.
inflected form or stem.
l

o -e,

*M

'

-ih\ -\e

'

with, by.

gibi like,

-i,

ii

.Sign of Dative case.)

-I.

order

(Sign of Ace. case.

the sake

of.

from.

83.)

(Sign of Locative case.)

84.

(Sign of Ablative case.

zarfinda during, in the

ojui^li

to, for

82.)

so that.

<o -de in, on.


0-> -den

( 82.)

Sign of Instrumental case.)

ichoun for, in

ichin,

i)j^z>\

.ef

-a to.

space

85.

of.

233. But when the object, which the post-positions


is a Pronoun
(personal or demonstrative), it

govern

must be

in

the genitive case, except


jUfc

U>5=il i*
<\\
<\\

MisaVler

benim' ichin for me.

ojL para' He with

Jj- or <0Sj~

meifi'li

money.
with yon.

Jlijl

onlay.

Examples.
oj*.>\

J^j\ onlar ichin for them.

J^^LXl^

sine'k' gibi like

fly.

ojJy <iouv'vetdem the strength.

106

tu

234.
ita defc

until

till

*^

^j^y doghrou towards, straight.

as

as>

i?fl deyin)

jji qadar

14.

Post-positions with the Dative case.

2.

Lesson

^yjs

%-

as

until,

much

as.

OvJIj

yaqin near.

oj^ gebre

^jl5 qarshi against.

jUll

J>\* daijir concerning,

according

to, after.

Misal' Mr Examples.

ita^Jli-l Istambola dek,Istambola deyin/ qadar


up to Constantinople, as far as Const.
oj^.JlIc. aqlima geore according to. my judgement.

jjJL-

'

i>5^T_

'

J?^e qarslii against us. Shehre" doghrou towards the city.


,,Senden ouzaq' Al'laha yaqlri" far from you, near to God.
Kitaba dayir concerning the book.

235.

3.

J\ jj\ ouzaq

far.

ma'da

a. \js-[

<iil bashqa

<uj|

eoie

'

<5jLLk dishari out

Jjl ev'vel before.

Sj^ sonra

tSj*

reg ardi n g

'

jJJlt*

of,

Misal'ler

beyond the

beri since.

instead

of,

rather
than.

beyond.

Examples.

Shehirderi ouzaq far from the


eote

after.

Jj>. berou,

^^

about.

on the other side

Irmaqdan

of.

except,besides.

jSjb dolayij
A

<ijlio

\
;

JJyj\ ebturu

Post-positions with the Ablative case.

city.

river.

Sizden' ma'da, onlardan bashqa except you, them.

Yirmi

bish' seneden berou for the last 25 years (25 years ago).
ishderi dolayi, -ebturu concerning this business.
Benden eo'vel before me. Benden sonra after me.
Gelmesinderi i-sS gel memesi eyi dir his not coming is better
than his coming.

Bou

236.

4.

Declinable Post-positions

requiring

the Genitive.
jjj\ uzri on, upon.

cJ

alt

under.

ojl arqa behind.


i)j|

eo# before.

Jjlio (ijLUa
'

dishari out

of.

<-Sj^l ^j5->\ icheri inside,


?y>\

ich in

0^

?/**

by, near.

Noun with

\*V

<^jjj\

'

'

^$J>jj\

^
-JJj\

'

"Oj

J^l

^*jjj\ uzerimdc. uzerinde.

'

J^-rSd^ ichimize,

'

'

oJfC^yl

my

to

the

among

with

motion from one place

them.

my

to

when

side.

j* o-^jjjl

denoting

verb

j:>

oJ^5^

^lii

vUi'i^i^,

^Mjjj

and

They
where

direction

or

to another.

Kitab

[rest].

uzerinde

sofran'in

The book
2.

the

in

where?

nerede?

Examples with the Locative


1-

you,

us,

state of location or rest,


s

in

them.

post-positions,

question

nereye?

it.

in you,

us,

require the dative after the question whither? or

to? 4j}

him

yanhna

a^_jL

side.

237. These eight


locative case, indicate a
answer

in

ichinize,

osy+r.y.>_\ ichimizde, ichinizde,


ichlerinde

'

yanhn da at, by

o-U-JL)

uzerinde)

ichUrine

JjJ&A

on me,
thee,

J^3yl

'

107

<*jjjl uzerime, uzerine, uzerine

-^JJj\

Prepositions.

dir.

on the table.
yavrousou youoanin
is

(j^jjj^ vlU^S Qoushoun


ichinde dir.

The

birdling

is

in the nest,
3.

oAl jjlio

J~i^J>j^>j\

disharisfoida
4^ Sheh'rinThey
dwelt

t5_xJ>lsU>

ojjjjl

side [of] the city.

_.

4.

viAs-lti

Jjs.^

Chojouq
landx.

5-

f-V^9

aghajhl

ardinda saq-

The boy hid himself

behind the tree.


-^-4 Pederiii ebnunde dourdoum.

-*~5j\

stood in front of

jj aX^ul ili/'^jJl) BaJiq

my

father.

ichinde dir.
fish is in the lake.

6.

gebliin

Examples with the Dative


1.

otourdou-

[on] [the] out-

lar.

fjjl

<uj jjjl

<lX\^.k^a

jb^

Kiiabi

The

^motion].

sofranin

Uzerine atdhn.

threw the book on the table.


Qousli yavrousounou youvaniu
I

2.

iiJ.1^3 *l^y\ viillj^j

(J-jjj^

J-_y*

The bird put


ichine qodou.
young into tlie nest.
4i*i Sheh' riu disharistna cluqdilar.
They went 'to the] out[side of
its

>.

^ljuL>.

Cjjlio

_
4.

_.

t5A>.i3 4.lojl vi)>.l&l

the

city.

J <>j>> Chojouq

aghajin ardina qachdi.

The boy ran behind the

5.

jOi^i^tj.}

tret-.

eonune doghrou gitdini.


went towards the father.

*l5j\ iijA. Vederin

108

lijL"!

6.

^-^1 ^J*

Lesson

LrJi

ti,

Location, where?

whither?

nerede?

YA Jui

4i

jfi

<d,i

-><?..*

dicjltf

^J

^/Ol Y

jp;

4.S-1&I

J'ljd

j^

*\

3^

-/

J^-l&l

'

o^^i

oj^&l

jlT. \ui

v ..

OfeJcZ'

'

c?

.......

eJCL-AdjT

oAc-Ij

'

nereye?

The

atUcli.

fish

lake.

'

<l^jL-\

ojulli

<jjl5

o^J^r^

'

Exercise 28.

>lT

4,!

)*/s,

J*^ Baliq geolufl ichine


jumped into the

Motion, where to?

14.

J,

*y jlT

,-

i^

U>^J (J^W-

<5jf)>--j!

J-jd A

*L.V

jb

Oj**! if

_A3l UjdT

_p o-^j3j^ *>

^^

\^

JjjT
'

c}S

*/V\

Y^

^i

Translation 29.

Towards the mountains: on the mountains; b^-*


the mountains (rest), by the mountains (motion). 2. From
the door: by the door; with the door; for the door.
3. For me, for him; like you, like them; with me, with
him.
4.
As far as Sivas; as far as London; until
1.

If

oy&\ <U
'

3 rd

are added to nouns to which the pronominal

affixes of the
person Sing, and PI. are attached, the
omitted, but the sound i is retained.

<s\

is

t^

The Substantive Verb.

109

6. What have
5. There is nobody except us.
There is nothing in my purse
your purse?
except ten paras. 7. After to-morrow come at half past
8. He went ten days earlier than my father.
eleven.
9. There is a thief among you.
10. Come among us

to-day.

you

in

(motion).

O^w^.
aII^S Conversation.

u^Z>

Lesson

The Substantive Verb.

We

238.

and Past

15.

(Continued.)

have already treated of the Present


tenses of the substantive verb.
Perfect and Conditional tenses of the

(Preterite)

The

( 65, 73.)

verb remain

to

be spoken

of.

The Conditional.
pA
^-\~A
*~j\

=
=
=

If (or

/<_j\
iJ*

isem

<ZA

A isen

<~j\

J-^^
^L.j!

2e

though or perhaps)

>\

am,

if

==

thou

&*

,\

J%*~-i

isek
iseHiz
iseler.

J<~j1
art, if

he

is

etc.

The Negative Conditional.

=
^6^ =
r>~ 6^

r*-~A

J^> deyilsem

vUL.S

i]<-.il

JSj deyihen

j^-&>

=
= jf+-*\

.iJa-jI

J$j deyih<'L
Jp* dei/iUrni;

110

Lesson

to ^rj^

* &i

= a~j\ J^
am

If I

))*

15.

J^J6s=J<~>\ J>z

deyilse

not, if thou art not, if

he

not

is

deyilseler.
etc.

Perfect (Dubitative).
pJUl imishim
1

JviM imishiz
"

jiCjLtl imish-siniz

imish-sin

t>\~.ts\

(They say that)


I have been,

"
>

was or

etc.

,.

imish

Ljltl

iniishler

J-^}

This tense, which is also called in Turkish Dubidenotes mere hearsay or report, founded on the

tative,

The Negative

authority of others ( 312).

imishim (They say that)

deyil

CjUlL*
239.

a.

When

is

tense of the substantive verb,


of "but" or "yet":
isem

tie,

is

yet

ise de;

isen de,

If (or though)

am

have not been.

Remarks.

-de

^cl J5a

is

added
it

expresses the

isek de,

yet

to the Conditional

iseler de

isen is de,

thou art

meaning

yet

he

the addition of the 3 rd person sing.,


to the Past tense ( 73), the Past Conditional is obtained:

240.

b.

By

idimise de, idinse de, idiyse de;

Though

was

yet

yet

idile'rise

he was

yet

de

Examples.

Ji\L*

Pederin evde"

idinizise de,

idikise de,

thou wast

If

ise, gilsin.

your father

is

at

home,

let

him come.
Pederim

My

evde" isede geleme'z.

BiradSrin nere'de imish?

Evde

imish.

Chojouqlar hasta'mi imishler.


Ev'vet, hasta

dirlar.

Qonshoumouz zengiri ise de',


bir adem deyil' imish.
Bin genj'im, sin isS ikhtiyar'

iyi
sifi.

father is at home, but he


cannot come.
Where is your brother?
(I heard that, they say that) he
is at home.
Were the children ill? (Did you
hear anything?)
Yes, they are ill (I know).
Our neighbour is rich, but they
say that he is not a good man.
I am young, but thou art old.

The Substantive Verb.

Ill

The Conditional and Dnbitative

tenses

of the verb To H\te.

The Conditional and Dnbitative

241.
the verb

and

ise

To Have
lei

The Conditional of To Have

indefinite object]
a~j\ j\j oAIj

'1

<>\ j\j

oj~

iy
'ty

oJlL-

-c-jj

ojJjl

..

^Xj\

onda var isa

onoun var

*y

bizde var isa

bizim var isa

j\j ilj

sizde var isa

sizin

4A^ onlarda var isa


The Negative.

i-y
&jdAlw

Li

a^.J.jj viAljl

*~fy

ojjJ'.

A^>i.

o^j[]j\

t^ji

rJf.

<u~>l

onlarin var isa

benim yoghousa

sende yoghousa

senin yoghousa

onda yoghousa

onoun yoghousa

bizde yoghousa

bizim yoghousa
sizin

The abridged form

A^J^y yoghousa which


b.

ha

yoghousa

onlarda yoghousa onlarin yoghousa

^J-'>j\

a.

var

isa

bende yoghousa

dJj surfe' yoghousa

243. Note,
is

senin var isa

oJJj

an

benim var isa

isa

sende var isa

* >\ j\s

oj-

cjj

<~~j-y_

j \

bende var

f>

^-^

j\j

<~A j\j

^Jjb'^'jl
a

A j\j

Aji j\j

o$j

[with

*~->\

a_,\ j\j ftjjjl

*~>\ j\j

a^\

-^'~-

j\j

by the addition of

imish to jlj var.

242

are obtained

tenses of

yjy yoq ise,

is

much

of

<u- 5

Jy

yoq

ise

used.

^cy yoghousa

or

^S-y yokhsa

when used without object or subject, is considered as


a conjunction: meaning or, otherwise; as:
?jjw. oA>_ii .ijli

<~^j

Who

qardashinda' midlr?

244.
bende

ise",

If I
1

ojJ-w

wbi

Kitab sende' mi, yolchsa

has the book, you or your brother?

The Conditional with

sende

ise,

have the

onda ise; bizde ise,


if thou hast the

Vide 119, 122,

127.

a definite object.

sizde

etc.

ise,

onlarda

ise

112

Lesson

)9 ^j-jy

benim

senin

ise,

bizim

onouil ise;

ise,

Mr

15.

sizia ise,

ise,

If the (book) is mine, thine, his,

.
.

onlarin" ise

etc.

The Negative.
'

'uJS'S oil.)

OS'S

oj.1

0^3

oAijl

bende deyilse, sende onda

<Ji

*~~&> ^-t~

'

If I

benim

have not the

<o

4~.j\ j\j>

<o

<.

o
9

.>

c.jj

oAL bende var

aj\ iil- seniw

j!

sizde

OS^

'

To Have,

ise de,

added

is

have a

have not a

It

ise de,

is

It is

etc.

to

the

expresses the sense

it

but

but

yours, but

onda

ise de,

He

oX>j\

onda

deyilsede,

He has

has the

not the

but

but

not yours, but

oJJj\

The Dubitative tense of To Have

246.

*}^>j\

onlarda

not mine,

is

-de

a-JS^ sUL- seniw deyilse de,

o a
o a_153

If the

bende yoghonsada,

oX*>

^j

deyilse, senin deyilse, etc.

When

conditional of the verb


of but.

\5^

-*

'

bizde deyilse,

etc.

Remark.

245.

a.j^'S o^j.

[with

a definite object].
bende imish, sende

onda

bizde imish,

sizde

onlarda

onoun bizim imish, sizin onlarin


I have the thou hast the
(That) was mine, thine, his

benim imish, senin

The Dubitative

247.

an

To Have

tense of

[with

indefinite object].
jixl j\j oJ>
i_P^ j\j

'

'

J?*

j\j j1m.

,JLs;l

u^

(They say that)

->^
I

^-^

have a

jUUU

Paran

varisa,

roush

bafia

besh yhou-

ver.

Par am varisa da vermem.

(JLM j\j X>j\ bende var imish etc.

lW
thou

-^-? '-fcjl

'

fcentm var imish etc.

hast a

etc.

Examples.

Senin paran varisa.


Ineyiniz varisa.

'

If thou hast money.


If you have a cow.
If you have money, give
piasters.
I

have money, but

I will

me

five

not give.

The Substantive Verb.

yr
yoghousa

EJcme't/ini:

If

al'n'i.

var'idi ise

EshSyi yogh'oudou isede

you have not bread, take some.

They have not books, but

Kitablaii yoyhousada
Qalem bende isede vermem.
At'i

113

have the pen, but I will not give


he had a horse
Though he had not a donkey, yet

If

it.

J&) Words.
J-Z-J Jj\j varinUz' >/oghoumou~'

\j&JS

Tciskin

jil j\A aghir

uj

_i>t3

c<

j3

^U

lisan language.

a.

Arslan Leon.

kiamil sober, wise.

J* 5
a.

JjjL? Sadh[

Justin,

J Nooriye Lucy.

vSoioJ

fjJLji*-5-

we have.

j\ az less,

bashli sedate [man),

V*

1)1

a.

sharp (knife.

Proper Name* : <jy~*j


a.

that

crfmam' I do not take.

fill

Justus,

all

jcLa

0^^ ^

Exercise 30.

J-^J>

ja <J~-^ dtu-la

ja &3jr JL15
Turkish Conv.-Gmmmar.

03

Vftjl)

e^i)3

j j^ jj*-~^

ii^S 3jj

JtS

''

JH*3

>*<-j

"i^*-^

j-A-o

ot-

114

f\

Lesson

rji

HI

16.

Translation 31.

4j?- 5

apples are sweet; the pears are sweeter;


2. Your maid servant is
the grapes are the sweetest.

The

neighbour (woman) is
diligent hut [I heard that]
is a rich
more diligent than she. 3. Though Mr. Justus

my

good name.
man, yet [they say that] he has not a
town, but she is
4 Miss Lucy is the handsomest girl in

strength of the strongest man is far less


tall as you, but
than that of an elephant. 6. I am as
your
my brother Leon is uot so tall as you. (. asIs yours,
good
as
Yes, Sir, it is
fruit as fresh as ours?
8. Your knife is as
quantity].
[in
too little

The

sick

but

is

it

large as mine,

but

is

it

Conversation.

aI 1^

jlijs

i^-rt

0i

not as sharp as mine.

>** -*^>
,J*\ O^l

.Jpl.

j>j^ The
The

E?
?
U^ Oo ^

?>V

Lesson

Infinitive

of

Infinitive (or the

1
of the Turkish verb

It

^^

>

Jjij

OS'S Ojl

n ^r^
248.

*jl

^^ -^

jJ^ ojNj

16.

Verbs.

Masdar)

ends either in j*

is

the basis

-maq

or

dU

organised part of
The Turkish verb is the most highly
most extensively
subdivided,
the language, being most minutely
1

The

-mek: -maq

115

Infinitive Verbs.

and -mek

peculiar to roots with hard

is

When we remove

the ending
maq or mek we get the stem or the root of the verb,
which is also the 2 nd person Sing, of the Imperative; as:

to roots with soft vowels.

.jf{\

almaq

to take:

dX.^_j vermek' to give:

249.

<u

vowel and

Jj-lU

j>j ver

The Negative form

by adding

'

aV take thou.

of the verb

-me- to the root

-ma-

when

aVmamaq not

it

give thou.

when

it

is

has a soft

has a hard vowel;

to take: *i\

or

HI

obtained

as:

al'ma do not take.

dJU<*^j or d!L_*^j ver'memek not to give: <*^_j ver'medo not give.

Different kinds of verbs.

250. There are six kinds of verbs in Turkish:


Transitive, Intransitive, Causal, Passive, Reciprocal and
Reflexive.

251. I. Transitive (or Active) verbs indicate such


an action as cannot be completed without something else
becoming directly affected thereby. They always require
a direct object taking the nominatival form of the noun,
if the object is indefinite and the full accusative form
if the object is definite ( 83 note, 291).
dl*j3cj\

dlj^j\

j^s sou ichmeJc to drink

djoa souyou ichmelc

sLL.L-j\ (J-Jli

yazmaq

some water

to drink the

isteme'k to

(indefinite).

water

wish to write

(definite).

(indefinite).

252. II. An Intransitive (or Neuter) verb indicates


such an action of the agent as is complete in itself
without directly affecting anything else. When an action
is implied,
an Intransitive verb requires an indirect
object in the dative case, if motion is implied: if rest
is denoted, it requires its indirect object to be in the
locative ( 237);

as:

developed, and at the same time most simple and regular in its
formation and in the moliti<ation of the signification of its various
branches. It is a perfectly symmetrical system, through all the
ramifications of which the eye or mind can run with ease.
8*

116

Lesson

11 ^rji

^^L-iS'ojl e-ve gitmek to go

^j^sj\ oij\ evde otourmaq to


j.>lil) Akj[>

Ml

16.

home

(motion

sit in

the house

yazmagha bashhimaq

(rest).

to begin to write (motion).

Causal or Causative verbs. This form


of the verb is not much used in English, but it is very
common in Turkish. It implies an order or command
from the speaker to a second or third person.
The
action is performed not by the agent or speaker but
by the person to whom the order is given. These verbs
are translated into English by adding to cause, to

253.

make,

to

III.

have, to get, to allow and to

simple verb according to the sense


p-is-o^Oul

j>\

-.jaaIIS

j>t

Qalfayabir

1
;

ev

let, to the

as:

yapdtrajagMm.

I shall

cause the architect to build a house.


pis-o^ojlj <u_;U-j\ <J>jZ*k Mel'toubouOlian'neseyazdirajaghim.
I shall get John to write the letter.
__
ti^jJuL oj Jjji vZ^L*. j> OJjl Artine bir chift qoundoura yajjdirdi.
Hegot Pascal to make a pair of shoes.
chojouqlara
tasvirli
kitabi
bou gun oqoudajaghim. I shall
01
allow the boys to read that book full of pictures today.
Benim ichin bir setri yapdirabilir misin ?
Yarin In r
Can you get (or have) a coat made for
danesini gelirdebilirim.
I shall have one brought to-morrow.
me?
.

IV. Passive verbs.

254.

The English and Turkish

languages have this peculiarity, that they can form


passive verbs from Intransitive, as well as from Transitive
verbs
as
;

baqmaq

J*ilj

almaq

Jjil

to look at (in trans/: J-JLSIj

to take (trans.):

J-*-^'

baqilmaq to be looked

at.

alinmaq to be taken.

Reciprocal verbs express an action


performed together with or against each other. They
are translated by adding to the infinitive the words one

255.

V.

another, each other, together;


d\<^l>j~. sevishmek to love

as:

each other.

The meaning and use of the Causal verb are seen by


comparing the verb raise with the verb rise, of which the
former is the Causal, in English. So also we may call to se1
the causal of to sit, the former meaning to cause to sit.
Similarly to lay is the causal of to lie, the former to Lay
meaning to cause to lie.
1

MY

The

117

Infinitive Verbs.

J:,j~JLjLy qoslwushsounlar

let

them run

together.

they will beat each other.

J&**Z.jjjj) vouroushajaqlar

256. VI. Reflexive verbs. When the action of


a verb returns to the subject from which it proceedes,
the verb is called Reflexive. These verbs are translated
into Euglish by the reflexive pronouns ( 145); as:
vU-1jOj\ ebrtunmek' to cover himself.

they undressed themselves.

JbJ^ji_j*s soifoiuidoular
rUs^lJL-j

yiyqanaja 'ghim

CXJ pU

wash myself.

shall

Be*"!.* Exercise.

The Story of the Cat and the Camel.

<d*

Jl

^-dtajS

dl:-i

4^.11

jj^ uj=^ <^tjl iJ3^ **


'

'

<J

&& ^*s. ^ iiR ^- ^U

VI

'

J^

ITJI

J^

-*

yy* jTtfe )U

^ L -* u
1

(5-C

x
*

^-^i5 * > J*?

***i

j-v3j

^i dl

^
^

118

<lj

<iJ&

^~><

Lesson

u-j^

id j^T

4.

16.

OUI

OUT jUl
!

)A

rCJ^"

Talimi Qira'at.

Kedi He deve Hikiayesi.


Bir gun Deve slrthida 1 aghtr bir yuk He gederken 2
Kediye rast geldi 3 Kedi sirtini qambourladaraq* deveye
,

dedi 5 :

Deve

Kedi

Kedi

Kedi

Deve

Deve

Kedi

Deve
Kedi

Oughourlar olsoun 6

deve

qardashliq 1 !

nereye

beoyle?

Al'laha emanet ol % ! am' ma ben na'sil senin


qardashin imishim? sen nerede? ben nerede?
Ona shub'he yogdour 9 ! Elbet'te 10 ben senin
qardashin im.
Baq hele 11 ! seninki qadar iri
ve beoyuk qambouroum 12 yoqmou dour?
Belki 1 6 ! lakin ajeba 1 * benimki qadar da qouv'

vetli mi?
Vay! ne bosh sedz 10 ! shou sirtincla youmrouq 16
qadar kuchuk bir shey rar isa, ajaba seozun
onoun ichoun mou dour?
Am ma eyi baq! bou yuk senin ichin pek beoyuk

deyil'mi?

Bosh
herif

Shouiiou bana ver! tembel

seozler seoyleme!
11
!

Vek a

la!

az

bir

beri 18

gel!

hop bed

V3

20

veyukunu krd'niin sirtina yukletmish* 1


Aman! aman! aman 22 ! ne aghtr imish! ishim
demish

2
bitdi *!

vay!

vay!

vay 2i !

Words. 1. on his back. 2. while going. 3. he met. 4. arching


(making hunch-back). 5. said. 6. good speed! 7. half brother, good
brother.
8. thank you!
(I commit you to the charge of God).
9. there is no doubt about it. 10. of course. 11 look here! 12. hunch.
16. as
14. I wonder.
13. perhaps.
15. what a useless word.
large as a fist. 17. villager, rude man (lazy fellow!). 18. nearer.
21. he burdened, he
19. Heyday! (hoop po loo!) '20. he said.
placed (leaded).
i.e.

lam

22.

lost, it is

O
all

dear!

dear!

up with me.

23.

24.

my work

Oh!

Alas!

is

finished,

119

Primitive and Derivative Verbs.

*.

Deve

Ishte bclani bouldomi-

emeyi eoyren

hedyuk seoz seby-

git\

.'

21
Qis'seden lus'se

BebyuJi ]oqwcr*yf.

beayuk

seoz seoylcnir.'
25. you have got (found) your punishment. 26. go and learn
the [calamity of] speaking conceited (haughty) word:?. 27. moral
from the story. 28. morsel (of food).

Ai |gS

Conversation.

u^^

Primitive

and

Lesson

Verbs.

Derivative
*

17.

*>

257. Simple or Primitive Verbs are those which


have no letters or syllables inserted after the root:
for instance j^jl,

jj^yjl
1

oqoumaq
Mujer'red

yazmaq

to read,
ve

to write,

dL.

sevmek to love.

are simple verbs, because there

Mezeedi'ui feehi masdarlar.

120

)V

no

are

added

letters

Lesson

^rj.>

ir*

17.

y a#->

to the roots A/3l>

Vh

sev,

258. But if I say j^ojl) di^$^^ jiy^l ijazdirmaq, sevishmek, oqounmaq: these are derivative verbs,
the

new

or secondary roots are

*>

'

y:>*l>

^ 'OJj' yazdlr\

These are formed by inserting certain


between the simple roots and the infinitive
termination, and thus changing the meaning of the verb,

sevish,

oqoun.

letters

more or

less.
\*j~< sevmek;

d\+Jitj~, sevishmek;
J^jlj

XjLij-, seoish to love each other.

yazmaq:

VjIj

&y>j\ oqoumaq;
-

&yj\
259.

to cause to write.

oqou to read:

V y>j\

\i

V oj*j\ oqoun

oqounmaq;

The

yaz to write:

V^ojl yazdir

yazdirmaq;

j.*^ojl

V j~. sev to love:

be read.

to

so-called servile letters are those letters,

which, when added to the roots, change, more or


the

meaning of the

c n, J

I,

root.

These

t,

dir, j

>\

Each
1,

alters the
2,

3.

have each theninserted to form a new


of the verb in a regular

letters or syllables

when

special signification

manner.

are: Cj

J. sh.

2b0.

own

They

verb.

less,

Zj

meaning
t,

j$ dir,

r have

the power of

making verbs Transitive, if the original root is Intransitive


and Causal, if the original verb is Transitive. 4, 5. A verb
is

made

either Reflexive

or Passive by adding

to the root of a primitive verb.

are formed by adding J-

261.

There are

.s7*

six

6.

or

Reciprocal verbs

to the root of primitive verbs.

measures

as they are called in Turkish,

[Oij

'

J bab,

vt'zn),

which serve as formulas

Primitive and Derivative Verbs.

)TS

121

always to remember the addition


and the changes of meaning caused by the insertion

to enable the student

of the servile letters.

J-

Oqoutmaq Jyjl [Transitive and

1.

Causal].

This form is obtained by adding j


out) to the stem ( 52, 56).

262.

fit,

The

of this letter

If the original primitive

is

effect of the insertion

made

transitive;

jyjjbj] otourmaq to
Jj-Jsl

baqmaq

form

is

t, (it,

twofold:

is

intransitive,

it

as:

Jj^J^jl otourtmaq

sit:

j^-iil baqitmaq to

to look:

make

to

make

to look, to

to

sit,

seat.

show.

simple form

be transitive,

J^yj\ oqoutmaq

to cause to read.

the original
changes to causal; as:
2.

,Jy>j2j\

If

oqoumaq

to read:

^ILj yiy'qamaq
This

Xote.

to

wash:
t is

J^lJL;

yiy'qatmaq to cause to wash.

added, generally, when the root of the

verb ends in a vowel, or in one of the semivowels

Jui Exercise

Y"Y

Change the following verbs


and give

their

dX*4-tp dedshemek to

maq

to dig, to engrave.

aqmaq

1.

cool.

dAcjl

cold,
,jj>j3

r,

<j

n.

measure

first

dU*i y~* sebylemek to speak.

J^ljl

aramaq

chaghir-

2. j,*j&\>.

bashlamaq to begin.
to

dl4l5Co dinlemek to

Intransitive verbs.

feel

into the

3.

j$$qazi-

seek.

4.

to flow. di<du bilemek to sharpen (a knife). 5.

yuldemek to load.

jump.

7,

32.

floor, to carpet.

j:MLl>

to call.

meanings.

Transitive verbs.

maq

it

6.

erimek to be melted.

shiver.

&*&

j^l jst-*?
7.

sovoumaq

j^JJ!

vtU^b y

listen.

slchramaq

to

dl-ljl ushumek to
to

become

'/oqmaq to smell, to have a smell.

8.

cold,
J>*j>j'

122

Lesson 17

IV ^~j}

ouyoumaq
lamaq

to sleep,

j^MpI agh-

to live.

to weep.

to cry.

Yasdirmaq

2.

yashamaq

j^ll'j

^j^\

[Transitive

and Causal

263. This measure is formed by adding ,o


dli\ diir, dour) to the root ( 52, 56).

The
same as

effect of this syllable on the root


that of the first measure:
1. If the primitive verb is intransitive,
transitive; as:
eolmel: to die (intrans.

^illjl

dJUjjJjl

J^ljjl oiii/anmaq to

ouyandirmaq

(JJ.^Ju'Ljl

into a causal;
^-a-

achmaq

awake
to

jyOL yazmaq
2Voe.

(d/iv,

just the

it

is

made

kill (trans.).

(intrans.):

awaken

(trans.).

changed

is

it

as:

open

to

is

ebliurmek to

If the primitive verb be transitive,

2.

rr

to write

(trans/':
(

This jj <Jr

is

):

j^jjo*.

achdirmaq to cause to open.

Jj*jOJlj yazd'irmaq to cause to write.

added generally

verbs whose

to those

stem ends in a consonant other than those mentioned above.

There are some exceptions:


^XajJT gebrmek to see: ^J\~J>'^Aj}jjgebstermek. gedrdimneh
.

(jelmek to

>L-b

sUL.:^ gitmek
JU-lHi

come:

to rise:

rr

tomaketosee,
i^q s how.

getirmek to bring.

iX^ZiT geoturmek

to go:

qalqmaq

v^

l-U^cS

to carry.

j^jjJls qaldirmaq to raise, to

lift

up.

Exercise 33.

^JUi

Change the following verbs

to

this

measure and

give the meanings.

Intransitive verbs.
dilyf'

gulmek

tired of.
/////

to

to

jjcfrjt

laugh.

2.

1.

dUja

jjcWji osanmaq

outantnaq to be ashamed.

come down. dL:^ binmek

evUnmek

to

marry.

to
3.

to ride on.

^.iJU- chalishmaq

to

gesmefi

walk.

become

sil*jjl

4.

to work.

e-

dUl)jl

Primitive and Derivative Verbs.

irr

Transitive verbs.
bilmek to know.
give.

6.

jji.1

di^j^ sevmek

7.

5.

123

botdmaq to

jjtj>

ahnaq to take,

vibvj Vermel' to
hesmek to cut.

dl^Js

to love

dAJL

find.

Ichirmek dWscil [Transitive and Causal].

.9.

This measure is formed by adding j (-ir-,


-ir-, -our-, -fir-) to the stem ( 52, 56).
It changes the Intransitive into Transitive and the
Transitive into Causal; as:

264.

J,*jb dogh'maq to be born (intrans.): Jyjy-jb doghourmaq to give


>iU..*.

pislnnek to be cooked (intrans

):

vUL.^1 iclimek to drink (trans.):

birth.
vlX.^n.j pishirmek to cook.
^-l,A?yl ichirmek to give to

drink.

This form

.Note.

the

:>

d: therefore

its

is

a modification of the second form, losing

derivatives are very limited, and almost

all

are here given.

v*t

^JUi

Exercise 34.

Change the following verbs into the third measure


-and give the meanings.
Intransitive verbs.
down.

jjEl

yatmaq

jjcl>

batmaq to sink.

shashmaq

to lie

to

to flee,

dl^sd
4.

become

scljlL

This measure

(m, tm, own)

4.

to

to

fly.

be increased.
fall.

jvlH

ctLij bitmek to be finished


5.

jjeja

satiated.

gSchmek to pass,

Taraiintuq

265.
It

to

artmaq

jcj!

to overflow.

doymaq

ouchtnaq

*u^-j\

di^-1^3 dushmek to

miss one's way.

j^llL tashmaq
of.

3.

2.

1.

douymaq
6.

to

hear

j>*>- qachrmnj

di^lo yitmek to be

lost.

[Reflexive, Passive].
is

formed by adding

to the root of the

verb ( 52,

56).

changes the Transitive into the Reflexive and

Passive;

as:

124

Lesson

1Y w~j;>

JjMj^ taranmaq

taramaq to coinb:

^*\j\b
viAtjjl

ebrtmek to cover:

17.

)fi.

to

be combed,

to

comb

himself.
dJ\kyjj\ ebrtdnmek to be covered, to cover
oneself.

J^yjl oqoumaq

&yj\ oqounmaq

to read:

J^j) boulmaq to find:

3^-jy.

boulounmaq

The

n.

,j

difference

to

be found.

is

in the meaning.

is

verb deals with the subject,

be read.

no difference between
as both are formed by

In spelling there
the reflexive and the passive,

266.

adding

to

it

If the

reflexive; if the verb

is

to the logical object, it is passive, because


passive verbs have no grammatical object; as:

refers

The Master washed himself (reflexive).


Qadehler yiyqandi The cups have been washed (passive).

Effendi yiyqandi

To

^Aai

Exercise 35.

Change the following verbs

jfiW chalmaq to steal; to knock at (the door); to

1.

play

tune).

(a

beat.

into the fourth measure.

jc yo soymaq to undress,

3.

deoymeh to

dfojz debhmek to pour,

2.

to do, to perform.

jj*\JLL

strip.

4.

jJIJ qilmdq

tiqamaq to plug, stop.

5.

gezmek to walk about. jj^ILj yiyqamaq to wash.

baqmaq

to look.

dX*j~> sevmek.

timo^ to prop up.

5;

(il,

I,

It

j^Jl

or j^#LL efay-

is

[Passive].

formed by the addition

ul, out) to the root ( 52, 56).

changes the primitive verbs into passives;

j^.;Ij

<i\+.Ji

jj*l>ta

6.

seoylemek to speak.

Yazilmaq jjUol

The measure

267.
of

dl4jj 4

7.

di^p

yazmaq

to write:

he'smek to cut:

iVote.

a.

^J-Jbjlj

vllju_i

yazilmaq to be written.
kesilmek to be cut.

The passive of those verbs which end

or liquid letter,

is

as:

in a vowel,

never formed according to this measure, but

according to the fourth.

Primitive and Derivative Verbs.

iro

The passive form of the verbs ^<^1

1).

i'mi'l-

perform

to do,

is

sil*J>_)u\

t\

*Jb3

125

ttmek,

>i-L.U

'

eyl-

edilmek.

Exercise 36.

Change the following verbs into this measure and


give the meanings.
l

4. di*je>l

juil

6.

<ZX*y~

2. j.jjj

j,j^U chaghirmaq

dL^o to
6'.

J^

di*j

to call.

dlj

plant.

Georushmil' dXJLjj

3.

dUii>

di*j<j

5.

'

j+j*

j^j^yl

3*->jji

[Reciprocal].

268. This measure is formed by adding sh,


(ish, oush, ish) to the root of the verb ( 52, 56).
It changes the meaning of the verb into a reciprocal one;

as:
d\<Jt,jjjgebriis7imck to see one another.

gebrmck to see:

-ii.jj>

Jyjj\

vourmaq

to beat

j-*-~?J j\

vouroushmaq

to fight with

one

another.

VV

/*JU)

Exercise 37.

Change the following verbs

into

j^MpI aghlamaq

\t&.f^gulmek to laugh.

to cry,

vUHjja durtmek to poke,

sevmek.

weep.

j^liijl

the sixth

oynamaq

to play,

form.

di^

jt^.-j^jj bozmcuj to ruin, to disconcert.


5

C'UIlL* Mfda-hi-at

269.

a.

Remarks.

The meaning of the Negative form

is,

of

course, in general perfectly clear; but the negative form


of the causal verbs, besides its ordinary signification,

sometimes expresses a prohibition or prevention of the


action being done.
Thus oqout'mamaq means 'not to
cause to read, but also 'to prevent some one from reading':
yaedirmamaq not to cause to write', and also 'to prevent
from writing.

126

1Y

Lesson

i^-ji

iri

17.

Transitive verb, or a verb which has


been converted into one, according to the rules mentioned
above, may become doubly, and even triply, transitive,
causative, or passive; as:

270.

b.

3*jh\ oqoumaq

3^j*j\ oqourimaq to be read.

to read:

to cause to read: j^Xj3j\ oqounoitV maq to be read.

J^yj\ oqout'maq

j^jjJ^sjl oqoutdour'maq to cause to cause to read:


ji^jjjyjl oqoutdourt' maq to cause to cause to cause to read.

j^j! 5

Reading Exercise.

^AsA

The Divisions of Turkey. ^Ju

^L-'.JBlf L-:y.l yjbVj

lol*a3

'

U^Xj*

yJ>jLL*

0j

f~JU

<& V J

dtaUl-l ^j^-dOur

bVj 4iUll Ljj/- dl!W

J*j\ Jj-w^ ,j-X3^L-

Jj^j\

aJ

'

d)j CjIS CjVji Jj

4iUll

(j^ Vj
J

stills

4.~-J>,-

<r^

-T

Memaliki Mahrouseyi Shahaiienih taqsimleri*


^Memaliki 1 Mdhrouseyi 6 Shaliane l Vilayetlere, VUa2
Lira 3 yalhod* Sanjaqlara, Sanjaqlar 3 Qazalara
yetler
Qazalar 3 * Nahiyelere, Nahiyeler 5 clalhi Qaryclirc taqsim
olounour 6 Vilayctdmme 'soul 1 olan* zat^ vali* Sanjaqdan
me soul olan Mutrsar'rif 10 Qazadan me soul olon Qayimmaqam 11 Nahiyeden me soul olan Mudir 1 * ve Qaryelerden
mesoul olanlar 13 Tkhtiyar mejlisleri 1 * ve moukhtarlar 15 dir.
Words. 1. The Protected Countries of His Majesty (Royal).
y

',

province. 3. a county, arrondissement 3 a a district, canton.


5. a sub-district (parish orcommune). 5 a village. 6.aredivided.
7. responsible.
9. governor
8. who is (who governs). 8 a person.
general. 10. governor. 1 1. sub-governor. 12. a governor of a sub-

2.

4. or.

district,

mudir.

13.

who

are.

14.

bailiff courts.

15. bailiffs.

Compound

try

127

Verbs.

Memdihi Mdhrouseyi Shahcme 29

wlayete

taqsim

Bounlardan alttsi Avropada, yirfnibiri Asiyada,


Afriqada ve diger biri ddkhi Aq denizde dir.

olounour.
biri

<U I^S

-5

j-> A ^5 ^/.

jJJIi oVjl

Jj

j-a

(j*^i

jjjCso

*^

t^ J^^j uHj

.ji **^ eo JUi5

{Xi\

-jjil

Lri^J?
O

^.

5^^

Ijxjf Jb

lSjS""

i$3Jt iljlji

?_>*

i->jbl ibVj

Conversation.

? j:>

iS^^s.

6J\J

^^

1>\\*\L

<1

oi

cllL*

?J-*G (J^a& i)JUi*

Lesson

18.

^ J

^jfy Compound

Verbs.

271. Compound verbs are formed by employing


Arabic, Persian and Turkish words with the Turkish
auxiliary verbs, or by affixing certain particles to nouns
and adjectives in order to turn them into verbs.

128

tA

Lesson

u~J->

tfA

18.

Compound

verbs, formed by using nouns


with auxiliary verbs.

1.

272. I. Compound Transitive verbs are constructed by uniting with nouns and adjectives (generally
of Arabic and Persian origin) one of the four purely
Turkish synonymous auxiliary verbs dij^\

d\J^\ or

dlJbl 'j^JLS jy)y y etmelc, eylemek, c/rfmaq, botiyourmaq, all


'

meaning to do, to perform; but the

first

most

is

frequently used.
J\^~. sival question

a.

3'->yy ^J"

Jlj-

i-L_:j|

'

-^U-U Jl_^-

(J-J -^
1

'

JU-

to Question.

to free.
t.

i^>j^> sous silent:

t.

J^-Ij

i/ash

The

Note.

command,
it

is

wet:

moisture;
original

^_Ij1

**a

d)<>JM J^L

meaning of
is

to moisten;

is

to

but as an auxiliary

of rank

a person

to wet.

bonyourmaq

J^Jj-j

kind enough

to deign, to he

used when the agent

to still, to hush.

or

is

politely

treated as such.

Compound

Intransitive verbs are formed


or Persian adjectives and active
passive participles (isnu fayil, mefoul) to the in-

273.

II.

by uniting Arabic
and

transitive verb jljl olmaq "to be, to


p.
a.

t.

become';

as:

jlj\ *1~. hasta olmaq to be sick.

aL.> hasta sick:


t

cl+-

uaj^>

memnoun

glad: j^Ljl

tjjl<^.

memnoun olmaq

^j\

^ys

sous olmaq to be silent.

s0lls silent:

to

be glad.

Compound

Passive verbs are constructed


with the same kind of words and with the passive form

274.

III.

of the auxiliaries diij^l

tjS J

'

%b<w edUmek, qUinmaqi

bouyroulmaq, or more frequently with the passive forms


of the verb jljl olmaq;
to
a.

which there
J\^~. sival:

is

HL.Xj\

viz.

j^lljl

olounmaq to become,

nothing to correspond in English;


J\j

'

^'^j\ Jlj

'

as:

3^*^? Jl^- jk>Ji* dl_r*


to be asked.
'

Compound

tr^

Verba.

129

be

to

free.

275. IV. Compound Causal verbs are constructed


with the same kind of words and with the causal forms
of the auxiliaries dJUjJ&l.

cause

to

::>-

'

bont/ourtmaq,

etdirmek^

to do.
dl*jJ] ^iJ^j^s firoukht

p. <^>_)jS firoukhte sale:

ctdirmek to

cause to

a.

(jL-^-l

ihsan grant:

2.

a.

4.

a.

$\\

7.

a.

/*?'/>

p.

>

*2.

invention,

iH

azhni't

$Aa#

a.

glad.

departure,

f?a

sermon,
a.

p.

^i J *7
a.

1>jJ

a.

Co.*

ZjJ* ghayret

teshrif

honour,

eft<ftZ

change.

cut7#

terjeme

a.

kedr blind.

labour,

return.

translation.

building.

fo'wa

la

request.

rija

;^j

a.

4^j^

a.

souhour appearance,

keeping,

present,

kindness,

talim instruction,

wjs>

it j

a.

herein

?jad

3.

AZ

a.

6.

fj

j,c

Exercise 38.

jfJui

verbs from the following words:

a.

visiting.

sell.

qatl ctdirmek to cause


to kill.

,^

Form
1.

u^*^ ihsanbouyourtmaq to
help to be granted.

JMJd

TA

5.

dUjjJj

Jl5 qatl slaughter:

a.

a.

8.

*jjb

a.

Jii>.

hediye

gift.

Verbs derived from Nouns and Adjectives.


276.

I.

Transitive

verbs

are

formed

nouns and adjectives by the addition of i*V


to those

containing hard vowels, and di#*I

those containing soft vowels.


added to a noun, it has the

is

When

this

lamaq

lemek

to

termination

meaning of to provide

with, and when added to an adjective


render; as:
Turkish Conv. -Grammar.

from

signifies

&

to

130

)\

^js

gebz eye:

jj

Lesson

J^^lj bashlamaq

3*^^

oJ g;ara black:
J\E te'M clean:

II.

Qfi'fdlamaq to blacken.

dX.4jJ\ temizlcmek to clean.

and Passive verbs are formed

dU

lenmek, lanmaq

adjectives;

dLJjl evlenmek

to begin.

Intransitive

by the addition of
nouns or

ir-

gebzlemek to watch.

<Z\*i]'jjT

J^l bash head:

277.

18.

'

dlcV

to

as:

<Z\^&jj

to marry.

guzel'lenmek to grow pretty.

(Jt^j*- khirslanmaq to be angry. Jji^/^U. hazirlanmaq to be ready.

278.

-emeU,

By adding

III.

jll

-almaq,

simply

-elmek,

dlt

i*

-amaq, dl

the adjectives or

to

nouns, another kind of Intransitive or Passive verbs


obtained
as

is

o^ qan

blood:

<=-^$ 2ja

c//o^

,3*^

much

IV.

to bleed.

become

to

yasliamaq to

y^-j^ choghalmaq

old.

live.

to increase.

,jUJ- azalmaq to diminish.

j| a little:

279.

qanamaq

iS"^^ qojamaq

J^L [/ash age:


(Jjs;.

Jj^ls

Some

verbs are formed

Intransitive

from adjectives by the addition of dLJLl

-lashmaq, meaning

to

'

j^V -lesliaiek,

grow, to become, to get

(gradually).
a,

Li

yf

fena bad:
keotii

^j\ eyi

bad:

good:

,j*i.VLi fenalashmaq]

\J&yf

fce^/esfcmefcj

dU-iJjjl eyileshmek

To k ecorae WO ree
(gradually).

To grow

better (grad.).

280. The same termination, however, added to


nouns produces reciprocal verbs; as:
a.

wIX. mektoub letter:


^ni.

j^i^^ix* mektoublashmaq

khaber information:

vlJU_iJ^ni.

to

corre-

spond,
khabJrleshmek to communicate (intelligence).

Compound

Verbs.

131

V. Causal

compound

verbs are obtained

Cj t in the

first

)r)

281.

by inserting

and 4 th forms.

2"' 1

in the

and 3 rd forms and j^ dir

jt^ilj bashlatmaq to let be begun.

1.

make marry.

2.

dl.jjjj>\ Svlendirmek to

3.

/k^lij*. choghaltmaq to

4.

vULjA-iij^ eyileshdirmek to

282.
mentioned
yan

(j\j

make abound.
make grow

some exceptions

VI. There are


rules;

3*VjIj

parlamaq

to elongate.

I., II.,

V.

1. jl at*

4.

parcha piece.

summer,
oil,

j-l)

jl.L?_^>

sousamaq

grow yellow.

to thirst.

Exercise 39.

jS>

game.

2. p.

fold,

#o$

^jL

g&8 autumn.

&a#A bind,
III.

tie.

7.

6.

^vl

irt

big.

e jl

p.

jt-35

t'lL

jja touz

?ClJ'jjy

IV. ^Ij ^a/y portion,

^ meohur a seal.

top ball,

&ews countenance, .Jal

hard,

to

juJLa.\ ajUpnaq to be hungry.

^nIj5

j\S

5.

postage stamp.
*,5Ci

sararmaq

approach.

to

verbs from the following words.

ready.

/i^7r

j..jijL^

to shine.

T^
Form

yanashmaq

J^i.lll

<ijU? sart yellow:

ouzamaq

to the above-

as:

side:

^y\jj\

gradually better.

jW-y

'

3. a.

>.jl j?are, />>*,

gisA winter, 3^

task stone,
salt,

sour,

f/w/7*

Jicfe^-Jjj

po2

empty,

p^ genj young.

qoujaq bosom,

VI. )>>

y#

*-\j

qoitron dry, Jl^< &o&&


Stefci

^U

JotS red

'

*:}

gfy

JJS^

The Potential Verb.


283.
by the verb

To be able

dUL

bilmeJc

to
to

do an action
know,

is

expressed

to be able' put after

132

Lesson

1A ^.jz

the root of any verb, with

srr

18.

he joiued to

it.

This

is

the Potential verb.


It somewhat
resembles the Potential mood of the English verb. But
this is a class of verbs in the Turkish language, which
has all the moods, tenses and modifications which the
regular verbs have; as:
called

Turkish

in

j^jL yazmaq

sevmek

<^JL

bilmek

vLv.

'

'

'

is

<L

vIUljoJI.

V^Jj^-

or impossibility,

*iUJLj4j<JL^ seoyleyebilmek to be able


to speak.

expresses

made by adding

is

>U

inability

-mamaq

or

dX*^* -memek to the stem of the verb instead of

bilmek

as

^Lojl yazamamaq
,3'lxu

e.

root

The negative which

285.

'

i.

of the verb end in a vowel,


inserted between the stem and he ( 53); as:

<il.4.L^- sebylemek

dbr

yazabilmek to be able to write,

to know how to write.


\JL> a ~ sevebilmek to be able to love, i. e.
to know now to love.
<UUlj*JLj bilebilmek to be able to know, i.e.
to know how to know.

If the

284.
a ye

oj[>

J*j\

\\*ojS

not to be able to write (not *il<u-Lojb).

oqouya'mamaq not
or vUu_*ojJ>

to

be able to read.

gidememek not to be able to

go.

Accelerative Verbs.
286. By adding the verb viU^j vemiek to the
root of any verb, another verb is formed which expresses
doing the same action, but in a very off-hand way.
This verb

is

called

bv native grammarians

Fee-U Tajil Accelerative verb or Verb of


If the root of the

287.
consonant
in

it

takes a vowel

a vowel the syllable

( 53);

as:

J,

-///

it;

1*5

Facility.

original verb

ye after

l-?=*7

and

end

in a

if it

must be added

end

to

it

Compound

trr

J^jij

S'J 1 ^

'

Vjl ^JU^j
'

oqouyou vermek to read quickly.

^*J J ^.y^

'

J*-)

yaz\ verm el; to write quickly.

iSJ\*

'

133

Verbs.

1#

Exercise 40.

(^

Change the following verbs into the affirmative and


negative forms of the Potential and Accelerative verbs.

<Lujz dedhmek

(orti'mmeh

dlc/j^l
6.

dllp debymek

3.

'

dLsl

4i-:

dlvi^

5.

^UT

7.

dO
> J

>JU$

^C-^

'.ff-

jjjVy dl
1.

niyet,

J *

e^

/<%-

>~

tMU

*X*I

dLi<S

'

JlWj

dUjjd-^

8.

*i^
2.

j>jl

v-A^l5

*)

^^^

*/

intention.

ft

>JLcVy dLrJ

meram

'

L>w -C* ^

>

dLH

iiUjL-j

4.

Conversation.

dlijtf

4j .-~U2

'

%jJjUjui

<U I^S

oM-jl r

dUj.ui:

'

^ *}Y

U~*

4.

9J.^g

-/ -

*'

dL^I

tihUVe danger.

Reading Exercise.

AjJ

jbVj The Provinces.

"

'

-All

'

**

'

'
I

'

134

)A

JfJ*" Ojj*-*^

f-^J^'

'^rjz

(J~-^.

Lesson

j^oJ^O

18.

\r\.

ut'j*^'

cij-J 3 *
.

^^

**^
<

t-

'

Vilayetler.

Memaliki Mahrouseyi Shahanenin Avropa qit'asinda 1


boulounan vilayetleri shonnlar dir: Edirne 2 Selanik 3
,

Yan'ya, Ishqodra, Monastir.

Qosova,

Asiya qit'asinda boulounan vilayetler: Hijaz, Yemen,


Basra, Baghdad, Mousoid, HaUb\ Suriya'\ Beyrout,
Khiidavendigiar,
Qonya 6
Anqare (Engurv) 1
Ay din,
Adana s Qastamouni, Sivas, Diyarbekir, Bitlis, Erzroum,
Mamouretid-Aziz, Van, Trabzoun.
,

Afriqa qit'asinda: Tarablous 9 ; Aq-Denizde: lJezayiri


zbahri 2sefid

10
.

Bowdarhl

rnerkezleri 11 shounlar dir: Hijaziuki Jid'de

Suriyanmki Sham 12 KhiWavenclikiarinki Brousa, Aydlninki Izmir 13 Mamouretul-Azizinki Kharpont, ve digcrlermki hemnamlari u olan 15 shehirler dir.
,

4.

Words. 1. part, segment.


Aleppo. 5. Syria. 6. Iconium.

10. (the islands of the

White

2.

Adrianople.

7.

Galatia.

3.

Thessalonica.

8. Cilicia.

Sea) Archipelago, Rhodes.

central city of the province. 12. Damascus. 13. Smyrna.


15. which are.
the same name, homonymous.

9. Tripoli.

11. centre,
14.

having

The Derivative forms of the

)ro

^ u^ ^

Lesson

The Derivative forms


There

288.

are

ing

and by
<c

three

the

the Infinitive

to

19.

of the

from the

Substantives derived

135

Infinitive.

Infinitive.

formations
Infinitive:

syllables

jj

'

of

verbal

By append-

dil -liq,

-Uk,

affixing to the root of the verb the terminations

-ma, -me,

i>

'
.

J.

the three derivative

-ish, -ish,

forms of the Infinitive are obtained;


vLUj se'cmek to love:

1.

as:

dlbvj^- secmeklik Loving, the action of


loving.

^j-jlj

yazmaq

to write:

1.

jli.j^

yazmaqliq Writing, the action


of writing.

2.

Vj

sec:

3.

\j-

sec:

<^j sec me Loving, the action of loving.

J.>j~ secish Loving, the mood of loving.

Turkish Infinitives and verbals are frequently used substantively, and when so used they
can be declined like substantives, with or without the
pronominal affixes.

289.

Declension of the Infinitive.


N.

G.
D.

<i\*j~,

sicmek' loving

A.

wanting

L.

**k*j~. se'cme'ye"

*"

Declension of the
N.
G.
D.
A.
L.
A.

S'J-' secvuyi

eJjC.- secmekde in

A. ^jjS*j~. secmekden from

first

Derivative form.

viiAS^-. secmeklik loving

viiiJ<f^ secmckliyiu of loving


*Sl*j~.

se'cmeldiije to

loving

^J<T*.>~- secmekliyi loving

t>j^j&j~. secmi'klikde in loving

o-^-^v~

secnuklikde'n

from loving.

136

Lesson

wJ*

\^

iri

19.

Declension of the second and third


Derivative forms.
Sivwe

N.

G.

*Xi 4.* y>M

A.

viAii

O ^

A.* t-~*

J*

si vishe to

u
o
o
,
^ <*

- sevishi

fcc

C-

H *>
a>

oxLi o secishde in

in

p**j~ sivmedin from

tjAij ~ sevislidin

The Plurals are not

JVote.

c~ sevishifi of

.-

^JLi

seomide

e- sec tih

*-ij

^L^J*" seomeyi'

L.
A.

secmenin of
sec me ye' to

D.

JLj

common

in

from

use.

290. The first, second and third forms of these


Verbal Derivative nouns are often used with the pronominal affixes; as:
1.

iUUjli

my

yazmaqliglum'

i\ilJUjlj

(JiUOli
2.

3.

M
-5

thy >;2

yazmaqliglun

my

jxiliUjlj

yazmaqlighiftiz' your} +3

j*<v./b

yazmamtz our

i)<ujl

yazman thy

jSv3L yazmaMz your

jy-4-.JL

yazmasi his

ii^4.jb

p-i*jlj

yazlshim

my

.
j

Not used

yazmaqlighi' his

r*0^ yazmam

j^iljUjl yazmaqliyhimiz' our

bo

yazmalari their

j^Ljlj yazishlmiz our


S3

vii-L j'b

jxljjlj yazishi Friz your

yazishin thy

^ijjl yazishi his

i^Jbjjl yazishlari their

Turkish Infinitives govern nouns and


291.
pronouns, which are always put before them the object
is to be put in the nominatival form, if indefinite; and
in the accusative if definite.
This is the case also for
Verbal nouns and Participles ( 83, Note, 251); as:
;

j-aM (3^j
jiiUjijl

<u_sj|

292.

.li5

kitabi aclimaq to
Jcitab

open the book.

oqoumaqliq reading a book.

j^s sou ichme drinking

The

some

water.

logical subject of the Infinitive

be put in the Genitive case

is

to

or to use another expression,

The Derivative forms of the

yrv

the infinitive or
stantive, requires
In the
genitive.
necessary, as the
subject; as:

<J^ benim

**+.&

>

considered as
a noun or pronoun before it
case of Pronouns this is not
affixed pronoun represents the

verbal noun,

di<Ci<ds^^

if

gelmem, gelmim

137

Infinitive.

my

a subin the

always
logical

coming.

senih gelmeldiyin your coming.

jJL^iJjtJuil efendimizin gelisht the coming of our Lord.

293. If the Infinitive is to be used as the object,


be put in three different cases: With neuter
verbs following it is always in the dative; with active
it

may

verbs,

if

indefinite,

the

j^JL

yazma

\j\>

The

294.
this

bihiu'z'

first

denotes the

form

in

the accusative; if
( 83, Note); as:

he does not know how to write.

yasmaqUghi bilmez he does not know the

^ili-jlj

nitives

definite,

is

oqoumaglia bashlamaq to begin to read.

VOlili ^.jijl

J.JL

object

assumes a nominatival form

it

is

writing.

Derivative formed from the InfiThe negative of


the action.

act,

composed

in

two ways

^U.UJIj yaz mamaqViq and JjJJ*U3^ yuz' mamazliq

Mektoubon yazmamazliq etme Don't

fail to

write the letter.

But the negative, dative and ablative forms

295.

when used with some verbs mean

to

behave as

if:

Gebr'memezlikden geldi, geor'memezliye vourdou He pretended


not to see.
Tammamazl'iq etmek To behave as if not acquainted.

The second Derivative

296.
l

Ay~

<aj[

manner

sevme',

yazma

the

of the Infinitive

mode

of loving; loving, writing.

of

writing,

is

the

Always accent the

last syllable.

297. The pronunciation and the spelling of this


second form is just the same as that of the second person
Imperative negative singular; but the accent is decisive.
The second Derivative has the accent on the last svllable,
while in the Imperative the penultimate (the syllable
before the negative suffix) is accented:

13S

)^

yazma

xaJI

Lesson

_~j:>

irA

19.

writing, to write: yaz'ma don't write (thou).

^*j^ sevme" loving, to love: sevme don't love (thou).

298. The English Impersonal verbs and those


verbs whose objects are not mentioned, but understood,
are rendered in Turkish as follows. The subject of the
Impersonal verb and the ohject must he mentioned] as:
yaz\ yazmaq to write.
yaghmour yaghmaq to rain.
geok gjirlemek to thunder.
dikish dikmek to sew.
tutun ichmek to smoke.
yimek yemek to eat (food).

qar
to snow.

dolou
to hail.
shimshek chaqmaq to lighten.
ish ishlemek to work.

The Infinitive used

as a Substantive.

299. It has been several times mentioned that


the Infinitive is regarded as a noun, and that, like a
noun, it is liable to every kind of change which the

noun undergoes
these

The student

( 289).

from

peculiarities

study

the

will

of

understand
following

the

examples.
Of5->) 3*'->\

'

JJj\ J-0^

\Jk*j\i

yazmaq flzre for the

yazmaq ichin,

purpose

of writing.

^j-JUjl yazmaqsizin, yazmaqsiz without or before writing.


^

'

<ilU

\y jJ

-dlv)' '

yazmaqla, ahnaq'la by writing, by taking.

<>kj\>

yazmaya

niye'ti

yoq he has no intention


to write.

f>Ji*3A

(jjJUju

my

maqsedim

yazmaqdan'

intention

in

writing.
-u^i

(jj1j>\j

yazmaqdan

ise

>

*~j\ <j.i4J,l

yazmadari

instead of writing.

ise

oA.C ,- 'c^ts dushmeni sevmekdi' in loving the enemv.


{j*<j\i

'

0>*li

gel'meden,

yaz'madan without, before coming, writting.

<+.~5

6^*^-o *J. bize gel'meden

git' me

do not go before you

come

tj^*u.i|

Uo douva

^sj! oJJUjli

^Jjj\ cr^*-^
-A^ii

to see us.
et'medtn before prayer [praying],

yazmaqda
gi'lme'si'

iken while I

was

writing.

uzirini on his coming.

L~.4.JS

gclmesiy'le gitmesi

^ti^Mi

scoyle'yishi his

his

manner

coming and going.


of speech.

The Derivative forms of the

irA

139

Infinitive.

The Contiimative

tenses are formed from


the Infinitive as in the following examples:

300.

yazmaqda'yim.

am

liJol

sjlr

>

-'dhlar.

-'sinte,

~'ytz,

-'d\r,

-'sin,

writing

jxS-^

ojjCi JU"
jltl
"

yaghmour yaghmaqda
yimek yemekde' imish

idi
I

it

was

raining.

heard that) he was

eating.
*

ojjCjso J~^'i dikish dikmekdS Ue

qaryagmaqda

JuU^l j j

if

he

sewing.

is

snows.

it

Some

of the derivatives of the second and


third forms are used as common nouns ( 443); as:

301.

<*j

*a- j\

<*T>.jfn\

k+**\i

-J:

i.

ouchourma a

J--^

isitma malaria.

basma

illumination.

ft

yapnta

.-j
fleet

shikerlimS sugar-plnms.

ii"T /;>/; n'rish business


i
*J"iJiJ -"~ :
transaction, trade.

^JJj"9 qctvourma

doghoush birth.

made

up.

VAJ-^JJ dondourma ice-cream.

beblmr partition.

j> donanma

yaiilish a mistake.

->

jii-jia

print, calico.

<1 .x_

kite.

qazma

a pickaxe.

yarui crushed wheat.

Ij Jj U'Zartma roasted meat.

fried meat.

ruma

4.0

hanging a vine.

Ail Words
1U

P-J^JJJ ruzgiar wind.


a. k_-J5

fciaftA

clerk.

y.^J^

iLJLL yStiskmek to reach.


a.

jilS qw7*r able.

at.

J^i-

a. ..gJiv;

beklSmek to wait.

-U.a.,>.

,JacJ

4jU.O-jj posta-hane post


a.

si'bt'b

reason.

office.

a.

a.

Proper Names: i>*li Shahin.

a!

Ua'-T

0^

es?Ht' to

blow.

gujjbila hardly.

WuajrYt better,
tiklif proposition.
(i7i

jaq only,

mvrad
fa/*><7

intention.

learning.

Ihsan Grant.

140

Lesson

\\ ^-j}

^v

l5^U

**

~:-J*

*^

^Ui
*

die dill

Exercise 41.

-^

*^

CX. *v-^C4jl*}l

1Y 4>^/

y*

19.

Li

**

4>3'

'

*c

J*?-

Translation 42.

Giving is better than taking. 2. Every ascent


descent and every going has its coming. 3. I have
no intention of [to] writing a letter to the father; have
you? 4. To mount a donkey is a shame, to dismount
another (two). 5. Nobility is [gained] by giving, bravery
by killing. 6. The wind is blowing very hard. 7. Which
is better, smoking tobacco or drinking coffee?
Neither
those
of them is [not] useful for health. 8. Are
sugarplums nice?
Yes, Sir! 9. This ice-cream is made of
milk, ice and lemon.
10. This cup is made (yapma)
in Germany.
11. Seal the letters and send them to
the post-office; don't forget to seal them, seal and tie.
12. Why are these children crying?
I don't know
13. Don't go to see the teacher without
the reason.
1.

has

its

The

1<u$

Finite Verb.

141

taking me. 14. To begin to read his lesson.


days began to grow shorter.
4xl5^

^InJL^L

'

The

Conversation.

oAX.-Jj^"' j^y^'" oJuwi-u

15.

l^^

JJ^i

<i-4\

li*ijloy

^i

Lesson 20.

The Finite Verb.


302. Turkish verbs,

like

nouns, have two numbers

the singular and the plural. They have three persons,


which do not vary for gender as they do in Arabic.
303. The koods of the Verb. *In Turkish the
verbs have six moods 1 the Infinitive-, the Imperative,
the Indicative, the Assertive, the Narrative and the Conditional. The Infinitive, the Imperative and the Indicative are common to almost all languages; but the Assertive, Narrative and Conditional are peculiar to the Turkish.
:

.)&>.

oj_^s sourtt.

hikiayS, *z~>\jj

jX* masdar.

*jj nnrii/e,

rivayet, *Ja .i shartiye.

<>_j[*J>~\

il:hbari>/''.

142

Lesson

r* u-oo

20.

)im r

304. The Conjugation of Verbs. All the Turkish


verbs are conjugated in the same way, these being no
irregular Verbs, except the Substantive defective verb
'to be'; but there are certain modifications required by
the law of euphony which hold good in the inflections
of the verbs as in those of other parts of speech.
employ as examples in each mood and tense the verbs

We

di^j and

models

>}^

which are generally used as

verbs

for the conjugation

of

verbs,

all

soft

or hard.

305. The Indicative mood has eight tenses and


the three other moods seven each they are as follows.
:

1.

Present

JU

2.

Aorist

3.

Past

iS^j^t,

4.

Dubitative

c.jlJ*

5.

Future

^L

6.

Optative

Of the

^U

Jii

Jj:^*

7.

Necessitative

8.

Suppositive

J.

j=-j

<^*>J$

^LaH

moods

of the verb, the Infinitive has been fully described in the previous chapters.

306.

six

The Indicative mood is the simple


307.
conjugated form of the verb and is the basis of the
It has eight tenses.
other three compound moods.
308. The Compound moods, the Assertive,
Narrative and Conditional are formed by the aid of the
three tenses of the substantive verb, which latter is called
3
in Turkish the Auxiliary verb
.

The Substantive verb

309.

in

general

corresponds to the English verb 'to be', but it is


has been mentioned several times in
It
defective.
4
but it is useful to bring it in
the previous chapters
again here ( 65, 72, 73, 238).
;

Hal; Muzari, Maziiji shouhoudi; Maziyi naqli; Mustaqbdl;


2
The Imperative, Optative and Seaccording to the European Grammarians. But they are not considered as moods according to
they are variations of the Future tense. The
the Turkish idea
Turkish language acknowledges only four moods as has been
1

Iltizami, Vujoubi; Farziye.


cessitative are really moods
;

mentioned.

^lt\ Ji Fiy'li-Iane.

vide 65, 73, 238.

The

lir

Pas

Present

143

Finite Verb.

A Jul

=o

Ch- -sin

iljul

= ita

{js) -dir

^Jj]

,J>

jUl

ihi)

= ita

Jii^l

-im

-is

J-Cjj;
JjJu\

jrjz -dirlt'r

Conditional

Dubitative
1

a<u-j|

i>i*j|

ilA^al

rv~-s>-J

J>0

:<liji

-^

= Jo

f~-

= dJL

= *il*^ =
:.u-j| = j5*u
Ja-j| = Ja<_,)

il-U-

310. The Assertive mood, is used when the


mentioned is asserted by the knowledge of the
speaker; or it is stated on the authority of the speaker;
he knows it of his own experience or knowledge, without depending upon hearing it from others; as:
fact

a_l!

my

In

jyj\ Itb

childhood

Ju>4Sj-j*

JnUhtMuyumde dayima oqour idim

was always reading.

This mood is obtained by adding to the


person singular of the tenses of the Indicative
It has
the past tense of the substantive verb.

311.
third

mood
all

the tenses of Indicative.

3Iood is employed when


but not on the authority of the speaker.
hearsay or report founded on the statement

The Narrative

312.
a fact

is

stated,

is a
of others ( 238);

It

p.i-^j\

imishim.

J^j\

(It

You ought

tjj^r

oxS^^^

said that)

is

j>JL_j\

as:

JUjl J>^:_C

to

kuch&kluyumd^

was playing much

^jjj

have written the

Dun

in

cJioq

my

mcktoubou yazmali

letter

yesterday

it

is

oynar

childhood.
imishsifiiz

said).

mood is obtained by adding to the


singular of the tenses of the Indicative
the Dubitative or Perfect tense of the Substantive
It has all the tenses of Indicative save the Past.
This

313.

third person

mood
verb.

314. The Conditional Mood. This states the


condition on which another action takes place, has
taken place, or will take place. It corresponds to what
is

called

in

European languages the Subjunctive;

rjjj\ Oj~*"
I

shall

be glad.

'

S"'

gilsi,

memnoun olouroum

If

as:

he comes

r ^rJ>

144

f-Uj^J

tvu

20.

~ \$M*-jJj\ fA P aram

\jiji

had money

bir lira'vJri'ridimlf I

mood

This

8 315

Lesson

is

oloursayidl Sana

would give you a pound.

formed by adding

to

the

singular of the tenses of the Indicative,


verb.
the Conditional tense of the substantive
Indicative, except the
It has all the tenses of the

third person

Imperative.

The Imperative Mood. *j\ Oj>^

316.
Per.

wanting

1.

2.

j^

3.

jj~j~

sev

CsTJ"

'

^sin

let llim

~ ^>~ sewn
?f

2
*

j .J

3,

Jl^-j-

1.

wanting

2.

Jl>

3.

ur-j^

lcJL

<U

J^TTM

a^

C>r^i y***'
yazalim

let

us write

'Ail- 2^.5**1 write you

The Negative.

them

let

write!

^1 ^u

wanting

2.

<u *~

3.

uy***y*

1.

^.^.^-

set-'we
'

lc-*\*-

don't love

sdv'misin let

him not love

sev'meyelim let us not love

sevmeyin

(dii^.^.

him write

let

Per. 1.

love!

write

J^-jli J^-J^i yazshilar

317.

them

sevsinler let

2/

'

love you

-J

3.

love

sevelim let us love

si

Per.

love thou

(lon

"

love

sev'meyiniz]

|J^i*^-

JL^-^~.'J^*v~ seo'mesinler let them


8 317 a. The first person Singular is wanting.
not love!

3.

The

person Imperative
root of the verb is the second
in two ways:
Singular, the plural of which is formed
common in speech; seviniz, yamfti*
shin,
is

yazm

used

is

very

in literature

and among

literary people.


The

11.0

145

Finite Verb.

iii Words.
newspaper

f 4.Tji gazeta
.

a.

c^j)
!

*jf liirem

et!

please!

ilojuU hay den! (used as

if

jU^JL'i

at.

pi.)

A^

*<u-4S^ s i<* JuA

1 1

4J3-J

!JU3 zivaVli! poor!


0J0U haydel

Let us go!

Now

Come

then!

along!

Exercise 43.

ilj^)^

4~'

*J

*-

\^j\

Translation 44.

are you going?


I am going to the
doctor.
I have
are you going to the doctor?
malaria.
I am going to' show myself to the doctor.
2. What is the price of this calico?
It is four piastres
a yard. 3. It is raining: let us go home and read the
day's newspapers.
4. The flesh of those cattle is not
good for the health: let nobody eat it. 5. What are
the children doing?
They are reading their books.
6. Please call the maid -servant.
7. Bring me a little
fried meat and a piece of roast meat.
8. There is a
knife on the table.
1.

Where

Why

Axl^S Conversation.

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

10

Y*

146

1^

20.

jjlj *ijl l^J^i

rJi B .ijTil-

oiCltf

^j^ Lesson

xi\

.^jl

&B*

"-^ "Ar *^"

?j-c

col

^^U^^bjG?^.^
._>a

sji-b

i-

f
! j,

,1*1. j

ill*

j.

JuJ Reading

Exercise.

The Religions and Denominations.

>3

15

fJ J

^l

iUiB ot^.;
'

'

P^x >^

Transliteration.

JOmoUK

Shahanede boulounan

Islamln*,

dMer*

namlari*ile ueh
KhristiyanUq* vi Yehoudilik*
Words.
4.

Christianity.

found,

1.

5.

existing.

Judaism.

6.

2.

names.

religions.

3.

dm:

ls-

Maintain.

The Present Tense.

fuY

147

lamlar deort mezhebe 1 ayrilmishlar dir s Hanefi 9 Hanbali 10


11
12
Islamlarin beoyuk qismi 13 Hanefi
ve Maliki
Shafiyi
mezhebinden dir: Tit rider ve Kurdlerden baztlari Hanefi
dirler.
Ajemler 14i Qizil-b ashlar 10 ve Kurdlerden basilart
:

Arablardan bast qabileler 16 Hanbali ve


Shafiyi dirler.
11
basilar Maliki dirler. Her keoyde ve shehirlerde jamiler
ve

imamlar 18 var dir.


Memaliki Mahrousede boulounan Khristiyanlar dakld

bashlija debrt beoyuk mezheblere ayrilmishlar dir: Protestan,


Qatolik,

Ermeni

shehirlerde

Her Khristiyan kedylerde ve


papas 19 ve vayizler 20 var dir.
Anjaq Istanbolda ve Memaliki

ve Bourn.

kiliseler

Yehoiidiler pek az

ve
dir.

shahanenin bazi shehirlerinde boidounourlar.


religious opinion; one of the four
7. denomination, sect;
orthodox schools of opinions in Islam. 8. are divided. 9. the
Hanefi sect or school of Sunni Moslems, founded by Imam Ebou
Hanife. 10. The Hanbali sect, founded by Imam Ahmed ibni (son
of) Hanbal. 11. The Shafiyi school or sect, founded by the great
lawyer Muhammed son of Idris, called Imam Shafiyi. 12. The
school founded by Imam Malik. 13. part. 14. Persians. 15. Redheads: the non-Sunnite Turks (said in contempt as though worshipping the round red stone in Kerbela, on which were beheaded
Hassan and Huseyin, the two sons of Caliph Ali; they are also
called Alevee: i. e. followers of Ali, while the Han^fees are called
Sunnites).
18. a leader in public wor16. tribes.
17. mosques.

ship of Islam.

19. priest.

u^ ^
5

JU

20. preacher.

oWS

Lesson

21.

The Present Tense.

318. In the formation of the tenses, the third


person singular is first made by the addition of some
suffix to the root of the verb.
The other persons are
made by the addition of the present tense of the Substantive verb. Every tense has its characteristic suffixes.
319.

The

characteristic

sign

of the Present

added

is

the syllable jy -ijov

or j^,

the root of the verb,


of this tense ( 54).

makes the third person singular


The other persons are obtained

-iyov,

which,

to

by simply adding the present tense of the Substantive


verb to the stem thus formed ( 309, 522).
10*

148

j*yjl Vjijl
'

320.

Lesson

~j:>

^yjl

jjiyj\ oqouyor.

This tense

Note.

21.

is

t,A

Vjl Jj^j^ yaziyor.

'

often called

by English

Grammarians the Present Progressive or Second


Present Tense. It indicates that the action is going
on

while one is speaking;


at the present moment,
whereas the Aorist of the Indicative indicates that the
action is going on but is not over, and is habitual.
Hence the Aorist of the Indicative has often been
regarded as the Present Tense of that mood; but it is not
really so, as it expresses the action in an indefinite way,
referring both to the present and the future ( 328). Thus
yaziyoroum means I write at the present moment, I am
f

just

writing',

like

Continuative

the

Present

300)

yazrnaqda'yim; whereas yazarim means I write in general


as a habit', or it conveys a promise, and then corresponds
to

will write

321.

1.

Indicative Present. ^jU-

pj^~jj~.

seviyoroum,

Oyjj'j seviyovsOun,

am

Jl>-

loving,

thou art loving,

he

j^tj** seviyor,

we

jjj^ij+M seviyorouz.

is loving,

are loving,

j5wj^._j^- seviyorsounouz, you are loving,

They are

Jjj~j j~. seviijovlar.

JU

Potential Present. &\s$\


Ajj-JLoj-

sevebili' yoroum,

jjjA~>t>j~> sevebili

jfC-j^Jj oj-

J\~>jj~L*aj~. sevebili' y or soun,

j^JLjoj
I

am

(lit.

am

jy\j~> sev'meyoroum I
Ajy<oj~, sevi'meyoroum

am

sevebili yorlar.

know how

The Negative Present.

y or ouz,

sevebili yorsowloaz,

JjjJuoj*.

sevebili''y or,

able to love etc.

loving.

to love).

juJU

not loving,

etc.

not able to love,

etc.

The Present Tense.

)\

j-

'

Oj-*jj^ y-

sevi

JU
mousoun? Am

.*UiJ

Interrogative Present.

^40

149

yormouyoum?

-Jjja.o^-

loving?

Am I not loving?
seve' meyormouyoum? Am I not able to

rjy<y*j~, sev

meyormouyoum?

love?

322.
Assertive Present (Imperfect). .ulsC-jU

2.

The Assertive Present, which corresponds to the


Imperfect tense of the English, indicates that an action
had begun, but was not finished at the time spoken
of;

as:

*M jj~jj~. sevi'yor idim,


ijjul
iSJ*>\

jj^j^- sevi'yor

323.

idi,

J^^

3.

ttl jj^tj^
jj^j^

^JJ.\

It is

~>jrij^ sevi'yor idiler.

oudoum ...

sev'meyor idim, or

Narrative Present. oJjj


JviM J^-ij-

P-it\ jj-jj*. sevi'yor imishim,

i>

sevi'yor idik,

loving, thou wast loving, etc.

j..^^

fjol

jj^j^

jj^i j sevi'yor idiu, J-Cjol jj~> j~- sevi'yor idiniz,

was

i'joj

said that I

was loving

Ju

sevi'yor imishiz,

lM

jj~j.~- sevi'yorimishsiuiz,

J^-i\

Jj-^j-

sevi'yor imish'sin, j>.


sevi'yor imish,

was not loving.

sevi'yor imishler.

may have been

(I

loving).

324.
Conditional (Subjunctive) Present.

4.

a^-jj-.jj- sevi'yorsam,
}*.~.jj~jj~. sevi'yorsau,

k^jj^j^
If

am

325.

\Jl* JW-

l]<<~>jj->j- sevi'yorsak,

jS^L-jj-jj

sevi

yorsamz,

Jk~*jj-j> *~ sevi'yorsalar.

sevi yorsa,

loving, etc.

Further:

oj.<^jj T>j[>

j^<~j! Jjt^J^

yazt'yorsamda

yaz'mayor

am

isemde' I

writing, but

am

not writing, but

150

T) ^rJ>

Lesson

KJ

Words.

p..A>U

done!
'-ui^T aferin! well

P-

C jG

qarin abdomen, stomach

j> iog
at.

JTji
a.

j-jj;

8MWi

a.

violent

(government)
[(money)
office

qalSm. a
fco-zmatf

^J Jt* ^ ^i

Ub oil jju

'

'

J>J*

jJjlS

^-Jl^

c!

Ojl

'

qarnim aj

am hungry

aowoii* thirsty

^ 4W

hasty, pressing

umbrella.

Exercise 45*

^^ ^

charste market

at.J-UlS nizamsiz irregular

change

to

21.

>^

satisfied

to

'

Jtf

Jt

g^

J^ c- JW
.*

^J

^-^

J Jri l.

The Present Tense.

t*\

1.

am

4&-J Translation 46.

eating bread

151

and drinking water; what

am

preparing myself to go to
art reading thy lesson: but thy
classmates are not studying (working); they are lazy.
3. No, Sir, why do you say so? How hard they are working!
But it is very difficult, they cannot do better. 4. Are
If they are
they coming to our house to-morrow?
coming tell them to bring my umbrella. 5. He was
No, Sir, I am satisfied.
thirsty; you are hungry.
6. I wish to go to Smyrna, do you wish to see that
city? 7. Can you change a mejidiye for me?
I cannot
change it; but if you can give me ten paras, I can
give you four quarters. 8. The bread is very cheap now;
they are giving an oke of it for 23 paras.

thou doing?
2. Thou
Iconium.
art

<U ^a

Jjj^C

1\

^-UJ5^

<04

^J>
cCjoJ^li oVjl

1\

Conversation.

_^L 4&

^fJj'^'^O

ojr"

tJ^l

A ^Ju> Reading Exercise.


jr fJjlilj->-

The Use of Animals.

iaC-lj

'

rr u-ji

152

j^ j* jBJi,

kji;i ji

Lesson

i>*

4y tfT^

df' dh^JA* J ^J/* ^r-

J^j- uJii^- iU- 'jf i*T i**r

>U, iil J

t"

22.

'

Hayvanlarin

3S

'

'

'

rt

bise olan bast faydeleri.

1
pih choq faydcsi var dir.
bir choghou bizun yeyejeMenmtet
I,/, uerde hayvanlarin
qoyoun Udu gwsou
tedarzVSdiyorlar. Sighir\ dana>,

Hayvanlarin

bizk

gm

hayvanlarin; ve tavouq, qaz\ eordek


baliqlar dakhi ba m
qoushlarid ettermi yeyorouz, av etleriyU
9 ta'amlar 1 " yapmagha qoullamUyor.
leziz
hayvanlarin
jamous^
Inek, Uchi, qoyonn V e
ve ovlaq* qibi

f> ,****

sudlaj*
sudiinden sudlii qah've, sudlii chay,
Bounlaulan
yapihyor
ta'amlar
ve bounlar qibi bdzi Uziz
yagU^ve peymr *V*9*
bashqa boJdann suduyle tere
i chin pel
1*
esMk sndunu de heJctmler hastalar
Mr. DisM

choq qoidlaniyorlar
3. to prepare
food.
9
7 ,eese. 8. duck
4. cattle. 5. calf. 6. kid (36
i. rn.e
11. buttalo.
use.
to
lanmaq
qpul
foods,
10.
15. female.
14. butter.
of milk, madzoun.

Words,

i.

use, benefit

procure

deUogu.

curds

^jiJO Lesson
fj,tk*

The

326.
Indicative
verb,

is

The

22.

Aorist.

of the
characteristic sign of the Aorist

the letter j re added

to

the

singular.
which forms the third person

root of the

The

other

The Aorist.

or

153

persons are formed by simply adding the abbreviated


present of the Substantive Verb ( 52 2 309).
,

327. The vowel sound between the re and the


root of the verb varies, being either -ai\ -er: -ii\ -iv;
-our, -fw. and can only be learnt by practice or from
a good dictionary.
Ex.
vIUaj

yer he eats

^o

der he says

vlU yemek to eat:

'

viJlt^

demek

to eay:

<LXs.j\

eotmek to sing

^Jo

baqmaq

the bird

to look:

gelmek to come:

vli-dS

eote'r

jlSl

baqar he looks

^Mj\ eblmek

328.

severiz,

jx-ju^ sever

love

si niz,

he loves

he

will love

we

we

shall love

love

you love

The Potential
A^nLoj.- sevebili'rim,
urtj*Li0^M

se'rebilir'sin,

^nLoj*- sevebilir,
I

am

you
they

j^vLo^-

^-jjLoj-

able to love, I can love ...

Aorist.

J>^

do not love or

sfaebilirler.

to love.

- se'vme'yiz,

Jjv
shall not love

se'vebilir'siniz,

fjLo*

jx-j-^-

J*j*~ sevmez,

sevebi'liriz,

know how
;!*

I%aj sevmem',
Cj~Jj~> sevmez'sin,

will love,

Aorist. JjIjcSI fjU=^

Jj^ff"

The Negative

dies.

thou wilt love

they love

',

sits

I shall love

Jj*- severler

he

he

f jUa*

4o|L>-l

habitually)

thou lovest

v ^~ sever',
3j_*~-

jj\j\ ebliir

Indicative Aorist.

sever' sin,

he takes

alir

Jjjj^j\ otourour

sit:

rjojl. seve'rim,
iju-jj-

j\)\

to die:

1.

he comes

gelir

^*d

j&\ almaq to take:

\jjsj\ otourmaq to

he sings

jj\

sevme'z'siniz,

sevmezler


154

Lesson

rr u*js
p^oj seve'mem,

t>u^oj

J*^oj~, seve'meyiz,
jL-j^o^~, seve'mezsiiliz,

sevc'mezsin,

j><>j~- seve'mez,
I

am

Do

{J
I

sevmez' miyim?

J*j" sevmez' mi?

not love?

r*jy"

J**J*j~' sevmez miyiz?

dost thou not love?

?!>;*j* oj~-

etc.

^ J^oj

seve'mem mi? sevemezmisin? seve'mez mi?)

Muta-la-at

sl;UilL

329.

I.

The formation

sevmez misiniz?

Jj*j sevmezler mi?

crt-^jj sever' miyim? -'misin?

p-oj~-

?^x J*^-

sevmez misin?

j>j~-

J>.J *>U^

Interrogative Aorist.

?iln

seve'mezler.

JJaoj^

not able to love, I cannot love

? sAjy,j~,

lei

22.

Do

Am

love?
not able to

Jove

Remarks.

of the Negative Aorist

is

irregular, as is seen above.

330.

mon

is

II.

The use

of the Aorist

among

the com-

people varies; as:


sever ik,

sever im,

seven, sever;

sevmem,

sevmen, sevmez; sevmezik,

sever sxniz, severler.


sevmezsifiiz, sevmezler.

331. The First Gerund. When *i~*>- jesine


added to the third person singular it gives the meanc

ing

as

intending to

if,

do'.

tjjjjy <u-4..jjjj\ ouyour'jasma gebzlerini


shut his eyes pretending that he was sleeping.
(i^Lli

He

cS^c-l

<C_4j.^a)I

sesi allr'jasina baghirdi.

qapadi.

He

shouted

to

nouns,

out as loud as he could (take his voice).

332.

and

signifies
(iJul

This jesine
'after the

jj~'Ajj\b 4^-aso^-.

is

sometimes added

manner

of, as, like'.

merd jesine davraniyor oudou. He was

behaving himself in a manly way.

He cried out like an ass.


The Second Gerund. Such English phrases

Eshek'jesine baghirdi.

333.
as 'before coming, before going' etc. consisting of

be-

1oo

The Aorist.

155

with a gerund, are rendered in Turkish in two


one by the use of the second derivative from the
The
Infinitive, as has been mentioned above ( 299).
fore

ways

-den evvel

other by appending J,o -den or j/i ^o

to the

third person singular of the Aorist, negative form; as:

^T^^O'.

ben gelmeden gitme


|

^^zS^j^jJ^^

j, ben seni

Don't come before (my calling you)

chaghirmazdan evvel gelme.


I call

you.

When

The Third Gerund.

334.

comm g-

ben gelmezden gitme]

4<JSjj\ ^j^j^^n&U.

my

Don't go before

the

third

person affirmative and negative come together a gerund


results:

As soon

jLjlj jljli yazar yazmaz.


gelir gelme z

He

chagMrdi.

The Assertive Aorist

2.

335.

The

called

as I (you, he) wrote.

me

as soon as he came.

(Conjunctive).

Assertive Aorist,

a,15C>-

which

is

fjU**

by

called

English scholars Past Habitual (corresponding to the


Imparfait and Conditionnel tenses of French) indicates
that one was formerly, in the habit of doing an action
or that one would do it on condition of somethingelse

happening.

Thus

'I used to
come or
happened)

*Jul

J^

gelir

would come

idim signifies either


(if

something

else

Bafia bir

would give

me

lira verirsen chog memnonn olour


a pound, I should be very glad.

r-^1

j\j^ yazar idim

iJJo\

jljL yazar idin

c5Ju\ jljli

yazar

idi

il-M jIJIj yazar idik

idim.

If

you

used to write, I should write.


1 should have written, etc.

jSJul j\jL yazar idiniz


Ji-^1 jlj^

yazar

idiler

Negative and Interrogative.


^jj\j^j~ or +*y*y* sevmez'idim, sevmez' dim
I

sermez'idin

used not to love or would not love or would not have loved,

etc.

156

rr

Lesson

u-J->

*-L.j^- sever' miyidim?

Used

not to love?

ci

>ju^j sevmez' miyidim?

Did

etc.

22.

not use to love?

etc.

336.

The Narrative

3.

Aorist.

JUl jj- seeeV imishim,

Cnit j^I

jx~JLcl jj~, seyer' imishsiniz,

JLlm

imish,

J^t\ jj~* sever

(They say that)

f-jUa*

J\lz.\ jj~, sever' imishiz,

imishsin,

sewer'

cJjj

j^~- sever' imishler.

used to love, (Perchance)

love

337.
4.

The Conditional

Aorist.

a^jj^, sever sem,

z\k~,j>j~,

sever 'se,

If I love, If

fjU**

sevir'sek,

jff^-jj sever

<^jj~, sever' sen,


-u-jj.-.

J^J^

^Jjj*,

thou lovest,

*<u-j*j sevmez' sem, -sen.

seniz,

severler'se.

etc.

If I

do not love

338. Note. The Conditional Aorist is abbreviated sometimes by omitting the characteristic re, and
then resembles greatly the Suppositive tense 378; as:
sevsem, sevsen, sevse.

Further:

339.

oA<u-jj^ sever' semde


jv5*~<j*j~- sevmez sende

^^j^ rf\j&
<^jjj\

aj

her him

gelirse

yb her ne oloursa

ck~,J-J^ <o<u-^n5

gelir'sede gelme'z'sede

Though

I love, yet

thou dost love, but

whoever comes.
whatever

it

may

be.

whether he comes or

not.

When

two or more verbs follow one another in the same tense, number and person, the personal
ending is generally omitted in all but the last:

340.

rjojOT j j^j\
gezerim.

I eat,

'

yer, ichir ve gezerim for yerim, icherim ve

drink and promenade.

The Aorist.

oy

157

Peder her aM'sham size gidiyor ve yarl gejeyedek otourouyoroudou, for gidiyoroudou. My father used to go every night
to your house and stay there till midnight.

i) Words.
p.

*ST

Yi that

a.

p.

JT\ eyer

if

a.

a.

jlJ>J tekrar again

a.

i-i^

JU^L: sachmaq

iL- miisafir guest

a.

IV ^Li
O^ J*

J-^'

<^^ r^T 4^>>w


k

o^jj

7^--A

*o

pjU-J

^jUI OtlJ

>JLj

*^J

'

4~jJ

j 0:31

CjC>\

surmek to plough

yazin in the summer.

Exercise 47.

0-V:>-l$

^jl

o-XJLwl r^jl

spread

^i<5l ekmek to sow

yal certainly!

eo tv?e

to

pj* wevsim season

vl.j^-

tara/^ place, side

L aIjjI

jjj sunbul hyacinth

A^

J1.C-L-

<ojy^ ju^L UjliV'

j^-4f^

jji

^-U>1 A>-ly>

4-JjTl j Jj*jj- ji

JUjiJu

4j4Aj

* cJjy

ffijjjjj-' Cx.jf 3

rr

158

o~J->

A^J?

Lesson

22.

oa

Translation 48.

1. I know Armenian.
Thou knowest German. Does
he know Greek? 2. Before you came here, you did

not

know

us (assertive). 3. Before seeing the property


(mal), I cannot give the money, but if I see and
approve, I will give the money.
Well, Sir, if I can
make you like it, then I hope you will pay.
4. At
what o'clock do you go to bed?
I eat at 12 o'clock
Turkish time, and lie down at 3 o'clock, in summer,
but in winter I eat at one o'clock and go to bed at

Sometimes, if I have guests, I sit up until six


o'clock.
I eat early and I retire
5. I do not do so!
early.
While others are
I rise early in the morning.

five.

read and write my lesson.


Sometimes in
morning air I take a walk in the field.
7. Can you ride
6. Well done! my boy; you do well.
on horseback?
Yes, I can (ride), but you cannot
this boy? They call
ride.
8. What do they call
sleeping,

the

fresh

him

Nejib.

<U^S

iSj^
.<'

U }\

'

(1r

f]^UIj->-

-P j'j <sj~~-

Conversation.

Reading Exercise.

Toices of Animals.

c^j*^

^A^~

ijj^\y>- cyy.

The Past Tenses.

o\

}*}y*y

O^-o^

jjjjj\

^Usl

jjfiS

Hayvanlarin

159

C>l

jt*j

sesleri.

Butun

hayvanlarin JcendUerine
var dir, ve ol sesi geostermek ichin
var dir; Mesela. 3

sdill

maktisous 1 sesleri
hirer tabirUri 2
cle

ahhir 5 inek bedyurur 6 arslan


9
gedmurder
kedpek liavayi khomaurdar 8 gourd oidoiir
10
11
lar
tilki inje bir sesle siniler
qoyoun ve kechi meter 12

At Kishner

eshek

kedi miyavlar 13 khoros eoter 1 *, tavouq gidaqlar 15 pilijler


ve oufaq qousMar jivilder 16 hind tavoughou 1T goalou goidou
,

eder 18 papaghan 19 laqirdi eder 20 gebyerjin 21


bfdbuJ 23 shaqir 2i edrdek vaq vaq eder 23
,

dim

clteker

22
,

2. term.
Words.
1. Especial.
3. for instance.
4. Kishnemek to whinny. 5. anirmaq to bray. 6. beoyurmek to moo.
7. gebmurdemek to roar.
8. Khomurdamaq to growl.
9. oidoumaq

to howl.

12. me10. liavlamaq to bark.


11. sinilemek to squeak.
lemek to bleat.
14. eotmek to crow.
13. viiyavlamaq to mew.
15. gidaqlamaq to cackle.
16. jivildemek to chirp.
17. turkey
(Indian) hen. 18. to gobble. 19. parrot. 20. to chatter. 21. pigeon.
22. to coo. 23. nightingale. 24. shaqimaq to warble. 25. to quack.

ff \jr^^> Lesson
Ju^U
341.

23.

The Past Tenses.

There are two tenses denoting the Past.

342. One is the Categorical Preterite called by


the natives Maziyi shouhoudi 'eye-witness past', which
depicts the speaker as having been present or as having
witnessed something with his own eyes, so as to know
for certain without any doubt. Hence it corresponds

it

tr

160

Lesson

u-j:>

n*

23.

with the compound tense formed with the Past Participle and the auxiliary verb To have'.
For instance
yazdi, not only means he ivrote (in the presence of the
speaker), but also he has written.
It may also be translated by the English Past,
formed with did; as: yazdi mi? Did he write?
yazdi,
he did write.
c

343. The other is the Dubitative Past, Maziyi naqli


implying or expressing doubt. The speaker is not sure
about the matter, he may have heard it from others. This
tense can be correctly used only when the truth of an
assertion is not guaranteed, and when the speaker means
to state that he believes what he says, but cannot
vouch for it; as: yazmish he wrote (as others say) he
has written (I believe), I am not sure about it'. This
r

tense

is

used in telling stories of the past or anecdotes

which the speaker has heard from others or read in


books.

Indicative Past. ^s^JL [J9 ^*

1.

The

344.
Past tense
first

J^

is

(ojli

or

it

fta -dih for

is

yazdi m,

the soft vowels and

r^j^ sevclim,

yazdtri

itaj sevdiri,

izj\>

yazdi',

<Szj~-

scvdi

jJ^jL

yazdiq

il.*^

sevdih'

',

I wrote, I did write,

I
,

have written
I loved,

',

etc.

yazdiniz', j>o^~. sevdiniz'

Ji-O^ yazdilar

^Oj~. sevdiler'.

Potential Past. ^jl-Ol


a_)Juoj.~.

For the

hard ones.

itajl

J^ojl

of the

suffix

-di, -di in the third person.

person plural

-diq for the

sign

characteristic

sevebildim',

iJjijo^~. sevebildin

(iiLioi- sevebildi',

',

^U

iljJuoj- sevebildik',

jSCjIoo^-

seoebildiniz',

^ljJuoj~. sevebildiler

w as
r

able

to love

The Past Tenses.

\*i)

161

Negative and Interrogative,


sevemediml was not able

*^<* yM sev'medim I did not love. *_>*,<.


l

^ <J f

-^ V az ^ m m ^ ^id I

yaz'madim ml? Did

write?

not write?

to love.

sevdim ml? Did I love?

^^-

Was

yaza'madhn ml?

not able

to write?

The Fourth Gerund.

345.
expression

is

formed by adding

-da 9 -de to the

person plural of the Past, thus indicating


is performed.
oji^jL yazdlqda

chan chalindlqda her


body must sit down.

when he

wrote.

otoursoun

Ices

common

very

when an

first

action

Cjj^Jj^J^ lt"O a *-xSjJI- <j^*

when the

bell is

rung every

346. The Fifth Gerund. By adding *>. -je,


to the same person, another kind of gerund is made,
which corresponds to in 'proportion as, the more
the

more:
more

Oy-Is-^^j^-

*^=5jui

(5*\jjI

tsvabinl geydikje hoshlanajaqsln.

The more you weare your dress the more you

347.
kish

The

fj^j j- *?}}yj\ <J>\s Icitabi oqoudouqja seviyoroum.


I read the book the more I like it.

After with a Participle,

by the addition

of

iy& c$

is

will like

it.

rendered in Tur-

-den sonra to the

same

person as:
o^fjo ,j.x5jJj\

*^fj-* o-ii^jL j ben

the

my

ben ebldukden sonra after

yazdlqdan sonra after

death.

I wrote.

Mektoubou yazdi, ve yazdlqdan sofira mebMrledi.


and after writing he sealed it.

He

wrote

letter,

348.

Further:

Eoyrenemedik gitdi. At last we were not able to learn.


Seoyledim gitdi. At last I have spoken.

2.

349.

Assertive Past,

The

Assertive

^pj-i
Past,

^U
which

*l$C>.
is

called

in

English the Pluperfect, is made in two ways, one by


adding the Past tense of the Substantive Verb to the
Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

11

Lesson

Yf urJ^

162

>^Y

23.

the second by adding


third person of the Past tense and
the Substantive Verb
the third person of the Past of

Past tense.

to the

&M ^~

sevdim

idi,

ia-J

-^

&M

<S>j~> sevdi idi,

sevdin idi,

i$M ibj*<**

am

(I

sevdi idin,

<S\

**J~

di

sMi

***

idi

'

'

sevdi **?

***

SiVdl

^^

t^j-

afod*

er.

Thou hadst

sure),

The Narrative Mood

Note.

6>j~

J.J-J

sevdiler idi,

loved

I "had

sMifliz idi >

&M J,3j-

A\ 6>y~

sevdik idi,

J*4*J-

^ ^^

loved.

wanting.

is

350.
Conditional Past.

3.
It is
4-.I

made

in

fojl yazdim

4! 4*%

y zd

k!\ iS&i yazdl


If I

J^i

[Sj> *J*\*

two ways, as in the Assertive Mood.


-J

ise,

^ ^'
*->)

ise,

If

>u^

o^J oUT
a-.\

\s\

yazdifliz

alamadlm
&** v azdi

I loved,

iside I
isS

**

>.*>. V azdllar isL

thou hast written

joj- sevdim isede

Further:

V azdi(L

j{i

isi>

have written,

&%

but

was not able

whoever

ma ^

to take,

but -.

have written

The Dubitative Past. j ^*U


351.
tense

is

J^

The

characteristic

^
C^Jl.^

or

suffix of this

accor
-mlsh, -mteh, -mush, -mousli,

ding to the dominant vowel.


persons is regular.

352.

sign

1.

The formation

Indicative Dubitative. a^U-I

se-vmi'shim,

sSvmish'sin,

of the

J&J* *"***

jd*j~

sevmisli siniz,

nr

The Past Tenses.

I loved,

have Joved

said)

is

(it

Potential Dubitative.

ojL

ya^a bilmish

jjJUJL ojL ya^a

jx.,.,t

sin,

was able

.CjIjcSI

*&

ej^ y3 bilmish'iz,

Jl s/a^a bilmish' siniz,

j^^LUL

bilmish''(dir).

[They say that)

J**L

pJLJL ojL ya^a bilmish' im,

UL

163

jzJJLaj sevmishler'(dir).

J~*j~* sevmish' (dir),

j.>

i>

0^, yazabilmishler' (dir)

to write

Negative and Interrogative Forms.


JL.LJL.

yaz'mamlshim,

Jl\j~.

sevmemishim

I did

was

p_l.l.*jL

yaz'amaimshim

-AijLtjl

yazmishmiylm? -'misin?

~*-i.Lo3^ yaza mcumshmiylm?

8 353.
jj\ <J~*j~<

2.

idin,

<jjj\

J^y

idi,

3.

it\

(I

am

sure),

(They say that)

355.

4.

sevmisli

>

a:

idik,

u-^j sevmish

idiler.

loved.

^ bj

jtlIz) J~*j~*

t*J

sevmish' imishiz,

jx~it| ury* sevmish'

have loved,

1>

uj

J^-^>\

J^}

lt^J" sevmish'

imishsiniz,
imishler.

etc.

J<-j\ ^r** sevmish' isen,

jS+~j\

J^

J^j-

lli

sevmish'

i$Sk,

ise'niz,
^J-*j~> se'vmish'

J<A <J-*y

^p-*j~- se'vmish' ise,

"

idiniz,

iJ-u-jl

>1

15C

u~*j sevmish

isem,

ui^-

Conditional Dubitative.

rj\ <J-+y sevmish'

4s

J^^

jL- sevmish' imish,

72

write?

Narrative Dubitative.

J-*j~* sevmish' imishsin,

not able to write?

Thou hadst

^^tl

i)ju\

\j-*y sevmish' imishim,

p-itl
Cr\

sevmish

had loved

354.

Was

sevmish idim,

(J^j sevmish

Did

Assertive Dubitative.

JiJjul

not write

love
not able to write
.

sevmish'

iseler.

If T loved (as they say), (as others say).


7a*'fiUHii$sft tsn,

-ise'fj

If I

had not written

(as

others say).

n*

164

rr

Lesson

(j-j^

nt

23.

Further:

356.

a*Jj1 J^j^i yasmXsh olsam If

had written.

J*-Jjl ,JX\ almish olsalar If they had taken.

Ail Words.
di.jj.j- supurmek to sweep

?->M

a.

a.

medicine

i^aj

dkjjjfjl eoksurmeTc

f.

cough

to

to

jj-JLa. J^_. i/oZa

chiqmaq

aii

sickness

ibjS

J^4i

'?

isitma or

sail.

sUma tontmaq

j^Z*\j\

'

J>Zj

? jo,jj)^

j\i

<jy*Jy y*

ojujl

ooiiil

3y>- oy**j
j\IT

'

^*^J

dUlill

jloJT^j

>^-~ 3

<u~J

?=Lo>.

*J*>

fSZs*.

^1^1 J3^ ^

L co:i^ *^a.4)4lJ
(

^4

it

fiol

Jt

jI^UaJjj

tjo^oollj a>o

-fOJjl ill

^Ojl ^Jlj:^4j8_/ ^U- ooJIj

l-^

49=^0}

J-'ji

ijj^dji

ti' ^JIj^Ju

^U

4a j>

^~

<&\

^j^jojljj a

^J^o^y fj^^

uyy

{ZjSijjfe. 4^jCS- ju.

'

J^j^j^-

from malaria.

to suffer

Exercise 49.

j^JUi

<JU> JUJoi-iti? j 03

#en hack

<-Sj>

^ol^- Ay jyol dLj^f 4Jj\iJ

affliction,

J.>'^-o cZ^i saying

A
.

derd

p. aj.j

to set out

(to

o :

J.\J^ UUgraf a telegram

start,

{j*j deyirmen mill


,jfji

t.JT^U- saadetly happy

jUt.*lj!

a\jj\

*jujl <cl*jI

jtcl

*co~..*ji3

J aJulJV

The Past Tenses.

^^o

4J3-J

165

Translation 50.

What

has he planted in the garden?


He
has planted there some lilies, potatoes and tomatoes.
2. Whose brother has two small knives?
3. It is re1.

ported [they say' that a man was killed yesterday in


the town.
4. [They say]
some one has been killed
this week at the mill.
5. When did the ship sail?
She sailed on the first day of the month. 6. The mail
from Samsoun arrived this morning. 7. Did you see
my father? No, Sir, I waited for him in the market
but I could not see him. My brother James saw him
yesterday.
8. The more you learn the happier you
are.
9. The more you advise him the angrier he gets.
10. When your brother comes from the town, please

me know.

let

<dl^*

dU'

^j\

JL*. .Ti \

,U|

Jl*a&*

ft^lac*

cr'^tj* <^1jJw

Conversation.

(jlLL.

oJ^cjjU

0^_^ o<Jjl

ftJLseoU

Tola

^Ti'iA

aj>5}

s^cL. fvJju

^\5

)i.or

J.<^j

jjjj^j^*

ita>L.

JUiiLic.

<J|

-r

Cur

(j>j-

12

2. a. vasita hand, means.


conqueror 601
5. wo?<haaere siege ( 618\
6. zeval fall.
7. p. ??am name.
8. Qanouni
Soultan Siileyman Sultan Suleyman, the Lawgiver (152066;. 9. qomanda commandership. 10. vezir vizier. 11. moumciyileh His Excellency [the person referee! to, i.e. the latter]. 12. ehali inhabitants.

irorf75.

3.

fet-h

etmek

1. a.

to

tarikh date, history.

conquer.

4. /afi'/i

ft ^j*

166

Lesson

^Lli*

(i*^'

"

J^

"

13

"

"

*JdV.-*

tin

24.

aLJj1-Ux>.

dX'J^Z* ij-Ja*
jlli
u~-*a* ^J\zS
1

"

o^t/" JL^L-ic

klixjl oJ
jjL <o
o_L_jl.
J\l>Jl

*'

^
vL

'

u-^^* *iL-jljjl5
1

$A^

ij^o.^1

.Jjjlj5j\

*-^

13. hazretleri His Majesty.


14. huTcumdar ruler.
15. Injili
Sherif the Holy Gospel. 16. tab printing. 17. towards the end of
the 17th century.
19. Ingiliz Kitabi
18. a pervert to Islam.
Monqad'des shirketi B. & F. B. Society. 20. Mm'metiyU through the

assistance, by.

Troper Names: Jibon Ed. Gibbon.

Y *

u^>0

Qarolos Charles V.

Lesson 24.

The Future Tense.

\~s...

The Future tense in Turkish corresponds


of the English language; with this difference,

357.
to that

it simply asserts what will happen, without making


a promise, which is always rendered by the Aorist.

that

The

358.
o

'

4.

-e-,

Categorical Future

-a- to the verbal root,

nant; and

Ai

wards dU-

-jeJc is

> -JaQ

if

-ye-,

is

-ya-

if it

added

hard

if

if

is
it

made by adding
ends in a conso-

ends in a vowel; and


the verbal root

is

soft

(53):

jjjM

'

VjjLjl

'

ojj^j\

'

j^oj^Ljl

otourajaq

wU*.ij1

'

VaLj|

'

aj .:)!

'

dJU*<uc~.jl

isteyijek

\+zZf

'

Vci^

'

ojJT^

'

dJUoj^

after-

gidejcl:

and

The Future Tense.

)*\V

359.
i!

-&, are

changed into

by a vowel: 52 2
360.
is-ojl

The

Note.

radical

yazaja'-ghlm,

-t,

when followed

4>jU.i

Ll~

lK-5k*.4jO-j1 isteyejek' -sin,

js

yazaja-ghiz,

<1X*~4j<-j_\

isteyejek' (dirj,

\xu<l~>\ isteyeje-yi:.

j^Lis-ajL yazcjaq-siniz,

jj>.<><L-t\ isteyejek -siniz,

j* Jl*-ojl yazajaq-lar (dirj. jiJS>fjC-;| isteyejek-ler


thou will

I shall write,

-q,

So.\>*z~j\ isteyeje-yim.

js 3^-0^ yazajaq (dirj,


ojL

-//*-, -?/-,

Indicative Future.

1.

endings j

88.

Caia-fljlj yazajaq -sin,

-tf-,

167

thou

I 6hall ask,

will

(dir).

ask

Negative and Interrogative.


P^ajUjIj yaz'mayajagliim,-shi...

P^ajLoJL yaza'mayajagliiim
? _.

...

ojL yazajaq 'miyim?

-<JL-<uL31j

yaz'mayajaqmiyim?

^JU-djUojl) yaza'mayajaqmiybn?

361.

I shall
I

shall not

be able

to write

Shall I write?

Shall I not write?


Shall

Assertive Future.

2.

not write...

not be able to write'

^l5CS- JJlTw*

Assertive Future or Imperfect Future signifies that


an action was going to take place in the past, Present,
or future.
a jM
j}jj\

(j^O^ yazajaq

idim,

3**^^

>;

idin,

mKj

<5-M (3^-0^
I

was about

'

idik,

J?^>-^\

(3-0^

idiui:,

jk-)u\

^*-3^

idih'r.

to write, (yesterday, to-day or to-morrow).

Note.
This tense
following manner:
A.xi.ojlj

J>-0^ yazajaq

iJjul

is

often written and

pronounced

jjj>.oj~. yazaja'ghidim, sivijeyidin

in the

ft

168

362.

Ca

Lesson

u-j->

dJU.o^

\>.oj~.

imish'sin,

^pt) vlU-o^w

imishf

sevejek imtshim,

[They say that]

363.
,

"j

iJ 4.-.J

<*

>

A^ o

4.

HA

24.

Narrative Future. z*>hj JJ&~*

3.

p .7.c\
itl

sdJU.

is.\

vlAa-o^-

imishsiniz,

^- ^

di>-o^~-

imishler.

J><

was about

jZs\

to love

Conditional Future.

a.

<taA>.

y*

ts&S,

>O0

2S<?',

or sevejeyisem,

l^Jto*".^

sevejek isem,

ij<

vlAoj.~.

il

"S

^_j

iseniz,

Oa^

iseler.

<1>-

am

to love

sevejek isek,

vi^Oj^-

yazajaghisaniz

sevejeyisefi; yazajaghisaq,

If I shall love, If I

secejek imishiz,

Further:

364.
o-U-jl-j!

yazajaq isemde

ij^-oj^

I shall write,

We

oa5"L-j| viAs.Ju^.oj^' georemeyejek isekde


to see,

<oj5"X_j| vUU.4j<u4jjjjj

but

shall

not be able

yeoruyemeyejek isenizde You will not be able


to walk, but
but

JCiJ Words.
vULJiiS"" keyflenmek

^il J-j

yil

to

be de

lighted
bashi New -Year's

a.

Day
a. Jas-lj

^il

vlJL

flayis

LlU haniya? where


J*j

yani that

is to

is it?

say

i^JoJIj yaldizli gilt

preacher

J_A~ seyrek sparse

bin bashi major


ti

tiVl^n* mirdlay colonel

>IL yayla summer-residence

^_ jf" Z: eo/) ra bridge

<L\*J^jjS^georuslimek to visit

^LL.1* family ajaq with the


,3-^ slq thick

whole family.

Jui

-i^

-41

\\-r
V
t "\ *

Exercise 51.

'

A*>

'

^ll>

Lo

^~
,

jji

4JHT

m
4joJ-

The Future Tense.

+Jj+jJ~S

Imi

^e-Xwji3 4

e^Jjjjl J^o-OCjJ

^o

j^JUSI

ejl

(^-U

\^~jy C)

dLliT (5

^^

jIII'jUjjI

OT

4j^J?

J/.

^joJ^I
"\

J^

[Jjy***
the path

Jit*50

~~

^ ^ l4^

j3 ibu- dl Jj\

jl5C^.oJLi

>-LLl>

4jIjj!

Translation 52.

Who will come to visit us to


that my sister Eliza will pay

the Psalms

*-^->-fiJlJ

ej^k Ujjl J^? J jUlL Jjy J^jU

1.

lieve

J^

eA*ZS iSfy^

cSVlju j ^11 dl>

jvid dU-A-^eJo

169

morrow?
us a

visit.

mezmourlar) David says:

I be2.

Thou

In
will

show me
of life.
3. Mrs. Mary loved her
children and is loved by them. 4. As soon as I hear,
I shall let you know.
5. You shall not go to the gardens.
I will not allow it.
6. I shall write a few lines
before I go to supper.
7. Shall I give him so much?
No, Sir, he is asking too much. 8. Would Anna read
such a dirty paper?
She could read others more
dirty than that. 9. If I could (give), I would give you

pounds, but I cannot give [it].


10. Where will
he go?
If he finds a horse, he will go to the sum-

five

mer-residence.
U |^S
?

Conversation.

j>. 4JL

aJ

jlx- ^.b-Xlsl

j-Xj

<jy

y iw

170

ft.

j^jl i
fc*j

dbji

z,*\r

siALJI

jjoJ

<cl

TTorcZs.

Nasreddin.
not at all.
ed at heartily.
2.

d#a

J^j

^J*

JlJ Reading
-4
2

jj

Lesson

Exercise.

Sermon of

JSasr-ed-clin.

vJlt^ \$aii *>i>

>,& 4>r* aU- Ly

1.

tv

24.

Ct-vM

ll

J*ZJS

10<Cc-^"

Nasred'din Hoja Ejfendi the reverend teacher

tar
emsalsiz unique. 3. edmrunde in his life. 4. fttcft
laughbe
to
gulunmek
5. laqirdi a word. 6. ishtahla

8. haqq vermek to approve.


to. listen.
people.
11. chevircongregation,
jema'at
9. Mrsu a pulpit.
13. jemben
to wonder.
H.
12.
te-ofjub
face).
(his
turn
mek to
in answer. 14. seoyUyeyim 1 may speak.
7.

dmUmek
10.

The Optative Tense.

Vl

168

jwb

lf

a *o

,.

l/'olr 3js

Ji^
((

jj\L

Ijjvi-j

'

171

^J&l

*l>-I^

sL>jl

18

20

-J*r-T

^3

^j^j-^.i

^jl

jaJ jl/2 Jlj-

j-:

^JW

):>

^JbJ^al*

-T

cS-^ ^j>1

16 a aqiTli
shout,
to call
wise. 17. davranmaq to behave. 18. baghrishmaq to
out together. 19. terbiyesizlik rudeness. 20. gujenmek to be angry.
21. madam Zri since. 22. yebriuju vermek (to depart and) go quickly.
15. ertfesi

the following.

16. tekrar again, repeating.

\jfO^> Lesson 25.

^Ijdl

The Optative Tense.

365. The Optative tense expresses a desire or


wish that some action may be performed. Its characteristic

sign

a -e, -a (or

is

*>

when

-ye, -ya,

the root

ends in a vowel) added to the root of the verb. This


forms the third person singular.
The first person
plural

is

formed by adding

366.

Indicative Optative.

1.

pjo^- seveyim ',


C*~j~> sevesin,

Cjy*jJ* oj-^j^

That

-Mm,

may

o^-

seVe', sevsiii

love, that

-Ifon to this.

4jl.
ioj^-

j~"
J;

ITVJ

sevelim

*- sevesiniz,

thou mayest love,

sevelev'.

etc.

Negative. ^LKJI \iL


pj4j^^. seu'mei/e>/im, sev'meyim,

14j<uj~ siv'meyelim,

172

ro

^j*

Lesson

25.

uj-ai^aj- sev'meyesin,
l

Oy<**j~>

(jj~aj~,

That

'

jx~-4j<u^_ sevmeyesiuiz,

<sja^- sev'meye, sev'mesin,

may

not love,

)yy

Jij-u^- sev'meyeler.

etc.
(

Interrogative.

^Ijfll

.UlJ

367. The interrogative forms are generally in


use only for first and third persons, they are used to
ask permission for something, and are rendered by shall
or

may:

Person

1:

3:

May
Person

1:

3:

^ pjj^
^ <jj~-j^

(_.

pj*jll\

^
^ J^jL
).oj\j

mi?

yazsin

may

I write,

yazaybri mi?

yazalim mi?
yazsirilar

mi?

he, we, they write?

al'mayayim mi?

mi?

oj-lll al'masin

1LU al'mayalim mi?

^ J{,j~*\l\

al'masinlar

mi?

Shall I not take?

OWllL* Mida-la-at Remarks.


to

368. The third person of the Optative


form some important gerunds:

The Sixth Gerund. By adding

369.

berou,

or jjjjJ -liden

the Primitive,
j^nljJ<jJS

meaning

ajIj^j

'

sl

gerund

is

is

used

J,-Zi, -11

obtained,

called

'since'; as:

<J,&XT aj\jj>

bouraya geleliden berou, bouraya

Since he came here.

geleli.

ji

<c~i-

J^jis (j^p-^-ji bou chojouq


This boy

berou) hasta dir.

370.

is

doghali, (or doghalidan

sick ever, since his birth.

The Seventh Gerund.

singular another gerund


denotes repeated action:

third person

ci

J^A.ty

371.

<c*y qoslia qosha geldi.

repeating the

is

formed which

He came running continually.

The Eighth. Gerund. Another Gerund

produced by adding jj
of the verb;

By

it

fjj

is

-raq, -rek to the same part

expresses the manner of a subordinate

The Optative Tense.

ivr

173

which takes place at the same time as that


by the verb it accompanies:
jj-jj^^J^C 1j<Cj^~ sevinerek mektebe gidiyor. He is going

action
stated

to school joyously.
i$JJS"

ijJ^y

qosharaq

The Ninth Gerund.

372.

the addition of

and

person,

(^lil*

alight!

(i.

e.

He came

geldi.

is

(^-la-jl

._

'

This

obtained by

is

-sija

or

*?6~- -si,

running.

to

third

the

used for cursing and blessing:

May

ojaghi yanasl or yanaslja!

may he

his hearth be

be prosperous!)

4^lJl ^U-jl ojaghi bataslja! May his fireplace be sunk!


e.

(i.

may

his offspring be annihilated!)


-*Jj\

2.

j^keor

May

olasija!

The Assertive

he be blinded!

Optative.

1<C. *>j

dl

373. The Assertive Optative either expresses a


wish that some action may take place, although one
scarcely expects it. or indicates regret that
has not taken place in the past:
*ju\

ojL yazay'idhn,

i)jul

il-M O^i yazay'id'ih,


cSJul

That

might write! or That

374.
of any verb

JjVjI

urO^ yazmish

j}jS)jj\ ^Jjtji

<iJoVj\

Jt'

yazay'idimz,

J*->\

oj\^

yazay'idilar.

had written!

jljl

olayldim,

olayidi,

might write!

become',

to

yazmish olayidin,

^J.^ yazmish

That

That

iJjuVjl (JU3'

LJ

a.
375.
the verb which

are:

to

yazmish

olay'tdiq,
olay'id'iuiz,

.JL^'ji,

yazmish

Ji-^Vjl

yj-+j\*

yazmish dlayid'dar.

had written!

Words which
follows

to express just

jS>jSij\

Ol*llL Muta-la-at

words

ejl yazay'idiq,

The Dubitative Past third person singular


is compounded with the Assertive Optative

of the verb olmaq


the same meaning:
^

action

jr^-^)

ojL yazay'idi,
I

some

Remarks.

express a wish require


be in the Optative: such

to

174

tf'o**J!J

that!

-*->

^ ?7a7i ^ rSm
'

it

were

fc**'

so!

Allah V * dil

grant that!

!o

aj

(iJo

^Hafc vereyidi de! Would

i\

Misal'Ur

jU\l#

to

God

that!

Examples.

that he had been here!


that I had given!
ffintf* or,
AZ ?a^ verede eyi
or
de,
vereyidi
.4Hofc
or
Allah iirdn'M
a good rain!
grant
yaghmour geleyidi! Would that God would

JHfrMU Imrad'aolaytdV. Would

Would

no'layUi vereyidim!

bir

Ww

St^kiash'ki vulg.Uslige! Would that

p.

God

'

25.

Would

CtfJuJ *L?U>) no'layidi!

t$*yj

Lesson

u-j->

376.

meaning approaches

the

Sometimes

b.

Past ( 379)
closer to that of the Suppositive

much

'

AAiUjI
-

^Ju^Jjl

(-

ajJ

i*j3 vermish olayldim or vermish

ol-

"

sayidim are the same.


JCiJ

^T ujTU mh

almafl to

j/ST *MK

*U -

to suppose, take

uj-bt

a.

^
Of

il. j,U t

yjjiVT

foi

ifhVl

.<3

&*1

P- jrfjf

**'

beam

ost
'

permission

^aber

together.

May that

ofootm or ola

sell

bC health

'

[ 490].

to you!

so**** to

^> **^ P

\x* sadaqa alms


!

jiU

buy

heart

^U ^ 2
a.

Words.

Wj
!

riW Exercise 53.

u/U J^ty ji

J^

d^_ Apj-tt

r _x>l jL.1

'

.a tfxi

j^xJ l^

jM

oj. Co'

fAj

(*A

^ # J^ ^
1

(f

W -VJ

^iUjtJ (even) j^Jjl

J^

.jl

oj

ta

gJ. '>

'

>

The Optative Tense.

Yo

;^.il

t.r.

/.

^i-.it

.1

175

.,?./.,

/.

,M.i

ofy.

42~j

Translation 54.

Shall I read it? what shall I say? 2. How shall


I have patience? 3. May his hand be broken! 4. Since
I began my lessons I have not missed a day.
5.
that I knew a little French!
6. Oh!
that he might
come. 7. It is well that I did not offer it to you, for if
I had given it you would not have taken it.
8. Would
that he had been here!
9. Shall we go to see the
It is hot now, I cannot go.
lion?
10. May God
keep you in good health! 11. What shall I do now?
1.

You

anything now. Go to your room


until I call you.
12. You must not go to your uncles'
house, unless you are invited.
13. By asking continually you can find [the way to] Bagdad.
14. By
studying continually you will learn fast.
cannot do

Ax |$S

Words. 1. Bab'bani douva Lord's Prayer. 2. semavat hea3. mouqad'des holy.


4. iradet will,
5. oldouglwu gibi as
''was).
6. i/ra olounmaq to he done.

vens.
it

Conversation.

176

Lesson

r^ ^-j^

"

f-^ ^-^ J_^-

1Y1

26.

.^

?S*3 o^j*\ jx-Uj\3 *a

J-^y.

*xl2*1

Lr

9
ilrt>li-frl|

.'

J*.L

cmn

lie

Jj iS^j^ -b^w*

jjJLljl

<C~.

jyb ^J^i

pJ*.

Jf*

t5

vouqou boulmaq the decree of the True one


8. esef et. to be sorry.
9. baghishlamaq to
grant.
10. aqlhn yetmez I cannot comprehend (my reason do not
reach [so far] i. e. I was a child).
7.

7ia<2<?

happened, he died.

\j^Jl>

Lesson 26.

The Suppositive Tense [Subjunctive].


377. The Conditional Optative, which is
by many Grammarians simply the Suppositive
is formed by adding the Conditional terminations
he

called
tense,
to the

of the third person Singular of the Optative.

378.
P^u-jli

Suppositive Present. <u^ i

1.

yaz'sam,

3*-JI;

ii^jL yaz'san,

were

J^j^i yaz'salar.
to write, etc.

Negative.
aa^-UjI or ** jl

yaz'masam,

'

ikjL

yaz'saq,

jS<~.j\> yaz'saniz,

<ujL yaz'sa,

If I write, If I

Jl>.

'

aJ^j

Jl>-

^wjl

yaz'masan, yazmasa,

*Ju
1

etc.

If I

if *

do not write.
were not to wrlte

The Suppositive Tense.

1VV

379.

2.

Suppositive Past. *Jp

177

^U

The Suppositive Past states the condition on which,


something had happened, some other action would
have taken place, or would still take place. It casts
doubt on the performance of some condition.
if

*j
i)j

'

,j\j

If I

p.JLs.\

^L-L-^jl yaz sayidxlar

had written,
3.

etc.

Narrative Suppositive.

J^Q

<-jl yaz'sa imishim,


yaz'sa imishsin.

had written

381.

Muta-la-at:

included in

speak,

but

it

yaz'sa imishsiniz,

yaz'sa imishler.

Remarks.
p.

$i eyer

if

Suppositive Tense,

the

characteristic sign of this tense


if,

"~-j^

The Conjunction

a.

<-JIj yaz'sa imishiz,

J^}

(as others say)

Ol*Jl!a^

^^>j ^}jj

;.x->c\ -.-jl

a-JL yaz'sa imish,

If I

to

JXjJl-*JIj yaz'sayidifiiz,

(^jM-)!) yaz'sayidi,

ts\ *~.j\>
LJi^\

iJj^-Jl, yaz'sayidiq,

iljuU-jlj yaz'sayidin,

380.

yaz'sayidhn,

>ju\<u-jlj

'

j[>

<^j

>

'

,jl

is,

so

as the

a -se has the meaning

can be and often is used together with


emphasis; as:

it.

especially for the sake of

+~~JLj\^ j\ eyer chalishmasafi, or chaUshmasan If you do not

382.

5Clb

b.

Ictcisl'i,

are used with

If the Suppositive tenses are

Eyer erken gelseyidim.


c.

If they

become Suppositive; as:


olsa! O that I had ten piastres!

eyer\ they

Kiashki on ghouroushoum'
Eyer' on ghouroushoum olsa. If
that
Ktashki erkeri gelseyidim!

383.

used with

they are regarded as Optative.

try.

If I

The Optative

I
I

had ten piastres.


had come earlier!

had come

earlier.

of the auxiliary verb jljl

vlmaq to become, to have' is used with the third person Dubitative and Future of any verb, to express the
Suppositive; as:
Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

12

y^ ^jz

173

iiaswils& oZ'*aw,

Lesson

- ol'sa, etc.
,.,..,.
olsayidin, olsa'yidi,

ol'san,

yazmish olsa'yidim,

1YA>

26.

yazajaq ol'saw, yazajaq ol'san

JBfet

If I

>

yazajaq olsa'yidim, yazajaq olsayidin

-i

If I

etc.

am

about to read.

MisaTUr Examples.
georurudunuz.

bi4 <7eZusft olsayidinXz, amoujaml


would have seen
If you had come to us yesterday, you
vermiz.
borjounouzou
olsaniz,
alajaq
Maaslunizl
debts.
your
If you receive your salary, pay

Dim

jj

>U

a.

OjjO dm*

selam salutation

d^a

Si3

L.

minute

daHZroagtobeoffended

jjJlL

^Jlj3

k>

jiff

W^

'

inkstand

oiU even, though


n^

cfcfmefe.'

certainly

Exercise 55.

.^U.^ f)*Jjl dU^To

<j,l

my uncle.

Words.

a.

had

written.

:<juJjI

j-ol fWil CiTjt

C^

JJTuiU ^- Ctifj**

The Suppositive Tense.

1VS

0*\

Where

1.

he go?

will

seen.

you write

If

4.

Had we

2.

we should have been


stand here?

Translation 56.

4"J?

go to the forests.

179

he finds a horse he will


been walking in the street,

If

my

3.

May

to

your mother, give her

bring

ink-

5. Had we
(say to her) my compliments (salutations).
stayed there for a minute, we should have seen the

Governor-general and the governor. 6. Although you


bring the grapes, I may not eat them. 7. Should you
want money, take them to the city and sell them.
8. Were the merchant to send the goods now, I should
use them to-day. 9. I believe that, if they were here
now, we could sell them here. 10. If I take your pen
for a moment, will you be offended?
No, Sir, you
may use it as long as you wish. 11. May he bring
Certainly; if he
his younger brother with him?
brings him, my children will be very glad.

<U

\a\

fJ^I

-)J~)yf

'

A~1S

f"^

j^s <~~Jb <~~^j>. Alii

J^\i
^jl-jU) Jajej
(

Words.

j dhail
t

1.

a.

Conversation.

|5^

oj\

J>\

(^-iat

j&

ma bad

AjAjU.Al~.aJ_

1j&

jJ>yj

j*o

>

jaISv* V

ol

/ j5*~~> <SJ&>&

Reading Exercise.

A Sermon

of Nasr-ed-din.

continued.
12*

Lesson

fV u*J*

180

*A

27.

******

^^

2.

those

m^roa

curiosity.

3.

garar fjmft to decide.

who know among you

4.

UUnltrifii*

( 407).

YY ^j*J$ Lesson

27.

The Necessitative Tense.


necessity,
The Necessitative Tense indicates
ought to
and duty, that an action must or

8 384
obligation

take place.

The

characteristic sign of this tense

-meli with the


verbs.

soft

and

This termination

d\.j~

'

yj\i

'

V^
Vjl

is

J,U

^>

-mail with

added

-i<v- faRffl'
j/a*wiali'

is

J*

'

J,**

the hard

to the root.

He must

love

(if is

necessary).

He must write (that is

his duty).

385.
1.

Indicative Necessitative.

Ja,^ stimMiyim,

*jU-

^j~>

UjrJ

shmieliyiz,

The Necessitative Tense.

)\)

i>

j*
I

l*j- secmeli'sin,

J^~must

Jx.

o;*,

1-^j-

sevmeli siniz,

JjjuU*^- sevmeli dirlev

sevmeli' dir,
love,

181

ought

'.

to love, o?\ ani to love, etc.

Negative and Interrogative.


(f

i.<*<-^-

>'

sev

-,

'

,~

memehyim,
~.

~*

Cn

J^j^

[**<j~.
>

'T

'

jjJU4.u^
'

'"

sev memelisin, sev


sevmeli'

'T

miyim? Ought

must or ought not

T
memeliair
'

tO lOVe.

(
J

I to love?

J^***- sev'memelimiyim? Ought

Must

not to love?

love?

Must

not

love?

i"

of Turkey the
of the third person plural
as seumeliler, instead of the regular sevmeli dirler.

386.

people

Xote.

some regions

In

make a wrong use

2.

Assertive Necessitative.

<j^>-j *15CS-

387. The Assertive Necessitative (which is called by some grammarians Past Necessitative) expresses
that it was necessary or right that an action should
have taken place, or that one was forced to perform

some

act; as:
.iJjJlJS

oJ* dun

gelmeliyidin

You ought

jx. jJuJL^

<-lC mektebe

to

have come

yesterday,

gitmeli' yidiniz

1.

You ought

to

have

gone to the school. 2. You were obliged to go to the school.


4. You should have gone to
3. You were to go to the school.
the school.

388. It is the Past tense of must, which is


wanting in English, and corresponds to the German
musste.
*jJLjli yazmali' yidim,

iJjJUjLi yazmali' yidiq,

j^jJLjL yazmali 'yidiniz,

iJjJLjlj yazmali yidin,

t^jJUjlj yazmali' yidi,


I

ought to have written.

JLjJLjIj yazmali' yidilar.


It

AjJLLjl yaz'mamaliyidim

was necessary that


I

should write.

ought not to have written.

389.
3.
r~iM

Narrative Necessitative.

JL.JL yazmali' yimishim,

J}-iM

d,yr-> *^t

JW3^ yazmali'

imishiz.

Lesson

rv ^rJ>

182

JUJL

pm*

"jt* <JW>1

yawkdT

uj-Jfcl

l*r

27.

misfcsm, j<Li*1 JUJ*. S^^ali'


JLSr

iitmfc,

JU>. yazmaW

MMM*,
imishler.

written.
(They say that) I ought to have

390.
Conditional Necessitate.

4.

If

it

is

me

necessary for

,Ulk

J^j J&j^

to write, etc.

Remarks.

Mtita-la-at:

Necessitate form,
8 391 a. Instead of using this
obligation and necessity
some words may be used to denote
words are:
with the Substantive verb, such
together

3V lazim necessary.

a.

*f 9**

necessary, requisite.

U**\ iqtiza

requisite.

a.

Jy

a.

mejbour obliged.

a.^*b WV^

a.

necessary.

TonialftRr

is

mouqtazi' necessary.

expressed by yazmasl \az\m


rn^ourdour; yazmasl

maj^v**&

gerek, vajib'

Raider.

another on
b When one verb follows
8 392
it is connected by
which it depends and with which
use of the conjunction
That expressed or understood, the
by employing
between them is frequently avoided

rM

the word ,o
It is

'

deyi

quotations.
after all kinds of

used also

,X T **\ j\

or,

b
rfM*

^eos^
him a
i

<Wyi emr etdi.

fci

'saying'

or tfjaj

He

s\

j^

ordered him to come.

ofcmrttwti, or, ototirsotm dfi

place to

kcI^

Your father

is

by*** ** #*>

^ gMSriL

He showed

chaglunyor.

sit.
s

fC

'^

calling

^ 4U

you

to

&&*

come

(i.e.

se'

rf

^*

saying Come!).

when followed
8 393 c. The English verb To Have
obligation or necessity:
by an infinitive, expresses an
5

The Necessitative Tense.

1Ar

183

the two verbs together are translated into


Turkish by the Necessitative tense or by the obligatory
therefore

words

( 391).
1. Ben bir mektoub' yazmaliyim.
to write a letter.
3. Bir mektoub' yazmaq2. Bir mektoub' yazmagha mejboaroum.
liglum iqtiza ede'r.
1.
Dersimi ebyrenmeli yim.
I have to learn my lesson.
2. De'rs' ebyrenmeldiyim lazim dir, gerek'dir, vajib'dir, iqtiza ede'r,
-mouqtazi dir etc.
I

have

When

the object of the finite verb in


such sentences comes before the infinitive, the sentence
does not denote obligation, but possession. It must
therefore be rendered in Turkish either by the Future
Participle ( 408) or by the Infinitive Dative or Nomi-

394.

natival with

He
2.

d.

0$a=>l

has a

Oqoumagha

ichin 'for

book

read.

to

bir kitabi' var.

geymek

to

put on

p. <c~o deste quire (of

1.

3.

Jui)

't^.S

as:

-l.:^

mend

oJ^Sl tezkire a note

a.

OV

,jt-

'^w J>V <^)\>-

f^ajj

J^j bosh boshouna

in vain

*1UJLj beslemek to feed

paper)

a.

to

var.
ichin bir kitabi' var.

Words.

Jbji qoutou box

^y^i^X yamalamaq

Oqouyajaq bir kitabi

Oqoumaq

Ulk. mout'laqa absolutely


<*l

yama patch

*JL

mani

obstacle.

-^Ju^

^_* 4j

Exercise 57.

<juJL>-e5l>

ij\-

'Ic

l>

|<UjI

**>

rv urj3

184

A 42^
1.

Lesson 27.

tA<v

Translation 58.

You must have come to


this news. 2. What shall

us as soou as you had

heard
If you have
I do?
not learnt your lesson, }^ou should learn it now. 3. What
had your wife to do?
She had to write a note. 4. Have
they to go this way?
No, Sir, they are to go the
other way.
The
5. Who has to work all the day?
poor man has to work all the day. 6. Who had to give
The baker had to give all his money.
all his money.
7. What have you to do to-day? I have to write a
the shoemaker to do?
The
letter.
8. What has
shoemaker has to mend my shoes. 9. Am I obliged
Yes, you must come, your coming
to come here?

is

necessary.

10.

The

teacher called the pupils, saying,

Come.
Conversation.

All^S

?JjjJlc,L

.;

o:-^

J&y

?
?

jJ^dUojfjJ OjI J^

Jjw. jlj

<^il

M J^

JlV5V

J*j-

u-

LJ*

u JliWU

J>> J.C-6 J^oJ^i V/J^


viilo/l: j,

fXi\

w*

&jJtJt

j(

The

1A

J^.)

^~<wJy

j^

djI

o^

<twj

10

iCU!

Reading Exercise.

A ^JbJ

The Marriage of the Teacher.

dfc*r>-^-

^CjlS

185

Participles.

jU^jj jTjp jo

,^*..L>u^ ^ >

^ ^^l

<^"

(J, l>-

'j

4 /i

14

'

Jjy

jj>

Jj^y <S^J. Cj^J^-

9u
lO Vp
i

*5

&

JU

e^"

.
."

ijO

13

^1

Jl>- CAj

bl

j -3

to
1 Fords.
1. oasM bouzonlmaq (to be put out of order)
be a widower. 2. to be anxious. 3. adetden ol." to be usual.
4. ydbanji stranger.
5. to veil. 6. to cause to swallow, to deceive.
7. eortu veil. 8. ne den!
what do you say
what wonder! 9. adeta
simply; really.
10. his soul was oppressed
he was angry.
11. to unveil (her face).
12. to veil.
13. eda arrogance. 14. hire
qari now then, woman! 15. dinini seversen if you love your soul
please!
16. he could scarcely get rid of her.

YA u^^>

U* c,j

395.

There

is

Lesson 28.

The Participles.
no Relative Pronoun

corresponding to the English

in

who, which,

Turkish
or

that.

rA wJi

186

Lesson

28.

)A'\

These are always accompanied by a verb in English.


In Turkish the Subjective and Objective Participles of
the verb take the place of both the Relative and
the verb.
Note. This peculiarity
at the same time the

396.
teristic,

and

the most characmost beautiful feathough foreigners

is

the Turkish language,


and even natives of Turkey, whose mother-tongue is
not Turkish, are often guilty of infringing it, and are
frequently in utter ignorance of its value and meaning.
For instance, oeni seven aclem the me -loving man'; ot
yeyen at 'the grass -eating horse': are equivalent to 'the
man who loves me' and the horse which eats grass'.
The great number of Participles derived from the Turkish verb enables a very great degree of precision to
be given to this construction.

ture

in

397.

^meaning

The only Relative Pronoun in Turkish ki,


who, which, that, what' is not Turkish

in origin, it is Persian. This word, ki, is never used in


correct Turkish, though employed in translated Persian
and Arabic sentences. It is also used by foreigners.

398. The Participles may be divided into two


moods: Subjective and Objective.

classes or

1.

Subjective Mood.

399. The Subjective Participles are those which


are composed of the subject, (the nominative case of
who, which,

that,

what) and the verb.

They

are derived

both from active and from neuter or passive verbs.


In the first case they are called Active Participle (Ismi
Fayil) and in the second Passive Participle (Ismi Mefoul).

The Active Participle corresponds to

the Present Participle

and the Passive Participle to the Past Participle of the


English Grammar.
400. The Subjective Active and the Subjective
Passive Participles have seven tenses each:

401. Subjective Active Participle.


Present:

{j\j\i

yazan

who

Aorist:

j\jl

yazar

one who writes, writing

yazdiq

one who wrote.

Past:

J-O^i

J&6

^J

writes, writer, writing (adjectival).

The

1AY
Dubitative:
Pluperfect:

(jij\

187

Participles.

one who has written.

iJ-O^

yazmish

\J-*j>\*

yazmish olan one who had


one who

Future:

3^^' ycizajaq

Past Future: <jij\

J^O'u yazajaq olan one who

written.

will write.

(about) to

is

write.

402. Subjective Passive Participle.


Present:

yazilan

jj^jjtj

(j***-*

being

is

may be

Aorist:

^nL jL yazilir

Past:

JjJjl yazttdiq

is

.c

Dubitative

jjiljlj

Pluperfect

<Jij\ oil jl

Future

yazUmish olan

J)lj\

has been

-=

had been

yazilajaq

j*.-vljl

Past Future:

will be

J^-uOl yazilajaq olan

The Negatives
^Llljli

yazilmish

are:

tjLUjIj

yazmayan,

yazilmayan, Oi A *^i j- sevilmeye'n,

(about) to be

sevmeyen,

iji^j--

etc.

Remarks.

Muta-la-at:

sljliJlk*

is

403. I. The Present Active Participle is applicable either to the present or to the past; as:

^
man who

ul3^

writes, the

404.

yazan adem, means either

II.

man who

The

nature or business

is

and the man who


c

is writing',

Aorist
to

the writing man,

'who

or

wrote'.

means 'whose

Participle

write'

the

willing to

is

write'; as:
r*\ J. j\J^ ->yj\ oqour

and

yazar

Mr adim

man who can

read

write, a literary man'.

JJ^ J>JjJ>^ JyJJf gebriiniir gebrunmSz sheyle'r 'things which


can be seen and cannot be seen, i. e. visible and invisible things'.

is

405. III. The Negative of the Past


more used than the Affirmative:
jjiji

4Jj n*j~,

siniz, sizi sevmedilc kim.se


is

(ij- j~~ +i\ j>


'

yoq dour.

nobody who does not love you.

You

j*\

j-

siz

Participle

eyi

bir

adem

are a good man, there

188

rA

u-j->

Lesson

1AA

28.

406. IV. Only the Present, the Pluperfect and


the Past Future tenses are used either as the subject or
as the adjective

qualifying the subject of a sentence.


The remaining four tenses are always used as adjectives qualifying the subject ( 71, 417, 423).
mektoubou yazan, yazajaq olan, yazmtsh olan zat

who wrote

the person
j<J$

oij\

'

{J)lj\

dir?

Tcim'

y^J^

'

uO^

Who

is

d>.y^

bon mektoubou yazan, yazajaq olan, yazmish

,JU3|*

Who

olan him dir?

this letter? or

is

the writer of this letter?

Therefore, these three tenses, when


used as subjects, are declined like substantives, either
alone or with pronominal affixes.

V.

407.

uU^i yazan

N.
G.

villi j\>

D.

o.l'jl

yazanin of

yazana

The person
Also:

J-^J

'

to

A.

tiljk

L.

jJljli

yazani

yazanda

in

0-^0^ yazandan from

A.

writing, the writer.

J^-'L^i
s ~

'

tfjWi

writer among us r
vou,
them.
J

The

~ (

yazanimiz, yazaniniz, yazanlart

'

VI. In English, when the object of the


verb falls between the verb to have and the Infinitive, it may be rendered into Turkish by the Future

408.

Participle ( 393).
j_iij

^S\

v!-U-<uj

yiyejek ekmiyi yoq dour.

He

has no bread

to eat,

409. VII. The Aorist, Past, Dubitative and


Future Participles are the same in spelling and pronunciation with those of the Indicative Mood. It is

one absolute
must always stand at

very easy to distinguish them, and there

is

it is Indicative Mood, it
the end of the sentence, because verbs are always put
at the end of the sentence. If it is a Participle, as a

rule: If

subject or a modifier of the subject, it


in any case:

must precede

the verb
?

j^oj^jl jf* **j\

dwell in this house?

bou ivdi

Trim'

otourajaq? Who

will

The

)A\

j^

kim dir?

X^a^^S^^ojj^j] oj\
Who is the man, who
,1.1a. .la?

189

Participles.

bou evde

otouvajaq

will dwell in this

kimse

house?

Tatbiqat: Comparison.

The order

of construction in Turkish is
just the opposite of English.
In English the Antecedent (subject) begins the sentence, then comes the Relative
Clause and thirdly the Verb (or predicate); or the Verb,
Antecedent and Relative Clause. But in Turkish the
order is always the same: first Relative Clause, then
the Antecedent, and third the Verb.

410.

antecedent
1.

The man who came now


relative clause

antecedent

Shimdi gelen

adem

verb
2.

antec.

4.

5.

6.

8.

9.

keor

dur.

relative clause

ant.

their lessons,
verb

DersUrini eoyrenmeyen chojouqlar bounlar dir.


There is nobody (who does not love you).
(Sizi sevmedik) kimse yoqdour.
(Those who have gone to and come) from India.
Hindistana (gitmish ve gelmisli olanlar).
I saw the man (whose house is big).
(Evi bedyfd: dan) ademi geordum.
A woman (whose eyes are blind).
(Geozleri

7.

blind,

is

verb

These are the boys who did not learn


relative clause

3.

verb

relative clause

Jceor

olan) bir qari.

horse (that runs fast).


(Chapouq seyirdir) bir at.
A man (who is not fit for anything).
(Bir ishe yaramaz) bir adem.
A letter (the address of which is not
(ustu

yazUmamish /or yazihnadiqj)


was a man there (whose

written).

bir mektoub.

hand was

10.

There

11.

Orada (eli qouroumoash olan) bir adem var idt.


The merchant (who has to come [or w ill come]

withered).
r

to-morrow).
(yarin gelejek /or gelejek olanJ) tufjar.

Lesson

t\ v"J*

190

12.

I;V

28.

who know among us], will


who do not know among you).

[Those

14.

Who

the

is

man (who

aUI. balta

^^ d^

Words.

an axe

a.

User adze

a.

'

hill,

dJU-jL^

top

uttifl/U prize

j^j\
d^L

oZajag hopefal
2/e'mnefc to

jbG >iar

**j

j-fl

be eaten

ate!*

c&

evil

hffK known, perceptible


flwfcfctZtfefc

passable, fordable

jW

*&*<* to

iUl;

SM&wefc to ripen

jrf J*}

boiling

cij y>

Ula

dUTc)*" eZm^n^mefctobeabletodo

o\ A*)

uu:

%
JJj

ltt

the servant?)
torn dir?

sheyim) yoq dour.


Jrji

call

(RMzmeikiarl chagMrajaq dan) adem


of).
I have (nothing to be afraid
(Qorqajaq bir

will

eoijredej elder.

[BilenUrimiz] (bilmeyenlerinize)
13

teach (those

'

become

ish 9*9 occupation.

Exercise 59.

&jc

^rT *-*'

T
'

^>

^AV ^ isT j^^r-^T^

*\

^Aj3

Exercise 60.

The

V i

Yj jto
1

ie*^ *J^l

<dl

Participles.

*/

dtU>j

"

rj~fj,

uSZS

jo

'

-I

j^Uji^
j

^0,1 jUjjJ

J,UJ

{aL^ x y~*

A^J

<"^'

<ul

'

191

J>> .-*oJ

JV.

ii"

'
**

ul}U> C^J^l )jy J

f*:\ x

j*

'

<y

j^

Translation 61.

The man who died yesterday morning, was your

1.

neighbour. 2. What have vou?


I have a book, on
the cover of which there is a beautiful yellow picture,
3. What do you see?
4. I see the baker who bakes
bread.
5. If you have seen the horse one of whose
eyes is blind, it is not ours.
6. The adze cuts the
wood. 7. Boys! do not be afraid, there is nothing to
be feared. 8. It is a statement which cannot be believed.
No, Sir, it is a credible statement. 9. Have you anything to say to me?
I have nothing to say to you.

10.

Whoever knows

things).

11.

No,

is

she

knows a great deal (many


Is this the lady whose sister is sick?
the lady whose father is sick.
12. This

not a

villager

is

he

man who

is

himself,

man who

does not
reads and writes.

AX ISv*

Conversation.

know

anything,

A
192

r A u-j:>

Lesson

28.

ult!

lj\

^sLw.^

ojllc

plo

u^W- <4>^ ^'J

^i

j Ji.j^&
F^*"^^

L^c

[jijiJ o-^y

^i
dU,~

jl3*?-*:>-

'?
,

Jjh

^AJ

,9

4-.il

iX\

^ly\ ^p! dl

<(

oj\

fj|

\ ^4

r:S\

^"l^^

JUjljll jp3

viJj

*J

j:>

tio'v Ji

flour on a line.

4JU*>-I,^

A>.l J.

4.1;

Ju y*3->-

'"iLo

4>-l>-

jj!j!

r- U?' 4~> re-

^.-?

^-^

Reading- Exercise.

To hang

4j>-i4>.

J^-^i

\r

4>

Al

jSl-JtJ

Jj4j UMTl
Who

Who

^-^J

14

J,4Ju~

1.
does not pay his debt.
does not
his limits i. e. conceited. 2. miiraja-at et." to appeal. 3. our
children, the woman of the household (these names are applied
to the women in the Harem).
4. chamashir household linen.
5. sermek to hang up in full length and breadth on a line.
c
6. clothes-line.
7. ne olour? a common term for If you please*.
unfortunately.
10 qadan't8. to implore.
9. let us come that
nothing at alii 11. ne
alsin may your misfortune befall on it!
13. yet.
olour hi! not worth mentioning.
12. the other one.
14. the case. 15. ne diyon? for diyorsoun. What are you saying?

Words.

know

^r

The

193

Participles.

,*

esrar it."

16.

to

insist.

&." to repel, expel.

u^

Objective Mood.

18

why do you

.7

not

Lesson 29.

The Participles.
2.

ne?

aTdasafi

17.

18. de/"

understand?

h|

(Continued.)
^L^>

aJU>

Siygheyi

Site.

411. The Objective Participles are those which


combine the meanings of the oblique cases of the
Relative Pronouns (i. e. 'whom, which, that, what', governed
by the words of, to, on, in, out of, from, by, with)
and where with that of the verb. They are derived
from every kind of verbs, whether Active, Neuter or
Passive.

412.

The Objective

Participles are

formed by the

addition of possessive suffixes to the Past,

Pluperfect,

Future and Past Future tenses of the Subjective Participle ( 401


These are used as objects or as
402).

adjectives qualifying the objects.

Subjective Participle.
Past:

j^^i yazdiq

Pluperfect:

jjVjl J-*j

Future:

yazmhh okm

3^^i V^cijaq

Past Future:

o$j\

(J*- -)^

yazajaq olan

The person who wrote; who had written

Objective Participle.
Past:

Pluperfect:

Future:
Tuikish Con v. -Grammar

/".^i yozd'iglilm
j-<j\ <J-*J'i

J*? 9

yazmish oldowjhoum
yazajaghtm
13

>*jJj\

Past Future:

The thing which

J* ^.

I wrote,

2/^W

2.

viiiojlj

3.

i>i^

That which

I,

j**j\> yazdiqlaru't',

yazdigM\

iSjji}j\>

joj]j\

\j**j\* yazdiqlarifuz'

Pluperfect.

Those which

^3U

4i^?

oldoughoum.
JLO^ yazmish'
"

"

7
J^jk yazmish
.

(ijlis-ojlj

416.

Past Future.

J*>
."

Those which

aU JJ~*
|

7J
7
J
j^jJj, fr-j\ yazajaq oldoughoumouz.)
.

O^lk*
417.
lartm)

I.

yazajaqlarin'r

yazajaql arlmiz

Mida-la-at

',

yazajaqlari
I shall

write

*^-

That which I, we shall


have written...

Remarks.

plural forms (yazdiqlarhn, yazajaqused as adjectives in the plural to

The

are never

li

(ijLtts-ojlj

"

f "

\^,Jl*.oj\> yazajaqlariniz

oldoughoum.

yazajaq

^hat which I, you,


y
have written.
they

j. Jj- oj

yazajaqlari,
.

c$Jli-0\i yazajaqlari',

j^ia-ojlj yazajaghrniz',

I shall write

wrote,

\^C>-

ijjll^ejl)

j^is-ojl* yazajaghhniz',

That which

U~

yazajaghi',

J^ojl

you

*JUs-ojli yazajaqlarim'y

2.

i,jjjl

ilia-ojl yazajaghin,

3.
1.

A^>

I,

yazajaghim,

f&.j\i

1.

2.

7J
7
oldouqlari.

Future.

415.
Per.

yazdiqlari'.

eSjfijjli

C"
(ijbjjj\

yazdiqlari',

jtjb^jl yazdiqlarimiz'?

he, we, you, they wrote.

414.

yazdighin,

(ij^^j^ yazdiqlari',

3.

yazdiqlarim\

fjfiijli

yazdtghhllz',

j.'xlojlj

2.

^U

*U

u^iojl* yazdighimiz,

1.

oldoughoum

I shall write

which

>oJ^ yazdiglum'i

1.

IVw

29.

Objective Past Tense.

413.
Per.

Lesson

wJ*

T*\

194

The

t^o

195

Participles.

qualify plural nouns, since adjectives when they qualify


nouns do not take the plural termination ( 71, 423).

418. II. The Objective Future Participle first


person and the Indicative Future first person are the same
in spelling, but in pronunciation and use are different.
If the word is a participle, it is never found at the
end of the sentence, and it is accented on the last syllable, but if it be the Indicative, it must be put at the
end of the sentence and is accented on the penultimate.
Bir melctoub yazaja ghlm. I shall write a letter.
Yazajaghim' melioub. The letter which I shall write.

Comparison. ollJ^
1.

is (the book which I read).


(Oqoudoughoum kitdb) bou dour.

This

Note.

The verb

is first

person, the Past Part,

is first

person.

2.

The cook will bake (the food which you


Ashji (sevdiyin yemeyi) pishirejele.

3.

Where

is

(the letter

which

like).

have written)

yes-

terday.
DiinJci (yazmish
4.

This

is

(the

oldoughonm mektoub) neredc dir?

word which they

(Sedyledil'h'ri seoz)

spoke).

bou dour.

5.

(The money which he gained) is ten piastres.


(Qazandighi para) on ghouroush dour.

6.

The medicine

[ace] (which the sick person drank).

01 hastanin (ichdiyi ilajl [ace. ]).


7.

The house

8.

The man (whose house

[ace]

(E' vini kiraladighimiz)

adem

9.

10.

(in which you are dwelling)


Shimdi (otourdoughouiiouzj ev.

we

now

rented), is

(loc).

dead

eolmiish dur.

The lesson (which I shall [or have to] learn).


(eoyrenejeyim /or ebyrenejek' oldoughoum] ders.

Do you know

(the

road [ace] which we shall

go) to-morrow?

Yarhi (gidejeyimiz

/or
yolou bUir misifiiz?

11.

(The water with which

gidejeJc

[Inst.])

oldoughoumou:

/
')

the master washed

himself.

Effendinin (yiyqandigM) sou.


13*

r\ ^j*

196

12.

The Teacher cut


was sitting).

Lesson

branch on which

(the

Hoja (otourdoughou

)M

29.

[loc]

he

dali) Jcesdi.

The Declinable Objective

Participles.

which

419.

If the Substantive

420.

For instance jS>jT J^:>C

the object in
the sentence is omitted and the participle is used alone
as an object, then the four tenses of the Objective Participle are declined according to the case and person
of the object and the person of the verb in the Relative
clause ( 410).
.is

^^ ^

benim

yazdighhn meldouboii geonder, 'send the letter which I


wrote here the object (meJctoubou) is in the Accusative,
the subject first person (benim) and the tense past (yaz5

But

dighim).
c

if I

sayjJuji

send what

benim yazdighhm

<o

.cjojl)

the meaning
but the Participle takes the accusative
because the noun is omitted.

geonder,

The

421.
tives also;

I wrote',

case

can say

ver hn, I like the

is

just the

*joj~,

good people:

the same,
termination,

is

same with the

<^,Lol

<j,l

eyi ademlert

again

It is possible

fJo^ (Jllol Eyileri' severhn I like the

adjec-

good

to

se-

say

(ones), omit-

ting the Substantive.

The

addition of the possessive endings


implies a possessor. The possessor is put in the Genitive case and forms the Subject in the English sentence.
It is not always inserted, the terminations of the Ob-

422.

jective

participle

benim yazdighim

being
is

substitutes

equal

to

^sjl

for

**zj\>

it.

/*!

yazdighim'] the en-

ding showing the person and the number

102).

423. The singular nominative is used both as an


object and as an adjective qualifying the object, but the
other cases, as well as the plural nominative of Past
and Future Objectives, are never to be used as adjectives,
but as Substantive object: it is not permitted to say

The

)\Y

J,

<Ca

j^Jo^jIj

197

Participles.

mektoubon or

bfaiim yaziVtglumi

but
(Sjiy^^ benim yazdiqlarim mektoublaH;

^yS^A

or iSjtyjC*

uazdtqhimi or

.c

Ji^j

<*k*'A p*.

Past Tense.

and

^$j\
*aj\

*\

^^

t^t^- r1

*-

&emro yasdiqlarimi ( 406, 417).

*>

^U

<do

First Person Singular.

Maziyi
A5CL>

Sile.

MutekM'Mm.

X
N.
G.
D.
A.
L.

A.

J*sj\i

yazdighim'

sUL-ioj^ yazdighhiuu
ou_;ojlj

of

yazdlgJuma' to

That which

^^ojlj yazdighimi'
oj*ju}j\>

wrote,

yazdighim da' in

wrote, what

my

writing.

jj-wio.^ yazdighhndari from

First Person Plural.


N.
G.

j^^jL

yazdighimiz'

ilUJujJl yazdighinuziu

D.

oj-^jiojli

A.

<5j.*-iojl)

of

yazdighimiza to

That which we wrote,


what w e wrote,
r

L.

A.

yazdigliimi zV

our

cij^jiojl yazdighimiz da' in

^j^iojL

G.

yazdlghimizdan from

D.

sevdiyiyitl of

"lx>o_j sei'diyine to

Moukhatab.

^Ll.2-

Third Person.
.-

ci

oqoudoughou

sevdiyiniz

jiJjxnoj- sevdiyinizin of

o^>5vo^ sevdiyinize

That which thou lovedst, you loved;

JXxo*-

siASo^- secdiyin

dix>Oj-

Second Person.
N.

writing

^Ip

their,

to

your loving

Ghayib.

i5j**yj\ oqoudouqlari'

G.

Lesson

Y\ i>J*

198

oJhyjlogoMdouglarlna' to-, etc.

That which he read.

What

*U

they read, tbeir reading

MustaqUli

JJ~

N.

G. ^iX^k^oj^yazajagMmht of
4^=-<>3^ yazajaghima
<^-

1j

to

A. o- ^*- 9
5

yazajaghimiz

><>}[>

yazajaghimizin

s-ojli

yazajaghimiza to

cij.

=*oj\j

yazajaghimizi

oj

*.oj\>

yazajaghimiz da in

yazajagUmi'

in

oX^^oj\yazajagliimda

L.

I shall write,

G.

viiiix^L. bilejeyiyin

P.

aiosL^

bilejeyine

A.

^SC^-Ou

bilejeyifii

L.

A.

to

o.xii<lj bilejeyinde
O-^*5

^- ^
4

What

of

i)^ii<L

oj^jC^^

you

in

o^jS^^L

will

know.

Ja

G.

.>. yazajagln

^^ojL^aj^/unm

A.

>^w/u
^
^oL

L.

.X^.jiyazajaghinda

D.

A.

of
to

biUjeyiniz

of

bilejeyinizin

to

bilejeyinize

in

j^^yazajaghindari fromhe, they will write.

in

bile'jeyinizde

Thy, your knowledge

;>i;

>. yazajaqlari'

^JS-Ok y^aj^ari^' of
*}*&. yazajaqlarina to
AJh'^i

yazajaghim'

What

-<^<l<0u bilejeyinizden from

Third Person
N.

(^j^i^-lj bilejeyinizi

UUjeyinden from

thou,

v_jA-

^^xLaJlj

dK^-iij bilejeyin

dan from

Second Person.
N.

of

u^J ^ojl yazajaghimiz


what I shall write; My writing

^ yazajaghimdari from -

That which

Sile.

s-djli

yazajaghim

>=r -3^

^Cru

First Person.

of

CJ**ji>\ oqoudoughouna to

Future Teuse.

D.

^A

29.

^J>>jh\oqoudoiiqlarinifi
&J**JJ\ oqoudoughounounoi-

D.

yctzajaqlarini

oX>Jl~>^ yazajaqlar'mda

u^O^i

in

yazajaqlarindari from

His, their writing

The

*^

199

Participles.

Four important gerunds are obtained from

424.

the Declinable Objective Participles.

The Tenth Gerund.

The Dative case of


the Objective Future Participle is used as a gerund:
it then corresponds to the phrases 'instead of, rather
425.

than';

as:

*)<Ou <>.t\ <^^<Ci)


I

&3\

ben ata binejeyime Ssheye bine'rim.

would rather ride a donkey than a horse.

426. The Fourth Gerund. The Locative case


of the Objective Past Participles, when used as a gerund,
indicates the time of an action, when an action is performed.
i)j^

iSJr*-^**'.

^-\-i>o

Jy^

musafirUr geldiyinde yemeyi-

mizi yedik. When the guests arrived we dined; or, the guests
having arrived we dined; or, the guests arriving we dined; or,
on the arrival of the guests we dined.

427. The Twelfth Gerund. The Ablative case


of Past and Future Participles is used as a gerund, and
indicates the reason why some other action is performed?
The doer of the first is indicated by the possessive
affixes; as:

(j-^-O^

(i-><uJb

gelmedi.

My

^j ^*
1

rJ-^L

pederim mektoub yazajaghindan

father did not come, because he

was about

to write

letter.
<s*j*j>_j '

'l>^

Owing

to his not

428.

u-^i^^^z^

j\ o ishitmediyindinjevabvermedi.

having heard he did not answer.

The Third Gerund.

If

^< gibi

is

added

to the nominative

gerund

is

^nc-U.

Call

me

of the Objective Participle, another


obtained, which means 'as soon as
.

Jj (^iSi-^-o

^ii-bjls qardaslun gel diyi gibi beni chaghir.

as soon as your brother comes ( 334, 431).

429. As we have ahead}'- seen, the Dative, Aband Locative cases of the Objective Participles
have two meanings: one as a participle, the other as a
gerund. This identity must not escape the student.
But it is very easy to distinguish them, as the subject
of the gerund is always in the nominative, while that
lative

r% ^-^o

200

Lesson

y+

29.

of the participle is in the genitive. Therefore confusion


is scarcely possible when the words are used in a sentence.
(See the examples 5
8.)

Comparison.
1

2.

olU

me the account (of whatever you have


bought).
( Si&ifi satin aldighinuin) hisabini bana veriniz.
Give

The guest does not

eat (what he expects), but


he finds).
Musafir (oumdoughounou) yemez, (bouldoughoueats (what
noit) yer.

3.

Put

in the

bag (whatever you

[will]

find).

(Boulajaghinizi) torbaya qoyoun.


4.

Have you anything

to

say

([of]

what the boy

wrote) ?

Chojoughoun (yazdtghina) bir deyejeyihiz var mi?


5a.

have no doubt (that you will do) this nicely.


Senin, bounon giizelje (yapajaghina) shiib'hem yoq~
I

5b. (Instead of doing) the wrong, do the best.


Sen kedtiiyu (yapajaghina), eyiyi yap.
6a.

There

is

IZenim
6b.

no deficiency

(in

(satdighimda) bir

what

I sold).

qousour yoq dour.

(Whenever I sell) your property, I


your money.
JBen malini (satdighimda) parani

had no news

will give j^ou

veririm.

being ill [that he was ill]),


Onoiinhasta(oldoughoiindafi)haberimyoghoudou.

7a. I

7b.

(of his

My

mother could not come here (because she


was ill).

Validem hasta (oldoughoundan) bouraya gSlemedi.


8a.

My

Sizln bouraya

know

(that

you were about

(gelejeyinizdenj

babamin habvri

father did not


to come) here.

yoghoudou.
8b.

We

could not go there (because we had to come

here).

Biz

bouraya (gelejeyimizden) oraya gidemedih.

The

201

Participles.

JCil Words.
<ZlijTj\ Ciyutmek to
a.

a.

oUjL. malumat knowledge

^LU-

a.

khath'

e't

memory

A conventional
merchants, etc.
1

title

\Y

jy^

'i\iey **>-*b'
m

AijjJj!

4J

i!j*~-

( t a*\) Oj^j

JLjJjl

JL

jc:L

*\Y*

-jj

a.

"to marvel

>1L~M v_ocJ teaj j lib


a.

grind

c**}** alamet sign


>

ci?"'!JJ?"
t.

p.

row/i Spirit

c ^ or ^ aJ^

^r

olj>j beyzade nobleman.

applied to Christian notables, bankers,

A^
f\

Exercise 02.

'

CxcL, J,5CLjJjI J~*X3

db-4j4l>^

l>v.j

dijAiilS iju~>- *

^ dl/'dKo^^i)
JUi

Exercise G3.

j<*

jljijljl

202

ff

^jz

r\

*k J*.

f->*~~!)

Lesson 29.

'^**Jy

AjS^j

r*Y

^r^^-i ij*i) j* -OCi j4T" x

Translation 64.

which you sent me, dated


7
July 1902. 2. The house to which I am now going is
my father-in-law's. 3. I wrote all the words you spoke
to me.
4. The greatest of the cities which Alexander
the Great built [made], was Alexandria. 5. The physician of whom you speak is in Europe.
6. Mr. Jacob
is the man of whom we have read in the newspapers.
7. Do you know what I want?
I don't know what
you want, if you do not tell me. 8. Let no one change
that which I have written. 9. Do you know that I lost
my purse full of money? 10. When I was in Constantinople I saw the goods in the shops changed every day.
11. Learn this from what you see.
12. I did not know
that he went to Trebizond.
1.

I received the

letter

th

\0 <^y

Translation 65,

He

that hath an ear, let him hear what the


unto the churches. 2. For he knew what
was in man. 3. They marvelled that he talked with
the woman. 4. What shall be the sign of thy coming?
5. Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand
doeth. 6. Have you not read what David did, when he
heard
was hungered, and they that were with him? 7.
of their having become soldiers. 8. I do not object to
1.

Spirit saith

We

there.
9. The baker is not an honest
man:
he
writes what is due to him [his
(doghrou)
credits] and does not write his debits (what he owes).

your going

The

Y*r

j^jljd

Participles.

^A* Reading

203

Exercise,

Translate and tell the following story in Turkish fully.


1.

This

is

the house that Jack built.

2.

This
Jack
This

is

the malt,

Jack
This

built.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

That lay in the house that

built.

That ate the malt, That lay in


the house that Jack built.
This is the cat, That killed the rat, That ate
the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the dog, That worried the cat, That
killed the rat, That ate the malt, That lav in
the house that Jack built.
This is the cow with the crumpled horu. That
tossed the dog, That worried the cat. That killed
the rat, That ate the malt, That lay in the
house that Jack built.
This is the maiden all forlorn, That milked the cow
with the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog, That
worried the cat, That killed the rat, That ate
the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the man all tatter'd and torn, That kissed
the maiden all forlorn, That milked the cow
with the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat, That killed the rat, That
ate the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the priest all shaven and shorn, That
married the man all tatter'd and torn, That
kissed the maiden all forlorn. That milk'd the
cow with the crumpled horn, That tossed the
dog, That worried the cat, That killed the rat,
That ate the malt, That lay in the house that
is

the

rat,

the cock that crowed in the morn, That


priest all shaven and shorn, That
the
man
all tatter'd and torn, That kissed
married
the maiden all forlorn, That milked the cow
with the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat. That killed the rat, That
ate the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built.
is

waked the

r
r* u-j^

204

Lesson

30.

t*i.

is the farmer sowing his corn, That kept


the cock that crowed in the morn, That waked
the priest all shaven and shorn, That married
the man all tatter d and torn, That kissed the
maiden all forlorn, That milk'd the cow with
the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog, That
worried the cat, That killed the rat, That ate
the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built.

This

11.

Translation.

Jackifi yapdigh I evde saqlanan,

11.

Arpayi yeyen, Fareyi

edlduren, Ked'tyi urlcuden, Kedpeyi boiiynouzlayan,


Eyri bouynoudou ineyi saghan, JBichare qizi eopen,

Esgi busku roabali ademi nikwhlayan, Daz qafali


(shaven), tuysiiz (shorn) papazi oayandiran, SabaliJayhi eoten horozou saqlayan, JBoughdayi eken
chift'ji [ishte]

bou dour.
Conversation.

<U |^S

>Jj

vUbjJ^

li-^J

^ijjjJJjJJ wl>j^>

u[j>-

1
.

^JJ

?<i^>UKT; jf*M u^j^*

is

j^~*ji

S~^

u^^; Jj~

u^^>

jw

<1\S*Ij\

^ijjiljj

aLIj

<y,j\

<--**

t>

<Sy\

Jj-Xj\ Jj\

->y^j\ Jj\

<J>Jj'*>j>

6j*
->^:.

>
.

7T

(-r

Lesson 30.
Gerunds.

430a. The number of purely Turkish Conjunctions


very limited, only six in number: and these too are

205

Gerunds.

ro

derived from Verbs or Adverbs ( 475). The place of


Conjunctions is supplied by Gerunds, which are called
Conjunctive Moods or Words, Babita SiygMler, They
are mere combinations of Conjunctions with the verbs,
appended at the end of sentences ( 230). The Gerund?,
like the Conjunctions, serve the purpose of connecting
sentences and parts of sentences. They have the same
power of government as their verbs, but they are never
used alone as governing words.

430b. There are thirteen gerunds in Turkish,


some of which we have already met with in the course
of the previous lessons.
Here we shall give them in
order.

(See the Table.)

431.

The Third Gerund. This

ding the termination

(and -yinje, -yinja,


a vowel). It means as
c

'

4^;>

formed by ad-

is

-inje, -inja to the root,

-younja
soon as'

the root

if

or

on

ex.:

yazinja gitdi as soon as he wrote, he went out.

iS-^-f^ <*jJA.

jjLjl Asclj^ijl oqouyounja otour on your reading

The meaning

432.

ends in

is

also expressed in

two other ways

sit

down.

( 334, 428).

But the Negative form has a wholly

dif-

ferent meaning.
<->

<9-^jUjIj

433.
the

yaz'may'inja git'me.

Don't go unless you write.

The Eleventh Gerund. The

Gerund when annexed

to

ib*)

'

third form of

i:^

'

jjJaj

-ye dek, -ye deyin, -ye qadar, means until.


jj\sj\ iii4jA3&lo

j>

ben gelinjeyedek otour.

Sit until I

come.

434. The Fourteenth Gerund. By adding *Sd\ or

jp

-iken,

-ken

to

the Aorist,

Present,

Dutitative,

Future and Necessitative third persons, another gerund


which is rendered by while.

like expression is obtained,


Gitinish iken.

Yazayaq

iken.

Now

that the act of going has occured.

While just about

to write.

11

206

f*

a
o
i
-t-^

05
CD
CM

14

OQO

co
CO

Lesson

LT'J-i

CO
CO
CO

OO
(M
"*

r*
CO
CO

11

r*n

30.

CO
**

lO

CD
OJ
<*

^
CO

CO
"*
CO

m
<D

a
> a
rH
O

CD
>fr3

+3

-M

CD

CO

CO

*-*J

'2

'3

CD
ii

'C

<

<

o
o

Br

"S

'S
-4-i

$4

as

cS

O
o

Ph

Ph

Ph

P5

CO
's-i

tf

<1

ft

O
j-T

0)

>

fl
D

1
i

^=J

i
1

CD

U
o
g

CD

to

CD

o
o

X\

CD

-t-3

1
1

CO
1

CD
1

o
o

.2
CD

IS

<

<

BQ

CD

to

<x>

<

~
'

CD

<2
35

CD

*"

J3
4^

CD

^5

JH

W-

p*^

r~i

v so

<tt

$>

XJ

<iS>

Co

-S
CO

CD

S3

;-s
*.

r&

e
^

fl

>5

$5

***

**

>>

to

c
^s

e
R

5^

e
;<=

"C3H

*4

*4

>>

S*s

SSj

5^

3f
->

-^

"**

~fcl

5s

r*
n

<SH

<<s>

<<?

<8

*;

5si

&s

5>s

5Si

j,

_3

15

it'
o

m
e

F-4

->

3
""

_,

->

_5

3
A.

o3

CO

rO

-0

""5

3t
j>
3

*>

~3

-> i

o O O1 o

*'

-t

cS

CO

_5

w.
v^-

-O

c3

rO

xo

"

fY

Gerunds.

Oi
CO
CO

11

I>
co

CO

>

<M
cco

e5

-^
ft

ft

+^
ft

a
O

DhP^

fl

o3

.a

-*j

60

o
o

->*

ft

JcT

Tf
CO

Ph

a>

iO
CO
**

*%

o
o

CL,

o3

>
CNJ

ft

o
>

CD
03

CO
CO

lO
CM

207

JH

ft
-

o3
1

>>

+J

7^

03
CD

c
p

+J

T3

JH

o3

-i-s

Ma

CO

e3
tej

50

03
0J

>>

a
o

03

<x>

CD

43

p.

&0

<o

{50

CO

G
>
o3

>>

^
<to

-o

S
<s

"e

e
*
e

*4

>>

e
5Ji

S>1

_J'

_3

*>

*>

-3

]l

->

**

5^

_3

"3

*>

c: ;

e
(,
v
e
*$

Ss

<s
3>

_3'
->

^
"D

'

*
<

TS

'S

**

*4

**
C3

5*

=?>

5>i

5s

>

-^
a

N'

>
1

<>

'

o1 o
4'
A
H

-*

~3

C5

<*>

-i

00

cs

<*>

*$

5*5

"5S

rS

'S?

**
<3

__3

g
^S

<^

<<^
CO

c3

CO

<<*>

;^>

C3H

S*
s

'TS
**
<s
5>.

t*

en
c

<S

*<s>

*4

<M

^^

^t

*4
cS

5b

>i

_3
'>
">

_3
J3

r*

208

Lesson

t_rJ.>

The Thirteenth Gerund

435.

r*A

30.

a conjunctive in-

is

flexion of the verb equivalent to a verb (generally of the

same tense and frequently with the same

found

object)

at the end of the phrase, followed by the conjunction and\


The sense may be such as to require the words also"
and afterwards to be supplied, according as the succession of the two actions is intended. It is characterr

ized
if

by the termination

^j

the root ends in a vowel


w-jjli

yazip having written.

-oup, ip,
[53]).

(or

17;

-youp

s->y
as:

<sj>yj\ oqouyoup having read.

Jojdjl ^jjjj\>j\ otouroup oqondoular. They sat and (afterwards) read, or having sat down they read: equivalent to otourdoular ve oqoudoidar.

S^ojjT ^j^z
I shall

fjebrcjei/im.

gedip georejeyim, equivalent to gede'jeyim ve

go and see [him also] (having gone I shall

see).

JCi) Words.
f.

j\>\>\

jj.-^lb

abaniz

j^^b

'

^j* jjyo

Ebony

a.

damlamaq

sormaq

to

aibjJ qourbagha

to

drop

ask

^j^z.* mahjoub humble

a.j\

frog

bit

a.

^fL"

oj^i pire flea


c--j

*\*\

->jb

'

tlyp

ol-U)

^>3j>

genish wide

J&U- jahil young people


<ijj tanri

^Jti

(5*^l>

God

o*>^ o**5 ^

jfa

to

patlamaq

bark
to burst.

Exercise 66.

Donroubou emsal.

*J^ ^^3 {~"J

j**Jj>

'

raziol" to be content

^jjj\ urumek

louse

Jt<y 0ji dive qoushou ostrich

J 11*

Oo\j

J~^>3

gechinmck to subsist

vLl^;-.^..^

jj^*> maghroor proud

a.

U jj>j

Proverbs.

O^ *J^ *$y& r *

jltj' e[y

4>M,IL>

4>M*u^

t-

*S ua

r^

"*

209

Gerunds.

-c

..

*\V

<W>- J

->

c*

"*

Translation 07.

1. When
the teacher began speaking, every one
stopped his talk. 2. Until the teacher entered the schoolroom, all the pupils were talking together. 3. Since
I came to Merzifoun I have three times visited Mounjou4. As soon as Eli goes, I will call you.
5. I
soun.
read and write. He came and went afterwards. 6. He

and went into the country. 7. The


teacher Nasred-din, taking an axe, mounted the tree
and began to cut the branch on which he sat. 8. A man
saw him and said that he would fall down from the
tree. As soon as the man spoke the teacher fell down.
9. He ran after the man and caught him by his collar
and said: As you knew that I would fall down from
the tree, of course you must also know the time when
T will die.
10. The man said: "When your ass brays
three times, you will die. 11. Do not go until I come.

mounted

his horse

<U

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

^o

Conversation.

14

'

f* u~J> Lesson

210

J^l 5 Ju? Reading


U^J '5**" *-^

<3j*

fl>

30.

Exercise.

The Distinction between Man and Beast.


jd Jul j*)l>

^^y^

dU^^- V"

10

j/- uAlk

jlsijj-N

JL

.J^j,i "itti

AJjL

lU

Jl

13

^^11

'

'

f V>W>

L3

U:0*rT

r-5

^^. ^JIW- "J^r tfoWji


^^J tiA^
&
'

*jJl>-

fjj;^

dU^ll

dl

^^

^Abj*"

^j*

fif.

dl^ dJSU!

JjUU

4.Jbjl

^^

3. &uft' instinct (of


2. high, noble.
1. creation.
TFords.
case, situcondition,
hal
6.
wag.
5.
to
instance
animals). 4. for
ation. 7. poor. 8. a. sayir other. 9. a. noutq speech. 10 a. maftroum
oldouqlartndan. 12. #a<fe' St.
11. oldouqlari jihetle
destitute.
in the state of). 14. since I
(being
being
to explain, to state. 13.
datmaq to taste.
tatmaq,
16.
members.
15.
aza
can turn.

_UjU mab'ad Continuation.

j^J

V fUU-

Words.
do,

1.

to perform.

Ziot'fa

J~<

even.

y*
2.

>^. uttf-

awjag only, but.

W
3.

?,;ra

(Kfe
it."

to-

rn

Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs.

.f

II

.10,1-

ir>

S^ll

<9.*l~\!

aJJjI

ji
:

211

.
sit - 14. *
A_*j J>^j JAJ 45
(JUw*
1

jjjt-

malik oldoughoum dan: malik oh" to


necessary. 8. Jam glass. 9. daqmaq to put, affix. 10. gab vessel. 11. qoulp handle. 12. chizme
out of door shoes. 13. pachavra a clout, rag. 14. meshin leather.
15. farq et." to distinguish.
16. heves a mania, wrong desire.
17. ita-at' et." to obey.
18. Mou-aTUm Naji.
Professor Naji
(a distinguished Turk author 1850
94).
t'rfmfc intellect.

4.

possess.

6.

5.

ojaq a hearth.

7.

u^^>

Lesson

31.

Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs.


Verbal Adjective.

a^Jl*

zXe

436. The regular form of the Verbal Adjectives


(Sifeti

^^

Musheb'bihe) ends in

-ij%

-iji,

-oujou and

derived from every kind of verbs, except Passive


and Reciprocal verbs; as ( 53):

it

is

^yj\j

yazmaq

to write:

jiU? satmaq to

sell:

V jL

Vol^

^-^j j\

j^J"^

yaziji one whose business


is to write, a clerk.
satirfi

one whose business

is to sell,

^yj\

oqoumaq

to read;

to invite:

vHJL~ silmek

to wipe, to

yj\

a seller, a dealer.

oqoufjoujou

L&~iJ>j\

one who

habitually reads, a reader; inviter.

rub out: V J--

jjeJL*

s^yi

a profes-

sional scrubber of floors.

437.
Participle in

This form resembles the Subjective Present


( 401). The difference is that, while

meaning

14*

r) uv-jj

212

Lesson

t)Y

31.

mean 'one who occasionreads,


or cooks', the Verbal Adjectives
ally writes, sells,

yazan, sedan, oqoayan, pishiren

oqouyonjou, pishiriji respectively mean 'one


whose occupation is to write, to
read, to cook', that is to say 'clerk', 'reader' and 'cook'.
yaziji, satiji,

who

habitually does so,

438. There are other forms of verbal nouns and


adjectives which do not always occur, not being formed
from

all

as:

but they can be divided into classes

roots,

439. I. If the verbal root ends in' a vowel,


a verbal noun or adjective is obtained by omitting the
mini of the Infinitive termination.
^Xjjj^. churiimek to rot:

jjy>. ckuruJc rotten.

^y-jya sovoumaq to be cold:<jy^asovouq cold


vll-^Lijl

ishlemek to work:

diJUM

islilek

( 36).

that works well, smoothly.

440. II. If the verbal ends in a consonant, the


mini of the Infinitive is changed into vav, or ye:
,3-6-s^

achmaq

^y*j>j>

bozmaq

441.

j^
or

III.

to open:
to spoil:

by

{>

verbals

is

'

-gun, -gin

^J

'

j^Ji^p.

by- -Qoun, -qin,

pishmek to become cooked:

joshmaq

jj^jj^. surgun an exile.

l*5wj
<j^iij=w

pishgin well baked.

joshqoim

to overflow:

yanmaq

-om,

-?2 is

to

tashqin

dJUoJj-p

fl
no
^ m &'
.

be burut:

IV. Sometimes J,
added to the root:

jJ-Ala

over\

O^U

tashmaq

442.

-ghoun

another class of

.jcl

ending

Infinitive

formed; as:

>

J^o-ilk

the

to the root,

^*jj~> surmek to banish:


<tX .,*.>

open.

bozoiiq spoilt.

<jj-*3#

By removing

dl* and adding bj*

'

acliiq

i3-*^

qapamaq

to shut:

gizlemek to hide:

CAill*

-li,

yanghm

-Ion or

JliU qapali

conflagration.

fire,

-i,

shut.

^jogizli' hidden.

-I,

213

Xouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs.

rtr

JJU

So also:

hidden;

saqli

J,j^ dolou

J-r^

hun S-

asiIi

Jj\ eoh\ dead.

full;

V. The second and third forms of Derivative Infinitives are regarded as regular verbal nouns,

443.

we have seen

as

( 301):

<Jj* deokme
IL>^J\

VI.

Some

by the addition of
'

vlU<u

yemek

of the verbal

y -tm,

p>

'

'

^jL

-*.

-oil,

yazmaq

yem food.

ichim a draught.

made by

the addition of

-gi to the stem:

to write:

^.Ijy qorqmaq
vlL-yjl

^_\

VII. Others are

-,

to the root:

p5j\ Solum death.

vi-u^l ichmeJc to drink:

nouns are formed

-oum

-im.

to eat:

viULjl eohnek to die:

445.

asma suspended.

-w**\

elverishli sufficient.

444.

vik

-woL basma printed.

cast.

<ijL>

yazi writing.

j*Jj s qorqou

to fear:

fear.

5y\ /c%i intoxicating liquid.

ichmek to drink:

446.

VIII. Another class of verbals

from the passive verbs, by adding ^ j


^i)<Jj^~ sevinmeh to be joyful:

vUsojl eddenmek to be paid:


Similarly:

^Jj

^Lol

to be

,JM aqmaq

to flow:

^Ju^yiqmaq

to pull

'

jlj^-i
(5-M-3

>ZX*j^j~. supurmek to sweep:

osanf tiresome.

& -indL

-ti,

-di,

obtained:

ordered

down:

( 265)

r^livaJ qisqanj' jealous.

447. IX. By adding ^ji


J^jj^ bouyroulmaq

stem

7^j}j\ eddunj vulgar ebn'duj a loan.

7ti\j qazanj profit;

is

obtained

?Ci j~ sevinj joy.

guliinj laughahle;

another class of verbals

to the

is

'^a.^

bouyroultou an order.
O^tfttf

a current.

yiqinti debris.

(S-'Jj;^ supruntu sweepings.

Lesson

r) ^-j^

214

J<A&

'

^^"W

'

li'JJiV

iW

'

ri*u

31.

'

jJjjj^

patirti, jayirti,

chatirti, inilti, gurultu all mean a continuous or repeated clattering,


noise, roar, hissing, creaking, crackling, rending and tearing of
the sea, wind, lion etc.

X. The Noun of Excess

448.

addition ofj\5 J\c

~J>-qan, -ghan, -ghij

JoJLlU- chalislimaq to work:


sy ^r

Similarly: {j\Ujij\

oLLlol yapishqan
rS'jy yuzgej a

the verb

ends in

to hear.
J^~r') ^Mtgen quick

is

elif,

j_EIj

o^yj]

skilful

XI.

oimontqari

sticky.

swimmer.

',

ounoutghari forgetful.

^Jj-

suzgej a strainer.

p-^L-k

dalgliij diver.

shortness of breath, roaring.

tjUji^ soloughan

449.

'

to the stem:

chaUshqan assiduous.

u&^!W

ishitmek to hear:

*.\

formed by the

is

The Noun of Location

obtained by adding

and Jl -aq

if it

does not end in that

to pasture:

if it

letter:

Jill yataq bed.

\^Jj\ ^j\otlaq

j.^Jjl otlamaq:

jJiA yayilmaq

-q to the root,

Vol'

yatmaq:

derived from

J>U >U
'

a pasture.

yay'laq, yayla a sum-

mer-residence, or pasturage.

>ULJ

gzsftZa

winter quarters, military headquarters, barrack.

Instrumental Nouns obtained from


the verb, are formed irregularly:

450.

XII.

^lAJl

dL.*l\ elemek to sift:

j-ljlL'

j*\^ daramaq

5j^-

to

comb:

jl^L

'

eleh a sieve.

J\jU rfarag a comb.

swrpw sliding bar of a door.

Jljjl

omg

a sickle.

So also:

^Uc^

jj^L

&2c7iag

a knife.

yastiq a pillow.

Jl*,1 basqi press.


'tfjj-ij-

5^)u

supurge broom.

M%*

a whetstone, from

J^

>

bichqi gardener's knife.

<>J^ sar#M

bandage.

y^Ucfea^Ai musical instrument.

jUT s^
^4?.

braces.

MW*&

to sharpen.

Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs,

rto

*\A

215

Exercise 68.

^>Ui

Change the following verbs

nouns or

into verbal

adjectives:
I.

j^Mvajl islamaq to wet; dbC~jl to desire, to wish;

d*U<\o dUemek to ask, to

maq

dXSjj\ urhnek

to lop;
II.

make

a request;

/7wr/ to tie
-

^sybouda-

to startle.

remain over;

ijl artmaq to

awaken; dUbl
to

make

oyanmaq

j^jl>jl

with in a loop;

^t,^

peace; j^jlo sarmaq to wrap round;

to be burnt

to

barishmaq

jjcl

yanmaq

dUL~, silmek to wipe juJb Uimaq to grow luke*

warm; juijy qorqmaq

to fear; ju^- qaclnnaq

dljjjl ebrtmiJ: to shut; dL~!S

to

flee;

t J> ^>'-

kesmeJc to cut;

tnag to break.
III.

yormaq

JJ*)*

jib dcdmaq

to

to

weary; jlj^ dolmaq to be

become plunged

to be ripe; j^jLll skashmaq

mek

VI.

dl

almaq

bichmek

to cut, to

di*^~ sevmek
flee,

VII. jcl)

Slchmrk

mek

to

dUo

to love; jj*jj>-jl

to let fall

from a night;

yapmaq

measure;

to give, to

pay

iJL^ satmaq

youdmaq

j*o^>

shape;

dL~o

be stupid;

buy;

to take,

j^JI atmaq to throw;

jljl ofeiog

I'cs-

be frightened.

^JL) yilmaq to

to cut;

to

in thought

filled;

to

to swallow;

sell;

dL^

dihnelc to cut into slices;

ouchourmaq

^ jjUL>

to

yUdirmaq

cause to
to flash.

to build; dlljl edlmvlc to die; dLsJjl

dLL> bUtnek

tribute;

to

know;

dlj^l edrtmek

dUo

to cover;

per-

i*IB

rt o*J* Lesson

216

qapamaq
line;

to shut;

jj>>

dUjg- chizmel

#mad

Y)1

31.

to scratch, to

to rise (the sun);

jjl

draw a

Wmag

to

set (the sun).

vVl> yalamaq to lick;

XI.

one'sself; jcl,

Wmag

wag, qonmaq to

Jl

to sink

rtJU>

d/*> J^l> J

<>>

lT^

V
1

joy.

down;

^^

'

J^y

^ wr "

Exercise 69.

u/^>

cr-

<U>-

^>> &/*

^ fa^i f" J" J >r52


-

Translation 70.

have read your letter with great


Don t borshall give you some (an) advice.

My beloved

Now

wash

halt, to rest.

f***Vi

to

j^> younmaq

son, I

Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs.

Y\V

217

row money from others: if your profit (income) is less,


your expenses must be less. 2. Death is such a black
camel, that it kneels before every door. 3. The divers
plunge in the depth of the sea: they are also good swimmers.
he is quick to
4. That old man is not deaf,
hear. 5. Your uncle's horse is short in breath (brokenwinded).
6. You are very forgetful; you forget everything. 7. He was sunk in the marsh, and was obliged
to make a halt there.
8. The children are very fond
of kites.

9.

two combs,

ordered from the market three sieves,


four suspenders, five musical instruments,
I

ten iron bolts and one filter. 10. The soldiers were in
the winter-quarters.
11.
shall go this summer to
the pasturage of Telli-Oghlou.

We

Conversation.

Ail^^

'{->*&)

'

fJ4j

cX\

Jj\

lib

Li\

j*i

*J~^j\ i3r~l-^ i-r*-i

J J at. .a.^ti wU_aiJ

? 3*?j*\
? J->jL?

Off

j-4j

l?'^

o**>j\f

rr

218

J>

r\K

32.

Reading Exercise.

.^JUi

.5

Lesson

*-*

j-^

u-J->

aJLU Lateefe An Anecdote.


C-J pjS"*

'

v-jj-IT

j-OTi oijl dill Ul

aSj^-i dill

'

vJUv ^jylcll)! 4C 3

dn

'

tfi

^j^ ^-x^I

OyJUjO

^.c

4 ^>

0^j-*y ui

a>-1j>- a^I jj

Jijl

dljCll S*5jj>-\
<(

*^J^I

4lj

ol
I

ijij^-l j3 dill

^$U

lll>2 J)

a>.^

4j

2 0^ Jj-*'
'

j:

Jlo

J>Z\

4l7-X>- jr

4l4/jO

~-0
TFords.

1.

TJreyil

qaryesi the village Uregil (at Cresarea).


4. fe^w3. anirmaq to bray.
6. touhaf
5. hid-det anger.

nothing at all, you are welcome.


disini hieh' bozmayaraq indifferently.
queer, funny, strange.

2.

r^

219

Prepositions.

^JZ

rv

Prepositions.
4.

Lesson 32.
(Continued.) 1

The Declinable Postpositions.

451. Postpositions of this class are generally used


as nouns in connection with other nouns and pronouns
to supply the place of prepositions. Their use will be
These prepositions
best understood from examples.
take possessive affixes and are used with the genitive

Thus

case.
r

Ijl

in our midst'

ara means 'the midst'.


i.

e.

'between

ozju\j\

us'.

452. The words thus employed


prepositions the place of which thev
follows ( 236):
zj\

aramizda

and the English


supplv

are

as

ard

The back, the space behind.

Behind.

*zJ\ alt

The space under.

Under.

s_~o dih

The bottom of anything.

Under.

The midst.

Between, among.

The

Before, in front

<ij\

\j\

arqa

a-ra

Ujl eon

Lij\

front.

The space

list

of.

over,

Over, upon, on.


the upper part.

jjj\ uzri
J

ijlio

The outer

dishari

iSj*^>\ iche'ri
|

The

part of anything.

Out

of.

outside.

inside, interior,
In, inside.

7*-A ich

cij^M

ile'ri

the inner part.

The

front part.

Forward.

The top or upper part of anything.

Above.

ashaghi

The lower

Below, under.

tlA

i/an

The

j-

ytr

Place.

Ji

j-^

}l

0Q a r\
.

part.

By, near, by the side of

side.

See Lesson

Instead of

14,

page 106, 230287.

IT

220

tSj

<ojl

P-_/.\/.

Cnilj
a.

^a-

The

Beyond.

beraber

Even

yaqin

The space

7iar/g

farther side.

The space

far

The space

opposite.

ijjjjojl
\

ojJsJto-

Jp

oj^Jl

'

'

'

MisaVler

arqaslndan get

Go

ardimdan

Come

alti,

of.

Examples.

gel

after him.
after me.

After the coffee i. e. breakfasl

qahyalti

alt qat

Lower

story (of the house

ustune chlqmaq

To go

to the top.

At the bottom of the box


haqqlnda About me, thee, him.

o^o-jL yanimizda dh\ yanhniza

.4.k~-lj \'>j\

5.

By means

Near

<oj*jJJL yaqinhnizda, yaqirilarinda

j>z

a5joJj!

Against.

oJ^5>- haq'qhnda, haq'qinda,

*\

Far.

^iiX*9 sandlgliln dibinde

oJlLv.o

o-Xi^L-al

aJLJl-jI

away.

a go-between.

oj^ qahve

ols c-M
^3-JLa.

About, concerning.

respect, regard, relation.

^^ (jX~~.*5j1
jd

Near, by.

near,

jUlt4

J>

Together with.

with, breast to breast with.

A means,

vasita

'

Back (backwards).

hinderpart.

eote

ijlS qarshi

Ju.iw

YY*

32.

Round, around.

era/*

Jljjl ouzaq

a.<jJa~.lj

Lesson

Surroundings.

cJl^M

a.

The

geri

i_rJ->

onoun vasltaslylla

<^jojj\ uzerime, uzerine

gel

It is

us,

them.

near us, come near

By means

of him.

On me, on

thee.

Turkish equivalents for some English Prepositions.

453. All the English Prepositions, which indicate a state of location or rest must be translated
by the locative: all others which indicate a direction
or motion from one place to another are to be rendered
by the dative case

( 237).
before five o'clock and remained there five
beshdhi ev'vel shehre girib orada be'sh gun dourdouq.

We entered the city


days.

Saat

454.

Study and compare the following sentences:


above five hours, (rhavgha (or qav'ga)

The

fight lasted

bvsli

sd-atdan

ziyade

surdu.

ui

221

Prepositions.

XT)

Dizlerinden yoqart.

Above the knee


Those who were about him
I have no change about me
I am about to go
About noon
She laughed at him
I wonder at what you have said
We were at your aunt's

Etrafinda oJanlar.
uzerimde oufaqliq yoq

dour.

Gitmek uzre yim.


Eoylene doghrou.
fizerine guldu.
Dediyinize te-aj'-jub ediyoroum.
Halafi gilde idik.

Mrs. Mania is loved by every body. Many a Hanim her


sevilir or Her kes Manya Hanimi sever.
Csesarea was taken by the Persians. Farisiler Kayseriyeyi
zabt etdiler or Kayseriye Farisilerden alhidi.

kesden

Translated by a priest

Bir papas marifetiy'le terjeme

He sent it by him
He came by sea
Sit by me

Onoun vasitasiyla

Qaradan

After the Turkish fashion

Turk ousoulou uzre. alatourqa.

olounmoush.
gebnderdi.

geldi.

Yanimda

otour.

JcJ Words.
peacock

a._~jl_L> tavous

viLj^i yuztnek to
a.

v_-Jjj

(J*Vjl>

swim

jlijJli

u/ JJ-ft

1>\Ja

Lll

ojclS^I

^))\Ju

go round about
stairs

a.J-Lo tatil vacation

^ZLijS qoushatma'L to encircle

^JUi

to

i>ji^ A merdiven

Zeyneb Zenobia

V\

dolanmaq

a.jLa*. hisar wall.

Exercise

71.

dh^i JjJteJ ^C-l jUUtfr


^5

^)Lp

a_i

<^-:

rr u-J^

222

Jj3

\2'

n^jSCA j^h j>

jUjI

VY A-j

'

Lesson

rrr

32.

pjj\ J-^j^ jlJU

J-

-^

Translation

Jj-li

72.

That package is for me: how much did you pay


for it? 2. I have a great deal (choq sheyler) to tell you
concerning this boy. 3. I have fallen (youvarlandim)
down the stairs. 4. I shall read that book during the
vacation. 5. The child threw the ring into the well: all
the servants gathered around the well to take up the ring
from the well. 6. Within a year. All the houses within
Within some days. 7. Can you
the wall were burnt.
swirn round the ship? 8. He must wait till five o'clock.
1.

He

spoke about his mother. 10. One sat above, the


other below me. 11. The inn is without the town, but
the hospital is within the walls of the town.
12. Noyesterday
to
our
house
body came
except Haji Hassan
Effendi.
13. Your house is among the trees, my house
is in front of the church.
9.

VT

4&-J Translation

73.

1. My father was not above twenty years old when


he was married. 2. My uncle's house is very handsome,
but it cost him (mal oldoii) above 500 pounds. 3. It is above
a year since my friend started for America. 4. Yozgad
was built by Chapan Oghlou. 5. The poor man was
6. I shall
d liven out of his house by his creditors.
you at
Were
7.
get up to-morrow at six o'clock.
Dr. Tracy's last night?
8. He had no money about

Ttr

him
10.

223

Prepositions.

At noon. In the summer:


The dog sprung out from under the table.
(yaninda).

9.

we turn towards

'

jji-wi

j^>

^^J

11.

Sow

the East.

Ai^

^U^bj)

at night.

_i

Conversation.

z^?^

J^

,j> .U.1

-*

Reading Exercise.

c5^ Keby Odasi The

ib^^^l 4,b J^j jjO%>


!

u * ^s\*j>

Village

Koom.

^4_Lji 'diWjT'

"^

W'ortfs.
1. as it is [custom] (429).
2. Mounjousoun a village
near Caesarea, the ancient Pontusa. 3. qaranliq darkness. 4. &omaq to set in, to prevail (darkness) [334]. 5. dftnian smoke. 6. as
soon as they see [428]. 7. Jceh'ya the bailiff of a village p. 126'.
8. narfjile a hookah.
9. choubouq tobacco-pipe.
10. eyUnmek to
amuse one's self. 11. ortaViq the space, the whole room.

rr

224

jjsu.^ duuji

^ ch

w 't.Uurf.

j)

ie
'

jti

jj* js

21

JJjl

u"js

Lesson

ff^-

33.

o-^ 'Vtf/

jJCi jJCj

i> ^.^V

'

V >^
1

**>

Li-<Jj5y

J>j"' *-Jjb'

>.

J^

unable to see (404).


trees
15. hutAk root of the
14. a. A-e,yf pleasure, merriment.
la
502].
sound
[44,
17
crashing
16. iuil inil with a clashing or
in
nasttea
warm
19.
to
Islndlrmaq
18.
qtrdi talk, chattering.
30II3
merry,
20. dWd-d&K severe. 21.
12.

some way

(150)
24

Zamag

to

cover,

to

fill.

18.

or other.

22 4,70* rather warm, snug

(156).

23. a.

jamous butfa

26. shelnr
25. a. musa-a-deli favourable
to praise.
f. pory,
south
#-Ze
28
a.
27.
C*area.
the city ,,
(651).
29, a. havadis intelligence, news
Va;3 north.

irf

^e"4;

vr ^jO^ Lesson

JU
S 455

>>t uij*

33.

Adverbs.

adjecAdverbs are words modifying verbs,


manner,
denote
adverbs. They therefore

tives or other

doubt, negation, interplace, time, quantity, affirmation,


rogation and order.

rro

225

Adverbs.

Turkish adjectives may also be


used as qualifying adverbs, with all the changes which
the adjectives undergo. Ex.:
Choq seoy'lemek. To talk too much or intrusively.

Almost

456.

jjJLjbjlj
<eyi

(jAl^Oslw pjjix-

y\

My

yaziJmish dlr.

manner

'

Benim mektouboum seninkinden


than yours.

letter is better written

The Adverbs

457.

X>

Adverbs of Manner.

1.

question

all

of

Jl>.

Manner answer

to

the

J^t ni'je? na'sil? How? The adverb

of

generally obtained by the addition of some


particle or word to the adjective, and is expressed in
English by the corresponding adjectives with the addition of the termination -ly.
is

458. The adverb of manner is obtained in three


ways: by repeating the adjective, by the addition of
a>-

or of

-je,
y\i\

)yo souretde,

j*&\ aglilr aghir,

souretde. Heavily. JJU

This

459.

*>-

^s-^n&l

J.lU*

'

to the adjective:
aghirja, o-Xljj^

*?eJjLL

or <c^*>.

^nc-\

aghir

oS!jj^ JJU Sweetly.

'

added

also

is

and pronouns, and thus we obtain an

to

nouns

adverbial ex-

pression ( 155, 331):


i

<scJo

<s^l

benje, kendisinje according to

jjjj

otol '-u^-ocol adamja, adamjasina


also:

^_>b^o\

'

in a

Jilt *$\ adamjilayin,

me, to him.

manly way;

adam

aqilli.

460. The 4th and 8th Gerunds are also used as


adverbs of manner (pp. 206, 207):
,jj<Jjl

ijjA hediye olaraq as a

gift.

iSXJf^ )j<}<a<l~j\ istemeyerek gitdi he went unwillingly.

oJIXoaL^ sebylediyinde when he spoke.

461.

o^l

1.

Adverbs of Manner.

yeniden newly, anew.

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

Jji^. biryol, biyol once.


15

'

rr

226

i_rJ^

Lesson

yeyiri strongly.

ye'giri,

u\^>

Cj yine, yene

rvy

33.

again,

never-

gine, gene

ajJ>

^ikj

theless.

CJ*^ boshouna

tekrar

a. j\ >xJ

bou gun to-day.

<J_f"j>

^jl yarm

j>

to-morrow.

i)jz

dun yesterday.

dfur^^

er^si gun the

fol-

j.

^1

j.

a~*f^y\

dfS-*^

gun) yester-

V.

day.

i5-U.-i shim'di

tjUj

fore

>

ev'velki

-^

early.

a few
minutes

<jjJ!A bayaqdari)

*^ UrdS

*fc

5"T,o

a.vijljl

ago.

biidlr

sonra afterwards.

niha'yet at last.

oS^S^ Jqechende

sa-at

last

year ~

lately.

quickly.
o

tb e "
I

lib da'yima always.

a.

j^-^jU. cha'poujaq

^&L j\

n ow and

Jj\ eVweZ before.

a.

hachan
dentin

eV fo'n

ora' sira

a jJu
when

Cao

e'r,

gej late.

L>t

(345,426).

^U.15

azdan soon, after

-CL-o^f" gechensene\

now.

ne zeman

^1

'

&**"

a while.

^jf

day be-

suddenly.

o^

the

gun

birderibiriy

0*0*.

j_;\ ^S\ ap'ansiz

lowing day.
tote

in vain, idly.

Adverbs of Time.

2.

462.

beoyleje thus, in this way.

^5^

gechen

463.
and Negation.
3. Adverbs of Affirmation, Doubt
oj\

aa

ev'vet, e-vet
Tie,

M-tZ

p. Ji 6e7i
p. 7j_-a

7mc7&'

^-"

a.

L5\j

as la

yes

viltiAJ

j^A^i

nedemek!
shub'hesiz

of course,.

no doubt!

certainly!

no
j- hhayir]

^
>

a. >l*\

never,

*L

bile

even.

a.

U^

flje'ba

vaqaa

truly, in fact.

o^=^f gercheMen truly, really.

*)j\'Vj\ o/a

| T

wonder!
Is

it

so?

"

TTV

Adverbs.

464.

OS&

Adverbs of Interrogation.

4.

J^at nasll?\

nichin?
]

why?

^o<i nedeyi?

where-

neye?

aj<]

fore?

<*J m>'?

how? by what
manner?

neqadar? how much?

jji<J

ne sebebden?)

<J

227

ne? what?

a")

465.
5. Adverbs of Quantity and Comparison.
^5oJ nitekim

as,

in the

manner

Aj

dfc

tele'

as.

tick here and


tnere

oj"jr"Ji bus'biitun
\ ^
a
&a'fiIAi

>

(ijl 6a' rt
.

at

a. \jg*

,,

,.

fc'-<*yt

jU-il'

,3?c.i

We"'

^SYgeremgibi
J y
J

properly,
duly.

intentionally.

rQ i; c
gratis,

'

CU^. mej'janen

^-V>

ree ^'

>

dolayidan indirectly.

^*

sanki almost,

sa V'^

neai y
'

^1U>

an'jaq only.

qas'den

U<oL ba'dihava
,

a.

Pietty

JJ _,!

jid'den seriously.

a. l_L*a3

p.

entirely.
J

least.

aJj! *Jj\oZsaoZsaatthemost.
-

'

saZ'

47 8)-

only.

There are also a great many more adverbs which can


by practice and reading ( 212).

Note.

easily be learnt

466.

0.

Adverbial Expressions of Time.

In adverbial expressions denoting time of day the

word in

is

expressed by the addition of ^^J

-layin, and for the seasons by adding


Cs.j\>

Cxj^
v

>>Ul~y

oa ^ia rin
'

guzun

spring.

in autumn.

qonshlouq'layin at 9
o' clock A. M.

{ji^***-?

'

it^k-leyin,

^ -in, -tm(p.55):

geje'Uyin at night.

^_>ULi^l akhsham'layin in the


.
evening.
^-jJ^jJJXjI ikindi'Uyin
the
in
afternoon.

Ail Words.
a.

<jj*y*

mezoun graduate.

j\j\

avara useless.
15*

rr

228

a. Js.j

vad promise.

a.lii

shaqa joking

p.

ju>-4.IjI

rt

c^^^c

fj^jiU

^J-jJ

c>2>vj>

i)j

^^jl

^aiJCjI 4iij j^j^

JjO

^_~ol

Vo

When

bihoude in vain
^/ate*

aj

0^->- u^i-y ^J^Ltl ^a.L

tf'SjJ <-jj~~h

4><U~-UI

yP ^pL* ^^j'

4J3-

you

bed-time, curfew.

74.

*i**Jjl >11>.I <dJ aITjI

<Cjj

o^j

Exercise

^nL^

rrA

33.

^"L'^Jlj

VI

Lesson

u-J->

'

^y

JJ^y

U**-**-

4JL^?=Ij

*^AJ

dr*^

^L dLto^

Translation 75,

to-morrow or the day


after to-morrow?
2. He has been here at least three
times.
3. That is beautiful indeed! 4. How much do
you charge for it?
It will cost you 20 mejidiyes at
1.

will

set

out,

most (en choghou).


thing
it;

else.

else

we

6. If

shall

5.

At present (sMmdilih)

we have given

a promise,

I
let

want nous keep

certainly lose our good name.


7. I
8. The preacher's house is

could find him nowhere.

229

Adverbs.

YY\
very far

The one came

9.

off.

hither, the other

went

10. I could open the door neither from within


nor from without.
11. Act as if you were (olmoushjasina) at your home. 12. Did you know him formerly?
13. Yes, I have long known him.
14. She is better
The
than
15.
next
time I shall be
to-day
yesterday.
here betimes.

thither.

All^S Conversation.

^^j*

^^S-Jj'. p-^i-^

JlJ>\i

yyTisji

^y^

rtJla>

^^Ljl <^ The

(j^L.)

.jbjbi

uJ'j'.J^

<j^ j*

Oj&~*

Tillage

<-^Oj Jlj

Room.

TPords.
therefore.

*>3j'

relate.

6.

kedpiiklu foamy, creamy.


eozenmek to do carefully
day.
7. on this side.

1.

4.

one

J>-oj^ijl

(Continued.)

<>->w

JjillS

3.

Reading Exercise.

$~xJ(fkj{ j

->^

o^j o*ji

J".

lit

^jjl

du^xt
Jr'-^ ^

JjiL^l u^iijpl

2.
(

Hiram
370).

et".
5.

-oL?l

to serve.

wa#Z &". to

230

Lesson

r<u u-J-i

^^jJ^L
8.

p-'^

Usi->-

*Ljl

Talas, the classical Mutalassi.

yr*

34.

^ojjJ^L?
9. di&efc

a^<Us>j!

dAjLiT

wooden mortar,

which coffee is pounded. 10. Ghlji a very common proper


name, Sticky. 11. khinja lehinj dolou ve'rmek to become brim-full

in

quickly ( 286).

f*

u^t>
^i^

,_>lc

Lesson 34.
Conjunctions.

467. Conjunctions are particles which serve to


connect words and sentences, bringing them into a
certain relation with one another.
468. There are very few conjunctions of Turkish
origin, the nature of the language being such that it
scarcely requires them ( 430). Many Persian and Arabic
conjunctions, however, are used in the language.

469.

Copulative Conjunctions.

1.

a.p.jve

a.

j>. hat'ta
j

and.
*0

aJLj

He, le

aIo

_a -A hem hem

p.

<o

'

de,

dakhi

both, also.

also,

and

p. />
p.

t.

bile

even.

hem and,

also.

oJ> hem de and moreover.

(116,117).

470.

j ve

is

common
to

people never use it in speech


books and educated people.
a)

*!>

I' *J

The

Arabic or Persian originally.


;

its

use

proper

is

He, le takes the place of j ve for nouns

and pronouns,
peder He oghlou,

as
i.

*-*
e.

4ll

ben He sen" .ipjl

4jjl

ben ve sen, peder v6 oghlon;

jJo

also:

Anam babam anam He babam = anam ve babam ( 232).

rrt

231

Conjunctions.

b)

used,

But

as:

between verbs the gerunds are

in place of 'and'

^^^1

= ^yj j

<dty verdi

(371, 435).

^Jtil

l>- hat'ta introduces a phrase which cor 471.


roborates what precedes it, it is generally accompanied

by

de

*L bile:

or

aJLj

ci.i<si**D

hjz\j>. ^a- hat'ta

biraderin bile

or rfe gelemedi.

Even your brother could not come.

472.
'

p. I

Disjunctive Conjunctions.

2,

I j ya, re

ya

_
|

p. }jL[

yakhod

6j

^-j\ _ ^m

_l ya - ya - either - or -

*-*

'

<

&*'

'

p. _J _<jJ

ha- hane - we - neither - nor -

>/okhsa,yoghonsa,

*~d ^5'

ister- ister

j \

_U_U

a.Willa very rather


p. _l

gerek - gerek -

_ iSj

or

i/oqise or,

otherwise.

( 243.)

473. Gerek, ister, ha are put before two opposite


words or phrases to state an alternative:
let

Ister gelsin ister gelmesin. Whether


not. (I do not care!)

he choose

come

to

or not;

him come or

Gerek bebyuk gerek kuchuk. Whether great or small.


dlmish ha almamish. Whether he has taken it or not.

Ha

Ilia

474.

some words of the

contradicts

pre-

vious clause; it can be used only, if the antecedent


clause contains a negation: it means but on the contrary,

nay

rather.

deyil, ilia pederim hasta d/r. I am not ill but my father.


Qizini deyil, ilia yegenini' seve'rim. I do not love his daughter,
but his niece.

Ben

475.
*-\
.

'

",

o<-d
.

i-se;

Contracting Conjunctions.

3.
'

-Lis a.

isede; faqat

s*y p.
gerchi;

476.

'

^-,<Jj>

a.

velakin

*=*j\

p.

eg-, eye'rcht

Amma,

'

.-<J

lakin:
'

jji

a.

'

lT| a.

am
*;

ma, em

J,* rp.

'

her ne qadar

but, vet.

ma

although.

lakin, velakin, faqat are put

at the beginning of the sentences, while ise, ise tie


comes at the end ( 130, 239240, 241, 245, 325, 339).

232

rw

Lesson

u-jj>

rrt

34.

her ne qadar

Gerchi, eyerchi,
477.
followed by isede yet\

are

o*~j!

^y

^nid

The remaining conjunctions

478.
p.

U>

eyer, eger if ( 238,

J^\

<*jCi [*a

'

p.

are as under;

381382).

as

>

if,

as though (as

was

promised)..

guy a

j>

yani that

a. J.J

p.

sariki, say'ki

zj a- sebzde
ii

poor,.

is

yet

Miscellaneous Conjunctions.

4.

4.x.

Although he

gerchi faqir ise de.

is to say,

i.

e.

l^j zira

because,

p. <>-!^>- chiinki

AjojM

a.

^1s>

madam

4X>.bL

a. p.
'

Jlcl

ki since.

zanri cderim, al'lahaUm vulg. al'Uhem

4jjl

U>^5 faraza

a.

<so

I think.

lLr^L toiitalim ki

supposing that.

imdi

iJ&\

therefore.

^>j\ onoun ichin

<jj5.>\

0-^r- Jjl 61 sebebden therefore.

p.

fc^

p.

t.

that, for.

<u-jC meyerse
'

ji->

'

<%" norder that(392).

p. j>>[i sha'ye'd
)

~s

p. Li ta until

un i egs an(}

badehou then, afterwards.


J.
jlsul'jpeJl cwy'ag however, only.
a. o_Uj

p. 40

jC meyer

so that.

p.

*>_l

perhaps,

&eZ'A;^

A^(i_)Ji3 qaldi ki there remains (to us) that.


p. 4j

5.

ta ki in order to

(before negatives) lest.

Turkish equivalents for some English Conjunctions*

Some English

conjunctional
phrases are given below, with their Turkish equivalents.

479.

As

SO.

As
jj

is
&\>j\

the mother,
oz ijj\j

so

idiomatic

is

the daughter 4^j1 J^L'

Anasi nasil

isa,

qizi

da

.~lH

ebyle dir.

rrr
As

233

Conjunctions.

so.

Ar the

so shall thy seed be vlLL.1

stars in multitude,

jAls-dJlc-^- jji Jj^jJlj Neslin yildizlar

qadar

chogha-

lajaq dlr.

As as.

am

as

tall

ouzounoum

Botb

and.

as

you

^.'>jjj\

jji

dJu*-

^ Ben senin qadar

( 229).

Both good and had were left to his choice. Eyi ve


de onoun kendi key fine (ikhtiyarxna^ braqildi.

kedtu ikise

Either

or.
o'

Either he or I will do it j^^-aA jj,


bounou yapajaghiz.

ya ben

L j\

Ytt

nor. Neither you nor can go. Ne


ne ben gideor Seride ben'de gidemeyiz.
Whether or.
care not whether you go or stay. Gitsen de
mesen de oumouroumda deyil
If then. If you
take
then will take that. Sen bounou
alirsan ben de
birini alirim.
So that.
was so late that
could not come. Ol qadar gej
idi hi gelemedim.
Not only but also. She was not only poor, but also very sick.
Neither

sen',

biliriz

git-

dir.

will

this,

ol

It

Hem

Though

yet.

faqir ve

hem

or

hem

de

hasta idi ( 474).

live many years, yet his life is a


seneler yashadi ise de, ebmru boshouna

Though he

failure.

Choq

gitdi.

Therefore

because. Therefore doth ray father love me, because


down my life. Ben eomrumu feda etdiyim ichin
or etdiyimden pederim de beni sever.
I lay

Jcil Words.
(jlUa.

chcdmaq to play

a.

cl*3 sari at profession

JuU naqid

a. <-j,*

money

4ji

yjl

(jL*ls

4J

pardon
bald-head

qamish reed

^\*JS\ eyilmek

merkeb donkey; murikkeb made, composed


V*\

J\L

kel

jf

vUhJl^o dikilmek to stand up directly


a.

ys. afo

A^

jAjIS j dill

to bend,
to curve.
of; ink.

Exercise 76.

s^fTj*

Jb

Zj\

jUi J

J^lf

f"u ifji

234

jL>|

^>

fjr

fljf ^

ftJ

^ ^^

Op

;<S^

i>-~tf3

u,i\.
'

^- J !

,*Jui

-><i^-J

i^jaS

rrt

34.

^ fW-^ C
VV

i uj3

Lesson

Exercise

^ ^ <^^

L^ jLJ J" f Lttf

77.

^ ^^J

J^^ dbj4S*

<&**&*

**

VA

A^"J

^-O.

o- (^ ^ J ^

5C.o>l> 15C^-I dCjol *>


*

""

'

J*

U5

Translation 78.

and my niece. 2. We have written


learnt it.
3. You
a long exercise, but we have not
tor it
must go home directly, or you will get wet;
1.

Your

sister

rro

235

Conjunctions.

The reed bends, but does not


5. You ought to speak to your children, for
break.
they are very naughty. 6. Do not waste your time,
for life is made up of it. 7. Time is money. 8. The
will

sood

rain.

4.

horse may be very strong, nevertheless (yine) it does


not please me. 9. He was very tired, nevertheless he
10. I feared lest (deyi) he should
continued working.
die.
11. As [since] he does not work, I shall give him
nothing.
12. 1 wish you to wait till I have done my
13. After I had breakfasted, I took a walk,
exercise.
although it was raining a little.

VA 42*j Translation 79.


1. Give me your letter that I may send it to
post-office. 2. He says he will not marry until he

the

has

3. Read it twice, lest (yolilisa) you forget


The lady must be careful, lest she fall (Fut).
The more frequently you practice (what you learn

a profession.
it

(Aor.).

5.

4.

your music lesson, the better you will play it.


6. Unless the Lord build the house, their labour is in
vain, who build it.
7. Ask him when he will come.
8. Why did you sleep so long?
I slept so long, because
9. The more I study Turkish, the
I was very tired.
more I like the language. 10. I do not know whether
he is rich or poor.
in)

<u(U Conversation.

*S?\j'Sj.** 4*?*^ J* J>>


-

j\

'

Ji'

&-Sf\ ci-^Jjl j^*->\

ro ^rjj

236

Lesson

^j-a^jI

J^l 5 Ju7 Reading


(jl,U)

35.

Exercise.

^S"" The Tillage Room.

(Continued.)

Words. 1. Kednes prop, name, Star (Slavonic). 2. chavoush


a sergeant in the army. 3. Qonbour prop, name, a holster. 4. oitsto
a captain (of Janissaries). 5. ise while. 6. keyf chatmaq to be in
complete merriment. 7. Jchitab et" to address. 8. never, absolutely.
Good
9. See 405.
10. khayr ola what is the matter!
news, let us hope. 11. oushaq! children! boys! 12. deyi 392.
13. geoz qoulaq ol". to be all eyes and ears, to pay full attention.
.

u^t>
o

IjJ

Lesson 35.

--

Jzjo-

The Interjections.

480. Interjections are words which are used to


express a sudden or violent emotion of the mind.

The

rry

237

Interjections.

Sometimes they are used alone, and sometimes


accompanied by the word to which they refer, which
in Turkish is generally put in the dative:
Oi.y

'

afe'rin,

sana! Good for you!


<S\

J-it- shish

oj-

vay

<ilj

f-\j

*>

halloo!

<-*>

yazlq!

What

<>_^

aferim! Bravo! Capital!

I say

u/'^.a sows/

a.

yl^IZZ

Jjl^

def'ol!

Zi\j iS\

ey'vallah!

a.

<L\li-U

a.

-Ji

a.
a.

Hush!

a.

a..t

UL

4i\i>L.

^
4jj

4jo\

inshallah! If
ma'zallah!

God

God

'

\e.

Pity.'

Begone!

Thank you!

fcLSl

forbid!

^ LSI <d>^
.^JlIj^

is

strange!

Please God!

will!

Allah kerim! God

hope

so!

Shocking!

gracious!

Let us hope!

com. elhamdul'lah! Thank God!

.ui-l elhamdii-lil'lahi

>Ju-5^(ijB

How

ma'shallah! Beautiful!

A* ^A*

a^CIIj ves'selam! All right! All correct, O. K.

a.

a pity!

v_Jl>& ajayib! Wonderful!

dear!

<jM aroaw/ O dear! Oh

Woe!

iS\jvay!

Alas!

^ jL

oJjU liayde! Come! Hie thee!

Fellow!

Lib baqsa'na! Look!

I;

be herif!

*j

vaTch!

My

>

unto you!

janhn!

-Jl-

0j hire, bre; be!

o\y\ eyvah'!)

!^aI ya'hou!

^i^ y^y\\ aferim

Woe

size!

0! eh!

Cj^-h\ oulan!

ey! hey!

*>

Well done!

aferim! Bravo!

Exercise 80.

JT^jjj

^ ^>.

4.^Cj>

,>

7-1^?

uVj!

<jv>-

D^T

jJj sill)

ro

238

Lesson

u-j-i

k^T^ U* ^x f^
**

**

rr ^

35.

r^

^ ^^

cs,jt

~U

jj\j
(

*Sjl

J...I.

pais ejri

^ ^i
J3 v_
jbW

'

j>>

"

jjb

Beading Exercise.

The

Villa S e

j^y

,&

yi

Jjp.

dU<J

"jyi jj*

Words.
3

l*/"

taw pan

1.

,0

KOOm.

^" -

'<u+z u~~

(Continued.)

^^
&? ^

'^

,j-> 1

W
'^ ^
J^*s! ^ "^ ^

jM-J.3

'

cfsh-

j".

flf* <V=^
'

^<- ^j"' j^

jy

fe

'

sneeze.
2. ogsJrmaa
cough.
Qazanjdar
CJor5.
cauldron, saucepan.
uproa,.
an
/.<
6.
Makers.
Boiler-

eoforia
tAtifttf

'

to

tsTnhl market of)


f&ffStaffi. 8.V-*. to
tapping and knocking noise.

to

run.

9.

?^TpTo

The

rr\

**

239

Interjections.

!(!**

16. aghzina
14. ortallq the whole (field). 15. tiqamaq to plug.
to the brim.
(They have placed a big ladder on the outside of

the cauldron from the bottom to the brim.)


JujU

di-j

'

jj-^jCl jj:ju&I

ill

^jjjljl

^Jjt

OL? tf-uL)

'

JOB

10

KjyAjS

Continued.

3iy ^ILL-'

%jql

w _^r

* ^jio JjojupI

4J0

(ku5Cjcl.*i.I Jj

uJOjo dl^Vy

I3

^J0$fc

dljlj\S

VU

what do you

say! what a wonder! 2. kebme


to hammer ( 276\
5. kinetlemel: to clamp together.
6. lehimlemek to solder.
7. qalaylamaq to tin. 8. a day when father and mother both are at home;
hence, a state of noise and confusion.
9. q'n/amet qoponyor a
commotion is occnring: lit. the Pay of Judgement is breaking.
Tl'ords.

group.

10.

Soultan

campaign

1.

ne den

glial abaliq

3.

crowd.

4.

Mourad Amurath IV.

(A. D. 1638).

chekijlemelc

11.

Baghdad

12. te-aj-jiib et"'. to

seferi the

be astonished.

Baghdad
13.

See

447.
ajU

TT'orrfs.

1.

naqliyet story.

Continued.

2.

me'raqjelb

it", to

arouse the interest.

ro u-J^ Lesson

240

tfjo

L^ i5^f

iplcbj

"**

35.

^~i

iSJiW

'

^~**

o-^

>-L? *Wjl

4*3Gl

iSJ.1

^a JV ^>

u
!

>^/

ul
'

f^T-*

Shah'nam^JheBoo^
deceased, blessed
4^
Persian autho Firdon ,
the
of
work
celebrated
of Kings', the
eC
8
prop. name. 7 J cu
5. gliarib wonderful. 6. Qavas
tS
o
3.

merfcoum

used
with honey' (a polite expression
emr
S
another).
interrupt the talk of
9.

HtfigMniboumm to

flKftf you had seen.


cabbage.
r

twist his
12.

l:i.

when one

mustache

See 404.

3 jgoU

allow,

et

^
^
obhged
i

yi(^.

VK *"* el

13. i-ri large.

Continued.

Fortunate One, a title of the


TTord. I. p. Mn-*r the
.
eccN
o
camp,
tn form a i.
m, to encamp,
sovereigns ( 535, 55b). i. to torm
ho.seback,
played on
4. jirid is a certain game

,;,

is

used as a dart.

5.

a
i4. tafccma

innumerable

(9

Wi).

Ottoman
d.

tent,

241

Appendix.

Yi.)

"

lei jIa>-4jI

^v 4

lW>-y

6. JjVm seferi the Persian expedition.


Baghdad was then
the hands of the Persians.
7.
miiba-laghaU exaggerated.
8. oui/maq to fit, to match.
10. qop9. bitmek to grow (plant).
maq to pluck out. 11. qos qojaman very big, gigantic. 12. khalq
people.
13. bayllmaq to faint. 14. See 447. 15. sivishi vermek

in

to slip

away

quietly

( 286).

au_3-

f^

Kliitam

u^i>
*3%^

481.

The method

End.

Lesson 36.
Appendix.

in

which

to address

and

salute

always requires considerable attention.


The
Ottomans themselves are very careful about such matters, especially in writing.
Every class of people has its
especial title by which its members must be addressed.
people

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

16

r^ wj* Lesson

242

ri.r

j*M}L Selamlam-aq.

Salutation.

I.

86.

The Moslems

salute one another with the


3
address Selamun aleykum 'peace be unto you
the answer is Ve aleykum selam 'unto you be peace'. And

482.

when

necessary to return the salutation, the one saluted


c

says Merhaba you are welcome!


Eyvallali Thank you'.

to

which

is

answered

salute Christians and nonand Moslems Christians in the morning by


saying Sabah'lar khayr olsoun! 'May the mornings be
'Good morning
At noon -time or in the
good'
middle of the day, Vaqitlar Jchayr olsoun! 'Good day
In the evening they say: Akhshamlar khayr olsoun!
'Good evening! When it is necessary to return the
salute, the person saluted says: Khosh geldiniz you are
welcome or, Sabah'lar Jchayr olsoun, Vaqitlar Jchayr olsoun, Akhshamlar khayr olsoun, according to the time

483.

Christians

Christians,

['

of day.

484.

At parting, Moslems and Christians say

Qal sagh-liqla, Khoshja'qal; Qa'lin saghltqla, Khoshja'qalin,


all meaning 'Good-bye': the reply to which is Khosh*
geldiniz, sefa geldiniz 'you are welcome
5

But at night when taking leave they say


5
to which the answer
olsoun 'Good night
khayr'
Gejeler
is Khayra qarshi 'Toward the good one (morning) which
extends the idea of the salutation to the morning light.
485.

II.

Congratulations.

Ol5C> Tebrikiat.

486. Returning after an absence, one is greeted with


Khosh' geldiniz 'Welcome!': to which he replies Khosh'
gebrduk! which may be rendered 'I am happy to see you
5

487.

If the

new comer has

entered the

room

in the absence of the person whom he comes to visit,


the latter, on coming in, makes use of the same salutation, only substituting the Dubitative for the Past

tense Khosh' gelmishsiniz.

considered polite, in meeting


a person, to ask after the health of absent parents or

488. In the East

it is

Appendix.

fur

243

In answering such questions, it is necessary


to consider the age of the person who asks:
friends.

he

If

a)

is

eder

He

younger

man

lar

seoyle

kiss

junior, the

much

is

you many salutations

offers

his hands,

give (him)

5
.

Choq selam-

Then the

maklisoits selam

replies Ellerini eoperim,

my

compliments".

whom

If the person regarding

rank,

answer given

he has asked is of high


his own, he says, EteJderini

superior to

makhsous selam
compliments'.

eoper im,

I kiss his skirts,

seoyle

many

who

enquires about the health of


aged and of good position, it is
customary to answer Ellerinizi eoper He kisses your
hands or with more formality Etehlerinizi eoperler They
(he) kiss your skirts
b) If the person

the

absent person

is

489. The person who is to convey these greetings assumes the responsibility by saying Bash' iistune
5
'with pleasure! and acquits himself
on my head
of it when he meets the person to whom the greetings
are sent by saying Filan effendi choq choq' selamlar
Mr. S. offers you many saluseoyledi, ellerinizi eoper
To which the other
tations and kisses your hands
b) Sagh' olsoun
replies a) Teslieh-uiir ederim 'Thanks!
May he be well! c) Getiren geonderen' sagh olsoun
May he who brings and he who sends the selam be
5
May he who kisses
well!
d) El eopen' sagh olsoun
5
hands be well! As we say, I am much obliged both
5
to you and to him ( 365, 375).

490. When somebody drinks something, or


washes his hands or comes from the bath or shaves
himself or is shaved by a barber, it is usual to say
to which the other
AfiyeV olsoun! 'Health be to you!
replies Eomrun choq olsoun!
May your life be long! .
Which may be rendered 'Thank; you! ( 365.)
5

491.
Yeni

sem'hi.i
C

olsoun!

which
vals

is

At the beginning of the new year they say


mubarek'

olsoun!

happy new year

Choq' senelere

Sail jedidiniz mubarek'


to

you!

5
:

the answer to

For many years!'

( 365.)

492. Among the Moslems on both their festi(Ramazan and Qourban) the form of congratulation
16*

rn ^ji Lesson

244

is
c

rw.

36.

Bayramifflg mubarek' olsoun, or eediniz sayicV olsoun


your festival be blessed'.

May

493. Besides the above, which are for set times,


there is a great variety of occasional salutations and
congratulations, such as ( 365):
1. Geozunuz ay din' olsoun! or more learnedly, Cheshminiz roushen' olsoun! 'May your eye be bright addressed
to one whose daughter or son have just married, to
parents on the birth of a child, or to those who have
just welcomed a new relative or dear friend from
abroad, or even received a letter from a distant friend.
c
The reply to this is: Aydinliq ichinde ol! May you
enjoy the light' or Darosou evinize olsoun! 'The same
(millet) to your house!' or if addressed to a bachelor.
Darosou bashiniza olsoun! 'May your turn come next!'
3

2.

To one who

enters a new dwelling the salutation


US otourasin! 'Mav you dwell in it in good

Saghlijaq
health!'

is

3.

To one who puts on a new garment

Saghlijaq

'May you wear it with health!'


4. To one who is commencing an enterprise Allah
achiqligM versin! 'May God give you success!
isli
5.
To one who is convalescent after an illness
Gechmisli ola! 'May it be past and forgotten!' ( 365).

He geyinesin!

To one who has

or to imply the
death of a friend enquired after Bashiniz sagli olsoun!
the answer is Allah size on zoun edmurler
'Life to you!
God grant many years of life to }r ou!
versin!
6.

lost a friend,

7.

When somebody

receives

he usually says, Bereket versin!

blessing (blessed increase)*


to which is Bereketini georesin!
5
increase

any sum of money,


give you a

May God

Thank you!

5
:

the reply

'May you experience

its

8. Teshekkur ederim, Memnoun 'onm , are expressions


in imitation of the European phrase, 'Thank you! and
5

confined to educated circles. The common


people express the same meaning by such terms as:
When addressed to a child
Sagli ol! Eline saghliq
or an inferior 'Thank } ou! is expressed by Choq yasha,
A'ferim oghloum! ('Very good!, Well done my boy!')
their usage

is

'.

5-

245

Appendix.

fwo

When

9.

speaking of a disease from which the

speaker has suffered in the past, he must add the expression Sheytari qoulaghina qourshoun! 'Lead into Satan's
ear'
'May Satan's ears be stopped that he shall not

10.

pression,

now spoken!
One who is obliged to use an impolite exor to name an unclean animal (as for instance

hear what

is

the dog, donkey or pig which are considered unclean


among the Moslems), he must add Seoziim ona ! Seozum
yabana ! Hasha h on z our dan! 'My word to him! My
word to the desert! Be it warded off from your honour'
Tardon the expression' or 'Excuse me for saying so!'

11. Inayet' o-la!

be upon you

way

!'

'Let

Allah versin!

God

give you'

'May God's favour


to the beggars, by

them alms ( 365).


12. When somebody is going on a journey, in
bidding farewell he says Khoshja qalin!, All ah a simarladiq!, Bizi douvada ounoutnwi/in!, 'Goodbye! Remember
us in your prayers!': to which the answer is Allaha
of refusing

emanet oloun!, Bab'bim bilenizje olsoun! We command


you to God!', 'The Lord be with you'; or Oughourlar
olsoun! 'God speed!', Good bye!, 'Good luck attend you!'
13.

be too much' =- "Xo,


Formula used in declining an invitation

Ziyade olsoun!

thank you!'

'May

it

to partake of food.

'Pardon the omission', 'Don't pay attention to


my shortcomings !' and I beg your pardon!' are rendered
in Turkish by Qousoura qalmayin!, Afv edersifiis!
14.

III. 3Iodes of

494.

The word

Address.

sen 'thou'

is

not used except

with reference to a child, an intimate friend, a servant


or a pupil: at other times

siz 'you' is

used to one's

equals, unless for politeness' sake one of the


to be explained takes its place ( 93).

495.
^JCJT'S

'

words now

In addressing superiors, the words *xi\

*,_5Cjlc

used meaning

j\b Efftndim, zatndz, or zati aVtnlz are


'Sir',

'Your Honour', or 'Your Lordship'.

ri ^j> Lesson

246

36.

T"v1

'^^L^

Other such terms are y3C\S\.

[^Makipayiniz,

your feet': that is, the speaker


addresses the dust of the foot of the other, out of
humility ( 69).
Jcha'Mpayileri 'the dust of

496. Note. The word Effendimiz has two different


meanings: If it is used alone, among the Christians, it
means 'Our Lord (the Saviour). If it is connected with
5

the word shevMtme-ab' 'Imperial as ShevJcetmeab Effendimiz, it means 'H. I. M. our Sultan
Among the innumerable titles of H. I. M. the Sultan,
the following
sail shahane, zati hazreti padishahi 'His
5
majesty the Emperor are very common.
,

The words

497.

jenableri 'his (lit.


are titles equivalent
but they
to 'his majesty, his lordship, his excellency
are placed after titles and names and not before them,
as in most European languages:
hazretleri,
5

their) majesty, excellency, highness

H. I. Majesty.
IngiUer'ra qralichasi hazretleri H.M.the Queen of England.
H. E. the Governor.
Vali pasha hazretleri
H. Honour the Qaymaqam.
Qaymaqam bey hazretleri
Hoja effendi jenableri
The respected teacher.

Imperator hazretleri

considered more polite to address


superiors in the third person plural Za'ti alilerine khayli
zahmet verdim 'I have given your Excellency much
trouble

498.

It

is

499. In high and polite circles the speaker cannot


speak of himself as 'I
or others as 'he, we, they
5

He must

say:

Bendeniz, qoulounouz, ajizleri I (your servant).


Bendeleri, qoul'lari lor we (your servant or servants).
Dayileri I, he, we (who pray for you) used by and
of clergymen.
Jariyciiiz, jariyeleri I, we (your maid servant) used
by and of ladies.

Generally the word hazret before a single


indicates one of the prophets, saints or patriarchs
of old; as: Hazreti Ibrahim 'the patriarch Abraham

500.

name

Hazreti Davoud

'the prophet

David

5
.

Hazreti Souley'man

Appendix.

T'uV

247

the prophet (King) Solomon'. Hazreti Isa (ee-sa) Effendimiz 'Our Lord Jesus'. Hazreti Meryem, Meryem Ana
'Saint Mary (the virgin Mother). Hazreti Meseeti 'the
5

Holy Anointed One'

(Christ).

IV. Honorific Titles,

^u^-j

^jllil

JElqabi Resmiye.

501. Titles of Honour also are of great importance, as every person of position must be addressed

by

his

own proper

title.

jfcuLL shehametlou Valorous and successful',


for the

Shah

is

used

of Persia.

jkuJL>- hasJimetloii

imperial'

royal,

for

Christian

sovereigns.
jhll^l esa'letlou

'noble'

the

for

ambassadors

and

consuls.
jllJj rut'hctlou

for

venerable

'honorable,

clergymen of high rank,

patriarchs,

(His

Grace)

archbishops,

bishops and missionaries.

jkL&*

and

faziletlou 'reverend' forjudges, priests, pastors

preachers.

jc\^

jfc,*\?=

fekhametlou

dev'Mtl&u

magnificient' for the Khidive of


Republics.

devletlou for

jU^U^

jCy

j3j<*

'illustrious

and muni-

Valis (Governors-General).

sa-a-detlou 'prosperous' for the Mutesar'rifs.

iz'zetlou

Jc*&j

and

Egypt and Presidents of

j&jLz jldp devletlou atoufetlou


ficient' for Grand Viziers.
jdjs

'illustrious

'honorable' for the

Qaymaqams.

rifatlou 'eminent' for other officials.


'

j^L*j-

muruvvetlou,

hurmetlou

respected' to merchants, teachers, etc.

'generous,

rn ^-j^

248

jb^ac
jc'zz

'virtuous' for

is'metlou

if'fetlou

'chaste' for

Misal'ler

jUfcU

Dun
I

Lesson

36.

r<uA

married

unmarried

ladies.

ladies.

Examples.

devletkhaneye
geldim, em ma za'ti almizi georemedim.
your house yesterday, but you were not at home.
Faqirkhaneye 2 ne vaqlt teshrif edejeksiniz ? When you will

came

honour

to

my

(visit)

house?

Hem shire hanlm nasil dir? Hem shir em jariyeleri


hasta dir. How is your sister? My sister is very sick.

choq

Btndeleri pek faqirim, zati allniz ise pek zengin siniz. I am


very poor, but you are very rich.
Ameriqa jumhouriyeti reyisi fckhametlou devletlou Me Kinley
hazretUri. His Honour Mr. Mc Kinley, the President of the Republic
of America.
Dayileri Anatolia Collegi mudiri yim. J am the President
of Anatolia College.
I am the
Jariyeleri Protestan mektebi mou-al'limesi yim.
teacher of the Protestant School.

Words. 1. Devletkhane the abode of prosperity, i. e. your


2. Faqirkhane the house
house, used as a term of politeness.
of your poor servant, i. e. my house.

A\

.Aid

4>1

J. >

pUj^vjI Jl

jjl L$j_<CjUI

TForcZs.

condescend. '3.
son Master ...

v- ,^-jjb

a.

1.
a.

5.

ziyare't

Mourad
a.

Exercise 81.

frJUS

to

Jjl ju^yl /d-*>-^


'

,p-*3l

go on a

prop. name.

makhsons

especial.

jL^

visit.
4.

a,

2.

jv-o^ *

Jj>- Jj>- j

a.

tenez'zul

to

makhdoum bey your

_>l

*!

Of

J. <U)-Wi-1

12

J^>-

jcjl

Uj-^jy

^l viol*

6. haliniz dirliyiniz the


shifalar olsonn! may it be
{
lit. I ask pardon of God'
pretensions.
9. loutfen be
(my) highest respects. 11.
He! Go in happiness (said

AY

^^

249

Appendix.

Yi.\

^^

-^

j\SjJ5 ijte~

^Ju

0^2*-^

iUlS **<ip-

-^

j/^

(*-~^

atl-j! J^l> \

circumstances of your life. 7. uzerinize


health to you! 8. a. estagh'firoul'lah
Not in the least, I have no such
kind enough! 10. ih'tiramati fayiqa
taqdim it." to present. 12. a. se-a-det
to a departing friend).

ftJui

Alc-VjS

Exercise 82.

v-AJ<LwL, J^IJaJL*/

lj*J v^>- A>j)

**

* y* j\j }5

Words. 1. a. fouqara poor people. 2. a. ih'san bouyourmaq


grant, to bestow.
Constantinople ( 519).
3. Der'sa-a-det
4. qidemli senior.
5. Saltana'ti seniye The Ottoman Government.
6. Muneer prop, name, Lucian.
7. houzour presence.
8. a. qaboul
bouyourmaq to accept.

to

250

-%-u 3

J>

U>

J>

4)

*~

jXjl^

jJ

>j^Owb

u'j)

"V

Jl^UI

Lesson

jUL^Jj

ro +

36.

_ju

.-~o

A.)

<Lw*wli

(CjU .^>-

JULaL^- j^iyO (^Ju-w^ Jjo-XIj

ita^oJbl
9. a. devam to continue.
10. a. iqametet." to dwell. 11. Sofoular
mahal'lcsi the street called Sofoular (in Merzifoun). 12. a. tesher'ruf

to be

honored (we could not see

AV

4J?-J<

you).

Translation 83.

M. the German Emperor, William II. 2. His


Grace the Armenian Patriarch. 3. His Excellency the
Governor of Angora. 4. His Eminence, the Mutesarrif
of Samsoun, Qadri Pasha.
5. H. E. the English Ambassador Sir Nicholas O'Connor. 6. H. E. the American
Ambassador at Constantinople, Dr. Angel. 7. Rev. Charles
1.

H.

I.

8. Rev. Carabet
Tracy, President of Anatolia College.
Kaprielian; Rev. Kerope Yakoubian. 9. I request your
Excellency to give me permission to go to England.
10. Under the shadow of His Majesty (sayeyi padishaliide) we are all safe.
11. H. H. Artin Pasha, the
Ambassador of the Ottoman Government in London. 12.
have received your letter. 13. I was for two hours waiting
for you at my house, but you did not come: afterwards
I went to your house, but you were not at home.
15. How is your
14. Please give me to-day's newspapers.
father's health? 16. Thank you, Doctor, he is very well,
through your kind assistance (sayeyi alinizde). 17. My
18. When did you
sister is the wife of Kemal Bey.
with your son.
ago
days
come here?
three
came
I

Appendix.

Yes

251

Y. Onomatopoeia.

502. Is the term applied to words or phrases, the


sound of which conveys some idea of or resemblance to
the thing signified.

customary in common language to use some


onomatopoeic expressions.
For instance, they say in
Turkish:
It is

Sou fchartt hharH aqiyor. The water flows violently.


Taq taq qapouya vourdou. Tap tap he knocked at the door.
Jombadaq (or jomb dcyi) souya atildt. He threw himself
suddenly (with noise into) the water.

These words Mi aril Icliaril, jomb are intended to


represent the sound of the water when flowing or
splashing, just as taq taq does that of knocking at
the door.
The watch was ticking,
Sa-at tiq tiq tiq ediyordou.

Agoing tick, tick'.

dan

Kilisenifi chan'i

The church

doufi eotuyordou.

bell

was

Tinging, ding-dong.

EUerini shapour shoupour birbirine vonrdoular. They loudly


clapped their hands.
The birds are singing
Qoushlar jivil jivil ebtuyorlar.
tweet tweet.

Ezan.

YI. iUI

503. Is the notification, announcement, call to


divine worship, proclaimed from a minaret or any other
place, five times a day, by the mii-ez-zin (chanter). The
following is the formula:
1.

First of all

j&\

Il

AVlahou

ekber.

God

is

Most Great' four

times repeated, turning the face towards the four directions of


the world.
2.

-oil

Jl

\'l

witness that (there


3.

-oil

Jjj

sold oiillah.

God

<j\ JLg.l

Esli-hedu en'ne la ilahe

not a god, save

is)

l-U.;^

<j\

x*\

God

illal'lah.

I bear

[twice repeated].

Esh-he-du enne Jlouhammeden

bear witness that

Mouhammed

is

re-

the apostle of

[twice].
4.

SjUl

Jc-

y^ Hay' ye

ales' selat.

Hasten

to divine

worship

[twice].
5.

^>Li)i

lc

blessedness [twice].

*.

Hay ye

alel

felah.

Hasten

to

permanent

r^ ^j* Lesson

252

6.

y\S\

7.

-oil

The

VI

Allahu ekMr.

il

4.11

.La

*7a/i<2

God

is

illal'lah.

rev

36.

great [twice again repeated).

[Once more repeated.]

chanted at daybreak has this addition after

call

the fourth clause:


f^lll t> ^A>-

is

SjUill

Es'-selatu khay'run

min en nevm.

Prayer

better than sleep.

In great and imperial mosques, the mu-ez-zins


sometimes make optional additions to the fifth clause; as:
!

C/J^\ J
4joi

Jjj

i>!jVl Ju~
^

li

<il

J^s-Jy

4j>l

.v-l; d\Jb a>U1 j 5jUH

Es'selatu ves'selamii aleyk, ya

Habee balldhl or Ya

noore arshillah! or Ya sey'yidul eo'veleen vel a-khireen! or Ya


Beloved
resoul out I ah! May blessing and peace be upon thee,
one of God! or O Light of the throne of God! or
Prince of
the former and later (prophets)! or O Prophet of God!

Inside the place of worship also, this call is uttered


begins; but then with this addition after
the fifth clause:

when worship
5>U:S1 <*15

_)i

Qad

qametis salat.

been entered on (begun)

YII.

Divine worship has already

[twice].

The Christian

Services.

504. The Benediction:


Pabbimiz Hisons Kristosoun

^^^ JLoU

[or

Isa-el-Mesihin]

Allahimizin mouhab'beti ve Bouhoul Qoudsoun


mushareketi jumleniz He beraber olsonn; Amin.

inayeti, Peeler

The Lesson:
Oqouyajaghim mahal Tekvee'nid Makhlouqat Kitabinin
birinji babinin birinji ayet in den 16 infi ayetine qadar dir.
Mat-teosoan tahreer eylediyi Injilin altinji babinin
iptidasindan sonounadck oqouyajaghim.
Pavlos Resouloun liomalilara yazdighi resalenin on
ikinji babinclan oqouyajaghim.
Onounjou Mezmourou oqouyajaghim.

The Text:
Louqasin tahreer eylediyi Injilin sekizinji babinin
yirmi birinji ayeti haqqinda muta-la-a edejeyim.
Youhanna Injilinin birinji bob yirmi doqouzounjou
ayetinin ikinji qismi uzerine vaz edejeyim.

for

Appendix.

253

Esa'st Kelamhmz Anudi Rousoid Kitabtnin deordunju


bob on ikinji ayttinde bouloiinour or mevjoud dour.

The Hymn:

Maqam
Jcinji

Kitabtnin altinji sahifesinde boulounan oniUahiyi teren-nutn edelim.


Yuz otouz yedinji Uahiyi term -man edelim.
Teshek'kur ilahisini terenniim edelim.

The Baptismal formula:


Laura Eupheme,
Qoudsoiui namina

Qouds

sent Pederin,

[or

bismil

Eb

Oghouloun ve JRouhoid
vel

Ibn

vel

RoitJioid

raftiz ederim.

The Ending of Prayers:


Babb ve Khdasktarimiz Hisous Krisdosouu
finde dileriz, ih'san eyle, Ameen!

o
J>P

\>

fi

KJ^~^

UjU

ismisheri-

254

rot

^rj oO ^ ^~
!l

Second Part,
The Elements of Arabic and Persian

Grammar
as
they are used in Ottoman -Turkish.
Introductory Remarks.

505. The Arabic and Persian languages and


have for many centuries exercised a very
extensive influence upon the Ottoman. Therefore there
are very many Arabic and Persian words and phrases
used in Ottoman. In order to be able to understand
and use them correctly, it is necessary to have an
elementary knowledge of Arabic and Persian Grammar.

literature

506.

The

following points should be noted:

All such Arabic and Persian words taken singly


are declined according to the grammatical system of
the Turkish language.
a.

b. All such Arabic words taken singly may be


used in accordance with the rules of Persian Grammar.
But genuine Turkish words cannot be treated in this wa}^
c. Only genuine Arabic words are used according
to the Arabic grammatical system, Turkish and Persian
words cannot be so dealt with.

507. There are, however, some very much used


Turkish and Persian words which are treated according
to the rules of Arabic Grammar, because they are
supposed to be Arabic.
ghalata'ti

*JjJ~a
5

errors

( 583).

Such words are

mesh' hour e

'barbarisms

called Ollaie

or

'manifest

The Persian

too

255

Plural.

Note. There are some orthographic signs which are peculiar


to Arabic; but as mention has beeu made of these in the Introduction, they do not require to be dealt with again here
( 35-48).

fV
or

-jli

Lj^t> Lesson 37.


l>
The Persian Plural.

**>

508. In the Persian language there are only


two numbers: the Singular and the Plural.
509.
a.

If the

may form

its

merd

}^>

Persian

plurals are formed in two ways:

noun be the name of an animate

being,

plural by taking the termination J\

-an

ub^

man

j* sheer a lion

object,

it

JLIj3

(-a,

-e),

into

l!

4b.
a.

xJb

merdati men.

sheeran

noun be the name

of an

becomes plural by the addition of

sal a

year

1^1

lions.

inanimate

-ha; as:

L- saTha years.

ULjj deryaha

derya a sea

seas.

animate nouns end in a vowel he


their plural is made by changing that letter

510.

ejilj

<J\^A^

If the Persian

b.

as:

Ob^^r. birader an brothers.

birader a brother

jaljj

it

giaf

If the

(-g-)

and adding

bende a servant
khaje. khoja a teacher
talebe student

511.

^)l

-an;

0^-^

bendegian servants.

{j&.*.\ji.

khajcgian teachers.

<J&Jb talebegian

The following nouns,

inanimate objects,

may form

as:

though

their plurals in ^1

J^-\ akh'te'r a star

u^A*^ akhteran

j\ja hezar a thousand

uOb*

students.

denoting

-an,

as:

stars.

hezaran thousands.

ry

256

Lesson

u-ja

rol

37.

So also: oYjjj rouzan days, ^Li sheban nights, ulc-^- chesh-

vian eyes, 0^b-> dirdklitan

At

trees.

Exercise 84.

,^Jui

Change the following nouns

<

f-b
8

15 % <"\ *

21 -

'9

r,

JaU^ d

10

JJb

16

22

'4,;S,
w-~<j9
sSj*

-' 3.i
Jljy
(j^j-3
.

i.i

<^t

23

'

11

IS

4jL>-

17-

jO

into the Persian plural.

18

13

o*->-

..

24 f ?

<

'

; it

'6

20

eJoj

iH L~Ob
i

I*
*\

19

J^U

.1

'

TFords. 1. vineyard. 2. qatiriman hero. 3. peh'livan wrestler.


5. murde a corpse.
6. mader mother.
7. wefe'
frishte angel.
alive. 8. zabit officer. 9. yaver attendant. 10. deev, dev a demon;
a giant. 11. house. 12. inn, tavern. 13. shall king. 14. padishah
a great king. 15. shagird pupil. 16. asilzade nobleman. 17. diikliter
daughter. 18. muteber a notable (man). 19. feriq a general of

4.

Division (in the Army). 20. khahSr a sister. 21. sick. 22. Tees
person. 23. poor. 24. tuj'jar merchant [tuj'jaran, tuj'jarlar].

512.
God

Note.

= Moslem

believer',

jjlHd~*

double
2.

'

Persian

which

^ld

1. a.

is

Jlw.
pi.

muslim 'one who submissively obeys

old-* musliman 'moslems; an orthodox

used as singular in Ottoman and Persian; and

muslimanan, muslimanlar

pi. of it.
So also a.

<uU

'

is

considered as the

jU.7 talebe, tuj'jar 'students, merchants', which

are the Arabic plurals of v_JUs

'^t

talib,

tajir 'student,

form in Ottoman and Persian

merchant',

but are used in double

pi.

talebefjian, talebeler.

(See the Double Plurals of Arabic, Lesson 51.)

<j&A\s J-Ai
'

another word in use musulman, miiselman, musurmoslem', which is of Syriac origin, but never
admitted into the correct language, it is used in the Southern
regions of Turkey among the common and uneducated people.
3.

There

man meaning

is

'a

"^\ a

jvd

TFbrtfs.

1. a.

hametli gracious.

,+SZ

Reading Exercise.

*&j^T The Match

Girl.

Kibrit! kibrit! Matches! matches!

2.

a.

t.

mer-

The Persian

rev

)- liyj ^ojl

ujl

3j>

eJJ>

^djL

'

Jj-

O^jl^? *
o.

big.
10. a.
to wander.

mavi blue.
loqma slice.
13.

para wounded.
to hurt.

15

<J)j)

'

*5C

13

J3_y

<^\

fJ

JjJ 4jI \i tj^'U-JU-

15.

little
7.

gharib stranger.

16. pij bastard.

vujoud body. 19. qanad wing.


21. sapmaq to swerve.

18. a.

the wings.

creature. 4. geor/ see!


5. daghiniq
yaniq burnt. 8. ust clothes. 9. qoja
11. from street to street. 12. dolashmaq
niche! how many! chirkin dirty, ugly. 14. yara

yavroujouq that
6.

<iji

^U^

'

fJjy

14

<

untidy.

257

Plural.

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

20.

17. injitmek

germek to spread
17

Lesson
rv u"J>
u*J

258

***<

37.

24. 1/e-

chabalamaq to struggle. 23. yoqsoullouq poverty.


hemmed Emin a living Turk poet (1860).
22.

4I

^4

Conversation.
-jU

~--IS
15

C?y*

oj>U (ol)

o^

c ur-

jjj.5c

jj^

uW

&iJ>>
'

"uJ

ub^i

UJL~\ 6Vj\

**"-

'

'

J-V

o-

->"^
S

-^

->jW

10
fJ

^>

*JL-\ uVj\

j-V

iMj^LtjjA qUJ *U

Vjl

^U

3->*~^

>^B ^

crrr-^ 3

<U (U)

^^M

^l^Lf- *M

JV 9 X W
'

J^

12

gjjs

Jbl

V^

4j!

SL

The Persian

Yo\

fb^

at

o\jJ>

"^ ^

b.^

o-^

iS ySizJK^
%

*blJ

259

Plural.

JJJ

16 j"-^.

ci-Llil

-^

J^

? tfJii

s*

b^

"

"""^

d^^j* J^- Sjo^

-/ -

u^^J

jji^a Ji^o

OJ

23

olc^ r^-1 jbjc.

<i-^s|

?Jo*M
-^
-

*^

J^

27 l^
'

(^

J Jjbl

j^

jb ^JWJjl ^j**>

<u

26

32

u^V

*i

-"

Lib L*9

uU*ib
"

-Jpz* ^ JoA_L) f-^t-

j^-^

Vl_

(zr

j^_

cr ^i'LM o^jl

4:^

u:-^

*i
a*'

(^

a^

?J^

**

^jJI^Lm O^b*3 J jj-^^ljUl (r

*^^

--

((j-

I,

1*

tJJJ'

^^U^3 U-

Jj^ ^

-?

->*r**L

17*


rv

260

*"c

'J

Lesson

u'J*

,-

**

"

a -^

,,

m*

37.

"a

"

w,UJl a-o\

J^Ui*

'

J^?.>
.

ji

olS

'

JJiU-'

fuv

4JLse* jli

>

^j J^Jj^ (iAisl

vj**i J-

-x

i^

(Mussulman)

J-x-JLT J-0SI&

?ji jji

iVbte.

1.

<J

olc^*

'

b^.'

37

JjjJu_*^~.

^.

>

JJiU- 6^3

.(IW

.j.xo\

''

) -jf"

c^J^J^ ^J^r-

40

ejlJuu ilJllleL^. (jojJll

^Jj\

(r

La C^-

For the words included in the Conversation see

the Key.
2. For the sentences indicated by a, b, c, see more in the
next Lesson; the letters show the order in the composition.

The Persian

ril

TA \jnJ$
^liL*!

261

Izafet.

Lesson 38.

The Persian

Izafet.

513. In books and in conversation also, when elegance is studied, instead of the Turkish way of connecting
noun with noun and noun with adjective, the Persian
method is used, especially when the words employed
are either Arabic or Persian.

The Construction, when two nouns are connected

I.

with one another as possessor and possession.


514. The Turkish way is, as we have seen ( 109),
put the possessor first and the thing possessed afterwards, just like the English possessive followed by the
to

noun which governs

it;

as:

<J^\l3

fjjJb

pederin kitabl

the father's book.

The Persian method consists simply in


515.
putting the thing possessed first and the name of the
possessor after it, with an esre between the two, if the
first noun ends in a consonant. This corresponds
to the ordinary English use of of between two nouns:
c

jju v-jlzT" ~kita"bi peder.

J J J^l
II.

The book of the


The Acts

amal'i rousoul.

father.

of the Apostles.

The Construction, when a noun

is qualified

by an adjective.
516. The Turkish method is simply to put the
adjective before the noun ( 107, 669) as:
;

tjIi5"^u-JjU mouqad'dis

517.

kitab 'The

Holy Book

The

Bible'.

The Persian method, when both words are


is to put first the noun and

either Arabic or Persian,

afterwards
u-JJi*

the

adjective,

with an esre between them:

^"SMta'bi mouqad'dis

jjj,a.

JL

sal'i

jedid Hhe

the Book the Holy

new

year".

= the Bible.

262

Lesson

r*A u-J->

V\r

38.

Remarks: 1. If the first member of the


construction, i. e. the noun, end in elif or vav used as

518.

instead of the ordinary esre, & ye (-y-)


inserted for the sake of euphony ( 53).

a vowel
is

(-a, -on),

Instead of

HI

pasha-i-JBaghdad,

pasha yi Baghdad

:>lj^> (\Z,\t

The

commonly

in

write

the Pasha of Baghdad'.


(part) of the house.

word j-jU- charsou

original Persian

spelt

we must

The Grand Bazar.

(ijjU- charsou'yi hebir.

JVote.

The upper

(iVL bala'yi Tchane.

*jl-

j*

:>lo

Ottoman as ujU. jtj^


'

(a

square)

is

charshi', charshou.

member

of the construction,
i. e. the noun,
end in the vowels ye and he (-, -<?), a
hemze (-y-) is placed over the final letter for the sake of

519.

euphony

2.

If the first

( 53):

Instead of jJo ^U- Jchane-i peder,

hhaneyi peder
4 -Ll
^niT^

il5

c5

?il

..4j

'the

ci^-

must be

jJj

*4jU

father'.

qadi'yi Amassia the judge of Amassia.


bagh-che'yi

jUlt*
(_>jl

house of the

it

Tcebir

MisaVler

hareket'i arz the

the great garden.

Examples.
movement of the

earth, earth-

quake.

ooL

j* DeV'i Sa-a-det the door of Prosperity

<Jb ji

Jlc

J*j\
lit

>.

*_jl

Deri

Aleeye, Deraliye the lofty door

J3a&'* .4Zee the

J^ Mreyi

Constan-

tln0 P le -

Sublime Porte.

arz the sphere of the earth, the Earth.

eLSoL padisha'hi diem the king of the world.

520. In Turkish the pronominal suffixes corresponding to my, thy, his, etc., that of mine, yours, etc.
are always put after the noun to which they refer. In
Arabic and Persians constructions, if the noun be
followed by an adjective, simple or compound, or by
another noun with which it is conjoined, their suffixes
'

The Persian

T<\r

263

Izafet.

are put at the end of the last word.


with declensional endings also:

arzouyi shedidimize to our strong desire.

ojtjujj- iSjjj\

jjJL L5""U- Jchakipayle'rinde at the dust of your feet, with you.

<M

red

Exercise 85.

fXsb

Cmj zemeen earth

-f- a.

bdhr sea.

-\-

L~, siyali.

-\-

]aA-

new.)

He with a loud voice.

x\i j\j\ avaz'i bu~lend

AO
1.

the case

is

^j\iS^ kitab'i mouqcid'desin of the Holy Book.

dJL-JJL.

This

<

3.

.4 ~h a

5.

8. (a. j^c -j-

J~c

jj rou face.

2. a.

l.)

11.

[=

afeeg old.)

12. (juL bitlend

strong

ment

7. (a.

loud

-f- jjjl orr,eo?<

9.

a-lee

pa

(l>

language

-J-

desire.)

(a.

-f- a.

20.

23.

(a.

J^l

^.

jedeed

+ c^dust +

foot

sherif holy.)

(a.

JoJ*l shedeed

j^ilaL- saltanat govern15.

(a.

jijjj

^Jl shews

sun.)

(a.

6.

ji>.

7c7?a7r

a iJi

<jl^ Osmanee Ottoman.)

-f- <^l*2c-)

a. -* j-1.)

14.

16. (\i

&.j&\fevayid benefits.)

(JU

jljlatu? voice.) 13.

high.)

OjL?" hararet

grammar

-j-

Gospel

10.

senee-ye sublime.)

-|- a. 4.JL-

+ a.^lc
1

the capital].

injeel

L^-l

(a.

4. a.

mouheet [Ocean].

J 3 -^-

ta% throne)

ahmer

*-l

white.

-*-* sifid

aM testament -[-a. Jo

7. (h.jlp

.X^-

-f~

-\-

j\b zat

person

ee-ran

Persia.)

18.

19.

(a.

sj^ sar/*

(a. 'J\~\

lisan

sjt^heseere many, great -f

21. (*U.

+a.

Jl^.) 22. (a.^lii^

+ ^-jX* [= Palestine].)

+ a.j^jL mezkttr mentioned.)

25.

(ll>-j>

24. (^-->\>-

Youhanna John

264

r*A

Lesson

u-j.5

26.

*.j ya/^ee revelation.)

-\- a.

28.

r^i.

J 11* emsaZ proverbs


David

1^1 esma names

(a.

-f-

27. (sjta JDavoud

oUJL- Souleyman.)

zameer Psalms.)

(a.

38.

a. jtl

-f- a.

alj^l

me-

aefoic?

numbers.)
(jy (^>-l)<j^j dLh~3 zemeenin rouyi (yakhod)

Key.

yum;
is

Ji*j

^jj roiiyi semeen the face of the earth; yuz

Turkish and jj rou Persian, both meaning

The Persian Numerals.

'face

^U-J

dIjlpI

521. The Persian numeral adjectives are also


sometimes used in written Turkish, and in gambling.

They

are the following:

vlL

yek

jU.

j* du

< se

j^ sa^
single;

and other

j\f* chihar, char 4

vI^aa

ii*

Jj ^eJ
jjiJ-

100;

(J^t <j^i

522.

'

s7ie'$7&

jIja 7ie^ar 1000;

J neem

7^'/*^

7ie's7&

<j

wit7i'

half;

aJIxj

yegiane

yegiun yegian one by one.

The terms used in backgammon, dominos


games are as follows; (ou means and ):
c

du- shesh 6x6, du-besh 5x5, debrt-chihar 4x4, du-se


3x3, du-bare 2x2, hep-yek lxl; shesh-besh 5x6, sheshchihar 4x6, shesh ou-se 3x6, she'sh ou-du 2x6, shesh ou-yek
1x6; besh-debrt 5x4, penj ou-se 5x3, penj ou-du 5 x 2
penj ou-yek 5x1; chihar ou-se 4x3, chihar ou-du 4 x 2
r

chihar ou-yek

523.

4x1;

se-ba-du 3

2,

se-yek

3x1,

2x1.

Jit* MisaVUr Examples.

yekvijoud of one body.


yekpare of a single piece.
yek takhtadan at once.
Aj\icJLt she'sh-khane

a (six-celled)

yekdil of

one heart.

yekchhhm one-eyed.
charpa a quadruped.
rifle,

an arquebuss.

^o_L_C yekdiger one another, each other.


*i

iki-bir

neem jezeeri (half island) peninsula.

>

The Persian

yy 9

L^

j J neem

265

Izafet.

re'smee semi-official (paper, etc.)

La sepa, sipa a tripod, a three-legged

A*\

^p ^#47

,<o *j

^Aj a-1--

sr^A

stool.

Exercise 86.

j^jiaL-

^- 47j& r^*

u^-'j'

^jz

jjcil

Cj y&>- \SJC&\

jt-Lp

L^

*^

(y

Jj/

-<iJLSl

JS j\j (Sjjv

u Ujij

13

'jjl

Jf

w*ljS

llLt

dUU*

A-^.

<i^

j:

^^

^v-Li^ ojliC) eJJjL*j\

-p

12

j/- ali*

TForrfs. 1. Misir Egypt. 2. neshret." to publish. 3. Esir-pazari


the street called Esir Pazari (the Market of Slaves). 4. JRemzi
5. talebeyi ouloum
Effendi khani the inn named Remzi Effendi.
students (the seekers after science). 6. beni Adem the children
of Adam, mankind (575). 7. beleegh eloquent. 8. qra'at it." to read.
9. mou-al'lim teacher.
11. ayet verse.
10. tareef et." to explain.
12. mouhar'j-er written.
13. tali'yin your star, fortune.
14. zar
a die used in playing.

r*

266

u-J^>

Lesson

38.

Reading Exercise.

list

Maxims (= Franklin's

of Moral

Principles).

virtues.

n-

8.
e-samee names, lists. 2. /feayrt
Ate.
.
maxims.
4.
^'commands
l.tanzee,n to put morta.
6. Benjamin Franklin
celebrated.
hfc.
reform ng
10.
et.
9 irfafc'
8. fcarat acts, conducts.
to
ittikhazet.
12
regarding.
for,
self personality. 11. rfmnws&j
to
discipline.
15.
14. rii/oze ascetic
18 aa'vide a rule.
adont
vmfeed
silence.
18.,
sMt
Vlsershn stupified/l7.
be heavv
to fix
et.

Wards

P^jt'n* *

order, regularity. 20. tayeen


19.
profitable.
or specialhy anproPte- 2
assign
appoint. 21. takhsees to
be obliged. 24 to decide
an aim endeavor. 23. mejbour of to
defect
(=.perfect comp ete ;
oYettfe. 25. Ula without 26. q ousour
28. a Werotue
frugality, economy (emr v.ork).
27. emn
81. ma a aa
30. haqup real.
29. louzoum necessity.
(people).
except. 32. surf et." to spend.

Mta-

Wrof

-H*"

fiv

4JLI

Persian

jj

^J^l* leb j

Compound

f>^ J>-*3

33. say ou amel labour


35. meshghoul ol." to be busy.

<U ^a

jOl^v eJjjU

<j&Jy>jil hekim

34

*-i'

^3

*>Jm

and work.

34.

33

J^

zay

-?

et."

<V-"

to waste.

Conversation.

Ders Jiaqqinda

/^=-'

-^^

<o^**

r ^ U^><> Lesson
\j^y *jf'j

267

Adjectives.

il

sivallar.

jSsj>

j^s

39.

Persian Compound Adjectives.

524. The simple adjectives of the Persian language


are
red,

much used
Ju

in Turkish; as: L~, siyalt

black,

al

bed bad, jlL- ^/?c/ white.

525. The compound adjectives of the Persian


language are formed in two ways: either by the addition
of particles, or by joining two words together.
A. The Derivative Adjective, formed by the addition
of particles to nouns.

526. The most common derivative adjectives used


in Turkish are made by the addition of the following
particles to Arabic or Persian nouns ( 149, 579):
527.

I.

The

letter

the word ends in the vowels


are changed into j

(-V-),

J-vUC\ ingliz Englishman

ye
l
I

signifies relation.

(-i),

'

[-a;

A\

-e, -a),

and afterwards the ye

is

If

they

added

<iJ\LxJl inglizi English.

r\ ^j* Lesson

268

pj^\ efrenj a European

c/u'n

urt.

528.

China

II.

If the

blance.

changed into
is

oli.

eJuj
a. j-xc

efrenji European.

Jic agZi mental.


J^>.

Lo dunya world

a.

(-?/-)

c^v^

Jic agZ mind

a.

rlY

39.

chinaware.

c7u'w

tO?- 5 dunyavi worldly.

-awe signifies relation and resemword ends in the vowel he (-e), this is
Ail

f| (-g-):

and

if it

inserted between the

shah' king

ends in j vowel (-ou) a

word and

^lUli.

bende servant

aJjJL>

adoM enemy

*.'>[>

jjs-

particle;

shahane

as:

royal.

bendegiane as a servant,

adouyane

as an

enemy.

529. III. The terminations o\ J\j j^ ban, van,


-kiar, -giar form nouns denoting 'doer, keeper etc.
'

'

jjLtlj

bagli-ban keeper of vineyard. jKo.a4

khidmetkiar a servant.

j^jJjIjo- khudavendigiar the sovereign, the Sultan.

J^JJ^/ perverdigiar the Nourisher (God), Providence.

jmi yadgiar, yadigiar a remembrance, memento.

IV. The prefixes t wa-, J^ &i- mean


530.
'without and denote the absence of something; na- is
used with adjectives, hi- with nouns:
ajL.1; nama'liim unknown.
iJUi napdk unclean.
5

ojUc-j

bichare unfortunate.

J-^^ nakhosh

unpleasant.

UjJ> bivefa inconstant (friend), unreliable.


e\js-[':

o\jL

khah'nakhah willingly or unwillingly.

531. V. p*
companionship.
(Jj^zJ*

oj\t>

hemsheh'ri

hem-

prefixed to a

fellow-citizen.

^^J"

noun expresses

hemjins' homogeneous.

hemsheere who sucks the same milk, a

532.

VI.

Adjectives

are

also

sister.

formed by the

Compound

Persian

Y*\\

addition of

c
'

J-j

'

-mend, -nak, -ver

-een,

^Jt

'

269

Adjectives.

jj or

'

jb -asa, -vesh,

or -var.

L-lLJ nisa-asa womanlike.

{J-jf meh'vesh like the

Cni"l atesheen fiery.

Xi*a>. his

ghamnalc sorrowful.

-^^/

j\j-^\

iimmidvar hopeful.

j/V janver

an

-O^aa hunerver, hunermend

bright.

semend partaker.

a.p.iJLP

jjJsa

moon =

ferah'nak cheerful.
(wild) animal.

skilful.

533. VII. By doubling some words and inserting


elif between them, fulness or multifariousness may

be expressed:
J^ji ber fiber breast to breast; together; equal.

*_JU

'

JUVl MbaUb, malamal

dllj&Jj

'

tjJ>^J>

f'J^J'

(lip to lip)

brimful.

rengiareng, gunagun, nevanev varied

in hue, variegated.

B. Compound Adjectives composed of two words.

534. The compound adjectives obtained by the


union of two words are generally formed either: 1. of
a noun and a participle, or the root of a verb, 2. of
ah adjective and a noun, or, 3. of two nouns.
They may consist of two Persian words, or of an
Arabic and a Persian word, or of two Arabic words.
535. a. Adjectives formed of a
participle or the root of a verb.
J.>

j> bir take, captivate:

dil heart,

jJ^ meded help,

^j

Al~JL].i dilshilceste

536.
and a noun.
j>

bou odour

^,7 tfhi

u-J-^ mededres

res arrive:

broken hearted.

Adjectives

j&* dilber enchanting.


helper.

See also: 556.

formed of an adjective

j~~j*- khosh'bou sweet scented, odorous.

empty

537.
j*>\

b.

noun and a

c-J^"
c.

ahou gazelle

tehidest

empty-handed, deprived.

Adjectives formed from two nouns.


r .i>-^l ahoucheshm gazelle -eyed, attractive.

r^ ^rjz

270

Lesson

.jo sheer lion:


(jlita.

cP

TV*

39.

J-i^n^ sheerdil lion-hearted,

jl-J-JS"

gulazar rosy-cheeked;

Eose

(pr.

name).

538. Many such compound words lose their


meaning as an adjective and are considered as compound nouns:
<C~.jJS

giildeste

a bunch of flowers, a bouquet.

jCc^-

seraslcer

head of the army, a commander-in-chief.

nizam'name, qanouriname a code of laws.

<Jull*Ua! ''ulllj.lli

The Degrees of Comparison.


The Comparative is obtained by

539.
of

-ter to the simple form of the adjective, and the

&}

by adding

Superlative
Jo

the addition

bed bad:

ted' ter worse:

Jt

VL bala high:

-tereen:
i>.^rju

balater higher:

^/VIj

AV

^Jul

Cj'.S^. balatereen highest.

Exercise 87.

Change the following nouns


527.

dXj

bedtereen worst.

freng European,

into adjectives:
ttirlc.

fjj

a.

J^i sharq

the east. 3*^ yehoud (Judah) Jew. &j$\ Edirne Adrianople.


4^0 i
1

Fransa.

Aleppo.

5&

MaA

fjU.

jO

dost. a.^oJl*-

529.

i>\X

efeev

yaban the wilderness.


earth,

^,JU?

a demon.

Ma/is sincere,

As&\*

a.

baghche.

a. j>.\p o;V^

l^

jjj row,? day.

JjJUU?

^ door.

'

l>.

humble,

gunah.

sl.

#as watch

z**J>

jjo

peder,

^>U

Jchelas

(at night).

JjX^> sandoaq, sandiq a


J pen, graver.

Haleb

a cross.

5- mere? man.

deliverance. a^-L, saMtfe false, ^-l


j|" Jeiar profit.

sfo'e>

coffer,

530.
a.

a. 'jlj*.

a.

jivar neighbourhood.

535.
jlj>.

j reh

way

-f- jr

a.
Ij

Mor

eat),

(dl 6ey, u^>-

53.

(jlj

yiran heavy

-\-

simple

J3),

-f-

+ ^*0r)
558.

'

(ju

(j nev

539.

new

AVjos/j.

J^>-

AA

^^>-

\Jj\>^a\1j

jUtd

Words.
means. 4. a.

1. a.

(J*

'

nice,

frl)

X&\

fjli

bread

(u^

letter),
(a. ,jil

mife' great,

>r^~~* Zj^o>^

<$}

dl JjG^jJjI
Uyl

^L sade

(3jj

-f-

day

letter).

good.

fo'A

Exercise 88.

7iaree containing.

wis/" half, a.

all).

year),

<c

\ ')>

-f-

born).

ftafta price),

eye

JL,

-f

J (j^J^L^Cj)! vjLJ

(J<<j~j\j*

(i^3l

'

j^f)

show), (>1 sheer

^'j *<mJ

religion.

way, road.

ra/j

congratulation

(a. dJkjfi

letter),

cheshm

(f+Z>-

power.

^jt strength.

^*X*mezheb

wwwa

fault.

mizaj state of health.

in repose, ease.

zX*mil'Ut nation,

sin,

qoudret

C-jJu

a.

r\y*

a.

becoming

jJa>- houzour a
55i.

-f-

man.

(brave)

rj-^ sonch

t.

J4JU maqboul acceptable,

271

Adjectives.

<j-LJ foundation,

a.

Zy merd
a.

Compound

Persian

TV)

JcjL5C^M^-

^JUjitj 4UOj>

plj-tt

5.

Ojl

0j3 ^Ujli*i5^ a

2. tofta^ plate.

nierht.

vasita hand,
to collar, seize.

3. a.

yaqalamaq

r\ ^rj* Lesson

272

A^

4J3~J?

rvr

39.

Translation 89.

Richard L, king of England, was called

1.

lion-

hearted.
2. That ungrateful servant did not write a
letter of congratulation on New Year's -Day.
3. That
beautiful woman (dilber) is very inconstant.
4. The
gardener is not a coward, but he is a simple-hearted

man.

To

eat with unclean

hands

very unpleasant.
6. Is your fellow-traveller a skilful man?
7. I was a
partaker of the supper 2 8. I did not lose hope (hopeless),
I am hopeful yet 3
9. He prayed to the Saviour sincerely
5.

is

and humbly. 10. A forger is a great sinner. 11. He


not an empty-handed person, he has a costly 6 gold
watch in his hand. 12. The leader was a helper to me on
the way 4 13. That caravan, which comes from China and
India, was loaded with china-ware and odorous spices 5

is

Words.
4.

1.

esnayi rahde.

dar

tesmeeye oloundou.
5. p. behar, bahar.

2.

alchsham ta-a-mi.

(Ar. pi. beharat.)

6.

hala.
qiymet-

3.

( 535).

s^js\i

dKTjo

alJz-I

leb

e Ju

jj

r jU

rt~A*>

V
7

Reading" Exercise.

o:>4U.j

ilj^ o^.:l-b

*S^ :\i*fcJ

i!^Ltj

Sf
s

:*c^li-

Words. 1. a. istiqamet honesty. 2. a. kizb falsehood. 3. a. heele


cheating.
4. a. hazer H." to beware.
5. a. haq'qaneeyet justice,
equity. 6. a. vazeefe duty. 7. a.- dahhil the inside. 8. a. kharij the
outside. 9. a. mejbour 61." to be obliged, compelled. 10. a. hasanat
good works, pious deeds. 11. /?mr to run away, to desert, flee.
12. a. izrar et." to injure.

fyr

Persian

Compound

273

Adjectives.

7-3U? J

JU***I .>0 LAw-/U-/b

13. a. eetiddl

moderation.

17. a.

yam

it." to set

rJ-O

14. a ifrat excess.

w4S-

15. a. ih'tiraz

geormek to judge worthy.


to revenge one's self. 18. a. qinezafet cleanliness. 20. a. ihtimam ti."

guard one's self.


16. a.
akhz taking; sar vengeance

to

t."

^i

lai/'iq

about.

19. a.

to be careful. 21. a. houzour ease, quietness; qalb heart. 22. trifles.


23. a. a dee inferior, ordinary. 24. naqabil impossible. 25. a. vouqouat events. 26. a. sademat blows, misfortunes. 27. a. muztarib ol."
to sutler. 28. a. if'fet chastity. 29. a. emneeyet safety. 30. a. salali
peace, virtue. 31. lial ou shan position and honour. 32. a. teh'like

danger.

aI|^S

Turkish Conv.-Grauimar.

Conversation.

*.

274

u~j:>

Lesson

u^>

rvu

40.

Lesson 40.

The Persian Derivative Nouns.


Persian derivative nouns are of four kinds:
Nouns of Location, Nouns of Instrument, the Abstract
noun, and the Diminutive noun.

540.

0l5C

The noun

541.
addition of
or bed,

^J The Noun

J\l~,

of Location.

of Location

made by the

is

-istan, J&'-giah 'place',

sjjT-gede hut,

*iU.

<jLl-Xa Mnclistan India.


tjl:..l^ cliimenistari

jljv^ chimenzar

-khane house

jj^-o gulistan

j\jJ^ gidzar
]

meadow.

C
J

jlj

Sj^

a o-arden
roses.

y
JlL*

meygede

^l^

meykhane

jIUcjijL top-khane, top-liane arsenal of

wineshop

jjlr^J/ bezistan vulg. bedesten a

jjT
542.
addition
a.

**-t

cjbjjsej
p.

t.

i)\i\t

tjlJ^o

of

,^J

drinking-saloon.
f

ordnance and

o&j& kiarkiah vulg. kergef a work-frame.

162):

rosarv

ordougiah' a camp.

-zar a plot

(j&

artillery.

work.)

covered market-place.

(Jj cloth.)

The Noun of Instrument.

The noun

^b -dan

of Instrument

is

made by the

a holder, receptacle, case':

^1-Wi shamdari

sham candle:

a candlestick.

boukhourdan a censer, incense-box.


yaglidan an

oil

reek' dan vulg.

can.

p.t.

o\*jJj> tukurdan a spittoon.

righdan a sand-holder;
(to

ree/i\

?%7i sand

dry writings).

The Persian Derivative Nouns.

fVo

^_>^ gulab rose-water

( 538):

<jlJu>fe

275

gulabdan a flask for

sprinkling scented water.

The Abstract Nouns, b^ ^1 Ismi Mana.


Abstract nouns are made by the addition
at the end of adjectives. If the word end in

543.

of

elif,

-i

then the ye

is

doubled (-yi

[ 53]);

end in a

if it

vowel he (-e), it is changed into li (-</-), but the sound


e is retained ( 163, 581).
JLI asani facility.
jjL-\ asan easy, facile:
o-XL
liJj

jaIj bendegi servitude.

betide slave:

li^lijj roushenayi brightness.

roushena bright:

Ye added toanoun, changes

.Note.

it

into an adjective ( 526).

The Diminutive Nouns, jkjl ^J Ismi Tasghir.


Diminutives are made by the addition of
-die, -je at the end of nouns.
Some diminutives

544.

*>.

are terms of endearment, as in Turkish ( 167).


jja moor ant:

pa

a.j^f-'

pc-

*-^Jj*
<*.L

foot:

^j*

amm, amnion uncle:

dXjfreng European,

a Tartar.

Arab.

f]^ Turk.

2.t. j-IL

a.

da#A, p. a}

violet. 3. a. Jul.* siinbid

grave.

\ atesh

orphans

+ house,

house. j\T

-\-

a.

Mo

trotters of sheep,

amjci, anionja dear uncle.

*j*p

Nouns

into Derivative

a.

(S>y^i ythoudi Jew. jtt

cyem a Persian,

a.

^j ^

huh' mountain. jJl}& benef she

hyacinth,

hut.

pacha

a little ant.

Exercise 90.

p\

Change the following nouns


541.

moorche

4.

t.

a. jtS

qabr, a. j\y*

jj~j\ eoksuz,

a. *\jil

mezar
ey'tam

deb'bagh vulg. tabakli tanner

Mar manufacturing

+ house.

5. a.

^Jc^ldtab,
18*

276

'u* t_rJ->

lesson

fV\

40.

+ house,
place.
jftoa* food + house. j>\jCJL shikiar game, prey +
a^W jame cloth + holder. a*U- Ihame,
542.
^

book

house,

IjJ ejza (vulg. &a) a drug

a.

a.

^m

_(-

j\i

545.
intimate,

jC feer arrow,

case.

*$yJ

poor.

^ijf o*<kK

free.

nemek

die

salt.

ll aslrina

asoocle quiet.

L*i

I> s&

ftftorf*

worthy.

dl^ ew# narrow.


544.

wrapper

*jC

t.

e jl>

#are piece.

III*

chekme a drawer.

Worcb

3
5
8

JuJ

6jc> j* it t~<:>

Sa

1.

a.

&fl#.

f.

husband's

><:>

.jfij^

violin,

t.

Ji

j^

Oj' j

Gowdsou SJMreef Jerusalem.

a.

sister,

Exercise 91.

4.

9.

a square

lK>< Union a

amerig^

chouqa, choulha broadcloth.


to send
ft." to buy. 6. a. irsal
roosa table.

bogli

fj

^f Oedrum

for a bundle,

turU tomb.

2.

AmrMfa

Syria.

Mn unbleached linen.

a.

10. a. sfc^fcfc

*^**
of a tube.

head

The Persian Derivative Nouns.

rVV

^T

277

Translation 92.

AJ^j

1. The owner of that big tannery and the keeper


of the prison [-house] are the friends of the saloon-keeper.
The beer-seller 1 is the witness 2 of saloon-keeper.)
2.
3. The orphans are in the orphanage.
4 That Tartar
has come from Tartary. 5. There were 3000 soldiers
in the camp. 6. The people who dwell 3 in mountainous
regions are generally brave.
7. Daghistan is a great
4
region in Russia.
8. Where is your donkey ?
He
5
is always in the meadow.
9. Please stick
a candle
into the candlestick. 10. There was a big rosary in the
garden of the manufactory of the attar of rose 6 11. The
Parsees 7 and the ancient Persians were worshipping 8
the fire in the fireplaces.

Words. 1. biraji, bozaji [157). 2. a. shahid. 3. a. tqatnet et".


chimtnzarzade vulg. chinu'nderzade the son of the meadow
donkey. 5. dikmek. 6. gid ijaglii. 7 parsee, (flavour, gebr a Zoroasterian, a fire worshipper, a Guebre; (in Turkey) a non- Moslem

4.

'.

[said in

contempt^

^>
^-4 \<^- JCJJ

^jI

ibadet et."

8.

a.

^-AjJ

Reading Exercise.

The Story of the Donkey and Fox.

dill

f jCAZ x

J~0f' c 3)

c-xb
'

3U

u^

M-Jl

^T

3^>j 3t i)jj.
J

vi-r-!>- fj)j'

^-lII'L-

9
*

0jiiN

<

csi\

S-^^

45 jB jj

3Uj]
f

*3fc

\j<cL>.

jl

<j^

<ur*

^o

5
'

4)j>

J,^
./j*
:

<v

TTortfs. 1. a. himar donkey. 2. a. ??nt</7 to carry. 3. a. belde


town. 4. rouyi niguir a kind of light pink colored grapes. 5. dcrkf'n
just then (while he was saying this
6. a. hasrt't desire, a Section.
7. baglirhi' for baghrini his heart, bosom. 8. chifte atmaq to kick with
the hind legs. 9. p. naz ou niijaz graceful disdain. 10. a. houzour
presence.
.

278

wJ* Lesson

i*

^
'

o^J *>

28
'

^rT

i$aal

.^jqi

11. a. fct*sn beauty.

\l>2>
39

fVA

40.

2To

il>^P

jll.3

J^- 134^-11

am

12. a. fcayran *tn I

26
lr>

>^

4jj,

b*y

j>

j:

confounded.

jCU

J^

13. da-

J' l f
ylmolsoun! Let it be long, eternal. 14.
T^
mercy
and
15. &*me& to
kindness
his
of
protection
shadow or
foot
qadem
18. a a-la
a.
17.
16. a. mubarek graceful.
grow.
nndchethe
mth
fillip
a
20.
a.
fiste
excellent. 19. p. misk musk.
to express^ 23. mTcMnft.
finaer 21. a. Irfaw wisdom. 22. a.
25. a.
proportioned.
well
am eloquent ( 535, 556). 24. meozoun
joy.
mirth
a.
27.
,
ifrat excess.
rhvmed. 26.
into my heart
pierced
it
i.MJ
fft*
rftfJ* to bray. 29.
32. a. stfa
31. a. swfcttt silence.
30. a. fcam air. song.
(8 348).
song.
naghme
35. a m
a
pleasure. 33. a. bulbid nightingale. 34.
,cir;
38 a.
L/ qteilino- 36 sings. 37. a. liuzn ou Jceder sorrow.
(in this well);
here
*39.
driving.
40
a.
sera
;ilkerv; pleasure.
can I uo.'J alas.
niyleyim for w^ iyleyfyim [what

K
E

ZZ^to

*M

WW-

jMa

.T

42

41

'

>.

54

jla*

57
-

ojO JjjjjJb'
'

6 ~

^i

\<^

3ly ^3

58

59

<\iy

.*yji

53

'

^*

63

i-ii

j^j

KJi t

'

<1lj

ejj

ij^JLlS

JT*U*

^> ^ ^3j/

oru*,>

lW

iW

(iJ^l

<

279

The Persian Derivative Nouns.

rv^

L&^y ^jJI

\$Jb

s^Ull

d<U* jClt

42. p.jefa trouble. 43. dishi female.


loveliness.
45. hele! if you please!
46. a. ashqa
dushmek to fall in love. 47. p. ayineyi ah the mirror of the water.
49. sezwek to see.
48. a. aksin' for aksini reflection (of image).
51. a. nazik delicate.
52. oynash
50. a. vaqa'a truly, really.
playmate, sweet heart ( 165). 53. p. feryad et." to scream, call out.
54. tashmaq to exceed the bound of moderation in joy. 55. a. aksi
56. shashmaq
sedasin' for
sedasini reflection of sound, echo.
to be surprised.
58. a. ziyafet
57. a. davct et." to call, invite.
feast.
59. a. ajeb for ajeba I wonder.
60. a. kludmet service.
62. a. meeras yemck to inherit.
61. tavla oushaghi stable boy.
63. a. rahmet oqoumaq to pray for the deceased.

41. a.

44.

a.

ghayri other, than.

letafdt

280

<u$

Lesson

u-j^

<UlSv

rA*

41.

Conversation.

Ajlxs-

J-5

^_w

^jJu^

'

^jLi

A.li

vIHi

O-rd-^

J J^>5^

(3^J'

<i

?Ji

<iJ

I;

yM

\j

(Sow

a>

?J

*>-! ^"^i

^-^

*J

^J*5j* _^lo

^Jj.^-

2.
a. mouliar'rir
sername a heading ( 538).
an author. 4. Shinasee Effendi (1830 71).
7. to tell.
6. a. kit ay in treacherous.
5. a. merhoom deceased, dead.
9. a. afeeyet
8. heart, mind (sefa'yi khatir ease, peace of mind).
et." to eat [he helped himself].

"PTo?*^s.

a writer.

3.

1.

a.

e'tiifr

^J>$

Lesson

41.

The Persian Verb.


545.
or

-ten:

The Persian

Infinitive

^[tf Mshaden

to open,

ends in ^o -den

^jjl^j perestiden

to worship.

546. None of the tenses of the Persian Verb


are used in Ottoman. The Hoots of the verbs are very
frequently employed in the formation of compound adjectives ( 535); as: Z*~>j perest, root of perestiden,

c~*j

pout perest idol-worshipper.

547.

Only one Derivative of the

Infinitive

and

The Persian Verb.

rAt

281

three of the Verbal Roots are used in Ottoman, which


are the following.

The Objective

I.

Participle.

Jj*L ,*J

548. The Objective or Past Participle


by changing the last letter of the infinitive
vowel

ob

0->b daden to give:

u^o

into he

( 402, 604):

{-e)

wmJsJL

made

is

break:

shikeste'n to

<.:Jxi shikeste

The Subjective

Participle,

The Subjective

549.

by the addition
ends in an

e jG_

of

elif

broken,

oJuo deede seen;

deede'n to see:

II.

dade given.

or

^J

i^l*

or Present Participle

-ende

to the Root.

vav vowel

(-a,

-ou),

eye.

made

is

If the

a ye

Root

(-*/-)

is

inserted ( 53).
ij\j-

jb
ic

jL-

khan read, sing:

o-Xlilji.

hold:

cfr

)ithna

oJujta

show:

darende

singer.

bearer.

sXilt niimayende

make:

5rt^

bhanende

who shows.

oJojL sazende composer.

The Verbal Noun, jju^ ^J


The Verbal Nouns are made by the

III.

550.

of Ji -ish to the Root.

vowel

-ou),

(-a,

euphony

{-y-)

is

Root ends in

elif

or vav

inserted for the sake of

( 53, 288).

jj

ob

_-jj revish going.

rev go:
tfan

show. JJjL

551.

^b

know:

So also we have:

is

If the

addition

^J-A~.\

danlsh knowledge.

asayish peace, JLjU niimayish a

sfypartsh ordering, order.

There

is

another kind of verbal noun which

obtained by the removal of J -en from the end of

the Infinitive:

ut

282

^>[zfkushaden

to

to throw:

endakUSn

CjJ

firoukhtin to sell:

r/sf

41.

iliT' Ushad opening.

open:

CJ.\X\

Lesson

wJ*

^>\X\ endakht

throwing, propelling.

oijj

selling.

firoum

Verbal nouns are also formed by adding

8 552

or the short-

two shortened infinitives of different verbs


verb together:
ened infinitive and the root of the same
coming and going.
j.i j*T
jte^J cJifamddshM, gSshtougusar a
'

cJ'S'guft ou gu talk; chat; scandal.

fj

j i\>dad ou

jjl-

sited selling

'
I

'J

-,

-an

,jb dan know:


ij>.

jouy seek:

lerz

to the root of the verb;

dana

l;U
'

J>-

\/j

jj rev go:

jj

Adjectives are formed by the

The Verbal

addition of

trade.

C^p

^Jla

IV. Verbal Adjectives.

553.

and buying,

tremble:

wise, savant (436,606).

u^yr J ouy an
'

obJ ritan
,jOJ

The Persian Roots.

as:

tnat seeks

that goes, fluent.

Kw

trembling.

J^U^I

^*j

The following table contains most of the


8 554
in Ottoman.
Persian Verbal Roots, which are current
and never
Thev are used only in compound words,
compoused alone. Slightly changing their meaning
o3o, oob).
sition they help to form adjectives (

ci-la

defile, soil

jru\

ameez

mingle

j\X,\

endaz

throw

y\

ara

adorn

j\j\

azar

torment

Ljl

azma

try,

asham

drink

jjjJl endouz

collect

^J*\ ashoub

excite

Jn<J\ engeez

excite

}\y\ efraz

raise

\j\

\t\

jjy\
-

(j

iT
\ja\

prove

JT'jjT

yj\

aver, ar bring

aveez

hang

efrouz

light, illuminate

afereen

create

jl bar

rain

increase

jl baz

play

efza

The Persian Verb.

YAr

j>.

(JL^tJ

jJj

Mr

carry

bakhsJi

give

bend

tie

Ca-j been

JJjl perver

recz

shed

iJ

rri&a

carry

i;

za

bear

Ju
[

283

uj zen

see
feed, nourish

jL. saz

off;

rob

strike

make; com"pose

jjOi pezeer

j\*jz per da
JlL-j

pesend

Ijjj jpeera

Jja^

peril iz

^rji poosh
le-ji

<~>{J

accept,

receive

engage in

approve

ornament
abstain

put on, wear

!=-

Ard^J

cA

sipar

order

sit a

praise

sooz

burn

shitab

haste

shiken

break

j\ shumar

count

peema

measure

tab

shine

ijjt shouy

wash

rush

L.J fersa

rub. corrode

j\J taz

u~\J? trash

jouy

shave

j_r"-~'

[j

sh inas

recognize

ferma

command

firoush

sell

seek

J~jJ

u^- cheen

gather

tJ* fireeb

JMj*- klurash

scratch

juf-

gudaz

melt

Jl/

guzar

pass

*X"

guzeen

choose

<Sj-

deceive

jlj*-

frftor

eat

<j!j>-

A7ia

read, chant

alp-

Tchali

wish

j-^

T:esh

draw

J\l- Tehees

rise

j?

geer

seize, take

jb

dar

hold, keep

\f

kasha

open

ob

<7

know

c^

hun

do,

sew, stitch

9*

speak

mal

rub

nisheen

sit

jj^ doo^
o^

r77i

give; grant

&>

Ob

ran

urge, drive

ilA-ii

i^-j

r&

arrive

man

cause to reach

u^-J

jj rev

go

numa
jlji

^-ij-

perform

show

nuvaz

caress

n it vees

write

284

*!>

oLSwJ

nigiah

u-J^

look

araste

obi

azade

41.

a.)

yab

>Ij

555.

Lesson

r/si.

nih

place; put

find.

Persian Objective (Past) Participles.


adorned

born

olj zade
3J zede

free

(struck
suffered

*JL

azmoude experienced

oJl.1

soukhte

burnt

shikeste

broken

ready

amede

come

asoude

at rest, quiet

*Zj~.J fersoude

worn

averde

brought

ib-^5 firistade

sent

avikhte

hung

uftade

fallen

<c

=v-

^v

03

istade

standing, erect.

beste

tied

commanded

fermoude

^li-Xi"^ guzeshte

^past; interest

ojT^

Tcerde

on money
made, done

Oj^

girifte

seized

tune

.jjjS^ guzeede

perverde nourished

jchoosen
\

Jchorde

eaten

dade

given

~tj

>l*5^ Jcushade
^Iaj

best

open

gufte

word

seen; eye

ojJu

mande

left

rinjide

injured

oi^*

murde

dead

reseede

arrived; ripe

olfl

nihade

put

refte

gone

oL

yafte, -ta

found; label.

oJuO deede

false

deceived

firifte

o^^S

frozen

made;

amade

03 ,~si efsiirde
'.J
ll~.)

saklite

556.

jU\t

Examples.

j*iL>. jihangeer world conquering, conquerer.


oJ~~,jj> nevreseede

syji pezmiirde
jj~>yjz pertevsouz
jL;l=w

janbaz

Ca>jj* dourbeen

newly arrived, young.


vulg.

pezvarda faded; untidy.


pertafsiz burning-glass.

jambaz rope-dancer; a horse dealer


duldul far seeing; telescope.

The Persian Verb.

fAo
t.p.

j\j\ emekdar an old and faithful servant, veteran,

armour bearer,

jlJo->L- silahdar vulg. zilifdar

a. p.

285

asilzade of noble descent, a noble,

a. p. o.aljL>\

jbli? qafadar an intimate friend,

a. p.

a. p.

<oJ\s! afetzede

a. p.

j^JJb j^SJa

who has

suffered misfortune.

tarafdar, tarafgeer a partisan.

'

\T

Exercise 93.

Ju'

Connect the following words with each other and


give the meanings:
535.

authority
4.

hold.)

-f-

prince

anchor
Jchayr

good

16.

(a.

shoe

pJUs

-f-

-f-

11.

(I*

19.

13.

sew.)
-j-

so?rf/i

tie.)

pass, do.)

Ll

wish.)

-j-

chouval sack

9.

throw.)

-f-

15.

(jo

({J*~>

nourish.)

18.

(a.

(t.

Jjl

-|-

bed evil

10.

prosperity

bring [khurikiar

in.)

8.

(t.

jj?

seen.)

d\>

bey

12. (a. jv>-

14. (Jlj>.

-f-

na'2

Jji

state

pass, do.)

21. (dl^-

-f-

wish.)

(a.

(a.

(J^^S linger

sukhen word
17.

work -f

engaged

+ hold.)
5.

know.)

c-*Ju^ maslahat

-f-

550.

born.)

na un-

mousiqi music
-[-

(y

Hhazine treasure

struck, suffered.)

hukum

SC>-

(a.

(JL>- jihan world

6.

fire

born.)

2.

tailor's scissors -\- hold.)

seen.)

*j~ hariq

(a.

hold.)

-|-

3. (a. *> *J*

maqas a

(a. ^j*\2a

sarar injury
7.

nam name

1. (*fc

20.

speak.)

horse-

affair

(f.

-f-

JL~>yi

MwwA; happiness,

p. 240].)

Translate the following Participles into Persian.

Increase, augmentation; giving, present; a wishing,


a desire; caressing, petting; praising; an act of opening,
cheerfulness.

286

*.!

4iU

Pr^U

dJLiji

^li

pAZ

Lesson

Jl-cI ii^lijc

d>^-

^0

4-

AL

jj^J JtA

jU- *>% uU"T

?A^

41.

Exercise 94.

^Jojw? jliy jjjb

^<c^

jb JJtf

u*J>

jJj

<V->

-(i^J

tf-tfl

X U*

*
'

>j**y

*W ^
1

3UI/3

^ Ji^ pill

^ ^ J -^
7

Translation 95.

was a great conqueror; he was


very untidy.
also a brave ruler. 2. The horsedealer was
now I have
3 I had a small telescope, but I sold it;
from
sufferers
burning glass. 4. The number of the
1.

Mehemmed

II.

a
the fire was more than 300.
the partisans of the king.

The princes were among


6. The steamer anchored

5.

400
towards morning. 7. The treasurer distributed
That man
to those who have suffered from the fire. 8.

The Persian Verb.

rAV

287

a very famous rope-dancer. 9. The armour-bearer of


the prince was very ungrateful. 10. Ali Effendi is my
intimate friend. 11. Who is Mr. Riddle?
He is the
Charge d' affairs of the American legation at Constanis

tinople.

J>! 5
1

Zj^Ca A Supplication and Praise.

JLfcJI tuk

..

..

c^

il*~-

****

^-o

IS.

Beading Exercise.

/%-J^

s\~

(^ oJi'

'?

a^j'

10

6^
\<^

^^

\jiHjl

^-jjUjS

^-jj'j

17

C*'

16

Words. 1. a. Munajat ma et'temjeed. 2.jihan world, universe.


khali'qiil-alemeen creator of the universe.
4. a. ya Rebb'
Lord! 5. sJwule efrouz; a. shoule flame, light. 6. p. asiiman.
asman heavens. 7. toushe bakhsh; toushe provisions. 8. a. shamil containing. 9. ekrem id ekremeen the most gracious of the gracious
10. fighan a moan, cry of distress.
11. a. erhem ur rahiones.
12. a. hajet need (what is the need?).
meen most merciful.
13. a. arz'ihal petition. 14. seene heart. 15. dilnishin seated in one's
16. a. zdhir outside.
17. a. batin inside.
heart.
18. gliayib-been
who see the invisible. Divani Fazil (from) The Divan of Fazil
3.

a.

[f 1803].

Note. The N 08 2, 5, 7, 15. 18 are Persian compound adjectives ( 535) and the N os 3, 9, 11 are Arabic compound adjectives ( 669).
-

<U |^S

Conversation.

JJ rj*.^ tsxil J^U


.

oJL

jjjCt^ o-^-j-' ^*

4^1

v l=:

AjLJL.}

jUi.

pkJjd.5C.Jll

.ji vlLti j^

288

Lesson

ltJ*

'l?

^^

IT

1*AA

42.

Lesson 42.

The Persian Prepositions.

in

of frequent use
557. The Persian prepositions
Ottoman are the following ( 236, 451):
a)

ez

j\

fronr: forms the Ablative case.


5

soul and heart


devotedly.
respect.
every
in
jihet
ezher
y*j\

uIsj VjWJj

jaw o

dil

froin

heartily,

^e

&Mr 'from breast' = by heart, committed to memory.

jjjl

ez

}\

pjji j\ ez

b)

jumJe from the number of


e

A*

&e

as for example.

qadeem from olden times.

forms the Dative case.

to,

in':

face.
jj'.JJ rou berou face to

JU

benami khuda

t>

Iji.

a+4 Uheme

#" n

u/^

^j J

^m

ba Vith,

c) I

name

of God.

in every condition'

day by day

absolutely.

.UoU mah'bSmah' month by


month.

beher sine every year.

C~ ~>"
*
t.u^i

lied

in the

case.
by': forms the Instrumental

I,

oa Urn ou lliaber by a receipt.

Uj*

6a

j^-

ba senid With a note.

u^^i-

ba khoiisous especially.

JW o^>

i<

exalted edict.
o /Vrmant ali by an (Imperial)

3LM

oa

swob

correct.

*w%a

^>

oa /apoM with a deed.

with a privilege, privileged.

The Persian Prepositions.

TA^

der

d) js

o *

at

in,

forms the Locative case.

ji der dest at hand: arrested, seized.

jL\ j^
*1&

289

(?er

JU. j} der

'

j:>

anbar in the;

store, stored.

immediately.

hal. der aqcib

Jb\- js der lchatir in the mind, in heart.


Alt:-!

e)

jj

^jG^

ji der Asitane in Constantinople.


& 'on'.
&er

^j
l

r\j* jt
<o*j ^j

'

on the contrary.

erfcs

j\j5^ji &er qarar, ber


Jljl* ji

w^*-

'

lJJ

ter taraf aside.

^j

devam continually,

Z>er vej'hi,

firmly.

ber minvali, ber mouji'bi

according
f) t

jx*

fa

g)

L*

^U

w-seJU*. (il^j
(jUti|

as far as

'until,

JL4o viU-lL

9-U^j

L"

irt

qadar as far as the top of


the mountain.
the morning.

dagliin depesine

f besabah

berayi

till

for,

for the sake

of

berayi maslahat for a business.


imtihan for the examination.

<il^,j

A^jiLc- <s\y_

ibadet for worship.

^-*^w

hurmet for the sake of respect.

lSI^j

jU
Ithatir

VL wo-j^

^i

frer

mouji'bi

teV

re/7u

der dest

et."

to arrest.

J|

a^.

der anbar

Examples.

etmek to remember.

ji der

*1Ljj\^1>1>.

as.

bale,

c/tee

in the

above-mentioned manner.

in the following

manner.

ber taraf et." to set aside.

^ from head

et." to store.

ez ser to

Substitution.

JljJ Ibdal.

to foot.

Substitution of one letter for another rather


occurs in the Persian language.
This change
of one letter into another does not produce any change

558.

rarely

Turkish Conv. -Grammar.

19

290

uf

in

For

meaning:

of

u-J->

Lesson

instance,

<mJ

r^

42.

changed into j

is

some words;

as:

VI bala high == Vlj

pan

jt tava frying pan.

tube frying

aX

i?a?a high,

Substitution occurs often in the following

559.
letters

^ to
i

uj

&

j>

jljL bazar market:

kludmet service:

a.vjL.-Ai-

j:

J:

i)

*_-> *

>.>

=
=
=
=
=
=

JL

J-

i_r

?-

sh

kh

jSjr perktar compass:

&*J&

kefdie skimmer:

y*J>

vii-i.

jlxl>.

j a^pI

c ]A van

J^j^ pergel.

M6

*-*

kepje.

gevher jewel:

^*j^

jevlicr.

mushk musk:

UL.*

khunkiar king:

The Omission

-,J-j

jfcl>. hiinkiar..

Hazf.

Omission. ^Ji>.

560.

ili sfra#.

baghcheban gardener:

olj-^c&l

tJ

j'^ jazou.

merry, joyful:

ili s7iarf

c**Jc* khizmet*

jadou wizard:

j*\>-

j\j\ipazar.

of letters

very frequent

is

without changing the meaning

in the Persian language,

of the word:

The
c

shell

original

king

,jUJ fighan.

for

JS

word

king

11 shah'

is

^Ujl efghan 'lamentation'

<u

meh

for

wa/i

is

'month',

written as

a!L-

written also

and 4> geh

gwili place.

561. The following


quently used in Ottoman:
\S\
jlf-

pay

is

foot:

chihar four:

^"Jj bed'ter worse:


s\jl~\
a. ^/u\

oustad master:
ewieer prince:

a list of

such words

pa.

jU-

c7iar.

jaj &eer or better.


L:-j\

'

<C~-j|

^ru wieer.

ousta.

fre-

The Persian Prepositions.

r\)

jjlL beyaban desert:


Zjiiji*.
aJI>.

j\

291

(jLli'tjlj yaban.

hoshnoud content:

zjLt>. hoshnoud.

lhane house:

tjU- khan.

sar head:

^_~- sir.

o$\j\ azade free:


a. <uli

*\j\ azad.

Canon law:

faqeeh' student af

CAjjf kiarvan caravan:

\*\

J^cL* a

.^ll^jl

Iji

*J*i

529)

uhj>

Afr-j

her van.

Exercise 90.

jo J^yl ojj' JJj~~

^*o JJjl (J^jX* -LL ^^>-'* Jf *

\W

^JU faqi,Yu\g.falht.

^>-*~ J <L*Jo

Translation

j ili j^JL?

->*->>

<i>l

sll,0* ojl <JI>-4.~a> JUL)

97,

From

olden times he has been the friend of


our family. 2. He was satisfied with me in every
respect.
3. This mother loves her children devotedly.
4. He said this to me and immediately went out.
5. He sends me a present at the beginning of every
1.

19*

ir

292

Lesson

u-J-i

l^r

42.

year I received a gold pen.


7. In
6. Day by day he was progressing in his lessons.
the name of God come quickly and help me! 8. He
9. Kerim Effendi went to Salour
is continually sick.
10. He climbed up to the top of the
for business.
year:

instance)

(for

mountain.

11.

He

this

cried incessantly until

morning; be-

cause his body from head to foot was full of wounds.


13. He
12. Nejib Bey went to the mosque for worship,
spoke in the following manner. 1 4. The thief was arrested.
15. The wheat and the barley were stored.
16. The
caravan lost its way in the desert.

j>l A

f^jM

Reading Exercise.

(O^jT The

Hunter.

>

>

12

>

(0 La. fet'tan naughty (boy [ 609]). 2. a. W/7


vijdan heart; conscience. 4. jemeeyeti suroodakeen
an assembly full of chants ( 536). 5. junbushgehi surourakeen:
junbushgch a place of pleasure (541,560), siirourakeen joyful (536).
6. a. munsherili
cheerful; yeri dir it is lawful (just the place).
7. dili teng: teng poor, miserable;
chaliltq bush. 8. a. sattf chant.
9. p. pur full; aheng melody.
11. a. zareef
10. sade simple.
IPords.

incline.

graceful;

3.

a.

a.

maqam

singing.

12. a. latif nice, beautiful.

13. endishe

take care! 14. a. intizam quietude, order.


15. sousounouz!
be silent! qoushjighazlarim my dear birdies ( 166 67).
(f) 16. a. sur'at speed; chanta bag. 17. dele dourmaq to keep
still, quiet; chifte double-barreled fowling piece.
18. a. rdhm mercy.
19 qiymaq to kill (he will not spare you).
et!

The Persian Prepositions.

T\r

22

jjj:iJ

293

'jjj^o'

(ilj- JUtai 4[_?!

21

t>-i-

'

J^> u^-i

? aJ

25

Li

cA^-r- -* -*

a*-i;

'

24

^I

b ^r^-i

<i

^Jjj^yJ

29

&y

uA^U
Ab:
!

41
!

^>U

40

^VT
43

14

"^ni> JJlS
?

46

^JL,U*.

I>w-*J 4*d

j, ?

j\~>\

*-^j

ill

30

81LJ^*'

J*

'

S"-?1-*" 9^

'

jU

O^>: uj1 jbl

V>"^

}*3

39

'

42

4A*

'

Idiuujij- l

^n_^ j
*-iV

^M

j^L* L**
45

-**>j

^^.i-scC^s

>i-4L|
JjU-Jj]

^y

pj^nL,

^5^-^jj.^

yoummaq

20.

shame;

^S^-xaj *a

jl^

JOi

J13j1

a.

21. sheeni ademeeyit: sheen


to shut, close.
ademeeyet humanity ( 581). 22. sezayi la net detestable:

seza subject; suitable, fitting;

a.

la'net curse.

qlrlanglnj swallow. 24. bakh25. p. nesh've pleasure


a. avdet
arrival; a. tcbr'tk et." to congratulate. 26. a. zevqou shevq pleasure
and mirth ( 696); a. slierik companion. 27. nagehan suddenly.
29. berbad ruined, lost ( 557 e).
28. a. say'yad hunter ( 610).
(r)

23. a.

tiyarane in a

qarar

et." to sit;

happy way

( 528).

30. a. belay a evils, misfortunes. 31. a. it'tiqa et." (from viqaye) to


be cautious. 32. a. beraya men.

33. a. khasayil character; a. efkiar opinion. 34. a. delayil


36. veseele-jouyi
35. a. zou-a-fa the poor (ones).
siteez: visilejouy who seeks for a pretext (to quarrel) ( 535);
siteez quarrel. 37. a. aqveeya the rich, the strong (ones). 38. Tchoonreez
blood-shedder ( 535). 39. zoulm abad a place of cruelty hell. 40. alay
(l)

tokens, proofs.

troop. 41. a. jel'lad executioner ( 609). 42. a, mouhibbi sadiq ou


I'hayr ( 696): mouhibb' friend; a. sadiq just, true; Jchayr good.
43. a. raheem merciful. 44. a. qatil murderer; a. tayr bird. 45. a. vasf
praising, eulogy.
46. a. haqayiq right, just.

tr

294

u-j^

52
.

55
!

^J

jJo\

cjj

iijj

u-^:

^O/I

* ? L ? ftJuljS-

JJ

u-J^i iAolili

a<C:^

'jj^i^-u-J: Jjl5

*J

ij? y

'

>Jo

8^

-^yCi-j,

jj
!

(i^i Jj~

^ju^i,

ijljC: il^.jujl <ji>i lijjjl

r^

43.

<-J^*

Lesson

jjj^tijjjj

j\jju

61

56

a&L;

<;UJ>

G0

^.L.

>^

i^_j

jvU

(o)

47. yaver helper; Utile trigger; keklik partridge. 48. a.kelb


49. vabtete appropriated; a. jelb bringing, fetching. 50. sefdim shedding of blood. 51. sitemker unjust, cruel ( 529). 52. a. lanet
55. a. tab
et." to curse. 53. a. sherr evil. 54. a. eghreb wonderful.

dog.

heart, nature;

a.

besher humanity.

good news!

a. tebayud to disappear.
need) of caution, fear. 58. a. meshrebimje as I like, according to my taste. 59. f. qonsSr concert.
60. mulilet vermek to grant a delay. 61. a. zemane, zeman Time; bir
miqdar a little; a. zalim cruel. 62. tama-perver avaricious ( 535).

56. p. muzlide!
Qy)
57. a. mdhelli hazer place

*f
vI^a?

(=

u^^

The Gender

Lesson 43.
of

Arabic Nouns.

562. There is no gender in Turkish or Persian,


there
is in Arabic.
With respect to gender Arabic
but
nouns are divisible into two classes a) those which
r
are only masculine; b) those which are onh feminine.
There is no neuter gender in the language.
.

The Gender

X^o

of Arabic Nouns.

295

That a noun is of the feminine gender [keybe ascertained either from its signification

563.
fiyet)

may

or from

its

termination.

The feminine nouns which are such because of


signification,
are all words denoting fern ales; as:
their
a.

wJ>
jj

'

s_Juj

'

<<ulU

Many a

Hadije, Zeyneb,

j valide a mother, u-jjc arous a bride,

prop, names).

(fern.
^.ij

bint a daughter.

b. The feminine nouns and adjectives which are


such by reason of their termination, are all substan-

and adjectives ending

tives
-at,

-t.

when

-a),

in & or

'

'

Zj

-et,

[-&,

those terminations do not belong to

the root; as:

^>Ju^. memlekH
mah'keme a

\j^ hubra

court,

But *L

a country,

ma

water,

c^=- jai-net paradise,

greater ( 29

O^CL sukut

warning, z^3 vaqit time:

silence,

c,

610).

i.

e.

'
I

'

tSnbeeh

<ulj

not feminine,

are

their terminations are radical;

belong to the root

32

c,

<u-x^--.

because
-h)

(-a, -t,

( 587).

Masculine nouns and adjectives are usually


rendered feminine bv the mere addition of the letters

564.

he, te (e,

which are called feminine letters:

t),

Jic azeem great:


j..

4..Ji&

ukh a brother:

ekh,

ben, bin a son

ukhf a sister.

noun
and be

the
it,

is

feminine,

the

also of the femi-

( 656).

^A
I

>z,L\

cJu binf a daughter.

565. Xote. When


adjective must agree with
nine gender

(fern.).

oA> jedde a grandmother.

jedd a grandfather:

jr-|

azeeme great

^Jui

Exercise 98.

Change the following masculine

feminine ones:

nouns

into

296

1 ,H

i7

je

cJ

3*

'10

16

'

4 h

11. Kir
18

12

19
*!(.

'

Lesson

i>ji

j.r

'

t|

'

..

r\

43.

"

'13

w*u>

'

20
'

7 *

14

jl^

dii;

/t

15

'

tws.

ff.

'

vaZid a father (genitor).


2. liafeed grandchild.
4. fcfeaZ mothers
3. amm, vulg. em'mi father's brother, uncle.
brother, uncle.
5.
mou-atlim teacher,
6.
mutesarrif owner;
governor. 7. varis heir. 8. nejz'fr noble. 9. hamil bearer. 10. mumin
believer. 11. fdan so and so (man). 12. ghaz'zal gazelle. 13. merhoum the deceased. 14. sliayir poet. 15. salis third. 16. sanee
second. 17. zevj husband. 18. ilali god. 19. bachelor. 20. King.

Words.

1.

II.
Ascertain whether
feminine or masculine:

..

'

'

10

the

following

.,

'

11

..

12

ic

13

">^'

words

are

2. hab'be a grain.
3. &mf daughter.
8. maslaliat
death.
7. meser'ret joy.
business. 9. hadeeqa garden. 10. beyt a house; a stanza. 11. nebat
plant.
12. ebou father.
13. ke'rem, loutf, nimet kindness.
1.

4.

zouhnet darkness.

sister.

5.

mevt,

6.

feri

The Number of Arabic Nouns. j^jT


The Arabic language has

566.

three

numbers

Dual and Plural, and three cases


in each number: Nom., Ace, and Genitive.

(kemiyyet): Singular,
(hal)

Note. Of the three Arabic cases, only the


Ace. of the Singular and the Ace. of the Dual
and Plural are in use in Ottoman, the Ace. of the Dual
and Plural being used in place of the Nominative, and
that too in a form shortened by the omission of the
final short vowels.
The Ace. Sing, is used only as an
adverb in Ottoman (682). In the following Lessons the
short final vowels and everything else not used in Ottoman
are omitted, but the student will find them in Arabic
phrases adopted into the language as single words

567.

Nom. and

666670).
Dual. ^jlH

The Dual

568.
kind and

is

to the singular.

Tesniye.

indicates two things of the

formed by adding

[Compare with the

J\

-<*

n an d

CX.

same
~^V n

an of Persian (509)]

as

The Gender and Number of Arabic Nouns.

T\V

297

J>-L- sahil sea-coast:


Crtis-l-

JlM

'

one third

suls

uiiLJ

^Ls

sahileyri, saliilan two coasts.

u^-L-

'

jjlfli

sidseyri, sulsan two thirds.

0^

qoutbeyri, qontban the two Poles.

qoutb the Pole:

C^-ks

'

word end in he (-e) feminine (hayi


tSenis\ it is changed into te feminine (--) (tayi teenis),
before the dual termination is added ( 32 c, 564, 592):
If the

569.

4.it_;

a ship:

aL1~* sefine

nusklieteyn

do

they

not

i> .::.&-. sefineteyn.

The following duals

570.
although

jOeJ

a copy:

nusklie

much

are

two

indicate

in

use,

exactly

things

similar to one another:


ui-lMj

uljii valideyti

',

ebeveyri the parents.

husband and

ilrtjj

zevjeyri

>^r

qamereyn the sun and moon.

>-

i>*^ hare'meyn

wife.

^
8

"

"

-1*9^1

ji*

'

a"

^.j-"
Words.

a quarter.
condition.

3.
6.

"

10 a

\"

^j1).

(Sing, rjj)-

(Sing. ^--i).

11

^-O'J

'two husbands'

fathers',

Exercise 99.

^.Isc

Change the following nouns


"

the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina.

Note that they do not mean 'two


and 'two moons'.

l't

(Sing. jJIj

."

"

<W

into the dual:

12' f 1/

&"

13*

>

*.\ "

"

14

"
,

""
<

'

<-*j&

J^\

J.

menzil a halting place; a house. 2. j7ie' a side;


4. zamme the vowel eofre.
5. s7iart
&e7de country. 7. suck one sixth. 8. fiqra a sentence,
1.

salieefi page.

paragraph.
9. sherik companion.
the above said. 12. jiimle clause.

The Plurals

10.

13.

varis heir.

taraf a side.

in Arabic,

^js-

11.

merqoum

14. 6a/ir a sea.

Jem.

There are two kinds of plurals in Arahic:


a. One of these has only two forms, and is called
the regular or sound plural (pluralis sanus), because
571.

298

all

in

Lesson

<tr u-J->

43.

r^A

the vowels and cod sonants of the singular are retained


[Jemi Miizekkeri Salim, Jemi Miiennesi Salim); ex:

it

j^U

me-mour an

The
broken

officer: Cx.jj* '.

other which

b.

me-mou-reeri

officers.

has various forms

called

is

irregular plural (pluralis fractus),


because it is more or less altered from the singular
by the insertion or elision of consonants, or the change
the

of vowels

or

ex.

*;JL* sefeene

or sefayin 'ships

a ship

or

jL-

J;

Here the form of the noun

So also \L shey a thing: *Lll

sufen

IL-

is

broken.

esh'ya things.

572. The different ways of forming the irregular


Arabic plurals are so numerous and complex that a
separate chapter is requisite to explain them, which will
be found further on (Lesson 51, 637 652).

The Regular Masculine Plural.


The

573.

iL*

*jr

f*

nouns

pluralis sanus of masculine

formed by adding the termination jj -oon and


-een\

A^a muslim

as:

muslimoon Moslems.

limeeri,
ij<Uy*

'

a Moslem

i)y+Ay*

574.

is

jj,

'jjiL* mm-

^>J

\*y mumin

mumineeri muminoori

a believer:

believers.

This way of forming the plural

is

employed

only in the case of names of rational beings, therefore


c

jlJ

esed

jJuJ

'

lion',

^:>C

miktoub

a letter cannot be

cannot

oyjlyCi* esedeen, mehtouboon: because they

reason or speak ( 578).

But the plurals of 4l~

575.

alem

'universe'

are

sencen, J^IU alcmcen.


is

Ocj

'

Oyj

but

it

exceptions:

The

ilc

'year

sene

they are )C** sineen,

plural of

becomes

'

a_j

>

ben

&ewee

son,

when

in

child

con-

r^

The Gender and Number

noun

struction with a

of Arabic Nouns.

following;

as:

299

J^jI

'

(Ol
3

henee Israyel, benee Adem the children of Israel


'the
children of Adam, mankind"; the full form, however,
does not occur in Ottoman.
,

Give,

Exercise 100.

^JbJ

possible, the regular plurals of the follow-

if

ing nouns.
s

jy
7

l~<^'

^>Lj

.1

^^bj

i8

"", '

M^i

jj-

j-U

c9

*}*,
*

10

^ ii3jl5

fj^*

cJJ

i" "c 11

<3->'y-

jib

"

fjUa*

'%...

.|i

o-XHj

*-"-)

&,

"

}y\~"*
12

Jj-O

2. muder'ris, mou-al-lim teacher.


3. qaree
1. Book.
5. mazloum poor, oppressed.
6. meshfoyr a bird.
7.
riyazi astronomer.
8. sami hearer,
hour remarkable (man).
audience. 9. mujrim criminal, sinner. 10. havari apostle of our
12. resold an apostle, prophet.
Lord).
11. sariq a thief.
>Fo?*c7s.

reader.

4.

The Regular Feminine

Plural.

^y

iL,

pjr

The regular way

of forming the plural of


Arabic feminine nouns and adjectives (Jemi Muennesi

576.

Salim)

is

by dropping the

the singular ( 563

final

he,

Zt te

(-e,

64) and adding j -at

-f, -et)

to the

of

word.

muslime a female Moslem: o'Ji muslimat Moslem women.

4_Ji

CjIJc semerat fruits.

o^t semere a fruit:

c^OU

oU>U- alamat

a-lamet a sign:

577.
dropped and
vZj\z

If

the

elif is

word end

in Zj\ -<#, the Za -t

changed into vav


olji

zat person:

signs.

is

(-V-):

zevat.

I'Xa sdlat prayer:

^\j^

salarat.

tlAy berat an edict:

^Ij^

beravat edicts, firmans.

Some of the masculine nouns denoting 578.


things which have not reason or speech, form their
plurals

by adding

j\

-at.

as

they cannot

regular masculine plural ( 574):

take

the

300

a ^T

Lesson 43

i-rja

cAjlJ*
cIUp

Wireer a writing:

JJ ^TiaZat a mistake:

oL;

-UL;

,ie6a* a plant:

tahreerat writings.

ghalatat mistakes.
*ie6a*at plants.

Exercise 101.

^Xi^

r#

Give the feminine plural of each of the

following words

14

M.
mwi^

1.

pfcayft

a miracle.

5.

end.

the

service

animal.

(kUdemat).

6.

^trume^.
a-det

custom.

want. 9, ibart sentence. 10


7 a payment. 8. fetf* a need,
composition of a book; a book.
a complaint. 11. *?-eef
14. tareef explanation
13. zekiat alms.
deficiency.
12
ion. 17.
known (knowledge). 16. tf&f*k' congratula
5.
vegetable.
s<fe
rAft blessing. 18. tameer repair. 19.

fc^f

^LLr

^
*-,)!

'

>tf.

*,j^r

*jc ^
"

Ju

Exercise 102.

s^f <<*f ts-*?\

>)jf&'jr*
-

CjJ-o

ol

^/i Z~&

*'*

C&*s Y
_

r*

The Gender and Number of Arabic Nouns.

1.

AJt-j

Miss Gulistan

is

301

Translation 103.

the heiress

of the governess

The owner

of this house is Jemile Hanim,


the teacher. 3. Give the bearer of this letter five roejidiyes. 4. You must obey your parents. 5. Dr. Ch. Tracy
(teacher).

2.

has written a nice book for parents and for husbands


6. Paradise was in the land of Ararat.
7. The criminals were carried before the court.
8. The
number of the hearers was 900, two thirds of whom
were women. 9. Erase those two ebtres. 10. The mother
of the sovereign of the martyrs, Huseyin, is the Princess
of the women of the universe Fatima-Zehra.

and wives.

<U I^S

>

Conversation.

-i

>

Lesson

^J>

HJT

30 2

^\ } A

Reading Exercise.

%
.

W~ r"
10
'

A,

24

^* ->b

*-*o3 j (P3

Bend.

x, ^Jf) Terteihi

A Poem,
-t

l~*f

43.

B%

&&

jlj

o3j^

<*" i

^ (i^J

...

4/*

^*

0Uu- Jt- juo

23

'

-*

-5-

==

seem silver, zfr gold. 3. braghout


keen time.
4. ^fr journey
sphere. 7. ley! night, s. r
the
sky,
the
sipihr
6
colour
o
say that Solomon s throne
[They
2rf >o the air.
9.
day
the throne of Solomon
was in the air (Moslem tradition)]. 10.
13. ghamm
12. Mrr free
magnificence
11. saltanat empire;
world.
jihan
15.
Vizier,
anxietv Uder grief. 14. sadr Grand
vileness. 17.
baseness
Ihasaset
16.
.g
instinct ( 671).
character ( 69b). IB. u
substance
oi flift* disposition and
.^7 ^astrologer. 19. fffttfWi heedlessness.
a
le " C e lr
talk; word. 22. tAfy'yftl lack / PV':
21
n ;k deed.
work,
eser
24.
sense.
23. rdflie degree; ag! wisdom,
T^oi-ds

eKfcr

world.

2.

^S n^TS

(MjIrM.

M&

}t;

aO-^j^^S'

r*r

The Nisbe

w'
.

27

"

slj

,Ojy

5<~,jf jU-Ji

303

2 6

4~o

2*>

.*SL

in Arabic.

J-Uj

J*

Cy

C.SIJL0 4iLjl

"

mazar'rat injuries, harms ( 576). 26. sabit qade'm firm


in resolve 636).
27. re'y opinion; judgment.
28. sadaqat fidelity, honesty.
29. ikrah disgust; enmity ( 619;.
30. Allah.
Ziya Pasha a distinguished Turkish author, poet,
historian and statesman (180979).
Terkibi Bend.
A poem in
stanzas of similar metre but of different rhyme, the distichs of
each stanza rhyme excepting the last distich.
25.

and steadfast

** wT^i> Lesson 44.


2LJI The
The Noun

579.

called in Arabic),

is

Nisbe.

is

of Relationship [en Nisbe, as it


formed by adding the termination

-ee to the noun, from which

it is

derived.

It

denotes

that a person or thing belongs to or is connected therewith (in respect of origin, family, birth, sect, trade etc.)
(Compare the Turkish and Persian Nisbes 149, 526):

^j\

Ermen Armen

J.jl

Ermenee belonging

fabulous Armenian hero):

(a

r *J- shems the sun:

to

Armen, Armenian.

~~Jt, she'msee' solar,

j-io dimUhq Damascus: \~*z dhnhhqee a native of Damascus.

Mi'da-la-at:

l;UIlL

580.
o

or

is

a.

The feminine termination

of

nouns

omitted before adding this termination;

jC

iC meJc'ke Mecca:

But

if

there

is

as:

mek'kee' a native of Mecca.

j^\s tabiyee' natural.

c-*t tabiyat nature:


b.

Remarks.

an

elif

preceding

O,

it is

retained:

304

Lesson

ltjj

-L-,

olS a person:

oU
names

iSjA>j^\

there

elif,
ll** (

&

is

When any
is

<j**)

vital.

end of foreign (non-Arabic) proper


a he (-a), it is changed into rar (-!-):
iSj^\^s Fransavee French.

Ameriqavee American:

fSyj^\ Edirnevee a native of


Adrianople.

Arabic word ends in short or long


( 29 c, d):

changed into vav

man a meaning;

Lo dunya
s-Uod

jLs- hayatee

life:

Fr ansa France:

d.
it

J\j zatee' personal.

the

If at

c.

a_J|^3

hay at

rt

44.

spirit:

world:

iJjI*a

manevee

^jz'-*

dunyavee worldly.

spiritual.

Beyza the town of Beyza:

cijUau beyzavee a native of Be\vza.

Zsa Jesus:

<j~~f"

e.

which
f.

The
will

are

formation of which
aoI badiye a

nouns

other
is

desert:

of

Christian.

made

in the

way

Relationship,

the

tens of the numerals are


soon be shown ( 689).

There

Ox. me dine

Isavee

irregular:

<_$jJu

inhabiting the

bedevee

desert,

Beduin; a savage.
\a we'de'nee' dwelling in the city, civilised.

a city:

[urban.
<L~ sine year:

<SJ~~> se'nevee'

Oj-| oukhouvvet brotherhood:

Some nouns

rjj rouh
p-~>.

[Sj>-\

akhavvee

jU mayee

*L wia water:

g.

yearly.

take an addition of

spirit:

<3^-JJ

jism body:

iile~^-

brotherly.

watery

J>1

rouhanee

fluid;

before

blue.

^ -ee.

spiritual.

jismanee corporal.

Other examples are:


jl^Ht ibranee
"ii.i^i'ij
(il-MS kildanee
h.

'

/-^

Chaldaean:

'<^>\.j~'

";,
<Jl^r*aj

noun of Relationship

the plural, even


it,

Hebrew:

when

but always from

is

a Syrian.

siiryanee

nasranee

'fa Nazarene,
<

Christian

never formed from

the sense might seem to demand


the singular: for instance words

The

^-o^U

like

lMjCj^" memourinee, tahriratee 'relative to

'

never used, but their siDgular

officers or letters* are

used ^j^L*

an

memouree,

'

'SjLj-^-

officer or letter

xUthough

i.

305

iSisbe in Arabic.

i.

rule

is

to

'relative

literary'.

e. official,

this

tahriree

is

very strictly observed in

Arabic, yet in recent Ottoman literature there are some


terms in current use formed from plurals, but they are
regarded as barbarisms:
*.Oj;=w

toy

qouvve'yi jounoudeeye the military forces.

CjIjaU* mou-a-lieddti duveleeye the Treaties of the Powers.

<.Jj.i

o-*?- jemeeyye'ti rousouweeye the Taxation Committee.

*-_7~.j

The words joanoud, duvel, rousoum, are the plurals


of jiind army, devlet 'empire' and rcsm tax.

The Abstract Noun.


581.
Zj

'

or j^j

'

l/et,

Abstract

\^a

nouns are formed by adding

-ye) to the end of


-iye)

(-iyet,

^J Ismi liana.

to the

Nouns

of Relationship

end of nouns and

ad-

jectives ( 163, 541):


i\j-*z>
(j-L.

nasranee a Christian:

medenee civilised:

j>- liurr free:


**

jem collecting:

^-^Jl^r-^sJ

nasraneeyet Christianity.

s^jJ-L.

medeneeyet

luir'riyet freedom.

J ^r-

civilisation.

c^u^- jem'iyet an assembly.

Also:
a,j^. mejidiye the coin struck by Sultan Mejid.
AjjJL

aJ^o
582.

belediye the municipality, the city court.

doukhouliye admission
If

4.
'

(-e,

fee,

-ye, -a)

entrance-money.

is

added

to the

end

of Arabic Derivative Adjectives and Participles, and used


alone without any noun to modify. The feminine
Adjectives and Participles thus formed are regarded as
feminine substantives ( 421):
Turkish Conv.-Grarnmar.

20


306

J.

Lesson

u-j^

uu

secret:

Jche fee

r*\

44.

*J>. khefeeye detective.

fy+-^

mejmou

collected:

ur~-,j^ mu-es'ses established:


*iU

mejmou-a

mj+j^.*
d

mti-essese institution.

,j

mani hinder:

collection.

maniya

-ulL

obstacle.

583. The following abstract nouns are solecisms,


being formed in the Arabic manner from Turkish, Persian
or European words and not from Arabic words; ( 507):
t.

c-jjIj variyet wealth:

^Jir"

p.

f.

rfuJL'J^

z^j

kingdom:

Exercise 104.

Form Nouns

and Abstract nouns

of Relationship
from the following words:
2'

<

'

'

10

<

ll

salary,

4~S>Gj| otlaqiye pasture-tax.

t.

Jl*

otL mahiye (monthly)

p.

politiqiye politics:

1'",

germiyet ardour, zeaL

serbestiyet freedom: p. cjuULi^ perishaniyet poverty,

c-J|_/ qraliyet

f.

p.

"

i". <8i-*<7"^i

..

<

4"

<

"

"

<

*;

6V

<

^>3 .>
<

o&Z.

+jLJ\
\.

1.

"

-DO

^>jl (arrtj

Ja

2
l

'

custom.

rt(?^

'

"

*_*!
"

>

"

'

" -

'

\'\"

\l

egg.
3.
family, house^
&e'i/
plant.
6. water.
7. tijarit trade.
Jcharij outside, foreign.
10. mil' let nation.
2.

4.

mad'de matter, subject.

8.

dakhil interior.
Bosna Bosnia.

9.

"

-k-.^

^j*-*

beyza
5.

4.

12. sevda the spleen.


13. heaven.
rabb the Lord. 2. noor light. 3. zoulmet darkness.
vahdet uniqueness, 5. ta/i the lower part. 6. fevq over.

3.

581. Islam. 1. tab disposition.


zabt control. 4. ehemm important.

11.

580

582.

1.

g.

1.

mZ>2 binding.

2.

nice,

2.

room

amusing

(in

Custoin-House.)

(story).

who reminds. 4. mouqad'dem preceding, before.


written in rhyme and metre. 6. second (second).

3.

5.

monlchtir

manzoum

r*y

The Xisbe

307

in Arabic.

J&) Words.
p.

\j--

a.

~J

I'hiida,

Moda God

a.ol^J

we&i prophet

a.Ju\J7 tezayud et." to increase


a.

u^

sl^jj\

^ [>ji

^-4j

e^J^fiP

<-jJu medrese seminary

ojl^- hararet

heat.

Exercise 105.

Iko Lc

(j\+2LA

jlAi Jj>jr

a.

JiiJ

wj3 4-*U Jj4Jjl

nebeviyat prophecies

L*ii Isliaya, Esliaya Isaiah.

5C5\ii j-^

to believe

a.^i mufessir commentator

iJcmal it." to finish

Proper Names:

jjJ

a.

qpur'an Qoran

Jl^l

imcm &."

a. lL_i\ <jUl

iijli

^~.^

J j^

Mm

4JMjjl J -Ojl V

^j^Ji^jl

^p

^Uj <u~>

jLi.

J3 jlj L^Jj^

fJjOJfcJ

fij^

J-Jj^

<

*\

<U>-J^

jLL

e?J^" V-^

J*'^

Translation 106.

The Old Testament is


and Chaldrean languages and
1.

f ^.JJ'

written in the Hebrew


the New Testament in
20*

308

Greek.

2.

Lesson

u*J>

't't

r*A

44.

Do you know the Lord's Prayer by heart.

3.

The

done by
exchange of offices between two office-holders
Christians, Mahothe consent of the parties concerned. 4.
of God. 5. The
Unity
medans and Jews believe in the
increasing every
military forces of the European powers are
Freeyear 6. He lost his wealth and fell into poverty. 7.
Committee
dom is the life of a nation. 8. The Taxation
composition
has raised the rate on rent. 9. I wrote a
of my
shape
The
about the Treaties of the Powers. 10.
11. Let us sing hymn number 51.
inkstand is oval.
is

Conversation.

aI^C*

Ojiv

f3

yj\ i^L*ii

j_x.<jo

j^-*i-

<JVi ^1^-

***,

jjl

!f-^\

ords

body knows

mesli'hour well
is

said.

2.

J-b>

>^ L>y^ u^Lp^

Columbus' Egg.

U every
Christophorus.

known: meslihour dour


1

it

"j:*^

-^L/

Reading Exercise.

^^jyji ^jr*Js
lT

^y y**y^ ^V^

J-^i ^

cjl

pill

o*

HasM/

discoverer.

a
.

r*\

The Nisbe

"^UU;

**

22

23
<

**

^"^

^ki ^V> uJui^

U1I

309

10

JojJjI

-<

in Arabic.

-*

-^

jj^ \&f~) *

L>

>

21

>

**

^^

**

J
I

JLX3

-/

<>. J>"

<(

J -*4T3

3. fcesft/ e." to discover; He for p4


fce'shf edib.
470 a^
En'duJus Andalusia. 5. Beni Ahmer dcvleti the Moors (in Spain),
the dynasty of Beni [children of] Ahmer. 6. magldoub defeated
604). 7. Jsihani ziyafSt the banqueting table. 8. liouz'zar those
who were present houz'zardan ve
prenslerden biri.. 9. bt'r'ri
America. 10. mazliar oh" to be the object
jt'did the New World
of, to enjoy.
11. taltifat favours, honours. 12. hased et." to envy,
14. qit'a part, segment
to be jealous.
13. madam J:i since, as.
16. siz olmasamzda
(of the world.
15. mcvjoiid oh" to exist.
even if you were not; da for dal'hi 117). 17. bir gun oloub
some day, one day. 18. qavl word. 19. him' met effort, action; malum

4.

known.

20.

istisgliar a

making

little of,

belittling.

the smaller end (of the egg). 22. muqtedir able.


a celebrated living Turkish author.

<ul5^* a-UJL?4jj>.|

r^j^

21. start taraf


23. Ebuz'ziya

Conversation about the Lesson.

Ejvibe.

aJLL.1

EsiJe.

ciJ^j

:<C_^\L 'j^ jij

310

<uo

<JL->

>

Lesson

rt

45.

Lij (jAl~~i4_<>JJ|

^->j-r"

y-ji

*L~.j

-X.~->-

A 4^s->j Aji

<

jr.

'

.j

"

r-^ -^

u^^>

The Arabic

ti^l/*-*

^JJ*"

-^b^*-

^j -^/
1

Lesson 45.

Infinitive

(Masdar).

584. There is no limit to the number of words


which the Ottoman language borrows from the Arabic.
The number of Arabic words to be learnt would thus
they were not derived
from certain roots which are, of course, very much less
numerous. If the student can master the system by
which Arabic derivatives are derived from their roots
(mad'cU, mad'deyi asliye), his labour will be vastly
diminished. After learning a certain number of roots,
he will at once recognize and remember a large number
of words formed from them.
The Arabic system of
derivation is extremely regular, logical and beautiful;
although at first it appears somewhat complicated.
Almost every word in Arabic may be referred to
involve a great deal of study,

if

The Arabic

311

Infinitive.

a significant

root, consisting of either three or four


the triliterals being by far the more common.
In European languages, significant roots are irregular
in form, and the grammar of those languages treats
only of prefixes and affixes, by which the meaning of
Thus in English we add the
the word is modified.
termination -er to express the agent of a verb, and -ing
to express the Present Participle Active or the Gerund;
In Arabic, however, such
as: make, maker, making.
modifications are obtained not only by prefixing or affixing,
but by inserting letters between those of the root. The
letters,

signifying action, is taken as the typical


J*j fafl
root for exhibiting these modifications, and the formulae
thus obtained are called 'the measures of words'. For

root

instance, the insertion of an elif between the first and


second radical, and the punctuation of the later with

an

esre,

thus

give the sense of the Agent or Active participle

Uj fayl

becomes

'one

bl$ fa-9-il

who

does

and

the measure upon which all other "agents"


of this kind are formed. It is in fact, a mere formula,
like the letters used in Algebra; for as (a 4- b -4- c)
6
or any
may represent (2
3
(5
4),
7),
this

word

is

other number; so for the

may

root

triliteral

l*

in

U&,

we

any other triliteral root and obtain the


modification of meaning; as:

substitute

same

Jl3 qatl to kill:


Ji&

where

Ul$

J.7

Jit

film wisdom:

and

triliteral roots

to

lie

15

are

said

qatil a

murderer.

^cilim wise;

to

be

the

Uli

of the

which they respectively belong.

The Arab grammarians use

this

word

l*

as

paradigm, and every change in and addition to the root


But as the utterance of the
is made on this model.

second radical

[y] is

we adapt

word

is

easier to

the

when

very

&

difficult for

faql

as

its

Europeans, therefore
equivalent, since

pronounce; using the measures' of

necessarv.

it

U also

312

to

J* j- harf 'letter
is

is

Lesson

r\r

45.

of the measure

that

G* faql,

measured, weighed or balanced on the

to say it is

word

i^rj*

having the same quantity of

JlS faql,

and

letters

the same vowel.

585 a. The root jSin Arabic

&

ustuns, as:

faqala,

is

pointed with three


e

which means

he fanned

this

being the third person singular Past tense; but for


shortness' sake we always render it into English by
the Infinitive or Verbal Noun 1 ( 272, 614).

585

b.

The Arabic

Infinitives

(= Masdar)

are

two classes:
Primitive or Simple and Derivative or Augmented.
respect of their origin,

in

divisible,

into

586. The Primitive Infinitives are those which


have no servile letters in them, or even if they have the
serviles do not change the meaning of the word; as:
nazar to look; J^o dciklil 'to enter' are simple
or primitive forms, because there is no augment or
Jai

servile letter in

jJUo

(loul'houl or

Primitives;

them.

But

dekhaUt

Zi

&

'to

nezaret to look, Jy>->

enter'

also

are

called

because although there are servile letters

CI'Cj'j), yet they do not change the meaning:


thev are only different forms of

Ji and

Uo.

0>
587. The Servile Letters are (< * j
,jf
which are also called 'changers or letters of augmentation',
because they change or add to the meaning of the word.

588. The Derivative Infinitives are those inwhich have servile letters inserted in them,

finitives
1

The second vowel of the

sometimes

JJi

of being as here a

student of Ottoman.

faqila,

third person Sing. Past tense is

Jls faqoula, instead

this

does not concern the

sometimes ou

3-^ faqala: but

The Arabic

V)r"

which change the meaning


For instance the word

less.

J Wo

to wait';

idkhal

I.

to

mean

ddkl

'to

intizar to look after,

insert', are

nazar and

Jai

and

letters

the meaning ( 259,

or

jltl]

ground forms

look'

and the augmentative

word more

of the

cause to enter, to

derivatives; because their

lio

313

Infinitive.

'

'

respectively,

enter'

to

have changed

Zj

613).

A. The Primitive Triliterals.

^xaa
Verbal Nouns

<],%'

There are a great number of


or Infinitives which are derived directly from the triliteral roots.
Those that are most frequently used in
belong
to one of 23 ''measures".
The root
Turkish

589.

Gi

taken as the 'measure' or formula

is

and we

(=

t'ezn),

jjj

assume that

all these 23 forms can be


although
they are not all in use.
derived from it;
Every root is supposed to have the power of producing
all these derivatives, though, in fact, sometimes only
a few such are actually formed from a given root.

shall

C'Ulla* Mutorla-at

590.
measures

which

is

If

15, 16

the third

and 17

radical

is

changed

*!;>.

lo, the roots being

=
y

l
I

>i >

^, in the

or

into (*) at the end,

^lo

often omitted ( 705 d); as:

<cb are changed into

*lo=

it is

Remarks.

&=
'

'

>-

{\
4

\&

'

*Lj

,-}

'

S^

yo

Those letters which have the mark of


591.
reduplication, are written twice in the root, without the

mark

);

as: Zj-^Z shid-det severity, root

592.
stituted

for

The feminine

letters Cj

V/

and

$sL
'

4.

sheaede.

I are

sub-

each other in the termination of nouns:

314

Lesson

u t_~j->

r\\.

45.

e+H

02
o>

CD

.2
C3
Meaning

O
o

Exampl

0)

02

+*

S3

_3

s03
CO

es

1-9

T3

o
o

">

>->

0)

-A

4i

InH>
>
> > >

>

^o

c5

CO
5>
CO

v.

rSj

5j
<*>

-<

?>

5*

TS

i<

c*

o3

;=3

-s

"A

;4

)
.0

o
r3

<

.0

3d

CO

CO

Ed

ft"

l~S

CO

CH
*
<SL

sL.

w
Si.

CL

<.

W
.^

k.

K.

.^

V^

o3

coo
1
*>

,C*

-0

<M

.-6

CO

3
.0

,0

iO

CC

-A
.

t^

"1
'i

.J

.0

OS

3,

o
T

The Arabic

r)o

31i

Infinitive.

a>

m
c

OD

rj

09

G
a>
>

a
a,

O
o

e3
0D

c
o

&

rr

&C

s
a>

Jh

CP

f-,

X
-

03

> Vv>

<*
*

rs

ri

rO

>k.

*2

,
CO

<*

<5

*>

v.

5^
SB
52

r<

i^i

fcj

<3

<
^V
**

sj

fSS

S
Og

rO

_3

V1

SB
CM

-5

eH

. <
x

.1
X-4 D

7n

Cd

7n

oc

~3

ty

\-l
x

7n

1"

.0

^S
"0

5^
CJ

*Xj

OS

.0

.1

-.'i

-< i,i

\"i

r
-0
*>

-,

*>

s
fc.

-V
x

=0

SB

CM

\H

-D

\i

=S
-3

5:

\H

\;

v=S

x=^

00

Cl

-v'T

_T>

^H
"!>

~*

""

^
CO

<M

*>

.1

.0

CO
CO

CO

316

such

j^

measure jj&

When

594.
ustim,

cases

it is

is

y -jd

= C-^>o

the letter

is

'

<^j

19,

^J&
==:

22,

23.

Cj-w* ==
4,M~

w*3j

pronounced as

with

called Short EJif(%% 29 c, 610); therefore in such

^:

substituted for

'complaint';

l^o

l^p ^

The

595.

'

sukna

^d-

for

= ^jZlt

|jls== i

root

root

[measures 1011].

J>

Quadriliteral Infinitives have only one

formula or measure; which

\[77Z

Iti^L.

I^Cli shekva

'habitation',

considered

18,

semeret measure

iip-j

rtl

45.

measures 59,

in

semere for OjXj

a ji5

the case

is

Lesson

o-j^

*u

is <d.JlS

faqlele the root being

.-..
as:

JJu;

4.1:13

V JuJ

zelzele

earthquake', root

Exercise 107.

With the assistance of the Table of Verbal Measures


given above find the measure and the root of each of
the following words.

"

Key.
lli

si

"

J2j

"i

wa^Z

because the

*'

**

is

first

measured on
radical

"''<!**'

JJ,

'

i^*

'

the root being

has an wsftm, and the

second, third radicals are quiescent.

j^La>- haqiqat

is

rjv

The Arabic

measured on ^JLJ

faqilet, the root being \/ jj.; because

the

first

an

esre;

and

second radical there

after the

a servile ;

substituted

is

a.

Li
L>

(ijU

'

cW J^

(^"V
'

'

= cX&
= J&

sefine

~ 1*3

and

faqilet,
( 591)

4)l

L.<

Reading Exercise.

,^-Aa>

Psalm 8i

Hymn

10

i^lA'-i -r'- tr'lA"'

^><^A1
^k\ )^

11

'

rflj

13

a*.^--

a servile

is

*^C hukia

for Zj-

r <*-*-

1 A-

\.T--

have an ustun and the second has

third radicals

after the third

31"

Infinitive.

3-

\-

6.

>

>

|BJ

V
JL^jjS J-
i.

ioi^r

l:

^trJ

ff^yj'J^i

yy
23

o-XjjI 4>-

J>~j

17

"dUi*

*jyojp
16

Jy

1,'

2. hom/* light;
1. mSsken house, court
578
it is the pi. of dar but used
diyar land
as
singular (Lesson 51). 4. Za^/pleasant. 5. presence. 6. dtrd affliction,
woe. 7. -p.gunah sin; p. den/a' sea. 8. bay-ghhi fainting. 9. mumin
believer (mefoul of iman [619]); 'jiimhour congregation. 10. nourbal'li-sli gilmaq to bestow the light.
11. kerim gracious (a. q. of

Words.

lioubb'

love.

I'erem [

606.

(0

3.

12.

vejh face.

13.

kemal glory.

15. mezbah altar (n. 1. of eib-h


Bey'toul-Jali the house of God.
17. havJ'i court,
yard. 18. p. zemin earth. 19. t. soft only. 20. rij-at to turn hack.
21. kesb et." to enjoy.
22. nejat salvation.
23. hayat life.
(f)

5981).

14. melja
16.

asylum

598).

318

ul

Lesson

uj*

riA

46.

"" 30

-XI^,fij3

26

\.X

25

...

o^

jJ>- JJjl

V*

j^5

u*
\-

u-

l?cL

t^ju*

34

33

*>-.

35

32

A<

^-

^=*^

">

^
(r)

song.

Mfcia weeping.

24.
27.

nebt-an

et." flow,

29. nazil oh'' to descend.

25.

to

sey'yah pilgrim.

rise

(water).

28.

26.

naghme

we/m manna.

30. teqad-diim et." to progress, to

grow

(in strength).

(V) 31. hadi guide; muslikil hard, difficult. 32. fcesi'r abundant;
34. deoh shower.
35. shems sun.
33. Zoztf/' grace.
p. roushen.

Note. 1. This is a translation of the English hymn Tleasant


are Thy courts above' by H. F. Lyte. 2. Find the measure and the
root of each of the vowelled words contained in the above Reading
Exercise.

fcl

j^i>

Lesson 46.

Nouns derived from Primitive

Triliteral

Verbs.

596. Certain nouns are derived from the Infinitives or from the roots of verbs, and may therefore
The
be dealt with in connexion with the latter.
principal forms used in Ottoman are three; and the
commoner measures for these three are seven in number.
They all begin with a mim pointed by ustun or esre.
1.

Nouns with Mim.

<^

jJi^k

Besides the simple forms already described


above, another verbal noun almost equivalent to them
in meaning is formed by adding a mim to the radicals.
It has four forms:

597.

r)\

Nouns derived from Primitive

purpose

grtsd

rahmet mercy:

vi.**j

dU.

The feminine

II.

-L*a3

VvlU.

maqsed

Jl^L.

of this form

V r%-j

country:

mtZifc

mim with

319

ustun to

and pointing the second radical with

the first (me-),


ustun:
j^^is

By adding

mefqal.

CLL*

I.

Verbs.

Triliteral

purpose.

inefqalet.

is jJLJii

^--*V >H('rhamet mercy.

memleket

v2jC_L*_T

country.

IV. Some verbs, especially those commencing


take esre on the second radical. Their measure is

III.,

with

jii

cJ&* mefqil, mefqilet

'

( 593)

rrt&d promise:

Vitj

^Uj

vehab

V^-aj

c._a*j

roitjou* returning:

J^-j

gift:

*. j

oJ

^*

W^vpidS.

^j-* mevhibe.

merjic..

f^*

Exercise 108.

^Jui

Change the following


ginning with mim:

Infinitives into the

.
<

form

be-

>

7.

l'

-.'

Jjlyc.
1 Fords.

4. benefit.
9.

1.

5.

knowledge,

598.

8 '~

'-M"

tloVj-

III.

Cf"
TT^ 9.

IV.

(jlj^

JfiPj-

a going; road, way (religion). 2. praise. 3. happiness.


6. sedition.
7. forgiveness.
strength.
8. birth.

skill.

2.

as the

TTT

Noun of Location.

J15C

^1

This is formed precisely in the same manner


with Mim; the measures being the same;

Noun

162, 449, 541):


I.

tLJ tabkh to cook:


(

JJLi.'

jj* defn

= 7c~Jb

matbakh

Jiiu

a place

v'^j*

to bury:
(

'Tt-J*

where

to cook, kitchen.

l
.

^JjS medfen

grave.

320

^AJLl

>jJ^ ghouroub

III.

From
'

T
T

(8

^..U

>^>

j\.$

9't.

TForc?s.
5.

keep.
of sun.

tiieshriq sunrise, east.

J^r-^

Jul

14.

10

Exercise 109.

II.

>

.>

Nouns

Jo j

<

>

>.!

~>

riding.

2.

looking (view).

of Location
"

12

,f.f

"

/"*-^J

13

"

'

<

f*

tj

<
'

>
c

3.

entering.

salt.

7.

judgment. III.
falling down.
15. worship.
11

TT

^> TTr
^N-- ^-

to pasture.
6.

5.

<

11

15'-

<

manure.

ray

1.

I.

>

>

>

to dwell.
10.

Ja_^>-

14

out.

<

sunset, west.

Vjj^i-

the following words form

,2'

maghrib

w_j^-i*

J-iiT)

printing house.

V^^.&i

J^i- skarq to rise:


(

matba&a

4..*-Ja

to set:

JJLiU

rr

46.

V-_i

*J^ && to print:

II.

Lesson

j*ji

<t*\

'

8.

4.

tomb.

12. placing.

13.

going
9.

to

rising;

Noun of Instrument. cJ^

3.

599. The most common measures of the Noun


of Instrument are those which follow; ( 450, 542):

J* mifqal:

I.

Ja- satr a line:

ment
^^_Lf

V^-k^

^,, la

saqab, taqab

to,

pierce:

qab anything that


II.

J6L

mifqal:

7tls

t>V*

fetli to

<2<"'rcZ

mister, coram, mastar an instru-

line, a ruler.
A'

l^JL?

i^JLi*

misqab common a t-

pierces, auger.

open:

to cut:

maqas a cutting instrument,


III.

,...,

drawing a

for

\fz

Vrtii!

V l/>^3-

^U.iu

mi ftali

a key.

^l^JU nuqr({ dcomm. maqrn:.

scissors.

Al&A mefqale:

^>j^ shourb

to drink:

y^Jt,:

<.>

jJl.

mashraba

a cup.

VY

Nouns derived from Primitive

Verbs.

Triliteral

321

>

A_Li-

shouple
flame:
5-M

J--i

mashfCtla

4..UJL.

^ \

^y^ J

\a Vi

4}lia*-~*

jjJk

<j^O

L>$3jy

t^-U.^-U? jy~*

"

Exercise 110.

^Jui

Ancestors' Sayings == Proverbs.

Iff

J^^Csrf

^"i^^

a torch.

*'Jx^ ->b

ijL>l ^^J^f

A%~\

dil_^ o^lj U-^3j

y+sS A

^jyca

dXj} i)jj2 oSijy j]f

JtlS J~vjl

uUjI J I

!~Jj^23

j\i

j^

'

3^W

'

4l)l

C^

J Li

1.
den, cave. 2. dinden, cMqmaq to go out of
IForrfs.
religion
to forget God, to be angry. 3. bahaya chlqmaq to rise
in price, to become dear.
4. hich oumouroumda de'yil I do not
care a bit. 5. mill' net affliction. 6. tejribe it." vulg. tejrube to test.
7. bouynouz horn. 8. i/ar friend; sweetheart. 9. gechmez spurious.
10. maghrour proud.
11. moiikhalif contrary.
12. savourmaq to

winnow; harman threshing

floor.

<U |5^

^yA

13.

duyun dernek wedding,

Conversation.

Ejvibe.

Bal Yemez Oghlou

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

r
<oL,\

Esile.

a celebrated drunkard.
21

feast.

22

.4*.^ ls/o jlLg. .J*-?

j^\

Jui^.j

'>Ub rf^'i

*->?

tf-j*

A^

oL>

Lesson

urJ->

r **

46.

^ &*** drj^ 2j~*


:

Beading Exercise.

A Psalm

^ ^V
!

of Life.
4*

^JfP^ lH

.jA^S Ji^ljl \-jIU


.

> 9 jol

Lll ojJU uUj uVjl

.#
2

c^3 jV-

.jc-jI dill L.I

*U ^^

\jCZi JL>- a^ia^ U>. j ll^

10
!

oj4 ci-i^ ^^^


1

a: j-^r J ^<T^mournful.

songs; mahzounane
1. elhan numbers^
Words
4. khitab oloiinmaq
3. jid'di real
nonsensical.
voAte
dream
rouya
;

harbgtah battle-field ( o41). 6. p.


8. qapilmaq to be deceived
7. isttVjboi future.
hero
stwoV living.
10.
p.
601).
9. nio*t past (

to be addressed.

5.

j^>"
(to

rely).

rrr

Nouns derived from Primitive

)UJ

uJbl

11.
13.

a.

p.

<^Ll>.!

fta&

*d.l

,A>jo^ OL>-

ojUjI

'Jb^Mlu

JUT

jJbl

leb

323

^^>-

iJjojCblrb A

'

surrounding ( 620).
12. t. iz foot -print.
shipwrecked ( 535). 14. istifade et." to be
Mwnif Pasha a distinguished living Turkish

eefe'w

qazazede

benefited ( 631).
author, poet and statesman;

4ilgC*

Jtll

Triliteral Verbs.

^j^jw (j^^jl

now

oXl^ ^L-

OJujL.^

liLa-

in oblivion.

(t

JbJ

Conversation.

? ,ioJ><'

AjdJ

oAIaIxj^*.

^f

>

JJli d|iji

fljjjl

J-ijl

le^J

villj^j u^-?^ oXS* A.^ixl\ ii^M

0j^?;

^-i-^

Jj|

o-Ljjjl

tj>J\~.J>\> Ji^Jij (Jo-Xil o^*-jj

21*

324

Lesson

tV cr-J-5

iY

u*^

J^i

Lesson 47.

composed from the


in Ottoman;

Participles

Primitive Triliteral verbs

much used

are

number

they are six in

( 395, 548

Subjective Participle.

601.
Triliteral

The Subjective

Verbs,

rth.

Arabic Participles.

*jj

The Arabic

600.

47.

formed of the measure

549).

J^l* fV^l

Participle of the Primitive

Noun

the

called

also

JSte faqil,

e.

i.

of Agency,

is

by inserting an

between the first and second radical, and


putting an esre (~i-) under the second radical:
(-a-)

elif

jJii- khalq creation:

Vj^U-

jrt sirqat theft:

*ij^r

k_jLo

Tcitab

J_i /eeZ work:

602.
j,

Vj_*J

BemarJcs.

changes into

it

jj^ devr

(*

Vjji

to turn:

seyelan to flow:

603.

b.

the

to follow:

V^l

\ \ \

Jj t

first

jc^A

^J

or

J^~, s?/*Z flowing.

one of the
put on the second elif

radical

Change the following


Participles

is

dayir turning; about.

omitted and a mee?c2 is


(47, 701 d):
j*\ emr to command: V^
_^*U
i%an

second radical

elifs is

o^j\

J&Li fa^il agent, doer.

= ^b

Vj----

When

thief.

-y-) ( 591).

Jj\*

0^*-

sariq

hiatib clerk.

^_.To

'

If the

a.

U* Jchaliq creator.

Jj^

V^.:j

writing:

jj!

=
=

Exercise

is elif,

^l

JH

amir
citi

commander.

following.

111.

Infinitives

into

Subjective

rro

325

Arabic Participles.

'

[J?
71

14'

~","k

<

'.-'

15

C** <~J

9*

"

-o

'

16'f ~

<

10'

17 "\*

Jj3

J~

11

<

12

f <

1/

'"
It

'
'

,"

18

<

IS*/Ja^ J

."

,v

19'

^i"
J^J U>-

Words. 1. testimony, witnessing. 2. ignorance. 3. coldness.


direction (director).
5. protection.
6. flowing, being current.
7. arrival.
9. safety (safe).
8. desire (desirous).
10. science,
knowledge.
11. necessity.
12. building.
13. religious warfare,
[against non-Moslems] (a champion of Mahometan religion). 14. worthiness. 15. inclination. 16. willingness. 17. elevation, grandeur
(high).
18. sermon (preacher).
19. crime (criminal).
4.

Objective Participle.

The Objective

604.

J^uU

^,l
f%

Participle of the Primitive

yi* mefqoul.
It is

formed by putting a mini with ustun (me-) before the

first

radical

and a

j (-on-) after the second ( 402, 548):

V 3---^

Ji3 qail to murder:


(jL*.

w^o

V J^U-

Jchalq to create:

V l^JS

ketb to write:

ju-*-X^

khidmet service:

V * jl.

Jj-1-*- - WMMftoul murdered, slain.

^j\^~* makhlotiq creature.


i_j

y^S mektoub

pjJ^s^.

written, letter.

makhdoum

one who

is

served; a son.

605.

When

the

second

or

third

radical

yk, (-on-), are

and

removed

esre (-i- -ee-) is retained:

Lj

V Jj

= ^-^
= ijy*
-^J-* = -^J-*
t5j-l*

mebni

built.

-t/rrr
>
sL~j\jj rivayet to narrate: V <ij j iSsj^-*

mervi

told.

'

is

bina building:

oLj

ziyade an increase:

VjljjI

mezeed increased.

\ \

Change
Participles:

the

^Ji
(* Exercise 112.

following

infinitives

into

Objective


326

tV

vlolg

JI5

J^J

TTorcZs.
3.

to

1.

reject

C^J

cJv^>.

desire

Lesson 47.

u-j3

(desirable,

(rejected).

accepting (acceptable).
ful).
9. consent (pleased,

T JT

nice).

forbid.

7.

satisfied).

o^j)

^*}

wound (wounded).

2.

sending (delegate).

4.

6.

rr"\

joy

5.

(joyful).

obligation (obliged, thank10. to hide (secret). 11. seal.


8.

^JL* z^^>

Adjective of Quality.

606. This is called by the native grammarians


Verbal adjective,' and implies the existence of an inherent quality. It is formed in accordance with various
the most

measures,

common

of which

JJ5 faqeel,

is

feqeel ( 437, 553).


*>

la^t

zaaf weakness:

v <Jk.*^a

shejaat bravery:

V-l:i

JL*- jemal beauty:

fr?**

'Vj-f

zayeef weak.

iJL,o

brave.
f-

jemeel beautiful.

JrT

^Jee

607. There is another one in the measure Jyj


faqonl, the derivative of which are:

V^w'

j\*o sabr patience:

j^J

Vj

hased envy:

Jj-^ sabour

^^

hasoud

=~

Cilj

\ \

/C %L5

Change the following

&^
!

<Jj\j

'

patient.

jealous.

[nignant 40.

*Jj-j

ra'ouf kind,

be-

Exercise 113.
Infinitives into the Adjective

of Quality:

11*

8.

beauty.

11. hurry,

very.

14.

'

<

12'

11

"

'

13M ".

"

li\

'

e
16 '*

greatness. 4. taste
7. nearness.
tasty).
truth; health (true).
10.
9. greatness, pride (great).
haste (hasty). 12. mission, legation (apostle). 13. braweakness (weak). 15. diligence (diligent).

TTords.
(delicious,

-r

1.

to anoint.
5.

2.

facility (easy).

youth (young).

6.

3.

nobility.

rrv

Arabic Participles.

327

Adjective of Colour and Defect,

608.

This

is

of Quality,

and

is

measure jiil
^

ef'qcil

the Fern. Measure being *>&

>

L.

,a^s

properly ranked with the Adjective


regular in its formation on the

Vs^

o^-a" lioumret redness:

^Lj

^ys, j J\J\

(thmer red.

beyaz whiteness:

amya

v^

*Lp\

Vs"

>3 esced

blindness:

:>lj sevad blackness:

ebyaz white.

a?ma

blind.

black.

Vj^

ahnutq

i;^-i^ sou fret yellowness:

V-'-

es/^r yellow.

1j^-w~ sumret brownness:

V^.'-

2*j\jf-

liamaqat folly:

^11

foolish.

esmer brown.

Noun of Sup<priority.
609.

The

This

is

formed by the measure

difference between this

&l

efqal.

and the above mentioned

measure of Colour and Defect is that, the latter is used


especially to denote colour and defect. But this is used
either for the superlative and for the comparative degrees
of adjectives ( 222, 539)

j^
jWj

oLli

kebeer great:

Vjia

sagheer

V^Lo

little:

-J^\ ek'ber greater, greatest.


^-*>1 esgher less, lesser.

The feminine

610.

of this

form

is

Mli or

fouqla:

^S^ kebeer:
ja

tfewee
--

'

>Lai

Ji\

j*STV-

VT

low:
-

V<ii

& =

JJLil

\$Jto

k&b'ra greater.

ujr) erf'wrt lower, lowest.

>

L.o dun yd

\\t

lower, lowest; the world.

p\>

Exercise 114.

Change the following words in accordance with the


above-mentioned two measures:

328
>

"

'

l
1

^^a5

i'
1*

"

3V
d

'

i
'

>

'

f-^

13

<
'

0**"*"

-J-^-*'

12

6
e

.-''i

f-^->

-Ml*

10

eminent; proud.
2.
necessary.
3.
remarkable.
6.
beauty.
7.
great.

1.

merciful.

middle.

rYA,

47.

U'

Words.
9.

vf
At

(*J^

r'' 9t

4.

2
2

J*^

Lesson

o-J^

uv

5.

10. poor.

11. priority.

12. safety.

The Noun of Excess.

13. true.

ignorant.
high.
8.
14. former-

J^lj *iJL*

611. The most common form is J\L$ feqqal,


formed by putting an ustun on the first radical, by
doubling the second, and putting an elif after it:
j>jz dcvr to turn:

V jji

who

j\ji dev'var one

turns rapidly,
incessantly.

-J& Urn

^5j

knowledge:

V lit

ra#s to oscillate:

p)te

^^j

*al'lam

^Lj

All- Knowing,

omni-

raq'qas pendulum.

612. If nouns of this measure are formed from


words denoting materials, they form nouns which denote
persons habitually engaged in certain occupations:
La

khaff a shoe:

'\-'

^Ijlj

i.
7
oagta

/
|

ji

gcfcas

vLJjL>.

var io u 8 kinds
|g ra ns

silk

\ N

uiliA. khaf'faf a shoe-seller.

-i/V-'
V Jjlj

Jjj j|jJ
!

JijJ

."

<

'

10

ll^ij'-

'

a grocer.

qiiz'zaz a silk-merchant.

Exercise 115.

Change the following words

u"-"
oaqqal7
JUj

12

"

Nouns

into

18"

'

14

of Excess:

^ A'

<

15

Won7s. 1. burden. 2. husbandry (an [Egyptian] villager).


forgiveness, pardon. 4. journey (traveller).
5. rose -geranium
(perfumer).
6. cloth (linen-draper).
7. changing money (moneychanger). 8. to create (Creator).
9. force, tyranny.
10. joking.
11. shampooing the body in the bath (shampooer).
12. hunting
(hunter).
13. favour, bounty (All-Bounteous).
14. to serve (a
Christian deacon [Aramaic]). 15. picture (painter).
3.

rr^

Arabic Participles.

Ju>

\ *\

329

Exercise 116.

Ascertain the nature, meaning and the measure of


the following words:

ojL-

Oj^

ulA*'

i
\

12

^c

'

io

^1p

w'Xnr
'

*
i

O^jj

JSjy*

aAc-i

jjU,

kht of:

\i

jj\5jL-

j*

lie

+y.c-

jui

vI^U^U.4

J*.

'

*-X^

Oyj^

(jujL-

\ \

'

14,

"

Jj>r

'

ii

'

13

<

I'

c*~*' dvj~j

'

<

Translation 117,

4j?~J?

Give the Arabic equivalents of the following words.


1.

One who

cuts, cut;

hearer, hearers, heard, things

2.

wounder, wounders, two wounders, wounded,


wounded ones; 4. wisdom, wise, two wise men, wise
peoples, known, knowledge, informations (Turkish pi.),
heard;

3.

wiser;

5.

court,

condemned,

to

sit,

council;

6.

to judge,

condemned

great, greater, greatest;

8.

people;

judge, judges,
7.

greatness,

to create, the Creator;

9.

to

cook, kitchen, cook; 10. ignorance, ignorant, unknown


very ignorant, ignorant persons, unknown
things.
11. The Anointed One, Messiah (Christ).

(doubtful),

^ \

+\1*

Exercise 118.

Ojl

^jL~o

<Cjj

jj^4 jlj
4

^1

4j

jjj^

l^>-<!L*/y

J!

Jfb

^.J^^

^^

<UJI J \J+~"iyy

^lS-^*'

^J^ V

ey^-oJJ^^jl) (J4l_>^

330

JtT Y

dl

Lesson

47.

^^iL J-lL 41

lie

uV

jj^j

vL_w>l ,a_-

j^ - * i^l^S

o-j^

^Jjl bl

*lj^j\>-

\ \ ^,

dl>

rr*

'

034^43Ub

lies jjj^U.

jLL>- ij-6**- <u~,UI

J^

iW

.5lj &2>tJL?

Translation 119.

4^"J?

1. What are you doing?


I am writing a letter
your son. 2. It was narrated by the ancients that
this bridge was built by the Romans. Is that certain?
3. No, Sir! it is doubtful, it is not certain. 4. Whatever you have told in secret, will be known to all the
world. 5. The Apostle says: Be glad and joyful'. 6. The
delegates were not accepted by the King.
7. God is
benignant and patient towards all his creatures. 8. All
the creatures in the world were created by God. 9. The
blind man was very foolish.
10. He is a brave man
but very jealous. 11. The pendulum of the clock is

to

broken.
<U^s^
<*j-\

>Jj

Conversation.

Ejvibe.

Jaclj JfT^

jj^-jijU Jjl]]>. o-bj;

t)L\

9-Cw

^lljl

JrAisl

^-

Esile.

Jjp O^oj ^**U-

jlSo

<-^-^

j:

Jji>-Jl J\

o^jLJIj

rr)

Arabic Participles.

.ji **i**l j\ j\'

cjt

f^

15

?j-)u* Jilt

<3jl

CI

rt-A*t

<

17

<

18

r
I

t^cJo

tfl ji-

Reading Exercise.

^tswJ oXll <c A Litany

331

of Praise to God.

16

<

<20

24

23

<

i.

<

22.

27

.ih
P^\\
C-AJUjl L>Ol>
i

26 -

*
- 25 .
4jjJ^3
J^J^.

15
'

32.

31

-T

<

30

14:

."*

29

,tir
88

1. Tesbeehat' fern. pi. of tesbeeli ( 615), lit. to say


i. e. Praise ye the Lord.
2. kereem gracious.
3. rahim
compassionate. 4. moujibi hayat who grants the life moujib causing,
giver; hayat life; Allah Ta-a-la God the most High.
5. iAsan
kindness; lateef All-Gracious (a. q. of I out f grace). 6. 'a-la excellent.
7. yine, gine again.
8. terahliiim et." to be merciful.
9. great.
10. niymet kindness, mercy.
12. jeleel All11. hw.fi sufficient.
Glorious.
13. teshekJciir et." to thank.
14. ashq love, lovingkindness. 15. qourban sacrifice.

TPords.
subhari alldh\

(0

(f) 16. All-Gracious. 17. abundant. 18. rahman All-Merciful,


Compassionate. 19. creator. 20. derd affliction derman remedy.
21. teham-mul patience, forbearance. 22. holy. 23. light. 24. melik
king. 25. haddsiz infinite. 26. qoudret power. 27. malik possessor.
28. salik walking; te-en-ni it." to wait patiently ( 623).
;

(r)

29.

always (her

omnipresent.
-f-

an

time).

30. All-Seeing.

33.

31. present.

men nan All-Bounteous.

32. her an

332

i.A

^j.} Lesson 48.

38

7mfcm condemnation.

34.

for ifcew while. 37. biljumle


ness; to love, to pity.

35.

rrr

**
'"

mustahaqq deserving of. 36. 'fte'n


Uharinun et." yearning fond-

38.

all.

The numbers 3, 19, 2730 are Subj. Part.; No. 31


Note.
Obj. Part.; No. 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 22 Adj. Qua!.; No. 6 N. Excess.;
No. 33 N. Superiority; No. 8, 13, 21, 28, 38 of the measure (bob)
tefaqqoul

622).

^J$

iA

The Derivative

Lesson 48.

Triliteral

A3 Jo

Infinitives

of

Arabic.

/J^J jJUa^

*yA

613. The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives (Masdari


Sidasiyi Mezcedun feehi) are those words which are
formed by the insertion or addition of servile letters to
the root to form new verbs with certain changes of
meaning.
The meaning of the Simple or Primitive
Infinitives may be extended or modified in various ways
by the addition of one or more letters to the root
( 288,

588).

There are nine measures (Bab) of these


Derivatives much used in Ottoman, the first of which is
the second voice of Infinitives the first voice being the
Root of the Primitive Infinitives ( 272, 585 a).

614.

II.

after the

second

It intensifies

^JjJ*

cJUei

the meaning of the root and

if intransitive,

khavf et.' fear (intr.):


hhejalet

-ee-

shame:

form, shape:

makes

transitive:

takh-veef to

X'Ljj^-

v-*j=e.J

V'3i-*-

Jfep&J takh-jeel

shelcl

formed by prefixing the

is

letter.

JxJ-

tefqeel.

the radical and putting a long

to

the meaning,

= J-JwJ

This measure

615.
letter j te

J-Lj

"

:,

V 3^-^

"
.

to

terrify.

make

ashamed.

Jr^-~-" tesh-Tceel to form.

rrr

The Derivative

^>j

oy
Li j

ma

4.

4,

V jj~^>

power:

(j_ijJL~)

Some

617.

= L*aJ
= -o Jj"

(j.^aJ)

'.

\ j jJs
*/7T
satisfaction :v u^>5

gowi/flet

or

tasfeei/e

to

taqveet/e

to

-ye:

'

saf'vtt purity:

flyj

changes into

it

be a

If the last letter of the radical

616.

333

Triliteral Infinitives.

""'-

C^^J) =

nouns

other

J"".^-

^-rf^;-"

formed in

are

also

strengthen.
tarzeeyS
apology.

accordance with this measure:


<jy?w

te'jribe

temptation

*>Jy

tehlike

danger:

ojTjJ tezkire

<*y^

ojJU taqdime

memorandum;

Ju>

tefriqa a feuilleton.
offering.

a short letter; note; a passport.

Exercise 120.

Change the following Primitive

Triliterals into the

second voice of Derivative Infinitives:


.

s-v j>-

s"

^5

a
'.
i

4J

- ^
*>-

8"

.",.-'

"

'

io

^5 j
i

15

'

3J

<

<

<

'

16

ii

J^~^

JlAJ J

<

C**>17'

M 'j

O L-

^3j

.-

<

"

ii"-

> *

<

'

^oL^
'
18
Ju-Xs

'

'

7'

' <

|""

j^Ij

<^V

^O

."

K^
"

'

'

<

>-

jXS

'
19',, ',-.

>ULi

reach (to communicate).


2.
to accompany.
TTo?*^.
1.
scarcity (to diminish;. 4. fault (to cause to fail). 5. coldness (to
make cold). 6. distance. 7. tranquility (to calm). 8. motion to
excite).
9. honour (to honour; to visit).
10. bequeathing, advice
11. lightness (to lighten).
(to advise, recommend).
12. truthful
13. white (to copy fairly).
14. to refer, to confide
(to affirm).
(to change; a draft, a cheque).
15. ornament (to adorn)
16. to
3.

nourish

education

17.

III. <d&lL

condolence.

is

Xza

18.

new.

19.

good news.

m/Cifaqale.

This measure is formed hy prefixing a


with eotre (mil-, niou-) to the first radical, by
inserting elif after the first (-a-) and a he (-e, -et) after
the third of the radical letters. The noun thus formed
conveys the idea of reciprocity.
For some changes

618.

mhn

see

705

c,

706

b.

._j^o darb to strike:

V^^i

<ujLa^ mudarebe

to fight.

334

Lesson

H.A u-J->

48.

soulibet conversation: Vw*-3&-*3

vjL-^--5=..^

rri.

4-ja-La.*

tnousahabet

to

converse.

Jli gaiZ to

V JjJ

kill:

,JtJ
j^U

to

each other, massacre.

kill

mouqatele

4JJUL.

Exercise 121.

Change the following Primitive

Triliteral Infinitives

into the third voice:


\" "

J JO
8

i"M

'

9t.

f-U

"~

^U*
.

<

"

'
,>U* '.
sl^yO- C^-* }

3'

JL^P-

'

"ill .f
}j

'10 s

iai>-

^-- >

12

<

'5,,.''
13

*"

i"

<

'

'

->

K-i

f^T

14'

^Jj^

^y>-

O^tj

<j\-*f-

U3

5^>-

>

<

^Jl*

TFords. 1. a measuring (to compare). 2. a covenant (treaty).


enmity (contention). 4. separation (to depart). 5. knowledge
6. more (an auction).
7. speech
(a being mutually acquainted).
(conversation). 8. quarrelling (to q. with each other). 9. to keep.
3.

11.
to buy.
partnership.

10.
14.

leave

to

(armistice).

decree.

12.

13.

war.

IT. J\lil '== JSrt ifqal.

619.

This

formed by putting an

is

with esre

before the root, and another elif (-a-) between the


second and third radicals. This gives a transitive sense
to intransitive verbs and a doubly transitive or causal
sense to those which are already transitive ( 262
263):
(i-)

J^io
>

doukhoul to enter

Vjio JUoi

(intr.):

620.

If the

^n.L

tayran to

'

4.

V^

o^-t arw help:


fly:

'

Lr

'

'o->^-l i;7res to seat.

second radical be aj or

omitted and a

is

jj^

\l^^~
V .L.

>>

u-^i-a- jiilous to sit

tjl

"

\I77>

>

jjj-* miirour to pass

it

idkhal to cause
* en ^er, push.
^
j(jA imrar to cause to
pas8
"

added

4 (-e) is

'

d\j-^

V ^*i*'(jL-M

=)

"^^

<, (-V-, -//-)

at the

end

*ya^ to help.

ojlM ttar

to cause to
fly.

621.
is

If the first

changed into

J^-*?j>

(-y-)

rusoul to arrive:

letter

of radical

be j

(-*'-), it

V^^J

jC>jl

jCa\

i//saZ to

send.

rro

The Derivative

Am

\YY

335

Triliteral Infinitives.

Exercise 122.

Change the following Primitive

Triliteral Infinitives

into the fourth form of Derivative Triliteral Infinitives

.'i9 (.",

Jaf
16

>>

J17

1.

occupy,
(to show).

8.

12 |i>

^. ?

19

20

13

J^

UC.5

18"'

'

Z/^
"

21

<

*>

14

JJ2

arrival (reaching, arriving).


2.
4. to astray (to lead astray).

to fall.
to busy).

3.

''

11

J~
'

TFbrrfs.
issue).

"

10

J'JJ

improvement

6.

bounteous

(to

pour

gift (to

to
5.

<

15

J
i

<

22

'

'

go forth (to
business (to
7. to appear

improve).
to produce).

out,

9.

dis-

appearance (to remove\ 10. inclination (incline). 11. debt (to


lend money). 12. length (to lengthen).
13. to turn (to manage;
to economize [money]). 14. distinction (to explain). 15. existence
(to invent).
16. to arrive (to put forward, to adduce).
17. resolution (to send).
18. annihilation (to murder, kill).
19. heart,

mind

(to

explain

to).

V.

622.

20. complete.

= Jiai

J*o

22. return.

21. fire.

tefaqqonJ.

A class of verbs which are often Intransitive is

formed by prefixing a j (te-) to the radical and doubling


the middle letter with an eotre:
c~>jjya souret

a/ 77

JLJ taleem to teach:

Jlc

jS^>

JlJ

te^al'lum to learn.

'

pXJ

testl'lfim to accept.

If the third radical be j or

of the measure

<?ore

" -

ft

JlJ tesleem to hand over: V .JL-

623.

"

X jj^o- jj^aJtesdv'votir imagination.

image:

binou son:

is

changed into

V j-j

(-V-, -i-)

the

esre (-?):

^_xJ tebinni to adopt a son.

o^jLo denayet meanness: VJ^' <jj^ Uderini retrogression.

Jj

ragi rising high

Y Y"

V Jj

Am

J?jj

teraq'qi progress.

Exercise 123.

Change the following words

into

the

fifth

form:

336

uA

-*

"

,"

8 \

,;

Wesson

u"J*

t>^

10

<-'*

',.''

rri.

48.

11

12

<

^"J

<

>

13-

-"J

14

"7

;>

Wonr7s. 1. to increase (to be increased). 2. pride (to be proud".


to load (to support, to be patient). 4. to shape, to form (con-

3.

6. a giving possession
5. to change (to be changed).
and take possession). 7. to render stationary; an official
report (to be stationary, established). 8. a Christian (to become
a Christian). 9. to chastise, punish (to be polite). 10. to marry

formation).

(to receive

11. to teach (to learn).


12. sorrow
persecute).
14. speech (to speak
15. familiar intercourse (to unite in friendship; to compile). 16. comfort.
17. wife.
18. collection. 19. remembrance. 20. complaint.

(to

take a wife, marriage).

(to

regret).

enemy

13.

(to

Words.

JAi)
a

a.

a.

j\j.\ ibraz et". to

imza

show.

et"

to seal.

JL-j| irsal et"

to send.

ftU**i

<Sjj>^

oVjU*
\

a.

a,

a.

*ol7 te-e-diye

)
-

Uj

Ua&\

[.

4)Aj

1j

,o!>t ,jl

4*j

JLj

^t uji

to pay.

iyfa et."
ita et." to give.

mouqavelat mouharriri Notary public.

t i

Ju

Exercise 124.

a^j^- oVjll* fJjo^l ju: j xjJ$~pj

-'

et."\

l^v

-^3 Oj2 ^
'

J^

UJ

(^X'il j-U- 1*

jXcS*

/4 ~-4)

Jjll J^^j

Oj^

lj^

U jO
1

? J->

J.J^

(iJ^

rry

The Derivative

J^Jol

dL

^ a^lj

U^ V

di_>-oJ)l Ol5^--J ,C-J-X->- vlijjAjil

j 4

^JL^y (Jj-Ad^ 4~U-UCj

Jj

tJjl

^JL*^ J-V3 jl

^^

Translation 125.

<U>- y

The education

337

Triliteral Infinitives.

is a very important
with the pictures of
my friends. 3. We are all invited to be the children
of God. 4. He was not progressing but retrogressing.
6. Many of the
5. I have no complaint against him.
people of China have become Christians. 7. Two more
8. Be patient to all
pages were added to our lesson.
complaints of the enemy. 9. I gave him possession of
the house and he possessed it. 10. I punished the boy
11. The pupil had no ability to
with great sorrow.
solve the question. 12. Nasreddin Effendi was teaching
1.

matter.

2.

adorned

of children

my room

13. The birds are


and the children were learning.
flying in the air. 14. I have no money to help you with.
15. I am very sorry to have kept you waiting so long.

<U^
<>j>-\

si!

'

EJvibe.

J;*^ ^UjJ

aJJL\

<0-^-j\

Conversation.

aju-1

Alii

^Lj\

f* 4^} fO^i l$J&-Jb-

eS-*Jjl p>\>

*~J^

*t* *

(fi-

<K^-^J <iV^

'

a ,^i T

t5^^\

4j-j^i

f>M

Esile.

O^Jj-xz*

j^J

J-X^JCj]

(J^JIJ*

<> (ij_xjj3 JX1< ^

^
.

,o*M {JLj >U^!

JJii
r

Turkish Couv. -Grammar.

ojl

^ j^jJT

^_L: ^Jl^l
22

^^

338

uA

J>J\J J-**- J^*->

jWtIju talc

'

^-^

rrA

u~J> Lesson 48.

^j

^J\

o<>J^*

1
.

(3 d

-^^

j^S 4jjW-

c}\}

^?-

o* ^-?

Reading' Exercise,

jfc-p Friendship.
JaJj

2
'

jjJCU.-3 c^lj

4A*~jf oT c-~} jii-p ^j>-

'

^jjJaJl,

OJal

10

^J

^o?

Words.
rare.

more

fif JVji

...

comfort

6.

9.

2.

neqadar

c-j^

v^-j^

J^*

J^U

jjiji

J^ c&j-W

j^ U.3

jUA

'

>"**

qiymetli precious. 3. 7tadir


the
olqadar the more
8 tesliyet
7. /as$J virtuous.
.

firm, enduring.
taqlil, takhfif to diminish, to lighten.

paydar

616).

5.

*1~"-P

Jjjj-

khazine treasure.

4. a7i6a?> friends.

j-Ut3

Jj*js uoU

JJ^ oJJoU)

1.

^^-

\j^J^> *A ^Ji

10. tez-

yeed to increase. 1.1. aqval words; mesh'hour remarkable, famous.


12. shourout conditions; esasi fundamental. 13. hum good; tevej'juh
15. khoidous
14 Icemal perfection; emniyet fidelity.
sympathy.
17. heen
faithfulness.
sadaqat
16.
a sincere heart.
sincerity

time,

hajet

want

4&a

= in case of necessity.
oXlc*-

J;L

-*U

18. feda-lciarliq self-denial.

Conversation.

rr\

The Derivative

*Z~fc* J J^~.jz

^l Jj*

J-iLa J J^jl3

-J^

-*

J^

(^ f^

p*i-j

XJ\

^Vji

&

J-^ji

j~J*

Ojl

(^JjjJjl Jill

j:

fry

^J-

339

Triliteral Infinitives.

vlL

&*

A-il <^jl

iljlj:>
?

J^-s

"."

...

J&

>"

^a-

.1*1

>

?JJU|

Uj^l *^*-M

J^jJ^ ^i}JJj

>li.

<u~-

)ry

.j.>.t-:i|

o-JJjj

TFbrds.

?jJw

A-Llil J|ii-

hakee'mi

1.

2.

^
The Derivative

e?-arc

mumayileyli

now,

oJJLJUj

ajjLa- 2jjVl

UJl

above

the

(^"j.*

A^

Triliteral

(e-)

mentioned

Lesson 49.
Infinitives.

(Continued.)

J*Uj tefaqoul.
Reciprocal verbal nouns are

by putting Cj

L>JJr

at present.

u^l>

VI. JpUj

624.

w0

ojJLd

:<JLj1

(o 1VVA)

olij

philosopher, he.

>

before the root

also

and an

formed

elif

{-a-)

after its first radical:


^ - ^
yL~jU=_*fl

- /~

sahabet protection: V

.
^ >
^ ,
^_,^c-^>' ,_-.>. LcJ

festthoiih to protect.
22*

340

*-Ls

i.^

*-ki ga to cut:

^_*i qou'oud to rest:

625.
it

U"J-> Wesson

:.*,

If j or

to attain:

tferfc

teq<Vond being pensioned.

.k&

/7=7
"Jj

iljS

.LpIju

be found

reZi to be behind: V

Jj

teqatou' to cut each other.

and the

*lkc 'ata giving:

eotre also into esre:

Exercise 12G.

Change the following words


"/
^)

"
1%.
_j

."

'

<

soul).

."

.
-Ti*~Jt

.5*."

2AJ

generation (genitary).

2.

to destroy, violate (contradiction).

7.

JUo

= J&ul

This measure

Passive in signification:
l

"

"

^-

V^~Js i^U-^-H inzimam

add:

pj> zawiwi to

inqita' to be cut,
interrupted.

c-LkUl

._

o\ (in-)

the second radical.

(-a-) after

V*ii

to cut:

infiqal.

formed by prefixing

is

and inserting an

qaV

JjO

It is necessarily Intransitive or
a-ks
^-

5,

help (mutual help).

VII.

to the root

"

becoming consecutive). 4. collision (collision, shock).


be distant). 6. to change, transform (metempsychosis,

5. distance (to
transmigration of

626.

"",
,

into the sixth measure:

4_* wL^?

.) b

aid,

1.

a servant (a

,u

L^j

Words.
3.

root,

i)j\Ju tedarik to procure; prepare.

^U

*\

end of the

at the

^1-*^ te'afi delivering over to one


'
another, to interchange.
JljJ te'tfaM succession.

V 2lj^

ri.

*JliJ

changed into

is

49.

to be
added, addition.

"

...

'

...

"

^U

\TV

inqisam

to be se-

parated, separation.

Exercise 127.

"

Change the following Primitive

Infinitives into the

seventh measure of Derivative Triliteral Infinitives:

l"

J*a*
9

"

a"

i~
^A3

2.

JU

lo'.-'

11

:1

'

_0
J

'

5"

"

^^ ^^
.

12.

'

13

6*

'

J>-

<^"

'

>

j~5

'14

"i

"

^J^->i

'

The Derivative

r-L)

341

Triliteral Infinitives.

2. binding (to be
1. change (changing, revolution).
to expel. 4. to grasp, hold (constipation). 5. a pouring
6. solution (to be untied).
7. to break (to
(a stream's flowing).
be broken). 8. attraction ^to be attracted). 9. gladness (to be
cheerful). 10. to tie (to be gathered). 11. to pull down (demolition).
12. defeat (to be crushed).
13. reflection.
14. restricting.

Words.

obedient).

3.

Till.

627.

the

This measure

first,

and

inserting

after

(-/-)

the second radical.

after

(-a-)

iftiqal.

formed by prefixing an

is

and by

to the first radical,

(/-)

J&I =Jfei^

It

is

necessarily Intransitive or Passive in signification:


%.? jem

to collect:

V .-

'.

.2tl_

V^?ii

fakhr pride:

.^cJ

'

bftima* to be gathered,

&L-^>-l
^

^-

collection.

iftikhar to be proud

jlic-li^

of,

to boast.

628.

According

the laws of

to

changes take place when the

be

J?

a.
is

If the first radical

changed into
b. If

is

the

c.

^*-vs>

radical be j or

'

'o

the letter

sl>

;>,

the additional Zj

^.

If the first radical


sabr patience:

toulou' to appear:
ar:

be

>

j
,_*a
-j-

V*J_
Vj

Vl^j:

lijci datfti a law suit:

Vjco

jLl*3
Jl^|

(v

V^o

it is

=
A^A+a\
^ >L^| =
Ujjl =
(jl_o! =
(jUj:>\ =
(

^-^-j zalunet trouble:

oj\>' zakhire provision:

or j,

J^-*s

-TJc-jJd

'

inserted.

_U

first

changed into

is

euphony some

changed into

jL-k-*^ istibar.

^\J^o\ iztirab

"

anxiety.
*&*-J*\ itfihfl.
,

*l>o jl^ izdiham


"
a crowd.

lco\

iddVato

"
m

"maintain.
jL>-il iddikhar
to store up.

J^-l

aA7^ taking:

JjlWJl ittikhaz

to take, to adopt.

OJo-j) vahde't unitv

V J^J

:>Ujjl

^Udl^ ittihad
union.

342

A ^ A"

Lesson

Lr.ji

<i.^

rtf

49.

Exercise 128.

Change the following Primitives


'\

'"

t
f

V.

'

10

"

Words.

f.

'U
1.

i3

i."

'1

'

12\. 7.

'

15

f.

18*

if

.'

." c

14'

into Derivatives:
-"

7*

"J'15

bind (connexion).

to fasten,

2.

;.

"i

/"

"
*

"

"\

choice (to choose,

to publish (to be spread).


4. to refuse
(apostacy). 5. order (regularity). 6. to bind, tie (creed). 7. trouble
(trial, examination).
8. wife (marriage).
9. many, much (growth).
10. to suit, agree (concord, alliance).
11. a root (to be united).
prefer).

8.

to

scatter,

12. travelling (to travel; to die).

IX. J&il^

13. disorder.

14.

honour.

15. need.

ifqilal.

Jifc.il

This measure of Derivative Infinitives is


used to express a colour or quality, as the adjective

629.

&l

by doubling the
tween them.
jj-

a>.

alimer red:

ihmirar

to

M:>j.~l

isviddd

^Lj^I

this

form of adjective

inserting an elif be-

become intensely

red.

black.

ihdiba b to be hump-backed.

= J\akJ

X.

JQlJ

By

putting the syllable z*~>\ [isti-) before

the root and an


is

and

j\\-**\

ahdeb humpbacked:

630.

noun

radical

last

$y~>\ esved black:


k_;

made from

It is

efqal ( 608).

(-a-) after

istifqal.

the second radical, a verbal

constructed which expresses asking for or


something designated by the primitive word:

demanding
Jjk;

noutq speaking: V

yz^s^j rahmet

mercy:

631.

^
o

'

(-//-);

and

jJa.1

v^j

^Ikl-L--^ istintaq interrogating.

*\^ JL~\^ istirha mas king for mercy.

or j,

it

changes into

the second radical bej,

it

changes into

If the first radical be


if

< (-e -et -at) at the

end of the word ( 620621):

The Derivative

T'i.r

.*
tjil

\l~~

permission: Vo->\

Mfri

343

Triliteral Infinitives.

<> '
O'-^j-1

I,

<

'

ul-^r-

j,

istiyzan

to ask for permission.

V jj

pQj^ tyfa to pay:

V t-jj

vL-j-1j ra/ia rest:

45

=
=

(sjJL^

^\jj^ \

U-JL

c-a^l

j*

istipfa
"to receive.
[_

istirahat

1^

to take rest.
vitzouli plain:

fj^aj

^Jjj

t-I^jJL*.
J^
"

^7

?-Uir 'L-.\ istiyzah'


"to explain.

>

^ (2.

13.

.1

i-Jjf

-^j

>

^~"

Exercise 129.

Change the following words


1

'6

fLP

into the tenth form:


'7

^'j*"

'

8 -

tx^r"*

(I^J^

understanding

2. hire, rent (to


(to ask, interrogation).
to return, refuse (to ask, to be restored). 4. knowledge
(asking for knowledge). 5. continuation (perseverance). 6. answer
1.

rent).

3.

(to question).

7.

going out

sIjUILm

Remarks.

Muta-la-at

Many have

instance Jlp *Um


'

council.

It

given above.

a%\

8.

must be borne in mind that all Arabic


three letters cannot assume all the nine forms

632.
roots of

(to extract, to quote).

JUj

io

'

rv

'knowledge'
'

p^itiJ

'

f5fckl

for

can form the measures


;

but not such as <CJU

5LiV its.

^U

\r

few of them:

only a

Exercise 130.

"

L5

m*

-*

v *

1.

mad'de case.

Jv

mm

**

IPords.

-/

2. tgrrar f7." to

~1

confess. (VI. of qarar.

344

wjy Lesson

us

rw.

49.

-^

i/ar

3.

rent.

bedeli

mission, pardon.

7.

4.

ability.

original.
8.

\V\ 4J?v
1.

"

5.

to

shrewdness.

compare. 6. perendeavour.

9.

Translation 131.

He quoted many passages 2 from the Old Testament.


1

Did an} injury happen through the collision of the


Yes, Sir, one of those two steamers
two steamers?
No,
sank in five minutes. 3. Is the war ended?
3
Sir, there is only an armistice of two months. 4. I have
the honour to present to you my brother-in-law Tahir
Bey. 5. The Alevi Mohamedans and the Yezidees believe
in transmigration of soul. 6. The treaty 4 was written,
signed and interchanged 5 between those two powers.
7. Although there were five witnesses, yet there was
7

2.

contradiction in their testimonv.


Words.
3.

mutareke.

1.

4.

istilihraj,

mou-a-hede.

iyrad etmek. 2. ayetler, ayati berime.


5. ta-a-ti, mubadele St."

4x|>.*

aUJjl

c-^3- 3-tJ^ ^'j^ '^J^


>j

pUaill

Conversation.

yy
.

(iiUaJl

ajJu\

ojuifC c$ju-i.

rj_7 <M

J^^jTi.-^

v__A~lr

(j-y^A

f>

p-i^-

?jjJUi t$Ju-i J.U- L^*

/>jJs\

4.JL

<Sj\j* ilj*~&" J-f?^l'

?j^o^-Jb\ r^J-Ol

c^Wrl

<SjSj* 4A~*-^

-^ <M
(if^-i^

**"

The Derivative

ri.o

tSXU\ JJS-& 'S^^*\

.JuJUJjI

^L-iil 7J-&

-^>

aJJ&>-

fJjyjoX-tToLsl"

d^\

? J->

ji LJkUal

'

<i

lS-t*-

?jA_l>J AjJ-r>. *J^ sUl>.>

JjJ Reading
^j li

345

Trilateral Infinitives.

Exercise.

True Nobility.

OjJ&jija

^j^i

'^U

fJj^j

f]f

moral; ordinary,
TFordfs. 1. mad' dee, manevee, a dee physical
inferior ( 579).
2. mahasal total,
all (the world).
3. as-habi
nobles. 4. wesZ ancesters.
nejabet the possessors of nobility
5. mebdayi khilqat beginning of creation.
6. iysal it." to carry,
to cause, to reach. 7. rivayat tiadition, folk-lore; esateer mythology.
8. qat'i nazar leave it out of consideration, except.
9. bizje among
us i. e. Ottomans. 10. tarikhen historically. 11. sabit fixed, proved.
12. vaqayi events.
14. devleti Saffariye the
13. tatvil prolixity.
Saffari dynasty of Khorasan. 15. tesKkil eden the founder. 16. liaydoud a brigand. 17. devleti Ghaznevi the Ghaznevide dynasty of
Persia. 18. devleti Seljouqiye" the dynasty of the Seljuqs (in Central
Asia and in Asia Minor). 19. azamet grandeur; ijlal magnificence.
20. alemi siyaset the world of diplomacy. 21. madoud enumerated.
22. asheeret a nomadic tribe, clan, qoja chief.
;

346

(_v-j3

Lesson

50.

21

-Ml

*29.$|.t

L^-28

.i

.a

27^/1

a^

ne hajet! what need

is there?
24. insaniyet humanity
26. nfyis chief of a clan.
vast.
27. Tcesret
abundance; futouhat victories (pi. of futuli).
28. misl equal.
30. Jengiz; nesl children, progeny.
29. Timurleng Tamerlane.
31. Atabeg^ 32. Eyoubiye, 33. Memalike the dynasties of Atabeg,
Eyyoubi and Memlooks in Persia and Egypt. 34. baba yiyit a young
man of full growth and strength. 35. eseer slave. 36. ma'rouf
remarkable. 37. Tchanedan race, line; Jnde>eli Qara Halil. 38. See

23.

25.

581).

vast

the first word. 39. f. softa student of


40. chiftjizade the son of a farmer.

l^i>
The Participles

of

Canon Law

(Gr. goc'.^tyjc).

Lesson 50.
Derivative Infinitives.

633. We have seen how the Subjective and


Objective Participles are formed from the Primitive or
Simple forms of the Infinitive ( 601, 604). We shall
now consider the formation of both these Participles in
the above mentioned nine Derivative Infinitives.
634.
formation of

There are four rules which govern the


all

these Participles of the nine Derivative

Infinitives.

The

of the verbs of the measure


\~Z tefqeel are formed in the following manner: The
a.

Participles

r^v

The

servile
(a

letters

347

Participles of Derivative Infinitives.

Zj

mu-, mow-)

is

dropped;

are

prefixed

to

mim

with

edtre

the remainder of the

word: the second radical must be doubled by a sliedde


w
and the last syllable must have an esre; this forms
( ),
the Subjective Participle.
To find the Objective Participle change the esre
(Vide No. II in the Table.)
into ustun.
b.

The

Participles of the derivatives of the

A&Xi* mufaqale

are

made

as follows:

Omit the

measure
last

he

and put an esre on the last syllable; this forms the


Subjective Participle.
Change the esre to ustun and you will obtain the
Objective Participle. (Vide No. Ill in the Table.)

(-e)

c.

The

of the remaining two measures

Participles

beginning with Cj

(te-),

are

made

in the following way.

Prefix a mim with edtre at the beginning and put an


esre on the last syllable this is the Subjective Participle.
To find the Objective Participle change the last esre
and VI in the Table.)
(Vide Nos.
into ustun.
;

In those Infinitives which have an elif in the


last syllables, the elifs must be dropped, a
first
mim with edtre must be prefixed to the remainder of
the word and the last syllable must have an esre. This
forms the Subjective Participle of these derivatives. To
form the Objective Participle change that esre into
in the Table.)
(Vide Nos. IV, VII
tistiln,
d.

and

635. The Participles of the Quadriliterals are


made simply by adding a mini with edtre to the beginning

and punctuating the

last syllable

with esre: this forms

the Subjective Participle.


Change that esre to ustun,
vou obtain the Objective Participle. (Vide No. Q in the
Table.)
Note. Notice that JSton- initial is the sign of the measure
Mufaqale ( 618) and the Participles of Der. Inf.; while 3Ie-, Miis the sign of N. with mim and Mefoul ( 597, 604).

\rY

AZ

Exercise 132.

Form the Subjective and Objective Participles of


the following words at the beginning of p. 350:

348

o*

No.

Measures

^-j^

Lesson

r-u\

50.

Examples

Voice

The 23 measures in the

I.

to create

pp.314 315.

to bind

Transitive

ii.

tejleed

tefqeel

Reciprocal

nr.

to tight

j,

uuViarebe

tnufaqale

Intransitive

V.

tSfaqqoul

to

Passive

tebeddul

be

changed

VI.

J5UJ
tefaqoul

Reflexive
Intransitive

to

exceed

fejavottz
1

IV.

Transitive

to

send

ifqal
1

VII.

infiqal

^SJ)

Reciprocal
Passive

inqisam

to be

divided

<

to earn,

VIII.

ikfisab

iftiqal

gain

to

Excess

IX.

ihmirar

ifqilal

become

intensely
red

X.

JUfc-j
istifqal

to inter-

Desire
istinUiq

rogate

to

Q.
faqh'lc

!(')](>

me

translate

r^

The

Remainder

va^

jJk

Objective Participle

Subjective Participle

who creates,
creator.

Khali q

JlW*

who

makhlouq

binds,
binder.

mujetlid

jjfee*

belligerent.

-LU&-

mouharib

~-a-"iaj
led
mujet

-J

ise^

iiifthareb

(J-j^r*
.

that
exceeds.

sender,
addresser.

divider.

r~'

bound
fvolume\

engaged
in war.

mutebed'del

mtitejaviz

M
miirstl

created,
creature.

changed.

changer.
tniitebed'dil

J-0

849

Participles of Derivative Infinitives.

imlnqasim

surpassed.

unitejavez

\1
j~*jr-*

at fusel

!**-^

an envoy,
messenger

divided.

nrfinqasem

IX'
who

earns.

mulctesib

earned.

mfikteseb

intensely

J^
mtihmerr'

red.

interrogator

mftstantiq

(judge).

interrogated.

m&stantaq

>

V^7
^-r

jo
hi titerjim

translator.

translated.

niiitcrjem

s*

350

^j^ Lesson

"o*

50.

(pensioned ofl). 2. to oppose


a vacation. 4. to arm
(oppoing contrar/ 3. t0 Btop work,
honour
(guest).
sojourn
^
6.
S. to become high.
a rmed).
speak
to
disputed).
9.
8. to quarrel (quarreling;
honorable)
governor
(possessor;
10. possession
Weaker first person).
examine inspector^
multiply '(numerous). 12. to search,
bitten,. 15. to
(writer,
write
to
14.
13. to question (a prisoner).
(humble).
17. to
16. hum.hty
arrange to compose (compositor).
correct
to
ornament.
19.
18. to
hasten (messing important).
21. to finish (complete
(teacher).
teach
to
20.
reader).
nroof
(naturally suspicous
22 geometrv .engineer). 23. anxiety
a pearl (set with pearls).
?4 magnificence (pompous). 25. a jewel,
(polished).
polish
it superscription (superscribed). 27.
TFbrds.

1.

pension

to

off

Sect

ail i,jl

X"C

.ail Ojl

Exercise 133.

*m ^>' >*- r * -=^ *

- ^ 3Uji jft-aj
!

,AS

fJ^"

i^

^-

j:

-^ J^J^

1. muddet the
TFoftfa.
wards. 3. to procure, to find.

madaq^

r^

}
\

J-^^ ^'-J*
1

2 badehou after(8ub. Part, of terfg.<r).

length (of time).


4.

;'

rs

The

%
,

iJbl
o

351

Participles of Derivative Infinitives.

jvLJjl J^lj

u^f^J^J

~-\

L>

\rt A^j

j3U>i

4-olijl

-*

fJjlT3j>

Translation 134.

Who

are your guests?


Mr. Gulian the Armenian
teacher of the College, and Dr. Nahad the translator of
'Hamlet'.
2.
is
the author of that remarkable
dictionary 1 ?
It is the Rev. M. Aucher. 3. Have the
inspectors come whom the governor wished to send?
1.

Who

Though they have come,

having a very pressingengagement they have not been able to do anything.


5. Who bound the book you have in your hand?
Mr. Arshag, who is a very 4 skilful binder. 6. Are you
able to speak good Turkish?
Yes, I have attained 5
6
the ability to do so through your kindness 7
7. What
kind of a work 8 is the book which the engineer has
written?
It is translated from the Armenian: it is
an excellent (complete) work, illustrated 9 with numerous
pictures. 8. Are the compositors, who are setting up m
this book in Mr. Groos' printing-house, Armenians?
No, Sir, all the compositors at Mr. Groos' are Germans.
4.

yet,

5.

1. loughet kitabi.
2. mustajil.
3. maslahat. 4. mahir, oustacL
kisb et."
6. iqtidar.
7. sayeyi alinizde.
8. eser.
9. muzey'yen T

mousavver (from

te'zyin,

<U,

**fA EJvibe.

tasveer).

|^

10. tertib et.", dizmek.

Conversation.
<il

Ksile.

ojTj^j'jijJ.)^!

JilJ

Jj-f.ljl

u-J-i

4^5 ^,\

Lesson

ror

50.

fJa^J

J^J1^
_ >

>

i3U^~-

'

^^
*
ejb!

^!jLL

.9

J I-

j^JliJ

Reading* Exercise.

Administrative Councils.

TFordfs. * Mejalisi Idare (pi. of mejlis). 1. a^a members (pi.


ofowv); tabiyiye natural (580,656); miintakhab chosen, elected
(fayil of intikhab)
3. hakim
2. murek'keb composed (fayil of terkeeb).
judge, a qadi (fayil of hiikni); nayib a judge-substitute (fayil of
niyabet). 4. mufti the officer who answers questions in the Canon
Law of Islam (fayil of ifta). 5. defterdar, mouhasebeji, mal mudiri
the controllers of revenue and expenditure in Vilayet, Liva and
Qaza. 6. mektoubjou, tahrirqt mudiri, tahrirat kuitibi the Chief
Secretaries in Vilayet, Liva and Qaza.
7. muslim Moslem (fayil
of islam); ghayri-miislim non-Moslem ( 695 10 ). 8. roues' sa heads,
chiefs (pi. of reyis).
9. rouhanee spiritual ( 580 g).

Broken or Irregular

ror

353

Plurals.

10. ibaret composed. 11. wis/" half. 12. intikhab et." to choose;
13. ayid belonging (fayil of avdet).
election (VIII. of niikhbe).

Consult the Reading Exercise, page 126.

Note.

cr^i> Lesson

J*(A*

The Regular

we have

(as

CJ -at

(f.)

Broken or Irregular Plurals.

c*

636.

51.

or

Sound

by the addition of

seen)

to the Singular,

made

Plurals are
jr,

-een

(m.) or

without any change in the

structure of the words.


But in the case of Irregular
or Broken Plurals (Jem'i Mukesser) the structure or the
form of the Singular is broken, as has been stated in
a previous lesson ( 571).
It is impossible to give all the measures of Broken
plurals here, because they are very numerous.
But
those which are in common use in Ottoman, may be
formed into the following groups.

Nouns

of the measures
their plural as follows:

637.

638.
v_i^w

jS

faql: Plural

harf letter: *3jj>- hourouf'.

jjj* hoadoud
> >

S.

jjJJ nouqoud.

6e^/i

a right

Turkish Conv. -Grammar.

>

J^JU-

"
!

*1S

J IS form

J^S fouqoul:
hadd

house: Cj-u bUyout

*"

j>.

JS

V:>-X>.
Vsi
!

JJiJ

-.

-k^-i a condition

as

boundary:
wage? cash:

>

-k?^--

23

.!;

354

o)

639.

S. a. jf>

c^ij

a.

esli-kfaV.

^_jLl^

d.

*Lx.-

jJj

640.

jli-

j^ souver

JJu

>

S.

o,/t

642.
efqile:

*r, ...J

^Uij

nfisakh

'/feref

PL

S.

:>|j*j

child:

j&-M opinion.

ftilfe/w

oi&?u

decision:

a'^a.

*U&|

= JS fonqal: as:

oj^j souret manner, way

'

->.

JU qotdel
PL

niyam

Jlj /egaZ and

Jlj*l

<t/Z

J_ol>

f*>--

^j&

/fyZ#:

example:

Jt_i

number:

p_J

^^

'cwr

khaber news:

JJ>.

^^-i

'.

emlak

moral

cJ& cJLi

'Sj-*

esnaf

^JLl^>\

qoul'le tower:

<0ii

JU

'

evlad^

>.

niymet favour:

*i

mileV.

1^1

/igZ

^_^&

'

641.
sL.

S. <dj fouqle, fouqlet:

>

jjS devr

JS

c.

}SJt< shekl shape:

:>Vj

J^-l

faqal

^_;L^\ esbab

j*Z poem

*JtJ nfoskhe copy:


picture:

&^J

sCm/" class:

sCw/*,

ahktam

'asar

'

<j^l

e?;g

m#7fc property: i)>L

vlAL.

as:

-ye/ed son:

etfal', at'fali

edvar

reason:

sefrefr

jLi-\ akhbar
c.

colour:

oj

!'..-

b.

JU-t

'jL^a&

e/gaZ:

olij

va^tf time:

century: jlj^

ro\.

51.

b.

faql

= J&l

PL

fouql:

d. Ja5

Lesson

0-j.i

= J*
*jJb

'iber'

JlS

>

<U--

>

J-*--

/igaZ: as:

millet nation:

viJL.

belde

PL

/fyaZ:

*%

'-JS!

as:

ijkj zeman time:


<j^s-l ejvibe

/>L*J

<_1*3

ezmine times

'

^j*

ta J am food: *.*-*M St-H'me

jevab answer:
l
.

l* '<*JLil.

643. The plural of the Subjective Participles of


the Primitive Triliteral Infinitives are formed on the
following models; as:

a.

ly

'

b.

JS

'

c.

4JJ

'

MJ

d.

fevaqil, fouqqal, feqale, fouqala:


a.

J=^

jamV mosque:
b.

s7iZ sea-coast:

PL J^^~, sevahil

sea-shores

l>

*.Aj>~jevami Ji jU- janib side: ^\j> jevanib.


.

j^lJ iajir merchant: PI.

*Ko- hoiik'kiam^

= jU&T

tfij

jar ^U- hakim judge:


.

^>U- ^a^r present: jUa>- houz'zar.

roo

Broken or Irregular

c.

v_J^

follower, servant:
d. jSlc

clerk:

liiatib

PI.

355

Plurals.

ketebe clerks

aZ$

<*Zte-ba*a subjects Jjj\j varis heir: ^jjverese.


'

\Ss.

>Ut 'ouqala wisemen

PI. ==

wise:

'aqil

J^>li fat2 learned

'

^feli

The

shayir poet: |^i

shou*ara J^U

which end

Subj. Participles

lit

'

'alim

oulema, fouzala doctors of Canon

>\ ,a a

>

,.-

Law

tabi*

jlT

>

= >^>- ircil^ = UJU


^

in

-i,

form their

*ilS

#adi judge:

plurals as follows:
S.

Jlj ra?i governor:

SUJ qoudat

<ijlj

The

644.

[ 582],

fevaqil:
a.

juG

Ac-lji

SVj vCilat

Sljj

plurals of the

= oU^

^Ic- a rebel

nouns derived from the

by the addition

of

or *

'

qavaxjid

(-e,

measure

first

oL

jJ^s fevayid

<*sl>.

3l^T

iSvasim necessities

fjij-l

kindness

^_i!l& 'atifet

mad'de subject

havass'

qayide a rule

Jlc-G*

PI.

l^ii

sense

<-~ U- has'se

model UL-IJ) is formed on the model of


c. yj\ f ouqala, fiqal, efqila:
j^lj faq_ir poor:

'

mevadd'

khas'se peculiarity

*%0^ arat *f-

^\j.- I'havass'.

645. The plural of the Adjective of Quality

a.

Cj

as:

<^JV lazlme necessity: PL

url^p-

are formed according to the

fayide benefit

b.

historian

Subjective Participle
-et)

PI.

a.

Mli

'

( 606,

b.

fonqara the poor

J&
^jj

V^
= \jjj vuzera viziers, viceroys ^S.sr>
y
hakeem sage, philosopher = L_x_=- hou~kem ^vij = Uij.
b. jy?
fce&iY great = jLj
kibar grandees
sJ^Jcerim
noble = Aj Jciram
-a=i felchim illustrious = ^U^ fikham.
ojJ gr<6 relative = C^il aqrtbff v^-ioT habib friend
= Uw| dhib'ba v_jJ frf&/& physician = LL\ atib'ba ^J nebee
prophet
;i, = Lii.|
Ljl enbiya ^-Ua = ISji^l
<>

wezi'r a

minister of state

'

c.

23*

356

wj*

Lesson

ro*\

51.

646. The plural of the nouns formed from Adjectives

by the addition

of Quality
[ 582]

is

made on

o^J> jezire
duty

<CJL-

sSfine ship

^-fljllij

khazayin

'

= ^U

v^.JLi>.

Jljrj

or

the model

island

vezayif

of

'

a.

u* feqayil;

J>

jezayir islands

c^^-ai nasihat advice

sefayin

,Jj

Ua

'

^L-i

<1jJ*-

as:

<uJaj vazife

7ejl*a;

nesayiK

khazine treasure
Jj L5

= ^O*

a1^^>

-at)

-et,

(-e,

aJ

W.o

The most important classes of nouns that


plurals
regularly are the Derivative Triliteral
form their
Infinitives and the Participles formed from those InAll these measures and their Participles take
finitives.
647.

the plural in

Cx.

-een

(m.)

and

-at

,1,1

(f.)

57378].

The General Measure.


648. All original Quadriliterals and most words
in which the Triliteral root is increased by one or more
letters 1 form their broken plurals on one and the same
,

model, and this consisting of three syllables. The


first of these syllables has an ustiin, the second takes
an elif and the third has an esre for its vowel sound
(.

the last syllable,

-& -a
it

is

-i-).

If there is

changed into ye

Singular sju% Milfred'

^_-ix*
>jj"~>>*

dJUlc-T

knowledge:

<_ijU.

letter:

i^ju&T*

~fy)J*

miftdh key:

fuj^> tareekh date; history:

Nouns with

me'arif

mekiateeb

#
* g
g

" artlc

N.ofLoc.

The
}

measure

tevareekh'i

tif-qeel.

J^"\ tsaghir

Mim

as:

q^qq^

*n6zamcer\

"

f^>j\^

y^s\ csgher lesser:


the

j*jUj teclabeer
""

i. e.

memalik

T*-?^ mefateeh'

JjjJu tedbeer plan:

-ee);

Jem

i^J&CT mekiatib

Jj*j* mizmoor psalm:


9-ki

-a

or vav in

mekteb school:

mektoob

(-6

elif

Plural %jr

^.xJL_- memleket country:


o^d^* ma'nfet

an

N. of Superiority.

59799), the Primitive Obj.

rev

Broken or Irregular

<jUaL. soultan

0^>U

Sultan:

357

Plurals.

.'

selateen

jumhoor republic:

jjtf-

uqnum

+j\

j^mftheer

^t^f

a person (of Trinity):

The measure
fmiqlan.

eqaneem

*JlS1

-t-i

qanoun law:

Oylji qavaneen

^lx

aser soldier:

^"^

*^J

terjeme translation:

ijjilS

CD

VMaMr

^-\J1 terajim

Ol*llL Miita-lat-at

Remarks.

There are some nouns which form double


have often different meanings; the prin-

649.

plurals, these

cipal are:

,jjO douyoon:

ijo diyn debt:


ism

name:

Vc

^^ji* douyoonat.

esma names:
-N

cAj**j rousoomat
6e#t verse; house:

v^i>

houroofat.

L*

L| esami a

list.

rj-J rousoom manners, custom:

due:

p.-j reswi a

olsj^

Jzjj- houroof:

Ixarf letter:

_V-

tolls,

dues: p.1^ merasim ceremonies.

o^-j buyoot houses;

kJ^ sheylch chief:

TVr"

s ^m?/0mA7i

cL|

e&?/a verses.

ld naen.
poll, meshayikh chiefs.

lj

ra7n'&

a Christ, monk:

<j\~aj

Other Arabic nouns which form their plurals

650.

The

irregularly occur in Ottoman.

umm

mother:

man

tjL-H Insan

aj^ qarye
^j-\
aJI

rouh'ban: il*iUj rehabeen'.

ol^l um'mehat mothers.

(homo):

village:

tf'syed

black:

t7a7i'

god

ob^<^J

JU\

Armenian:

ju- say labour:


Participle ( 604), the
tefqeel, fouqlan, etc.

u-l;

\J>

Ja\ #&Z people:


^jl ermeni

chief of these are:

human

qoura

beings.

villages,

soudan negroes; the Soudan.


alihe deities.
e/mZt inhabitants.

C*ljl aramine Armenians.


<_^L~.

Noun

was

mesayi labours.

of Superiority

( 609),

the measures

358

Lesson

o) u-J^

roA

51.

There are some very common Arabic


651.
plurals which are used in Ottoman as singular nouns and
take a Turkish as well as an Arabic plural termination
( 512);

as:

JLtLjL. malumatlar knowledge.

J^\jij* tahriratlar writings.

^LlltJ ftyatlar prices.


JL'lcjSj vouqovt atlar events.

JUU\

ehalilir inhabitants.

JV&\

azalar members.

J^j\

ivladlar children.

JjU=J

tujjarlar merchants.

JLM

ish'yalar furnitures.

J.i\l.yo\

esnaflar handicrafts.

J*Xf- amelelir labourers.

Jjlo diyarlar

countries.

652. There are some Persian or Turkish nouns,


which have assumed Arabic plural terminations. These
are mere barbarisms or solecisms ( 507):
t..olx.l:*.>.
t.

J~6^

p.

chiftlikiat (Imperial)

gelish

coming:

oju- sibze vegetable:

p. o^y- khiirdi
p. (jl^5
t.

farms; (as

oy^

o^jL)

oUUS

gelishat talent, success.

^\jjy

sebzevat vulg. zarzavat.

oljv*" khourdavat small ware.

small:

firman firman:

Jl>jJT^ gidish going:

Ca\j firameen edicts.


c~>\~t>JJ?

gidishat conduct.

Exercise 135.

State the measure, the


the following words:

ij\^J^

*.

\>-

V*->

'

iV^

number and

1*"

A**

the meaning of

(+**'*

^< ***

^k

^o^

Broken or Irregular

oUy

J Usui Ji^i^

s&a

** "

JUJI

^ -^

~>ssu

'

"

"

Form

f 'A

^r-9

^nil^l^

'

*^-<l^^

t^r^5

4Jyo

t,

,1:

4^-J Translation

t"\

Ou*e&

".*'*."*

-\"

'

act of looking

who

wait (VIII),

waits,

ignorant;

UJL>-),

*0y*

'

v*

u^

136.

the derivatives of the following words:

The

1.

uj^J

^-^

>
*

(orientalists)

J^^'J

359

Plurals.

who

(J&),

who

is

looks, looked at, to

waited

for.

unknown; ignorant

who is
send (IV)' who

2.

Ignorance

people.

3.

The

act of sending (^JL-j),

sent (apostle), two apostles,

apostles;

sends'

burn
5.

6.

to

Jj~), fire ( 606), to

To save

To

where
two

be burnt

write,

letters;

(VIII),

4.

To

burning, burnt.

j^^U-), to desire to save (X), saviour, saved.

write (_^T), book;


to

messenger.

to

school;

clerk; written, letter; a place

schools,

correspond

(IV).

letters,
7.

News

two schools,
(jv>.);

to give

news, to inform (IV), informer, informed; to communicate


(III),

correspondent.

8.

Change the word dlL

into fayil,

mefoul; into noun with mitn; to possess (I, X), to give


possession (II), to take possession (V), fayil of X, and PL

\rV Jt^

Exercise 137.

360

o)

.P

i$3W- i^W- lj^~^

^ojCj

July dijjj

j& o\L>- l<r^~>*

Lesson

^-j^

ill

O-^'j*^

<u~J j^ojCjI

u^bj'

jjS>-

j!

s_Aj

uUJ

rv

51.

J^} u^**^ wb^

j5Cju>I

(J^li^se^ <dijl5C^4 \

Words.
emlak vergisi property tax.
1.
toward (fayil of teuej'juh to turn, V. of vejh').
start.

qavayid rules

4.

of qayide).

(pi.

^A

j* jl

5.

silifc

2.

3.

*\^y
.j^ jlj

mutevej'jihen
hareket et." to

career.

6.

to enter.

4j?V Translation 138.

This book contains 1 320 figures 2 2. The eastern


boundaries 3 of Turkey are Russia and Persia. 3. I have
a gospel printed 4 in very small characters.
4. The
churches do not pay 5 property taxes. 5. The English
nation is one of the greatest nations of Europe 6 6. Are
those physicians among your relatives? 7. They made
a journey 7 towards the islands on board the ships. 8. It
cc
is written in the Psalms
Lead 8 me to the rock that
is higher than I".
9. Where is the list of expenses?
Here it is, the clothes bought from the merchants
10. The
are inserted 9 in this list with their prices.
1.

success of the vegetables and flowers

is

perfect 10 this year.

havi dir. 2. esliktal (pi. of shekl). 3. houdood


(mefoul of tab''-). 5. te-e-diye et." (II. of
Sda). 6. Avropa. 7. seyahat. 8. ihda iyle (IV of hidayet). 9. dakhil
(fayil of doukhoul).
10. mukemmel (mefoul of tekmil).

Words.

(pi.

1.

of hadd).

4.

matbou

'.

AX
(JlL.)

^.A^jjAy
.

3.

\l*

Conyersation.

dL^jly

ColumbllS' Egg.
)

(Continued.)

Words. 1. houz'zar pi. of jicmr ( 643b). 2. hayret wonder.


meraq curiosity; jelb ou tahreek et." to instigate and arouse.

The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns.

r^l

j*i yjw

<

?^

il^L' ^

JijJu Jji

ji^

361

^ jUJ

the end, conclusion ( 582, 646). 5. mouvaf'faq


of tev'feeq).
6. munasebet connexion (III. of
nisbet); ne-l not at all! 7. i,z7iar to show, confess (IV. of zouhour).
8. ajz inability.
10. marifet
9. muqtedir able (VIII. of iqtidar).
skill, talent (n. with mim of irfan); ilk evvel first of all, in the
first place.
11. iraye to show (IV. of rouyet).
12. relation,
connexion. 13. kemall souhouletle with the greatest ease ( 695, 11).
4. wetaje

successful (mefoui

u^u>

Lesson 52.

The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns.


653. The union of two Arabic nouns, or of an
Arabic noun with an Arabic adjective (Izafet) according
to

the

Persian

and

been already mentioned.


( 517, 565) were all masculine

system

The examples given

has

singular, both adjectives

and nouns.

362

or ^rj*

Lesson

When

an Arabic adjective is placed before


Ottoman it generally remains invariable,
nouns which it qualifies are masculine or

654.
a noun,

in
whether the

feminine, singular or plural;


lco

j*>-

r^r

52.

khayr douva a blessing:

as:

oL*

<JU ali hissiyat noble


feelings.

655. But when the Arabic noun is feminine or


plural and the adjective follows the noun, then the adjective must agree with it in number and gender.

Read

656.

3.

masc. dual

masc. plural
r

4.

carefully the following rules:

nouns require the adjective

roasc. sing,
2. fern. sing.
1.

to

be masc. singular.
fem. singular.
masc. dual.
/regular
masc.plural
fe

&

<

or broken plural.
fem. plural or sing.
(fem. sing,
b or broken
I

5.

fem. plural

out
ii
broken plural

b.

>>

657. All broken plurals, the names of


regarded as feminine.

letters

and

cities are

658.
1.

ji\l*

^>-

tSlto

^H
2.

oj-U_*
-w-lac-

3.

douva yi khayr a good prayer; blessing.

^5-j bah'ri
<JA\ eli'fi

j5

ahmer the Red Sea.

memdoude elongated

Elif ( 29

d).

qouvveyi azime great power.

0-v.i/*-

harfey'ni miitejaniseyn two

C*.^-jj* muverrikhee ni

^jjfl*

Examples.

^t^J tarafey'ni merqoumiyn those two parties.

Cj\j>jfy

C*^> lael*
4.

Misal'ler

homogeneous letters.

meshhonreen the celebrated

historians.
A-Si i>_jj-^ me-e-moureeni fikham illustrious officers.
%

5.

\^\ cjU^j sifa'U ilaheeye the Divine attributes.

<u-l*

oLjl maloumati muhim'me important knowledge.

oUlft o\jj> zeva'ti ally at great personages.


6.

<w^

jja\

oumourou mouhim me important

fUac i\s>.\ ejda'di

affairs.

izam venerable ancestors.

<Ju wTlx* mekttitibi milliyi national schools.

nr

The Agreement

of Adjectives with Nouns.

363

659. CJ&JZa Mutenevviyat Miscellaneous.


*&j<^>\ ayeti

^jJU (jo

mouqad" des the Holy Religion.

cJji DevletiAliye the Sublime Government (Turkey).

<ijb

Aj

dirii

berime the sacred verse, the golden text,

^jjA~,

samiyou'nou Tciram honorable hearers.

<cji \L*j\ famine' yi

-kjj\y tevarikh'i atiqa ancient histories.

aISc

o^U?

<uJ teba-a'-yi sadiqa loyal subjects.

J*

*'.J*^

,j^<

<iUfl3|

sevahil'i bahriye

Oltalc Galatati

e^.lp 4jlW.;jL topkhane'yi

a^lc

marine coasts.

aqsa'yi sharq the Furthest East.

660. 6jJL<

o^.lfr

qadime ancient times.

MesKhoure Barbarisms.

amire Imperial Arsenal of Ordnance.

^-k. matba'khi amire

Kitchen,

tersaneyi amire"

Dock-yard.

4.;L-^r

<*uJjj^-M

0^3 qouvveyi elektriqiye electrical force.

l$L-\ Asiya'yl sought a Asia Minor.

NtA >^U

Tf^o?'^.

remember,

1.

Exercise 139.

merhoum deceased (mefoul of rahmet).

2.

zikr et"

mention. 3. muh'tereq burnt (mefoul of VIIL).


4.
mujed'deden newly (mefoul of tejdid).
5. insha to build.
6. zimninda for.
7. trade decree, command (VI. of rivad; seneeye
sublime, exalted).
8. shercfsadir which has issued in honour.
9. qita-at parts of the world
countries (pi. of qit-a); bayid
distant (from boud' 606). 10. mustemlikxat colonies (pi. of fayil
of X. of mulk); mutead'did numerous (fayil of te-ad-dud 'aded V).

to

to

364

or

4JIJ~* ,5-Ul JJU 31

u-J->

JL& ^L-J

sVjl 3<uL ^J\^j% fJu^jJU

O-AjI

)yO* 3>* V

j^

Lesson

i-JZJ.*

jjcp

jUjI ^1a

52.

r"Vu

<C*jl

-JLuLHj J

'rj

;-> 3j-x*^

Jlwljl ,<Ua

i)X3^

J OjVp ^cmS*)

11. rivayet, naql et." to narrate, to recount, to tell. 12. w&aren


according ( 682 b). 13. wahv oil." to disappear. 14. atfal children
(pi. of Ufl).
15. souret manner; layiq suitable.

4+s^j Translation 140.

Some

of the illustrious officers of the Turkish


government were present at the commencement 1 exercises
2
2. You will find here all important
of the College.
3
knowledge concerning the settlement of the wretched
immigrants 4 in South Africa 5 3. Dr. Carrington is one
4. Because of some
of the most eminent physicians.
6
he was unable 7 to come here.
important business
8
to speak 9 and said
5. One of the loyal subjects began
'Honourable hearers'. 6. I have Moses of Khorene's 10
and Agathangelos' 11 ancient Armenian histories 12
day of prizes.
1. tevziyi mukwfat resmi or yevmi malchsous
4. mouhajiree'ni magh2. mouhimm
3. ishian (IV. of sukun).
6. mesali'hi muhimmi sebebiyle.
5.
doureen.
Afriqayi jevoubi.
9.
7.
8.
ibtidar et."
Icelam.
10. Moses
muqtedir olamamaq.
Khorini. 11. Aqatanqelos. 12. muverrikhee ni qadimeyi Araminede'n.
1.

Conversation.

<!!(>>

.^Sjjj*ii^

&\i\

<Juj^y\\

ee
.

j-L.Ij\

J^j<C-j\ ^jj>

<3

1*"

'?

Jjy *)

?j^aJ ^j-ARjk

Cl.il

\>

^Ul^ilJ

vlA-jj

^>yy

aL

The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns.

rio

^Jj\

o-^^

iSj>

jl*H

sZJ>\j

4j^^

865

?J<*+~fj jJ^-t-xJ 'Jj^jk

j'y

Reading Exercise.

(*^

Inventions Resulting from Observation.

**

25

'

*.

24

J.J. j
2<i

jjiil

16,

^l~'

1.

15

23
!

j^>

4jCuf o5bJu

5C^

14.

it*

JLS3 j

v>

_,

Uykjl

OLiLs

'

- 13. .jj

Jj^-fjr

iJjLij;

..

uVjl

.j'.^aiosl

Words

* diq'qat careful observation; muribayis


and. Notes.
caused (fayil of inbiyas); keshfiyat discoveries. 1. history (II. of

erekh).

ikhtira^at

2.

(pi.;

VIII.

of

*/).

3.

louzoum necessity.

to prove (IV7 of sebt). 6. emsaZ precedents,


of mesel). 7. ftam containing (fayil). 8. ekserisi the
10. amele labourers (used
majority. 9. zekee sagacious ( 606).
12. mutefen'nin
11. ya
or
as sing. 651).
ya either
versed in science (fayil of tefen'nun 622).
13. nazari diq'qat
consideration. 14. tesaduf H" to fall under (VI. of sadef). 15. souret
appearance; zahir external (fayil of zouhour). 16. mana meaning

4.

real.

5.

examples

isfeat et."

(pi.

mim

manaslz unimportant. 17. neshat et." to come


J&);
to originate.
18. misela for instance ( 683).
19. yosoun moss.
20. jism existence. 21. an time. 22. namalum
unknown ( 530, 604). 23. toplamaq to gather ( 276). 24.
a-yene to examine (III. of } ayn eye). 25. tedqiq et." to scrutinize
(II. of diq'qat).
26. hukm et." to decide judicially.

(n.

with

into

of

existence,

mow

'

or u-j^

366

34

lib

^jL^

jCl

jj

^Cl

41<^1

4=0

JC$j

jj

^.p

i~

dAJb

cJa

aJjI

Lesson

37

JC3
41

'

jj

,.

jj^-

lie- jr

jG^UL^

jl^r z)f *&)y0 x

*i

""i

rn^

53.

36

..I-

89'

35

<ll

- -

/|

38^1.

27. tekhay'yul et." to imagine (V. of khayal). 28. mouvaf'faq


successful {mefoul of tevfeeq). 29. manastir monastery. 30. qoub'be
dome. 31. qandeel a lamp. 32. m/m vaqitda at the very moment
33. dayima continually (adverb).
34. mout'tarid
( 695, 13).

isochronous.

35. ta^a-qeeb

to

follow.

36.

qoyoulmaq to go on.

37. mutehiy yij excited (fayil oftehey'yiij, V. of heyejan). 38. hikmeti39. mouhimm
important (fayil of
tabiyiye natural philosophy.
ihmam, III. of himmet). 40. raq'qas pendulum ( 611). 41. hareket
movement; vibration.

J*> j

_*

w^<>
,*-

Lesson 53.

The Arabic Definite

661. In the Turkish and Persian languages there


no article either definite or indefinite; but in Arabic

is

there are definite and indefinite articles


Tenveen) which are used in Ottoman with
The Ind. Article or Tenveen is of three kinds
applied to the end of the words ( 48); and
:

in

Ottoman as adverbs. The

^jbdll

el-hitab

662.
i

Article.

'

&

(Harfi Tariff

Arabic terms.
en, -in, -oun,
the}' are used
c

definite article is Jl el the':

the book, j^JI el-beyt

The Arabic Letters

the house'.

are 28 in

number, (^

being peculiar to Turkish and Persian): 14 of

these are called

lunar and the other 14 solar

letters.

The Arabic

rnv

663. The Solar Letters


Shemseeye) are: j 1 z i j j

The Lunar Letters


ra^e) are
:

'

367

Definite Article.

(*

(4

J"ji

JL

js Jp

Houroufou

J>jj-

J*

J 0-

Houroufou Qame-

^Jjr?-

CCCt^ ^ ^

664. When the Arabic Article is added to a


word beginning with a solar letter, to avoid harshness
of sound, the lam is assimilated in pronunciation to the
w
following solar consonant for euphony, and a sliedde ) is
(

put over the

latter:

jyjl es-sabr

the

patience;

ed'-din the religion; *}CJI es-selam the salutation:

^jjl

and

not el-sahr, el-din, el-selam; also:


*z*+~J\ es-semt

Oj

...H

es-sumoat azimuth.

But the pronunciation of the lam is retained


is attached to a word beginning with

665.

when

zenith: pi.

the Article

a lunar

letter:

j^.\ el-haqq

the right.

^L\

el-jebr Algebra.

JsexJl el-kuhiil alcohol.

L*xJI el-kimya alchemy.

oUdl

el-idade alidade.

-I^J-l

el-hamra the

Tc-alll

Red

Jill el-qali alkali.

(J-^Vl el-inbiq alembic.


J^ill el-ghoul the thief (Algol, the star).
(castle),

Alhambra.

el-munaqqah almanack.

666. Almost all Arabic words properly end in


a vowel: ustun (-e) is the sign of the Accusative, esre
(-i) is the sign of the Genitive, and eotre (-a) the sign
of the Nominative; also these are left in Ottoman, yet
they are retained in Arabic sentences used in Ottoman.

When

a word having the Article

by a word, that word keeps the original


(e,

-i,

-oil);

the

elif

is

preceded

final vowel
not pronounced
connected with the last

of the Article

but slurred over, and lam is


vowel of the preceding word; as:

is

or ^rjz Lesson

368

u*\j

<oUe- *^S._:M

<al

the beginning of knowledge


*>1>J

Miami

SjXa

is

the fear of the Lord.

*$&

i)jJuJl

mekhafetou Hlahi

hikmeti

kelamtVl

mulouki muloukd'l

the words of kings are the kings of words.


J^k*. khalilou Hlahi the

<us\

Not Besu el

Jl

chosen friend of Good (Abraham).

hikmeti, mekhafetou allahi, kelamu elmulouki.

The word

Note.
J1

resfi'l

r^A

53.

<o>\

contracted from Jl e the',

is

*}\

7a/i

god,

Allah the God.

<u>l

667. When the eK/" of the Article is absorbed


by the final vowel of the preceding word, the elision is
marked by the sign r^_, written over the elif and called
il^j v asZe 'union'

because

directly; as: [>Ul ){f

The Arabic

'

unites the vowel with lam

z. -jC_i-l

Izafet and

The Arabic

668.

it

^Ij

JJU-

'<u)l

Compound

Definite Article

Adjective.
is

used for the

following purposes:
I. To form the Arabic Izafet:
as when an Arabic
noun is united with a second noun; the last letter of
the first vowel, being Nominative, has generally eotre
(-ou, -it) as its vowel (while it was esre [-i] in the
Persian system [ 515]), and the second noun has the
article

OC*j-U jj>l emiruH mumineen the commander of the believers.


j^t abdfi'l Mejid the servant of the Most-Glorious.

j^cJil

J^J-1
s

<J\j**
.^

mizanu'l harare the balance of warmth, thermometer.

jU

o:>U-Jl

daru's sa^adet the house of prosperity, i.


^
Imperial Harem.

e.

the

the Arabic Compound Adjective, formed


of a Participle (i. e. fayil, mefoul, adj. of Quality, N. of
Excess, [ 601606]), and a Noun.
The Participle
precedes the noun and ends with eotre (-it), while the
noun has the Article.

To form

II.

LJl

Ja J i\
s

(jJt*-

r-*-Jl

CAs^A

\\

'lij

khaliquH arzv&ssima the creator of earth


and of heaven.
veleeyu'n'niam protector of benevolence,

benefactor.
1 >
f
tjlkiw soultanfis selateen the Sultan of Sultans.

./,

'y


The Arabic

r*\\
* # >

UV1
,

mefrouzou'l eda the performance of which


is assigned, incumbent, canonical (prayer).

-**1

ekberftH ekiabir the great one of the greats.

u^->^-*-*
-

j'o

>

>

Vl

0'^

The word

Note.

369

Definite Article.

the Adj. of Quality of s^J?>L-

is

selatat domination, rule.

unite the nouns with the preposition. The


are voweled generally at the end with
and
-a)
esre (-i); (see more in the next section):

To

HI.

prepositions

mtun

(-e,

bi-

v_->

by

5
:

o\jJl

ez-zat the person:

ofiJ

L bi'z-zat

in person,

personally.
i>j oe?/we

milel

between:

JJLi

J el-milel the

nations: Jill 1*j beyne'l

between the nations, international.

669.
1. All these examples end in Arabic with esre (-*),
Notes.
being in the Genitive case and meaning of; as: Emir HI mihnineeni, Abdul mejidi, Dariis sea-deti, Veliyun niyami etc.

Surnames or patronymics

2.

composed with the words


// ibn, bin, (pi.

vete'd

The Arabs have the custom


of their firstborn
Bekir, the

are

mother; ^\

'

son; c-u 6mi daughter ( 168).

>y\

first

Mouhammed's youngest

name

ebou-Bekir the father of

Caliph.

?r^j>} Ebulferaj the

rJ^A ummu Kulsoum

father of Faraj, Abulfaragius.

of Kulsoum,

kunye]

[^uli

A umm

of calling the parents by the

children; as:

surname of the

Arabic

ebou father;

^j1

beni)\ jJj

in

*L ^|

daughter,

the mother

Ibni Sina

the son of Sina, Avicienna.


3.

If the

elif is left

Moslems;

name

of the person precedes the surname, then

^ ben, bin is used. jJj veled is used for nonjut ^ x+jz* Mouhammed ben AbdouUah"MouhsnDined

out and
as:

-oil

the son of Abdoullah.

U^

:>

seph the son of Zechariah. y^\


jlllt*
>>

jJj <-*~*x

beni

Misdl'ler

Yousouf veledi Zekerya Jo-

Ahmer the

children of Ahmer.

Examples.

6jLjf\ iXL. melikid-mulouk the King of Kings.

v^LjVl ujj

U V\

**

7t-

*J\

rab'bul-erbab the

Lord of Lords.

'

u-^J

reyisul-aba the chief of the fathers', patriarch.

(among Christians), Eesel-meseeh


(among the Moslems) Jesus the Anointed the Messias.

^-t; Eesa-el-meseeh'

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

24

or ^*jz

370

f*Z^)\ p.

-w^

<Ul

(%j

of

God

name

p-lj

the All-Compassionate, the Most-Merciful.

Nom.

v__jb5"^

Gen.

^h^ kitabin of a book.

Ace.

rahmanir raheemm the

bismil-lahir

rv*

53.

The Declension of Arabic Nouns.

669a.

b5""

Lesson

Jcitab&n a book.

l^So

el-Jcitabi

C-jIiSJI

the book.
of the book.

el-Mtabe the book.

Exercise 141.

^Jui

^,

el-kitabft

^_

hitaben a book.

.lz5J\

Form from
pound
I.

seyf

1.

sword

4. (jj-jlS

'

(Oil

2. (*lLe

<3ul).

T^JJ

'

Jb-i ata,

'

-f-

continents, Asia

<a)l

'

-f-

sS-J

^r^

[Moses]).

-f-

'

'

agdfas holies).
6.

Col*

(/".

Ju*-

'

Ju-

^. t

[men]).

<ujl

(*4f heleem

8.

Black

seas, the

(jb dar house

i>\*j

jg

oy&

shefaqa

iliLl

[wine]).

rahman

Tihilafet

10.

(J

cahphate).

+^L>-

merciful,

^)

Mabayis

Jcerim

_~^

meseeli Christ).

M' glory;

^^aj

'

(d

9.

evils).

gracious;

'x* p hamid, mejid, aziz All-praise- worthy

forgiver;

seftar

,JL~*

seadet prosperity; i^LL teba-at printing;

+ ^.Ic ineb grapes


H~ ^a-j

O^ khaqan emperor

iVy4 bahreyn two

fa^sinearning; z$>-

11. (jlp

+
5.

funoun sciences; j. Jchayr benevolence;


charity;

0^"J

(olLL- 4" j^jj berreyn two


7.

Sea and the Mediterranean).

'

o*~, sa'd felicity;

(^Lp tbad servants

and Europe).

[Chinese hn-hang]

^15^ Jj-O jj

'

/#?/ gift;

3.

&\).

#owds holy

interlocutor

J-*^

Com-

the following words Izafets and


Adjectives:

12. (>y

'

jll^,

^J^

'

^l* was^r help; J I?-

The Arabic

rv

jemal beauty;

successful

moiizaffer

JAk*

371

Definite Article.

CL? deen,

din religion).

The nouns preceding

Note.

13.

II.

J^

azeem great,

(JL

14.

J\L).

salif

15. (j^t wad?> rare

seree quick

observed

bad

uwj

above

end

,jo

Ji>-

in ustun

jelil

+ JS 'u^.

illustrious

fteyaw

J\<*lJ istimal usage).

C-'O" hareket motion).


JU-

(-e).

~khatir

5t^ voice).

17.

[honorable]).
19. (J^JL*

vloLl shehadet testimony).

mention).
16. (/o^-

{^j* meree

18. [a/)

keriti

maqboid acceptable

(^jl erhem

20.

-f-

-\-

Oiflj

rahimeen [the most compassionate of the compassionate]).

670. (a'
[Averrhoes]). (,y\

(Aliye

of Isaac);

jlIJI rt&W, errushd


+ ujjJU+ a^b Davoud David); (Jacob the son
<ullc

the

'

daughter of Nayima 4^>).

(Carabet the son of Artin); (the father of Ziya).

The Arabic Prepositions.


671. The Arabic Prepositions are much used
Ottoman, but only in connexion with Arabic words.
Those most frequently met with are the following:

in

J\

ila-, iley- towards, as far as, until, to (

JuVl

(Jl

ilel-ebed to all eternity, eternally.

^-i^

<-^

Ma

a.

^=-\ Jl

'

676

6
).

nihaye to the end thereof;

cikhirihi, ila

et cietera, etc.
b.

bi- by, with, in ( 676

oiJJlj biz'zat in person.

,jLiJV^
c.

bil-it'tifaq

3
).

bUjum'U

<JU_jscJL

all,

everyone.

with agreement, unanimously.

Xj^ bade-, bad- after

676

4
).

24*

or

g72

CxL

badema

%
%

J>jL

bila

U-&1 u<u
f.

^f

\jjJl

Jp

U j

4.1

i>j

JLi

an

^\

originally.

/*- in, at;

/?

rr

Jl^j

lir,

)]

le-,

).

pl.oli.

JUJU ^2

fo'sfc

instantly.

ghouroush per, at 5 piasters.

eV-ueJ as it

JjV^fceZ
ley- in favour

of, to;

S. [ 217].

was

for ( 676

before,
7
).

676

9
).

ma/S&i notwithstanding, yet.

^ mine-,

r jjj^ i* minel
<C*

If ma-eZ mimnouneeyi with pleasure.

ma

>

676

n purpose,

Umasldhat for the sake of business.

-JIT
.

^^

(of dates); at, for (of price)

V ma-, nia-e with


"

an

on the 23 August 1318 (1902) 0.

ci

k.

Cjl

on

or /iyatt

fee like.

J^

w/io from him.

fil-vaqi in effect, really.

i)

).

/&>g& ade extraordinarily.

from.

^
C^ w as

Lrj

1.

aZa fraKM in the former state.

ofpU

676

aUd-devam perpetually.

i.

fear.

ala-, ale-, aley- upon

^3

oCll

r1A

khavf without

j^5 fevqe-, fevq- upon, over

h.

jl^ badehou afterwards.

after which.

bey tie-, beyn- between, among.


men.
beynen-nas among the people, among

rYr

53.

bila without (used with nouns).

ujj

e.

Lesson

badet'ta-am after dinner.

-QJIaIj

d.

u-J-*

min-

from.

qadim from ancient times.

min-hou, minhi, mirih' from him.

any right
&. min ghay'ri haddin without

oAll^

'

oXJ^

ox^y^

'

oXi\

dare not.

zimninda, haqqinda,

about,
khousousounda, babinda (partly Turkish)

for.

The Arabic

rvr
Note.
as

Jl

aley-,

iley-,

'

Jc-

Uy; but with nouns

fjjUJi 'ia;

fSjCjia*-

^5\*l

with pronouns

J connected

'

Jul

IY

^,ijVi

u^ r^

**yj*

J^^l

i^f

^^

<a^ *1^j t;*Vr'

ila,

ala,

is

li

pronounced
676

5
,

7
,

).

Exercise 142.

Y <!*"

as

^1

\$ji?r^>-

373

Definite Article.

'

f"^'

*'

J^

^^r
1

leb Jjl C0j*au>l

J^ J^ J

fv-j

*-*-*'

L>-ij

(J*^

:^-u*Jj

1. oulouheeyet Godhead.
2. Eqaneem'i
IFbrrfs and Notes.
3. vajibCd vujoud God (whose exisseUse three persons, Trinity.
tence is necessary, self-existent). 4. ibnul insan the Son of Man.
5. qouloubou insaneeye human hearts.
6. tat-heer it." to purify.
7.
me'rqoume she ( 677); zatul jenb vulg. satlijan pleurisy.
8. ifaqat boidmaq to recover ( 619).
9. biznillahi by the permission
of God
10. kes'sabiq as it was before ( 671 j).
if God wills.

11. alel

to

adi (oSlc- or

<ol&

custom 671

f)

usually.

12. tenez'zuh'

take a walk (V. of ndzhet).

tV

4*>J>

Translation 143.

One day Hoja

Effendi, losing his donkey, enquires


man about him. The man answering said: fc I saw
your donkey in the court of Iconium 1 he was acting as
of a

Words and

Notes.

1.

Qonya mehkimesinde

qadiliq idly or.

or ^js Lesson

374

ry\.

53.

" Well 2
I already knew
iudee there." Hoja Effendi said
3
because when I was teaching
that he would be a Cadi
!

that donkey sticking


(giving a lesson to) Khilez, my son,
immediately
4
up his ears was listening attentively" He

reached Iconmm.

He

and after some weeks


started
Cadi from
5
went directly to the court. He saw the
He took a bunch of grass from the bag ot Jhe
afar
giah! giah!
donkey and showed it to him saying gtah!
Hoja was doing.
aiahf* The Cadi laughed at what the
In a few
The Hoja said: "Well, he recognizes me.
fresh grass.
will come cheerfully to eat the
7

moments he

I will wait for


2.

pel ala.

him."
3.

And he

onoun qadi

is

still

waiting there.

of .US) olajagluni ben zaten

(fayil

Z.doghqoulaqlarini diterek diqqatla dinler idi.


or straw, used
hay
6. means
gitdi.
meliUmeyi
roudan doghrouya
e
7. fUhtU
horses coine, come, come!
to

4.

idim.

bilir

call

the donkeys and

Qonyaya

miitevejjihen liareket edib

aI^C* Conversation.

Sj\

1\

etc.

big * ^f\

^Sf

oljJji

\>J\

o^jl

>\ S\

r*ry

i^W-i

^^

ccL j

i*U

^^^

"^ U

?^)>

1~
W!r^ 4-Mi
J^Q U f ^ ^ U C ^"^
15

f^
*

2 7mmm oZ." to
1. f#frV4l diversion
Notes.
to reply'in^the
A.
B. vob^
to be unhappy.
forfend!
Heaven
Aasja/
4.
620).
affirmative, accept (IV. of jevab
P portunity.
^/-L^withthegreate8tregret.6Yo W

Words and
become unlawful;

na^a,4

r^o

Arabic and Persian Pronouns.

ryo

375

J^IJ* Ju? Reading Exercise.


a

"

^.SCjiO

C8

ajIpj)

An

;.y

Jl>-j^

<PJ1

Anecdote.

<^0

'

4^jtUil5

42iil

IsC

*fcl

TFbrds and Notes. 1. mejlisi ulfet social party. 2. mothersin-law. 3. munasibetsizlik absurdity. 4. &a^s e." to speak about.
6. without hesitation.
5. eziyeti qalqishmaq to trouble, tease.
7. immediately.
8. boghmaq to strangle, to kill; derdini yanmaq
9. brave man.
10. son-in-law.
to confide his woes to another.
11. a. lihinzir pig; nasty.
12. vesselaml

u^t>

Arabic

and

Lesson 54.
Pronouns.

Persian

The Arabic Pronouns are occasionally


672.
employed in Ottoman. They are used only in certain
Arabic expressions adapted by the Ottomans. They are
as follows.

673.

The Possessive Pronouns:

My.

<i

-i

il

-he Thy (masculine),

*i'o -hft,

-hi Him,

l> -h&ma,
a

-na

li

it;

i)

-hi Thy (feminine).

his, its.

-hima Them

-h&m, -him Them

Our.

U -ha

K -kfitn

Yours.

Her.

[two] (dual).

(masc).

//>

Jvun'ne

Them

(fern.).

376

Lesson

9H. urJ-^

The Demonstratives:

674.
'

IS

rv^

54.

Ja za, liaza This.

UU

zalike, zalik That.

villi

'

The Relative Pronoun:


-ma, ma- Who, which.

675.

L.

^li* Misal'Ur Examples.

676.
?&&

1. ^_->j

Lord.

Jj

rab'bi

reb'bi,

O my

ya rabbi!

(among the Moslems), rabb (among the Christians)

Lord!

hazreti mevla God.

3.

mim

bimerinihi

the grace of

by His grace

s*>

bade

5.

Jc

aZa-,

'

<y

menn grace
<Ut

ya'rebbi!

Vj* jj*-

sir.

*AUj

'

-Ct bilont'-

Ta^a-la

bime'rinihi

by him, on

bih'

bihi',

aj

His grace.

sir!

oJm bade'hou after

after:

by

it.

after that.

it,

aley- on, against: *Jc aleyhi against or on him!

on or upon thee

viAic aleyke

My

JLJ

God Most High,

4.

of <Jj) Lord;

mevlana!

aU loutf

Jj

Our Lord; Kabboni!

Ljj reb'bena!

liVj*

bi- with

Lord, God.

Lord,

Jj- 'V^ mevla (N. w.

2.

fihi,

My

pX-lc-

selamun aleykum ! Peace be on you

aleykum on you

God

Hail!

p>J^-

f^~

bless you! a>UIaJ^.

Upon him be peace! (said of any of the prophets).


aleyhimde against me (partly Turkish), ^cju mud'dayi the

alehis selam !
o.u^Ji&

accuser:
<Jc

i\li

6.

{*fJ!

*Js.

^cA*

mudda^a

Ji

iyma and

ila-,

iley- to: aJI ileyhi to

isharet) said,

moumayileyh,

^j*

mefoul of irsal]'
7.

jLi.

he,

*J\

they.

-jJIjUL.

'

'

l^Jl

<JI(y^

(pi.)

\^^j*

mursel one which

to
'

favour of:

a]

ileyha to her
(the

'

mefoul of

p^Jljli*

whom

musha-

allusion has

^Jlj^ moumayiUyha,
is

sent (or addressed):

J--^ murselun ileyh one

H-, le-, let/ for, in

favour of anybody

him

mouma, mushar

musharileyhim

J^

miisharileyha she.

'

mentioned:

been made, the said;

[the

mud'dayi aleyh the accused.

binayen aleyh consequently.

ileyhim to them:

rileyh,

aleyh' com.

who

is

addressed.

lehou, lehi for him, in

o-U^i lehimdi, leyhimde in favour of

me, for me.

8.

i)

ke- like: 1J5" kiza

JiCb hakiza so for thee this

of this, with this.

vlAJ

mafevq that which

ma

1A)

JS^kezalike, -lik like that; thus.

so also.

**

\Jla

has God willed

*JL

before.

is

ma

**

is

him

bless

the remainder.

-usliL

this.

<JyU

is after,

mashallah what

kemakian as

(J6\$

with that which

remainder

its

haza in spite

notwithstanding

zalike with this,

between, between.

mafihi'

that which

mabad

var there

is

May God

ma

above' eJJJjiU mafevqinde above him. t>|U

is

mabeyn that which

which

JLL ma- mabaqi that which remains,

9.

JuuL

377

Arabic and Persian Pronouns.

rvv

is

in

it

was

(mas.), yet.

it

the remainder: j\j cSJuuL mabadi

to

\AcU ma'-a-da

be continued.

over; besides, except.

sliUlL* Mida-la-at:

Remarks.

In writing, the use of pronouns in the


avoided by repeating the noun for which
they stand accompanied by one of these words, which
all mean The same, the said, the above mentioned:

677.
third person

is

jyj* Jyj-*

'

jj&~~*

'

tjpj*

'

^oV

'

*-N

J^" mezbour, mezkur,

mestour, merqoum, moumayileyh, mushariUyh or

musharun

ileyh.

678. Mezhir, mezbour, merqoum are used when


speaking of persons of inferior position. Moumayileyh
MushariUyh is
to the people of the middle class.
applied to persons of high rank.
When speaking of
inanimate objects mezbour and mestour are used.
679. In case of a person first mentioned by
name, or by a common substantive, these words may
we might say
as a kind
be used as substantives, or,
of Personal or Demonstrative Pronoun, in all the cases
of declension. But, in case of a thing, they must be
used as adjectives, repeated each time.

680.

The Persian Pronouns

such expressions.
a>-

chi

what ?

jcu>-

They

are:

chend some

<jr.1

J>-

are rarely used in

een this

Mod self,

i>\

an that

one's self; as

378

em

u\ J i>J (J^^ ghafi'H

Lesson

u-ja

ou

rVA

54.

ou an ignorant of this and that, inexperienced.

oJ$U

chi fayide!

<u-

what

Alas!

J-ui^

X.*-

chend defalar several times.

}j^>

*j>-

khod be khod personally, by himself.

Mi
4JL^4)j3

A*.~Jlc-

4.1

ijJCse* (^j-lf^Jv^y

t/^4 (/"^

'

^"H:^

apLw

3% 9"^.X w*clw

aJIjLS*

^jiL/LI^T^ a

4-ii*ji*>.

Exercise 144.

JU)

(%

4^*_5vj eJJjo^lj

*Slj eijSC^lc J

2.

the use!

is

^Ju*l T

aJ.^A>-

JlcI jc>-

erE'

15

lt'V 3 ^j*9"

/kX3\ i)l*\

<jA-*>

4-^

%jj\3 jljU 3 lull Jj9

IJ^

ijO

vjj^

jL U*<U) <

oUj*

-*

J^t

x'^

^^ J

^^SU*

"~^

u;>i \5Z^.~* jdooJbl

17

^ c5*

4o\J

TFords and Notes. 1. To the village Yenije (near Merzifoun).


muvaselet et." to arrive, reach (III. of vasZ). 3. mulaqat interview

(VII.

of

*l*J

Ziga

an encounter).

4.

sherif honour.

5.

nayil ol."

7. mirinetdar qalmaq
6. teve'j'juh sympathy.
to obtain, attain.
8. vaqi ol." happening,
to be under obligation, grateful ( 535).
occurring {fayil of vouqou'). 9. mufteriyat calumnies (pi. of iftira
11. qat'an absolutely, not at
10. beyan et." to express.
[ 650]).
all.
12. ehem'miyet vSrmek to give importance ( 582).
13. mouhakemi a tribunal's hearing a case and giving a legal decision,
law-suit (III. of hukm). 14. fasl olounmaq to be decided, judged (a
case). 15. dava a case; id'da-a, id'di-a to claim (VIII. of dava [ 628]).
16. houqouq rights, dues (pi. of haqq, used as sing.).
17. te-e-diye*

to

pay

(II.

of eda A*\

[ 616]).

rv\

Arabic and Persian Pronouns.

18.
( 579).

mouzayaqa
19.

naqdeeye pecuniary

distress ( 618 of zeeq)\


matloubat dues (mefoul of taleb

<W>-J'

379

[ 578]).

Translation 145.

Jesus said unto her: Mary. She turned herself,


and said unto him, Rabboni. 2. Will you say anything
against or in favour of him? 3. I have nothing to say
against him, but I have much to say in favour of him.
4. The accuser and the accused were before the judge.
1.

5.

The

said

gentleman also was

sick.

6.

What

is

written

on the postal cards ? 7. Is this article to be continued?


8. There was nobody in the school, except your son.
9. I cannot read those Arabic sentences, it is above my
read them.
It
Habib Effendi?

ability to

1.

is

Where

the residence of
that blue-coloured house.

10.

acluq moiikhabere varaqasi

is

= correspondence card.

bend.

2.

<d|>.A Conversation.
t$jji| j>.

Hassan

ciJJi! Ca~>-

liVj-

Effendi,

cjji|

^-.s-

Houseyn Effendi,

f>LJl pSU& j

^UAi

i|

V L*. j<^

*
t

M >U| il

LA-

<

"-.

>

(ITl^
ijjkz*

*X\

A.JLL.

^jot

r-^l
j"

380

Lesson

oi. u~J>*

jj oJuS^dU dXijj} vULJu

j*

J^l+iA

ojtX9l

^^t* J^.l

'

*jjijl
.

j^

*J

(J-

fjjSjl SJii.

(iJoAtLw.

oJj! fJJLJ

tSJyju

<\*JJ-

-i^ir

rA*

54.

>j^o jIjjiL. oLJl

^Ip

JV^~

u^j^ u^ J

o^'ojj\ <J<*JJ

j>.

<Jl

i>J

^y tS.O\

*jVu Jj*^

! "

<j{~3

^--fd

?^^

J Of*** 3

5
l)- -^

<j?

4-js^a*

oj^*\

->-*

vlX

J.Vj3

^.-^

J*^-

ojL& uV^l J^=^

15

Jy

oJ^

f^

o^Lj

Jju ojLt

JJkto-<)Jbjl

Reading Exercise.

/%-Ju

Regulations and rules of

dUJlJL-

^l*

e^lj^

the road, for preventing

O^^ol

oUlii

collisions at sea.

When

close-hauled on opposite

tacks,

the

tack

is

on the

either

hy

or going about.

CJL-

port

always to give way

necessary,

away

ship

>

if

keeping

'

u^-M

jj^_>.o^_j
.

oo^Liji

^-Jl=t-

<j&idA i-i^L* ^Jj>.j-.

ojiU-lL
!

j jGiy
\

^ o^Jj

ojJU-

^J^loLa*

a^u.*?

(^joj^b

{ji*\>~*\

J^j

<>XL->.\ I

^JJ^y
Ltb <^Vjl

j ^J^j-

Arabic and Persian Pronouns.

rx

With the wind

way

give

free,

on the wind.

to those

Two

381

under

meeting

ships

(having)

full

are

sail

to

-yj <oLo*

iJj-bl L_i.iLs7

<iL

(J^lj

pass

on the port side of each other.

i.

Under steam and nearly end-on


to

each

other,


L^S} O^Ji -^jJj\ -i\

both

cast

^.y.ji

to

starboard and pass on the port


side of each other.

steamer always

to a sailing vessel:

gives

and

it

way
must

be remembered that every vessel

under

sail,

with steam ready,

though not using

it,

is

con-

u^U-

(iji>-^jl J*

J^ Jjib

sidered a steamer, in the event

of collision.

Every vessel underweigh

is to

carry a green light on the star-

board and a red light on the


port side.

Steamers, in addition, carry a

*->y.

white light at the fore-masthead

(^L

{prova).

[Worda the

broadside.]

lP^- -1^4^ JJ^Jl

-cijiw

jj^

\jj-L.

.^jju\ oJlJL5"^ (5jLli

^^

^jjJjjLi

,jjA^^

oo

332

wJ* Lesson

bj^r

Vessels towing, carry two white

masthead

r *f

55.

-*-

During fogs, vessels under steam

iijjji

tpU- jj^b oXlUJ

^r

**

are to sound a steam whistle;

tSJj^ji

vessels under sail, to use a fog

ojJU iSJ*^Jji

horn: at anchor, to ring a

These signals

^[ j\^\J^J>
O-^T

*J^j>.

o<ii.>

J-\ J*\

once, at least, every five minutes.

^ J-^.

u^^

- f -

be sounded

to

^-u-

C^i

ip^-*-

bell.

10

-^

Cr%

*JJ^?

Cs^*-

S>}

lights (siliyon).

~>-^

Lesson 55.

The Arabic and Persian Adverbs.


used
8 681 The simple Arabic Adverbs are rarely

ones are very common.


in Ottoman, but the compound
tenveen of ustun
These are made by the addition of a
-ten 48); as:
together with an elif or te (-en,

^t

sharq east:

\^

o\i

zat origin:

'ifli

Ui

sharqen eastward.
sateii originally, already.

'uUft sfc*/&&* orally.

gfcifaJi lips:

the
There are two rules which govern
1
of tenveen of ustun
pointing
P
o90), or short elif
a If the word ends in Umze (
double wsfcm is put
or servile he or te ( 592), only a

682.

(594),

at the end, provided that te

into

round

(I

te

'

change into simple

Which

present:
is

U (Cj

'

-*m) and short


elif

.\> je*a punishment:

^aa fc^j^

and

*)

elif

must change
( -a) must

-en)

*1>

jfo'yftl as a punishment.

Udiyi'Un

as a

gift.

the sign of the Accusative case ( 670).

rxr

The Arabic and Persian Adverbs.

man a meaning:

ll*

ol madde material:

iol*

J*,

b.

But

the final

if

end with any other


an

**~y merhameten kindly.

mirhamit mercy:

<l.**^

elif

izJtj*

letter

with double ustiin

this elif is

lli^.

^UJ qaza'yen by

accident.

end

to the

oumoumen

generally.

by land.

be'r'rin

tahri'ren written.

by

sali' sen thirdly.

bJ^ mujed'deden
i?ci

\x*s

qas'den designedly.

alenen openly.

Lj^IJ taqri'ben nearly.

liU^* me'jjarien freely, gratis.

US"' kul'liyen totally.

force.

<L?-

jum'Uten wholly.

now.

not pronounced:

Itb da'yima always.

ftaZ'a yet,

Ulc-

gha'liba most probably.


in fact, surely.

Utc- a'jeba, aja'ba I

is

Lolc a'dtta simply.

firstly.

VU-

vaqa-a

newly.

fufjeten suddenly.

Sometimes the tenween

V3\ ivvila

of.

\^s^ bah'ren by sea.

L*- jiman, jem'Sn as a total.

\^na- jeb're'n

mouvaqqa'teti temporarily.

Lit

Lii. khefi'yen secretly.

Lilk.
lAi.

wonder! strange!

684. The Persian Adverb.


vative Adjectives, which are made
4jI

added

is

MisaTUr Examples.

A*sz defa'tin repeatedly.

U*lj

the word

Lr^j* mou-a'khkha'ren subsequently.

mutemadi' yen continually.

683.

-en)

lillj

jUfc

l^^sJ

if

\J& naza'ren in respect

bazen sometimes:

L*

maddeten materially.

than those mentioned above,

cJlj salts third:

Uj^f-

in truth, virtually.

never pronounced:

mouvaq'qat temporary:

Lolei*

marten

be radical, or

J&> nazar a glance:

Uj

383

mout'laqa absolutely.
mi'stta for example.
Really!

The Persian

Deri-

by the addition of

-arte ( 528), are used as adverbs:

Lesson

oo u-j^

384

*\j*j, Uraderane brotherly.

dostant friendly.

-ulL-j^

r ^**-

55.

<;\jU:,U. jansiparane devotedly; bravely.

^U^c- mahremane

"lit"

o"\j

fat j,

'

.jjjiji

^jsT W

4<ubl

^U >3W

\at.

jCpJ

itff*

4.
6.

-^-

M*M

^
6

<^

J*

V* ^

"^

'

p**^

gU> s-jiSC

jj^lljl

'

-^

^^

jSC*^

>

,jr
-

<***>**

J5

'

f^

'

^
>

>**W c

* dec.de.
<j*

to announce 4?1. a
Notes.
to
3. garar *.
Faculty.
io-ar-K.ee the

Words an*
2

Exercise 146.

\ Ju

fiUUJt ^- iji- JE*' r

oSjip

VU

intimately, confidentially.

MtfaM to attack

M* MM

the mefoul of IV.

fuj'jMn for Uil*i suddenly.

5.

MUM. bodily.

liquid (pi. of musk^ whidju


(mefoul ol Mo;.
7. wd&teto addicted to

any intoxicating
sftfr).

8. ighfal it." to deceive.

9.

iradet will (IV. of

VSjJ

[ 620]).

rAo

The Arabic and Persian Adverbs.

IV <&-j

385

Translation 147.

CC

I will give unto him that is athirst of the


1.
53
fountain of the water of hfe freely.
2. He has not
yet come. 3. The school house was newly built. 4. Nearly
500 persons were present. 5. He took the money by
force. 6. They were treating
each other like brothers.
7. He was serving his Master devotedly.
8. I cannot
reveal 2 to you that matter 3
it was told to
me in
confidence. 9. He told me again and again (repeatedly).
10. It is most probable that he will never be able to
4
come.
11. Really! That is my opinion
too.
Words and Notes. 1. mou-amele et." 2. beyan et." 3. mad'de.
(Bendenizin de efkicirl heman heman o merkezde dir.J
4. efkiar.
1

^LJ

j^jl 1

Reading Exercise.

^-,4 L-. JUI ib^A* iW j

Newton.

oji^i

oSijj^>

jj (joli>j

Jj^*' w^sjw c*j^

4,VL^4 jr

^.^4

'

aLJ

s^>jjji

o-^jl5^j>^

HIL^ ^^-^ J" dijb

ofx

Jb*b' e^Uil (JjU-

(T^ \fcos>\

j>

uVjl

^a^^-o-XjI

^Jl^-cJo

i5

*}b

^ 3j x

Words and Notes, if'al actions (pi. of fiyf); siyasiye political


(579). 1. ouloumou tabiyiye natural sciences. 2. oulema scientists
(pi. of aJim [ 643 d]).
3. Nevton Newton.
4. parlamento parliament.
5. meb'ous delegate, P. M.
6. sifaftyla with the title.
7. ne
ne
neither
nor
8. iyrad to deliver ( 620); noutq
speech. 9. tekleef proposition ( 615). 10. itiraz opposition (VIII.
of arz).
11. khariqitl ade olaraq extraordinarily (Turk, adverb).
12. vaqarli' bir souretle in a serious manner, seriously ( 458).
13. idareyi kelam et." to deliver a speech ( 621). 14. te-afjiib et."
to be astonished. 15. mesayil questions (pi. of mesele [ 597]), mouhimm' important (fayil of ihmam [ 619]). 16. ikhtiyar et." to prefer,
choose ( 627); sukutle for sukut ederek remaining silent (= keeping

silence).

17. tekel'Uun

et." to

Turkish Conv. -Grammar.

speak

( 622).

25

386

20

oo

<&> J\jf

^Jf pL*

gZz<>

^-J

<

j>.

29

Lesson

i_rj^

"l>Jbl

rxn

55.

18

^iC*- <LL_jJj!

li

JJPJ'J' *>-j^

,Aj>A-

'8
."

.4

<y~-lf

cAj'jA jw^T

18. i?Ja compelling ( 619).


19. hukm it." to judge, think.
20. with great attention. 21. see 678. 22. bahs et." to discuss.
23. istima et." to hear. 24. al'lame exceedingly learned ( 582 of
at lam, this is exceptionally masculine); divran the century.

What do you

think that he said? 26. jihit side. 27. miishahava current of air. 29. houdous et."
to occur, happen; moujib causing (mfOul of ijab [ 619]); bayis
ol." to cause. 30. sitihat health; ikhlal to spoil, break. 31. binayen
aliyh therefore ( 676 5 ) teklif et." to propose, to move. 32. he sat
down quickly ( 286). Ebuz Ziya the father of Ziya ( 669 2 p. 369).

25.

hade to

see.

28. jireyani

4l
To Thank.
I

Conversation.

ULil ^CL"

thank you very much for your

kindness.
Pray don't mention it.
I feel very grateful to you.
am very much obliged to you.
shall never forget your kindness to me.
return you a thousand thanks.
beg you will accept my most
grateful thanks.

Thank
I

am

you, Sir.
sorry to give you so

much

You overwhelm me
kindness.
trouble at

I shall

with your

all.

be most happy to return

you the favour.

You
I

are really too kind.

hope

I shall

Loutfounouza pek ziyade


kur iderim.

teshek-

Estagh'firoul-lah

Zati alinize mirinetdarim.


Minnetdarinizim.
Qoulounouza olan loutfou hich

ounoutmayajaghim.
Binlerji arzi tishek'kur iderim.
Minnetdarani olan tishek'kuratimi
qaboul bouyourmanizl
istirham ederim.
Teshek'kur iderim effindim.
Zati alinize' bou qadar zahmet

virdiyim ichin mute-is' sifim.

trouble.

No

Teshek'kur etmek.

some day be able

to get out of

your debt

Loutfounouz qoulonouzou mah'joub idiyor.


Hich zahmit diyil. Bir shey diyil.
Loutfounouzou iyadi idejeyim
ichin 2>ek mis'-oud oum.
Haqiqatin pek nazik sifiiz.
bir gun olour
ioumou ida edirim.

Inshal-lah

bor-

TAY
I

Arabic Numerals.

am

Khidmetinizde bouloundoughoum
ichoun pek memnounoum.

delighted to have been use-

ful to you.
I

am

387

extremely glad to see you.

georduyume derejeyi niha-

Sizi

memnoun oldoum.

yede

Nothing at all! Not at all!


No ceremony between friends.

Bir

she'y deyil.

Teklif yoq dour effendim!

^ u^-A> Lesson
^I

aljipl

Ottoman,

especially

in

686.
jo-\

'

Cardinal Numbers.

I.

vahid or ahad one;

esneyn two.

** khamse
-CL-

^i&'^i&

ashere, ashJr ten.

yLys

sifir zero.

^^i&

a*-J

ishreen

<*U
e7f

tis'een

90.

mtyl

100,

1000,

687.
Jj\

'

<i.>l=-

jL sam

CniJi

^U-*-

tis-e't'

20,

Oyjf- khamseen 50, Cni-

Owl

^it

erba-at asher 14,

ii~ siftet as7ter 16, ^ic.

^it

se&V

sit' teen

a$7ze'r

60,

jw-

hadi
fern.

1 st

<Ju semani-

^-ic

oVT

ctf

fern.

Ca*jj1

erba-yeen

40,

semaneen

not used in Ottoman.)

^IciLJ selesou
scfcfe<&

Ordinal Numbers.

second;

17,

seb'een 70, Cnllt

etc. is

miyeteyn 200,

#/ify 2000,

ev'vel,

*~i- khamset ashir 15,

C*iU seleseen 30,

OCL

^,-ic <: seleset

asher 19.

(u^'uJ/^-

II.

eight.

<~J tis'-e nine.

five.

^i& ^jl

yet asher 18,

^Ij^I

4JU semaniye

six.

sit'te

asher 13,

^1

in

iSJ^\ ihda, valiide.

'

^JLc Jcw\ ahade asher 11, ^i.c LJ| isna a*7ier 12,

80,

fre-

<~- seb'-e seven.

erba'-a four.

<*>j\

*A^\

oJ^\j

fern.

*3u se-le-se three.

^ic

are

writings,

terminations, in speeches and sermons.

official

drtU\

Arabic Numerals.

The Arabic Numeral Adjectives

685.

quently used in

jcwl j

56.

miyetin 300,

aZa/" 3000.

aJ^aj s\j*\

Jj\ otJa.

<~G saniye second

(* G o th

of a minute).
25*

388

Lesson

^ u-j^

sfjlj
tu\j

salis third,

u-oL

fern.

oLS

am{j

^y>\J

samin eighth.

U-

*~-lJ

tasi ninth.

rabi fourth.

^^.U- Tchamis

rAA

56.

fifth.

sadis sixth.

<uoL

*jL- sa&i

seventh.

^z,\c ashir tenth.

688. By the addition of an elif with a tenveen,


they are changed into adverbs ( 681, 683):
Vjl eo'vela

LoL sadisin for the

firstly.

Li LJ

saniye'n secondly.

lillj

salisen thirdly.

Ulj rabiyen fourthly.

7 th

saminen

8th

9 th

10 th

L~.lT tasiyen

\^

L~.U- Tchamisen fifthly.

ashir en

The Nisbe

689.

UL. sabiyen
llli

6 th time.

of the units

made by

is

the

>

measure

J,l^

580

f.):

jLJ sunayi composed

rtlbayi

three

triliteral.

four

quadriliteral.

Fractional Numbers.

690.

wi^ai nisf, nisif half ( 207).

cJG

mj

sulus, suls
ronb',

691.
in

Arabic,

,
/

4.

aJ

/5-

^i.& Ms/ir, ushiir

V'io;

ebshur tithe

In forming
the smaller

larger, while j

ve

is

a^S^Ij^I
sweJs, swdfws

*~- sub

js.

ouroub

^-i- khoums

i^r-Ju-

bi-literal.

ci>d sulasi
^frlij

of two letters,

(pi.

Ve-

ji.

sumn, sumun
fats'

Vs.

V-

jlic\ ashar).

compound numeral adjectives


number always precedes the

put between every number and that

which follows it: that is to say, in reading they begin


from the right, as they write and read from the
right ( 13).
jiilt*

oy^

Misal'ler

Examples.

aa-J tiset ve selasoun (or selaseen [ 573]) thirty-nine.

rA^

v_j3I

Arabic Numerals.

j ^JL& iji^ ilJ Tahreeren

JjIf-tU

fit

389

yevmil hhamis vel ishreen,

min

shehri zilqadetish sherife, lisenetin sebet-asher vi selesoumiyetin


ve elf. (This Firman) was written on the 25 th of the sacred month
Zilqade, in the year 1317 (of the Hejira).
cjjjj

The term examinations were

khitam bouldou.

*~J-

<dj jjf< shouhourou selese imtihanlari

cj!;Uc^\

fl^

times (of daily prayers).


1001 nights,

i.

e.

finished.

otejl evqati mubarekeyi Tchamse the five blissful

4.jL.

<L)

j <U

<J&\

elfu

UyU

ve

the Arabian Nights, Turk. Bin bir

geje.

The Diminutive Noun.


The Diminutive noun is made by

692.

the

leylet

the

measure JJ fouqeyl ( 156, 167, 544):


Xs.

^-^

abd a servant:

x~-c

(j\L*selman prop, name:

<

11

'

10

Wo?*ds.

1.

(jlJL,

A Jul

little

prettiest.

souleyman Solomon.

*<\i
'

servant.

Exercise 148.

!H

i>>. houseyn darling,

hasan beautiful:

^oubeyd

a'.

<

ai

-.

^
I*

'

oulouf or a/a/"; the units, tens,


(duals [ 568]). 3. fousoul seaa section, subdivision of a book. 4.jezayir

aftad, asherat, miyat^

hundreds and thousands.

2.

sons, pi. of /asZ a season


islands, pi. of jezire ( 646).
;

/3,

/6

5. ameliyat processes (Arith). 6. mad'de


644 b). 7. shouhour months (pi. of shehr). 8. product
(mef. of housoul [ 604]).
9. liavass sense, faculty.
10. Tchamseen
a period of 50 days, following the Erbayeen, ending at the Vernal
Equinox. 11. erbayeen the forty days of midwinter, beginning
with the winter solstice, 21st December, and ending 30 th January,
when the severest cold is experienced. 12. kesri asharee the
decimal fractions. 13. eed festival (Pentecost). 14. individuals.

article (

..

ol

390

dtijjjc *ic cJjS


:

(Z

o,

**

> :a

^ Ju>

Lesson

56.

ifcBjt

Exercise 149.

r tS^A^JiJi- J-^J

Jj*l~

J5 jlijJ:

i_rJ->

ilS*"

VV

6J*Lf

C-

>-

"^

^J3

'-*~t

-*-'
**

it*

--

>^ *A > &** >^

>***

14

'

13

J^ </* ^ *&
douMian

Words md Notes. 1. mir^ intoxicating


silk. 5. ayd fishing, hunting
tobacco 3. damgha stamp. 4. fcarer
oT to becaled; Doiiyounou
to&eer
6.
"fish; rolLi taxes.
liquids.

2.

Ottoman
Idaresi the Administrationio [
fcawate
of
refer (IV.
[ 620 j
Public Debts: terk to leave; ihale to
tomilitary ( 581).
8
civil;
nobility.
Ottoman
the
grade
rank,
ot derejS [ 576]); rutbi a
superior (fayi of tema10. mutSmayiz privileged,
class.
9
grade in the
U. rutbeyi bala the supreme civil
vuz re 6241).
vezir
a
of
18. tarh
rank
the

Oumoumi^yi Osmaneeye

.*.

sMf

Ottoman

nobility.

Bubtraction.

14.

12.

W**^

W*

zarb multiplication

(if

khazan autumn

pron. darb
17

sto

it

it,

,a

blow

winter (5

sayf summer.
648],,.
20. ^as<*>*
19. mesadir infinitives (pi. of masdar [
m
simple,
T>?
fundamentally ( 681). 21.
mwced ( 605 b/u yi
22. wfeeedouw fiyhi augmentative:
teheed).
augmented in itself).
preposition, ai pronoun ([ 671 i]
16.

15.

18 spring.

&i:

m^nM

fJ*(*%

/?.V

r\)

Arabic Numerals.

391

Conyersation.

a\.^a

Congratulations
IjuLTj CjI^jJJj

and Felicitations.
I

have heard with great pleasure

that

H.

I.

M. the Sultan has

o JaJc oL. J^
oj^c dij\>^ o^> <i& ^-aMj*-

jjj\ jijl olifcC

appreciated your services and

<jliJ

conferred on you a decoration of

Juj]jj^ CjL^\ j

the third class of the Osmaniye.

.jjJLljl

have heard with the greatest

joy that H.

I.

M. the Sultan has

appointed you Minister Pleni-

a*LS^ O-^^J

o^^-^ <liJLHe

<ii

4.-*.j7

jl^

-JLia^Jwt*

fj<~*~*

4UjLi b-^jl

0^-<J

iSj^^Jj^,

*\J. ^*

c.j^_-^T

**;ij?-lc.

Jlc^
.<i-vJj\

read in the newspapers with

extreme joy of your promotion

My

[To a Lady.]
great on

-dJ^-*.
.

joy was very

hearing that H.

M.

I.

Vj^

Jj^IJ

j-

*i*M

jjJjjIjlj-L"

o^>-

the Sultan had been pleased to

*j\*

confer on you the Insignia of

JJ > >U

J^

my congratulations

Jjublijl,

on this honorific distinction.

Please accept

my

sincere con-

my

you

gratitude

feel in

<Cj^UI& oJ^c-

jJjI oj'-^

(5jJl& olJ> jV*i

o^o^nT

jVj.l

u-^*

^--dj^ J^J

y~. iSjJzjj^ JlJul o-UaJKjIj

me.

*="-_;.>

<

<-s"-J <--jj

.f-HJl j.>U^n.~.

cannot express

for the interest

^v* *-

^^nT

viL-oLJU.

gratulations.

fJ-M

^JiMy^

ajJjojl >4^j-lc.

the third class of the Shefaqat.

Please accept

Jbj\

0^*-t iKi3 u^'

JijjJj^j

<-x-

juc

JijJj.-j

<Jlk o-)u.>^-

u-^J i^

c^iii

O^Ulc

*Jj

-us-jT dJLjJ'Jel*

Mutemayiz.

to the degree of

Jlc^

JVlj o\:> cSj^,^ o^a>- o\i

potentiary to London.

Wie-

jV^l*

O-^

-^

*^V?t^

am

for

r^r

oi o-j^ Lesson 56

392

ever

much

so

obliged

t\i,

it.

I perceive

from

token

this high

of the Imperial favour that your


excellent

qualities

appre-

are

vol

ijMjb ^)X^\t^\j ola^l J

ciated everywhere.

hasten to congratulate you on

new
Honour

the

dignity of which
is

Your

the recipient.

[To an Ambassador.]

August Sovereign, H.

Our

Sir,
I.

M. the

Sultan, desirous of affording

some token of

you

his appreciation

'

>>j>j1

3^1 J^

a ^J^O-

Jd->

and his regard has been pleased


to

confer

on

you the grand

jULo

0^

iJ^c*

^/.

o**?J

cordon of His Imperial Order


of the Mejidiye.

Will your Excellency therefore


please to accept

my very

sincere

O&j^A

l3.Vji

P<f-*

vT-.iialC'

J>

congratulations on this token of

the Imperial favour of which

you are the recipient?

ask you,

Sir, to

to present to

respectful
to

be kind enough

H.

I.

M.

homage and

my
to

very

convey

him the assurance of my

jJL\

<j)lj\

<3Vjk

jlJJU-^ c-jI*j ^->JjJ^-"

o^<^> wiklc J

^<*lj^l* <li
-jjbliol

Vj\j

olc^ " J ol^-ir


1

_~j &

y.^r

rv

393

Arabic Numerals.

profound gratitude, and to

re-

rJ-^l ^-J

present to him how greatly I feel


honoured by such a high die-

k^}
iSiJ^J.y. ^

>

L/'if'
3

'

f-*"*

am

tinction and how much I


sensible of his high munificence

and bounty.
-

s-i

9
jr

^j
4i

AZSUA*-

j*~-

4I)

dAl~,<Ua3

C^L^>- jJj3

<J^J (i'j*

OU-

Jl

OVjl

pi*
,JU>

Reading: Exercise.

Home
C(

(Fatherland).

^il

4A-A>

^C-^J &> (jL-o

<v>

17
ill

/UjV>

4JU-U

4 U

dljj-l3

4L

"^Ij*

JflC

sl;L~>- jJjS

45CSj>-

'

4j

Jj-

>J JU

a:Ij

22

f]U. e ju>.b:jl

Ul nj
!

oVjl

1. sense,
mind.
2. mureb'ba
square
TTorcZs and Notes.
(mef. of ter-bi' [ 615]\
3.
museVUs triangle (mefoul of Uslees
6. vijdan con5. to judge.
4. qaziye decision, truth.
[ 615]).
science. 7. vatan home, fatherland. 8. outside, other, non- (fayil
10. itimacl to believe (VIII. of
of khourouf.
9. sih'hat truth.
amd). 11. sheer-khor that sucks milk, suckling ( 535). 12. mayishet
(n. w. mim of aysft -f- gta/i) a place where to gain his subsistence
13. kedshe a nook, retreat; feragh leisure.
14. his'siyat
( 541).
feelings (pi. of hiss).
15. mhjl affection. 16. mevahib gifts (pi. of
mevhibe'). 17. qoudrit power; Providence. 18. tenef'fus to breathe
(V. of nefes).
19. ataya gifts, bounties (pi. of atiye [ 646]).
20. p. t. revnaqli splendid, brilliant. 21. looking, glance; lemhayi
iftitahda at the first glance. 22. khak soil; ground. 23. te-al'louq
it." to fasten, to attach (V. of alaqa 622).

394

o*\

Lesson

Lr<j^

56.

y^\.

25

j/-

30

1-15,,

i-

44

'jyjjy oJ^^SZ>v^ij

1>.

29

o^" j'

36

o-Uil^j
it

0^ rU3>-

....

..I

*<"" "

34

dk,3l^>.l oVjl

41

40

..

c^ oj^ rfP4r*jl
w_* ^jl L?j

a5^Jjs>50
I

..

O^*

j^, /C^J

42..

^4JU. ^oiT

^s^y*

'

JjSC 35 ;>L,

,.i

43

4^Jj>-

J<-.

..

JU "^ j

dbsVjl j^ljl

48

A^ljLl

31

^A aI-J^L

oJUU-Ai./'

**

49

l"

~|

'

jjl^vjl

- a6

52

<55

I^U

Jo Oj Lc

As*

O^jjte-

4LU$ dUl^y

24. mad'de material ( 582, 644).


25. jus a part, fragment.
26. p. guzeshte past ( 555). 27. p. yad recollection; hazeen sad (adj.
28. tehaj'jur petrification, embodiment (V. of
qual. 7m#n [ 606]).

hajSr [

622]).

haqq

right.

31.

29. hurriyet
32.

liberty (

qayim existent

(fayil

581).

comfort, rest.
33. existence.
maqbere a burial

30.

of qiyam).

ijdad ancestors (pi. of jedd [ 639]). 35.


place (N. of Loc. qabr [ 598]). 36. sukun rest, calmness. 37. netije
result, effect ( 582). 38. jilvegiah a place or seat of beauty, life.
40. it'tihad union
39. ishtirdk participation (VIII. of shirMt).
( 628). 41. menfa-at interest (n. w. mim of naf [ 597]). 42. kesret
abundance. 43. muvanese familiarity, friendship (III. of unsiyet).
45. qarabet near relationship.
44. jihetiyile by means.
46. ouJchouvvet fraternity. 47. nisbet proportion. 48. hakimiyet sovereign49. tasar'rouf disposal,
possession (V. of sarf).
ity ( 582).
50. haqiqi real ( 581).
51. glialib conqueror (fayil of ghalebe).
53. mdvhoum imaginary (m^foul of vehm).
52. shemsheer sword.
54. Matt line.
55. mil'liyit nationality ( 581).
34.

r\o

Arabic

56. shebab youth.


58.

noble

57. oulvi, -viye

ytima union (VIII. of

oY

Compound Words.

395

579 of

j\e 'oulouv).

jV'm [ 627]).

u^i>

Lesson 57.

Arabic Compound Words.

693. There are many compound words in use


Ottoman,
composed of two Arabic words. They are
in
connected together either according to the Arabic or
The
the Persian systems of Izafet ( 515, 668).
majority of such words are composed according to the
Persian system.

But there are some Arabic words w hich are in


frequent use in Ottoman in composition with other
words of Arabic origin. Their use will be best understood from the following examples:
T

694.
1.

(pi.)

I.

Arabic System.

(ji i (sing, genitive), ji

<j^e

zon

J^l

(nomin.);

^ji zevi

owner, possessor:
c-*ao ziqiymet precious.

?-j^o zirouh animated.

jJlji zoulyed possessed of a


hand, handed.

jjllo zishan glorious.

J>bcJl

r^-^Vt
2.

Um V^

j:>
<j'z

zoul jelal possessed of glory, Lord of Glory (God).


zevil

erham possessors of

y^oXo sahib possessor;

^-\a

Cjll .s<J\j

sahihul imza

who

relation, relatives

pi.

^J&z^\ as-hab:

signs, the undersigned.

o\jy*J\ w=^Ur sahibul

Ichayrcit

vel

hasanat.

The

possessor (or the author) of this good and charitable work.


3.

V la

not, without:

oY u-J^ Lesson

396

o^V
X^

U**>Ji layouh'sa innumerable.

^i la
iV

youkh'ti infallible.

la

695.

,.

, .:

Jj

.Jyl

2.

veZi

*&* careless.

^Ss J^l

a7id the heir apparent,

veliyuri
<ij' r**^ <ij veZi *#&>

,.!,.,

t*W owner; patron.pl. Ujl ev%a,

j^ Uj ^e%i
c^;

yimoui immortal.

la budd" inevitable.

Persian System.

II.

J,J *^tee,

1.

la

jC

nothing.

shey

i"A^

57.

crown prince.

niyam benefactor.

*y&* bimirinet a benefactor who upraids

er&a&

of L>j rebb) owner

(pi.

not.

endowed

of,

with, master:

^J^ v Ljl

eV&a'M

'

i3b* t*M
t.j> <JlM
3.

^^
^>U

V U^\
v U^\

^,UJ

*l^l

men

wi^'rag

sa/ufc,

safti'fti

pi.

seW*

as-7ia'6i w#afeft
fci

/2ras/i

enva,

pi.

ill

of

man

e^7i islam a

cji J*\ &'!

cJL*

>\

^.U\
t.

is skilful in this.

as-A& possessor, owner:

of wealth, rich.

rich class.

in bed, sick.

wet?;
all

kinds,

Wyt

eh'li hiyet

Moslem.

varieties:

kinds of troubles.

JaI e#Z man, person, pl.J>i

>U >\

artisans.

the noble class, nobilities.

s^Li* *\^\ envayi meshaqqat

5.

skill,

of curiosity, of hobbies.

^U-l

asTm'M sM'# the

J*\J v^^U sa7u


4.

6oM ** trba'Mdir he

^.

>ZjjJ v-^-U
:

erfca

of wisdom, philosophers.

men

endowed with

^Jij\ erbabi huner

Ja

OJj

MW*

>\

&o#:
eh'li irz

honorable.

family.

^- >\

&'** ***&* ex P ert

astronomer.

jk^ >\

eh'li

mantlq logician.

ability ( 581).
efc'fty^ capacity, capability,

capable.
J:~U\ eh'liyetli able,

>JJU1

eh'liyitsiz

incapable.

Compound Words.

Arabic

ryv

6.

r~>-

husn

v^-j^ y^>. hus'nu

goodness, good:

Jchidme't

pi.

397

^M-

mehasin.

good, valuable service.

JU- .>>. hus'nu hal good condition; character.


IlL y^>- hus'nu

lihatt'

fine

penmanship.

sou

7.

evil,

bad

(pi.

^jL-* mesavi

[ 649]):

JU. j sou'yi hal bad behaviour, bad condition.


*j~*

{Ja

sou'yi

-Ua5 *y* sou'yi

^-

Jlc*!-!

8.

zann a bad opinion, suspicion.


qasd attempt to murder.

sou'yi istimdl

bad usage, abuse.

+Academ non-existence, absence (used with nouns):

^L^lLl aAc

ademi

ita-at disobedience.

v^jlcj *A&

ademi

ri-a-yet dishonour.

ojji

aAc adS'mi qoudret weakness.

*j*-J r->^

ademi vujoud

non-existence.
*Ac jlo diya'ri adem abode of annihilation, death.

9.

bi'la without (used with

nouns

[ 530]):

bi'la

qousour blameless; spotless; perfect.

\Jj- >^

bi'la

gharaz without any intention, aimless

jj+sl)

10.

j& ghay'ri non-,

^jiC_* ^nc- ghay'ri

*jL. j*p ghay'ri

in-,

sincere.

un- (with adjectives):

munikin impossible.

malum unknown.

J^V js& ghay'ri layiq unworthy.


<ib
Ju~. jJc-

^nc-

ghay'ri kiaft unsufficient.

j y~* muslim

11.

ve ghay'ri

Ju Uemal

muslim Moslem and non-Moslem.

perfection; perfect:

iiij

Jl<?

Jcema'li diq'qat perfect attention.

^JSJ

Jl^

kimali teshek"kur perfect gratitude.

oV

398

12.

t.

t.

<-~.-k'u

o^i-

13.
aI-^c-

'

\i

<*>jojj\ t~.

t.

nefs person,

J>

LrjLJ

c^'

^jJi>

'

self:

bin'nefs, binef'sihi personally,

nefsi shehirde in the very city,

my

person.

ay'ni the very same:

ayniy'U, biay'nihi exactly the same.

a-1-;.^

ojj^s

Cas-

ay'ni souret the exact copy; the very

oXA*j

ay'ni Fernanda at the

t.

O^J*

'

/*Jj

^1 j^ jjljl

O'vlaL-

TFords awe? Notes.

and abasement of
a negro.

2.

Nekbet ou

tyrants.

dehr world.

3.

1.

p.

same

same way.

time.

Reading Exercise.

Ol^j ^^j^- ^oIaj j

made

r\k

57.

kendi nefsim iizerine on

(iXi

<l>

Lesson

^-j-i

*yo VrV" -V

Jl

jj^j' cJI

the overthrow
habesh Abyssinian;

zil'Uti ehli zoulmet

abd slave;

bakhi fortune, destiny.

(Allusion

is

Nadir Shah, the conqueror of Tartary, Afghanistan and,


India 1735 45.) 4. Dah'hdk name of a celebrated Arabian tyrant,
who conquered Persia and slew king Jemshid. He is said to have
had two snakes living between his shoulders, which were fed
daily with the brains of two little children, Zohak (Astyages?
Deioces?). 5. milk kingdom.
6. Kiave name of the blacksmith
of Ispahan, Kava (Cepheus), who killed Zohak's tax-gatherer who
came to seize his children, hoisted his own leather apron as a
standard of revolt and made Feridoun (Phraortes), a descendant of Jemshid, king, and delivered Persia. 7. perishan et." to
to

misfortune.
9. bel
11. dSvr et." to
12. zulm wrong;
turn, revolve; chenberi devran fortune's wheel.
the fayil of which is zalim tyrant. 13. giriftar ol." to be subjected
14. akhir at last (fayil of akher).
to.
scatter

or ruin.

baghlamaq to

8.

trust.

iqbal,
10.

id-bar

day ire

prosperity,

circle

( 582).

r\\

Arabic

"oU

O^'

Compound Words.

cjyu.

^ y* jjj\

'

14

>T jj

4i-j ^lo^ljl Jlt>

4J

26

V~

36

<u

" 4Jbl

399

jy-uj)

"jjj*

yt

j^O

efcse'r for eksSriya frequently ( 683); j&za punishment.


kind, sort; am<?7 crime, sin, guilt (= tooth for tooth and
eye for eye). 17. akin iron. 18. rakhne ruin, death; souhan a file,
19. tezkeer et." to remember, remind.
rasp.
20. Zan cursing.
21. Hafjaj a celebrated tyrant, governor of Iraq. 22. Jengiz the
great cruel and conqueror of the 13 th century. 23. tebjeel treating
with great honour. 24. Nousheervan name of the greatest king of
the Sassani line of Persian sovereigns; SouUyman Solomon. 25. qabil,
mumkin (fayil of imkian) possible. 26. elfaz words, terms. 27. tagh28. tefreeq to distinguish ( 615).
yeer to change, verify ( 615).

15.

16. jins

29.^iSif pron. kufr means blasphemy;


30.

belief.

a mosque.
33.

if

kefr covering, atonement;

31. deer a monastery; mesjid


in God's sight (comp. Matt. VI., 45).
84. He for ve.
35. inlemek to moan,

insha et" to build.


32. nazari

Haqq

mejous fire-worshipper.

to suffer. 36. mih'net affliction ghamm sorrow. 37. p. pagan, a akhir


end, limit; sitem injury. 38. vnikuifat reward (III. of keyf{% 706 b]);
6
40. ikhvan
husnu
39. think about; Yousouf Joseph.
( 695 ;.
brothers. 41. Tal'lahi leqad aserekel lahou aleyna Truly (By God!),
God has appointed you ruler over us (these are the words which
;

the brothers of Joseph spoke


according to the Qoran
he made himself known to them).

when

oA u-j^ Lesson

400

*.

58.

a1^C Conversation.

yjT
f

r>J

^ .*# %j*

^j^ &> <&\ u~'>^ u>b


m

oUl jy JV>
.fXh\

jJj\
f

uj^-

O^U-^

A *Af

^ ^-^

>**

O^.^Ji

^> ^^ ^^

*> iSir

ifeJ^

uL^Lri

^>>-

<Lijli-

}-*

dux*!

dj* j.

db .jiiijji jj

o^-- o^jA *-#

oA ^r^t> Lesson
*bl>
is

J0

->*) "*

*jj\

c5

vAf

58.

0\X Synonymous Words.

it
In the Arabic and Persian languages
8 696
of the
customary to use two and even three words

same meaning (Kelimati Mutcradife)

in the

same

sen-

considered one of the


tence to express one idea. This is
That was the case with the
beauties of the language.
the Turks imitated
old Ottoman literature too, in which
languages.
this characteristic of the said
European languages and
with
But through contact
of writers has begun
their literature, the new generation
system and to
gradually to forsake the old wearisome

Synonymous Words.

i.*

'

401

adapt the use of simple and single words. Yet there


remain some instances of the old system, which hy
the sanction of centuries have been stereotyped and
consolidated even in the common speech.

697. The synonymous words are united together

by a

which

J>

The

ve.

generally pronounced ou,

is

comes

shorter of the two

first.

i^JU

For instance, the Turkish word


is

expressed by

or

loJijl

ju*'u>

pij^

'

the words

edelim:

meaning

all

of the sentences

jjSjs

ou ghayret

say

chalishalim

*^ say ou iqdam edelim,

ioJol *Ij5I j

j^

ZjJ& 3

vu, not

is

us

'let

jo lie j *^cAfl!l

'effort

and the meaning

try'.

*-Jl-

jenabi Al'lahin Iceremou inayet

dukenmez the mercy of God does not come to an end.

>^" j j (ijxikl loutfounouzou temen'ni vu

*>oJu\

ederim

/o*U
debts (3

Uj\

tal

t^o

pronounced

is

The words _! Jt
mean Ho pay'.

ou\

o?f is

iVbte.

J\ llj

i>=eJ j
-\

-\

7-.L.

j.^

AA j J^
^Jij

oU

i^-l

j ^>U-

^-^

_|

appended

both mean

-\

sjJu j
<JL*\

pie-

^y^

j v^Jj^

and

my

akhzou

et."

girift it."

ou amadS

word.

arzou taqdim

and appreciate

to kill.

to arrest

and

et."

devlet ou iqbal

seize.

ready,
arts

and

sciences.

science and

ilmou irfan

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

|M

to praise.

seen et." to praise

tali

idam

qatlou

to ask'

Examples.

med'hou sena et"


taqdir ou

to the last syllable of the previous

cj^* j fj^ ouloum ou funoun


o\ijz j

paid

vu, after vowels).


!

/ia^?r

deynimi 4da vu iy-fa eyledim

jlllt*

~\

terej'ji

ask for your kindness.

art.

to present, to offer.

prosperity and good fortune.


26

402

Lesson

^_rj*

58.

u*r

>

cX^

a**L*

II.

698.

It

Symphonious Terminations.

was a great task

in the ancient

Ottoman

in imitation of Arabic and Persian to accumulate in a sentence words of the same termination as
literature,

ocJjSj\

*l?cj|

Ju-m.j aLIj

a&Ol hengiami ta-atti resideyi

enjam

when dinner(-tiine) was over.


^liol *>j^a>. o:>UJ!yblj o^Vj veladeti bahirus-sa-a-deti

oloun'ja

hazreti padishahi the prosperous birth-day of H.

M. the

Sultan.

d.1^. u-jV julousou meymenet-me-ehazreti zilloul-lahi the auspicious accession of H. I. M.


JJi o^*a- u-j^

^flll

nousou

I.

jl^

6^

o^i^>

Ottoman order

L.

nishani zishani Osmani the

glorious

(of knighthood).
- ^ >

III. e^Uai*

OUs^ Antonyms.

699. There is another class of words which,


though they are not synonymous and have contrary
meanings, are yet connected together by j ou, vfi:
Uatl

aTchzou ita a taking

j^-l

Turkish

trade, business.

and giving, buying and

r'^\ j \J^>\ ^ji y bou yoloun iptida


yoq dour this road has no beginning and no end.
jjijj

selling,

alish verish.

(J

ou

intihasi

oX-LJl jlol j JlJl iqbdl ou idbar esnasinda in the time of


prosperity and misfortune.

iJ

J.3 J* J.
"J^J^JT chojouqlara juz ou
shey ver give the children something more or less.
{Z*h\

dim

Oijt j

went

^J

6-

^i j

^-

bir

<ij^^-l Istambola azeemet ou avdit 4yU-

to Constantinople
jl!ll

Tcul'li

and came back.

Misal'ler

Examples.

khay'rou sherr

good and

4=-

hayatou memat

life

db~

souva>l ve jevab

question and answer.

kiar vi zarar

gain and loss.

evil.

>

C-lc-

"J \j^

j
J

^-

Jj^> J Jo
lis-

j U^> sefa vu jefa

oOW J ols^v-

mukiafatou mujazat

and death.

pleasure and pain.

reward and punishment.

Synonymous Words.

*ur

(-\a>\

payment and

iyfa vu istiyfa

Ja\Ji~.\

j JLJ

teslim ve tesel'lum

delivery and receipt.

^j>\j>\

iqraz ou istiqraz

lending and borrowing.

pJuT

jj

jyM j

J^yV

^\m

Exercise 150.

^jljl ilo jlJU5C>- dLj\3fjlS

ty^y* ^- ^-*^"' J OLa*-' ^^>-L^


,

j^l oX-Vl

ijL,aiu

teaching and learning.

JLJ talimoutS-al'-lum

4>.jj

receipt of a debt.

leasing and hiring.

jWjl-I j j\^j\ ijar ou istijar


pJL.7

403

^l jlj

pjl

i^L~- j

Jlil

4ju-}lL- *>-j3

<t_iL>- j>

<>> dl

vdUjjJs j

j^ j5Cj j jSe

,2s

jjc5CJU

15
.

jlo4il

Jcii>

Ofle*

^& Ly ^

l>

j;

TTords awd Notes. 1. md'doud regarded. 2. moZtf; c7j> he has,


3. mirhoum deceased and admitted to God's mercy (mefoul
of rahmet); 3. mutevef'fa dead, asleep (mefoul of tevef'fi [ 623]);
3. haji Jerusalem pilgrim (fayil of hajf is hajij
haji}; Ketcjian
Haji Boghos Effendi. 4. papa the pope of Rome. 5. id-diya,
id-da-a to claim. 6. itiqad conviction (VIII. of aqd [ 627]), eeman
belief.
7. kaUri for lialini your situation, distress.
8. arz ehnek

owns.

to state politely.
11. Tcel'le skull,

9.

namerd coward

head.

12. kulali

( 530), cruel.

cap; merd a

dreadful (fayil of ihaU, IV. of Jy>)15. hijret et." to pass.

16. siifla

14.

10.

lieman

manly man.

Ufa

Tci

13.

since.

muheel

to extinguish ( 619).

lower, lowest (fem. of esfil [ 610].


26*

404

jfcuUi

Lesson

t^rj*

s^f lis JJV^ -W^Si

58.

i.**.

A -^ ur ^ ^>-U ojjl qi^1

om seyahat journey; 17. prens di (lal the Prince of


a descendant from Muhammed, Lord 18. haji
pilgrim to Mecca.
19. baqi everlasting (fayil of baqa), dayim
permanent (fayil of devarn).
17.

Wales.

se'*/r

18. es-sey'yid

0\

<U>-

j
-J

Translation 151.

The speaker 1 began 2 his speech, by saying,


'Honourable hearers.' 3 2. Where is the residence of the
undersigned? 3. The word who is used for those
who have sense 4 and which for things which have no
sense. 4. My uncle is wealthy: his property is immense
(innumerable). 5. Kojaman oghlou is a skilful (capable)
I.

1.

he is a thorough master of his business: but


Bichaqji oghlou is an incapable man, his family is always
in poverty 5
6. Scientists and artists have done great
artisan,

services to

humanity 6

The

teacher of penmanship in the College


is Haji Nahid Effendi.
8. The pupils who have been
7
disobedient
the teacher disgraces 8 them.
9. There
was a great multitude 9 the Moslem and the non-Moslem
inhabitants of the city, with their families, were all
present there.
10. I have not the habit of lending
and borrowing. 11. The leasing and the hiring of this
house are finished 10 12. The question n of education 12
is a question of life and death for a nation.
13. The
payment and the receipt of your debt are impossible
now. 14. Ali-MouzafFer Effendi was appointed guardian
(patron) to this orphan.
Words and Notes. 1. natiq (fayil of noutq speech). 2. ibtidar
II.

7.

houzzari zivil vaqar hazarati: huz'zar pi. of hazir, zevil


694 x); hazarat pi. of hazret. 4. zevil ouqoul: ouqoul, pi.
of aql sense ( 694 *). 5. faqr ou zarouret. 6. insaniyit ( 581).
7. ademi ita-atda boulounan.
9. iz8. adtmi ri-ayetde boulounour.
et."

3.

vaqar

diham

( 620).

12.

10. Jchitam

talimou terbiye.

boulmaq.

11. mSsele (n. w.

mini of souvaT).

Synonymous Words.

x*o

cX'A

j$

....

8.

^l

J5

Jjljl

u/S.

$f MLt

dJij3 \jl~-l* c->j~^ dl5C[U \yj


'

Ml

jJU^Jjl

Reading Exercise.

^Ju>*

405

^- <Cj*->-

s-^lj

j\i

i>

,j

.1(1

I Ay

Ijr

*
I

^^

t^**"'

15
*

12

^ji xxj

12

V c#

l3

*UU

19

23^

Words and

Notes.

22

"

Terkibi-bend a

21

V^C

poem

in stanzas of similar

metre but of different rhyme; the distiches of each stanza rhyme,


excepting the last distich (pp. 302, 396). 1. tevek'kul to trust (in God)
[V. of vekil]; yaver helper; Haqq The True One, God. 2. shad happy;
nashad unhappy ( 530). 3. felek a revolving sphere of the heavens;
fortune, destiny. 4. meshreb natural disposition; nasaz discordant,
incorrect.
5. debnek inconsistent, changeable ( 439).
6. Take
refuge! Trust to God! (= May God keep you). 7. halim mild,
gentle (adj. q. of hilm [ 606]). 8. ghazab anger.
9.
youmshaq
khouylou mild-natured; chifte a kick with both hind feet at once.
10. pek, perk violent, severe. 11. graceful smile: nezaket (pseudoArabic from p. nazik) grace; tebes'sum smile ( 622). 12. p. sheer
a lion; qasd et" to intend to kill.
13. bed-asil whose family or
origin is vile, bad; mean, nasty. 14. nSjabet nobility. 15. uniforma
uniform [It.]. 16. zerdouz gold-laced (535). 17. to saddle: palan
a pad substituted for a saddle in the East; it resembles a large
cushion.
18. bed-maye vile-natured ( 536).
19. pleasure party,
society: my, wine. 20. ishret drinking, wine. 21. giher disposition.
22. tSmyeezet." to distinguish. 23. mehekk', vulg. melieng a touchstone,
test (n. i. of hekk [ 599]).

406

'

29

j^r-ji

Lesson

33

_Aji ja *=jT

e it

a<^32^|

<IM.

Ui>

cJ

>iVjl

4ja

-wl

43

'

*u*^

25

e^lyS <^jJl5 i;j


(

58.

.JSjl

C~2~ J

."- SI >*" -

42

fJ-L-jl

c>Vcl

(j-j^t

Jjl c.t

44

^ 3 4,1

41

J*I dli.l

>i^L,
jC,Uj*

V^-<i^^ "(ijirdUi^MiU

24. nons-h', nousouh' advice; yola gelmek to come right.


25. to punish ( 615).
26. ftagg' right, claim. 27. kebtek beating,
cudgelling. 28. belief and religion. 29. Srbabi ghina the rich people
2
( 695 ). 30. namous a sense of honour, decorum hameeyet honesty.
31. naghme song, a melody sung.
32. taqdeer et." to appreciate.
;

33. p. gush ear.


34. tazyee to waste [II. of zay']; nefes the breath.
35. tebdeel et." to change; maqam a tune. 36. avret, avrat woman.
37. maghloub ol." to be defeated; 7ieva any unreasonable bias. 38. er

man (Armenian). 39. nefs the carnal man, the spirit of


conscupiscence. 40. ram et." to submit. 41. manendi shejer like
a tree. 42. nabit ol." to grow, to vegetate. 43. sabit ol." to be
firm.
44. ehl a capable man ( 695 5 ).
45. noqsan deficiency.
46. work.
47. pezira'yi khitam et." to bring to an end.

brave

Ai ($S

Visit

Conversation.

on Ship-board.

Euphonic Changes of the

uV

ftj^-ij

4jcm ^<r>

j\<T4Jjul jjj\

407

Letters.

jy

<l^J

<>

u^^

eJiAjjb iS J+-t

'

iJj\JSL* J^S^aIaI

Lesson 59.

Euphonic Changes of the Letters.


A. Assimilation or *lol

Idgham.

700. Idgham is (the imposition of one letter


on another, or) the assimilation of one letter to another.
This occurs when two letters of the same kind have
come together. The imposition (or assimilation) always
takes place on the second letter, provided that the first

Lesson

o\ u-J^

408

59.

*u*A

The assimilation is denoted by a


quiescent ( 42).
shedde (") over the second letter; the quiescent letter
is marked by a jezma () [ 45].

is

701.

There are four cases in which Idgham

occurs
If the First of the double Homogeneous Letters
is quiescent, it is removed or imposed upon the second,
and the latter is doubled or marked with a shedde; as:
a.

cJLi. millet: the

first

lam

quiescent: therefore

is

it is

omitted

and imposed on the second lam: and this imposition is indicated


b}r a shedde, which shows that the second lam is doubled thus:
mil' let.

^l\

o^As- hid'det
jhs>

is

j^cu

'anger':

oa>-

written as

is

hid' det.

Cjjeo davet, afv: the Obj. Part, of the measure J^IL.

'

'

j jLm medouv, mafouv; the

therefore imposed on the second j

There

is

j is quiescent,
medouv, mafouv.

first letter

as: j~&J^

'

ji-i*

no change in the pronunciation

in either

instances.
b. If the First of the double Homogeneous Letters
punctuated by a vowel, the vowel is cast back upon
the preceding letter and the letter itself imposed upon

is

the second:
J>U-l ikhlal to spoil:

Subjective Participle

a vowel, the vowel

is

is

the remainder

JJLsc.

the

cast back

first

is

Jli.

634a):

the

of the double letters has

upon the preceding

letter:

hence

JJlW^ moukh'-lil becomes Jiie* moukhill'; after the assimilation


" {'

>

J.^. mon-Jchill'.
JuJii shedid severe:

to the

measure JJi|

to the preceding:
e-shedd 'severest'.

it

vSji-: the

Noun

of Superiority according

^JlL| esh'-ded:

Remove

the vowel

609)

is

sxt) eshedd, after the assimilation

is

Jitl

If the Preceding Letter already has a vowel,


or if it is an elif9 the vowel of the first letter cannot
be carried back to the preceding; therefore the vowel
of the first letter is omitted: and the letter itself is
placed over the second of the double homogeneous
c.

letters

Euphonic Changes of the Letters.

<u^

*\Xj\ irtidad apostasy (VIII of V SSj


is

(634

:>jJj

the Subj. Part,

a):

the double letters

j>

is

u~l^

409

[ 627]):

the remainder

murte' -did : the

first

of

has a vowel: that vowel cannot be brought

o;

back to the preceding

because

fore the vowel of the first *

it

already has a vowel: there-

omitted: as sJ-lj-* miirtedd, and

is

the letter itself imposed upon or assimilated with the second


*:

as JJ^-. mur-tedd' (vulg. mourtad, mirtad) apostate.

Note.

In such cases the Objective Participle

Subj. Part, as: .aJ^*

murteded

^^j^

is

same with

->^ miirtedd; but

the Obj. Part, of the measures Infiqal and Iftiqal

the

the

is

not used.

jjy murour to pass: \ j^: according to the measure JJl*


Subj. Part, is jjO ma-riv: the first of the double homogeneous
(j) has a vowel;

letters

to the preceding letter,


first re is

but that vowel cannot be transported

because

it is elif:

therefore the vowel of the

omitted as jjL marr: and the letter itself assimilated

with the second re j: as jL. marr'.


d. If two elifs have come together, the first elif is
assimilated with the second: but the second elif, instead
of taking a shedde, has a medda placed over it ( 29 d,
39, 47, 603):

emr order: the Subj. Part, of the measure Jili

^.\

e-amir: the
^*\

omitted and the second has medda; thus

first elif is

a-mir commander.

e-a-ti

ii\

Note.

(j\Jl\

ityan

2.

1.

All

hajj

jj*> zarar

The

to

\'j>'\:

follow:

J.9

\i

J\\

a-ti following.

double homogeneous letters are not subject to

assimilation, there are exceptions; as:


injury,

is ^\\

loss,

v.

Subj. Part, of

r-U- hajj

.i-L.

s6beb reason,

>

mided

help, JU khalel

>l^:^\

iktitab copying.

hajj 'pilgrimage' is t^-U-

or jW haji pilgrim [to

Mecca

= r^
r-

(Stinni Moslems),

Jerusalem (Christians), Kerb&a (Persians) and Haji Be'ktash near


Kir-shehir (Qizilbashes)].

^Jw

Exercise 152.

Change the following words into the prescribed


first without idgham and afterwards with idgham:

forms,

Into the Subjective Participle (Fayil 60 13, 634 d)

o^ ^rjz

410

Lesson

59.

<ut

> >

Noun

Into the

11

u* f

<

14

V>

18-1.

>

12

jy>-

"

15

i~"

16

Jul*

I3"s

"

^J>-

jjj*

of Superiority

Tc3s*2

18"

iOj

TFbrds.

11

Noun

Into the

help).

Noun

Into the
s^>-

yj

of Location (Ja):

&l

,'

17

Jm $>

609):
\

Ui

J-J-U

"

Jj\>.

with Mini (cjfiw):


'

19* ' ."

w>-

20

Jj2

'

'

mf
JjU
J^- CJ3
t

confusion (spoilt). 2. to implore help (who asks


4. case, especially (especial). 5. addition (added).
persistence (persistent). 8. completeness. 9. a be-

1.

3. to eat.

6. to take.

7.

coming red (intensely

red).

10.

common

(general, public).

11. to

abide, stay (an abode, place). 12. to pass (a passage, path). 13. to
scratch (a touch stone). 14. complete; true. 15. few. 16. beloved.
17. delicious.
18. love (love).
19. loss (loss).
20. joy (joy).

B. Modification of Letters.

The

702.

letters

^j

are

J}U

JEelal.

called

'weak' or

letters (houroufou Met), and all the others are


letters (houroufou sahihe) by the Arabs.
The weak letters cannot bear any burden or 'motion
(vowel), as the sound letters can
they cannot have any
vowel, they must be quiescent ( 42). If in the formation
of words they should be in a position in which a vowel
would naturally be placed on them, were they 'sound
'feeble

called 'sound

letters,

this

vowel

is

removed or modified.

703. The general principal of modification or


permutation of the weak letters is as follows:

When

and a weak letter (gj which


is not analogous to it come together in a word, the
ordinary laws of euphony require that one should yield;
and in Arabic the vowel prevails.
Note.
ebtre ( 27).

a vowel (-)

Elif

is

I)

analogous to ustun, ye to fare and vav

to

'

vt

Euphonic Changes of the

704. The weak

letters j

consideration: the changes of

Modification of

705.
quiescent,
as

letter

and

require especial

are not important.

vav

jlj

J}U1

has a vowel and the preceding letter is


vowel is transported to the preceding

If vav

a.

its

oj^>

J^i

'

"

<-*j->-

savn, qavl, fthavf v

o^a J^i
'

Obj. Part, by the measure J^-ii-* ( 604): ^J^-*3 --

mas'-voun, maq-voul, makh'rouf


after

the

assimilation
c

mdkhouf kept, spoken,


If the letter

b.

(j ) im-

is

Ico

u.^-*3-*

'

J^-*-*

'

Jjy-z^

ma-soun,

^'^-^-

'

etc.

maqoul,

Je^

u3j

vowel

its

as:

(-i-);

Modified
form.

Natural

Measure.

>s

form

da- jit'
1

da-yi

miv-zan

miy-zan

u^-*^.
1

ili

vujoud

JjjJL.

the

modified (jjj^s.^ ma-sou-oun

':

>^j

\Sy>-

preceding vav has esre as

Root.

dou'a

'

'

terrible'.

changed into

The word.

411

Letters.

Jli^
iy-jad

ijfy

35',

( 620)

Subj. Part.

If

c.

the letter preceding

(j ) the vav

vowel,

is

J ^-^

mud-vir

vav have

changed into

Oj-iUa saf'vit

jJt^a

ustun as

'.

"

'

'

adavet

I-

>

musafat
-

--

jls.
I

The forms

given to show

-;

<Xj\Ju

musafevet

ojlAt

its

elif (-a-):
-

mu-dir.

in this

how

mou-a-devet

mou-a-dat

column do not actually occur, but are

the rule works.

412

The word.

Root.

U> j riza

y~>

59.

mer-ze-vet

merzat

J^-L,

JUS

maq-vel

ma-qal

j\Jbi

j5*

devr

medver

d.

Fav

after

Ui>

j>j*

form.

r-v
k.*

yy

qavl

Modified

C-A-a

J^i

H.ir

Natural
form.

Measure.

Lesson

urj^

servile

is

eZt/"

medar.

changed into hemze

( 591, 602 a):


i

y>
yJ

oyo

da-vir

da-yir

il-ghav

il-gha

dou-av

dou-a

ri-zav

riza

is-ti-lav

is-ti-la.

7a#7n>

>s

davet

Jfij
\

_^J

tjl^O ridvan
-

>>

jit ou-louv
1

Of

/CA*i

Exercise 153.

Change the following nouns into the forms mentioned


below: first into the natural and afterwards into the
modified forms:
Subjective Participle ( 602603):

Jy

f'.p

Noun

y>-

with
*

."

^-5j>-

Words.

1.

3.

emptiness.

8.

fear.

11.

9.

4.

taste

death (death).

ilf?'w
9 ./

>*

fj-^

<

ft

to continue.
fasting.
5.
(taste).

fr

(V

^j

^'

(J-):

"

JJ^

10.

^'

Cy

10.

i'

J'y-

1U*

"

*->j-*

2. word, agreement (consenting).


7. consent.
eminence. 6. sleep.
permission (figurative language).

413

Euphonic Changes of the Letters.

uir

Derivative Infinitive (Jl51 [ 621]).


12^

'

13

^jjj

y>
\

Jj^j

14

}>

^j

15

"->
V-^" J

t/ J

16

Deriv. Inf. (J\Sir^ [ 631]):


14.

'

Q^ J

'

l7

4j

'

18

^J

13. arrival (to send).


12. arrival (to bring forward, to cite).
16. to exexistence (to invent).
15. clearness (to explain).

cuse,

pardon

(to resign).

17. loyalty (to receive).

18. (to

ask an

explanation).

706.
a.

and

if

Modification of

ye A J}U

would properly and regularly have a vowel


the preceding letter be quiescent, the vowel is
If ye

transfered to the preceding letter:

The word.

^>Lr-

seyelan

Root.

Measure.

J-

ju, seyr

Natural
form.

Modified

mes-i/il

me-sil

mes-yi-re

me- si-re.

form.

J_Li.

^/V-"
\
\

b. If the letter preceding ye have ustun for


vowel, the ye is changed into elif:
kJ

nefi

\munafeyet

mu-na-fat

[mura-'eyet

mu-ra-at

mez-yer

->!>
me-zar

ma-yesh

ma-ash

ultj ri-ayet

<JliljL.

>j\jj ziyaret

j-~s-

aysh

*--*
c-j~

l-ut heybit

meh-yebet
c.

its

If ye is quiescent

me-ha-bet.

and the preceding letter has


changed into vav:

eotre as its vowel, the ye is

D>
f

iUcuJ

yad

JpwCj^j) |Subj.Part.
I

t*M

tjafr

L^wC-^j)

"

'

"^r^

-^^

mouy-jid

mou-jid

mouy-jib

moii-jib.

( 621)

o^ u-ji

414

After the servile

d.

602

hernee ( 591,

Lesson
ye

elif,

59.

usually chauged into

is

a):

Tbe word.

c^u Lj niyabet

Root.

Measure.

^JU

Jifi

Natural
form.

Modified
form.

na-yib

na-ib

ihday

ihda.

6X*

hediye

<-jJla

S.t'u

j6il

Not pAm

Exercise 154.

Change the following words


mentioned below:

measures

the

into
into their natural

first

and afterwards

into their modified forms:

602603]

Subjective Participle [
LI

'

U^'

l'
>J*0

'

2*

'3. <|*f

1"

cOli

Deriv. Inf. (Jl&l):

4.

o"^'

"

i"

'

u'-A

(j3\J

>

^V

'

5 a \"
t-JiJ*

^'^'

cili

Derivative Infinitive (JlSI):


i

Noun
14

ii"

with
"

^a-3

10'..

"

mww
15

"

l"

w* ^ J

19

.1

16

20 .

'

"

21

4-JjA^

<

"{

AL>-

o3l>J

*VA)

18.

'

f" '

17

^"

13 M "

(Ja/U):

i"

ySei

jy

<J>y2J

(^U*

Derivative Infinitive
18.. fi

- "

11

<

22

=
"

*IJ2

j^iSlJU
23\ *

24

Li

/T- \
\*XJltL%)

618):
,\<*i

25

'>'

i-^O

"

j>-

2. much (redundant, superfluous).


to leave a remnant, to look (other,
remainder). 5. to cause: to leave a legacy (who leaves property
to one as heir; that causes). 6. dress, costume (to wear a garment).
7. end (to come to an end). 8. to be enough (to suffice). 9. complaint (to complain;.
11. drinking (to
10. softness (to loosen).
drink). 12. to act, happen (to perform)
13. (to wear). 14. abun17. light (light-house).
dance.
15. much (auction).
16. horror.
18. respect, esteem.
19. meeting, encounter. 20. delight (amity).

Words.

1.

visit (visitor).

3.

to obtain (worthy).

21.

whispering (supplication).

(to vaunt).

24. discord.

4.

25.

22.

medicine (treatment). 23. pleasure

pleasure (reward).

Euphonic Changes of the

uio

5\j Jui Reading

The Ceremony of the


Coronation of the King

Exercise.

^k

9.,

1902.

i-

^O,I
&J '^

: a

\\

^)>j*~

of England.
London: Aug.

415

Letters.

6jh

The

ceremony of the Coronation took

^n-^jL-j

J_y J>^\

place at 12.40 in Westminster

Abbey, the interior of which was

vUL

- ^jl^\\

<>:>UI

ojXj

C-*L- oJlL-L-S'''

<jj\

jjJLJjUj^1

*-~< \^

*5

d^L-J^

jjj:>

J^3

r*S

>

splendidly decorated.

<jj<A jJUUul Ca>

A crowd of incalculable numbers

was gathered

iSj^-*-*-^' jji

all

along the route

* LlfJ)

of the Royal Couple [the King

and the Queen] from Buckingham

-j^>- Jl^3

Palace to the Cathedral, making

J\

enthusiastic ovations.

The King

appeared

excellent

to

be

in

j\^^xa-

^ni& "f^ji
.

<seJlyj

J\^5

6"

*>\

(jXj\^~*

u^j\ J^^.j^ aJ^jj


j.aJLi&>\.*.al

dJL

J^jJj^

JXJt^s

^J^

\}\y-\

<sJ<~=*-+o

<i->J_^Jj/"'

health.

At

2. p.

m. their Majesties

(after

having received the homage of


the Archbischop of Canterbury,
the Prince of Wales, the
of Norfolk,

Duke

and the represen-

tatives of the Nobility) returned

Words and

Notes.

^&L

oAL-a^l

'

*Ju\

Jl^^-i*
<i JliuiJ

-^JL-i

L>

(J>\jhjj*)

vlLJUl

^-L

3J*J

ur.^j^, ^JLa

o-j^\7

*5^1>* J

<jl^)j\

'

Jl^r*

o-xiCl

(lSj^^Aj'^)
(J^J->

10 \'~&

J^j*"

cr-'_

o^D

u-^J^

Ingilterra Qrali hazretlerinin resmi tetev'-

resm pi. merasim 649) ceremony. 2. feuqel-'ade extraordinarily (671h). 3. mushd'shcC sowetde splendidly ,458): milshasha mf. of sha-sha-a ( 635). 4. hazarat pi. of hazret ( 497,
5. jem'mi ghafeer a great multitude.
6. ahvali sih'hiye:
576).
ahval pi. of 7*a7, sih-hi-ye sanitary: mensoub of sih-hat ( 579).
Duk di
8. i/e for re ( 470).
7. fcasft pisqopos.
9. Pr6ns di Gal.
Norfolk. 10. zadegian (pi. of zade) nobles ( 510); sinif the class.
11. hiyet assembly, mebous (mef. of bo's) delegate ( 604).
vitjle'ri.

1.

o^

416

Buckingham

to

^r-jz

where

Palace,

Lesson

til

59.

ojL^ {jj^xl\ J^J JM^a-1 j

<

they appeared on the balcony

<>yb\t

and were loudly cheered by the

j\J^J

l*o^c-

'

<C\j-

"

are assured that the

King

a^.j1J

no

from

^'j^Jy J

experienced

fatigue

(during) the ceremony and looked

well throughout

The

thronged the streets and

i)jo_)u\

Coro-

nation day was favoured with

splendid weather; the city was


richly beflagged
filled

and a vast crowd

i*JL.

ijsA

in the

p-^J

1-^^
<&

which the duration was an hour


quarter,

was magnificent.

The King showed no

signs of

.j^JLiljl
16

c.a

*.

oLJl

,Jji

Jb^a*

j w.J
17

,JLt u^-*-^

^-i'

^X

J^y

\j& oXJJi

uil^lij^ oJJj^j

Abbey, of

"J-

tS-^A *-aJ^

<sj\fij~,

j^jJU-iVjl* oi^ilij

^-L'H '-^-j^

j^Jti.jJj\

<wJa& ^^r-*

j\^>\

Jjj'..L:L.,.i

*~\^ir'

iij<Oj\ f

,J^.

^iJ^:'=^ Jb=^

the streets.

The ceremony

and a

<_^Ia\

the air with their shouts of joy.

(day)

Lx

c_3l<^

\j^l JlxAli

j\j\

London: the same

Jljs

j^J^ljl la*17 e^)S^' u-lj\ ^-s-

were magnificent; a vast crowd

(The Constantinople Agency.)

ojJ Lj|

<Jjj-~*-b ,/ *5-a

L3

filled

j^JLit^liul

12

J"!-^

illuminations in the evening

*1\l JLT^ia.

p-~l^*

"

it.

J* ^ -

i>XJJb JIa\ j

throng outside.

We

flilf^j

(jVjlj

fUoj\

jZajjj}jz

i>j

oLJS

(i^Lj^a*-

J^/

jiJuL***^!

<_>->

.jXt+Ji>\ *\M*\ ^iSa

fatigue.
12. te-e-min et." : to assure (2 of emn [ 615]). 13. her kintal
perfect ( 557 e). 14. nasiye looking, face ( 582). 15. moutantan
16. ^-'a& ou mishaqqat
magnificent (mf. of tantana [ 458]).
17. ayin ceremony.
fatigue and suffering; hiss et.": to feel.

Euphonic Changes of the

*LlV

The procession

(of

the

was gorgeous.

nation)

Coro-

All the

and Peeresses were

Peers

<jJ*A?\
3

in

State attire and produced a grand


effect,

Lord

(and

among them were)


General

Kitchener,

Sir

u~^

<*Z*t^

jV

vlX

'^*

18

>

<uV

J <:-JJ

iXSj*

Jl^ul j

J&Jj\

J*jJ
4

II

(i^Jj^J

d\j

^a J&

<i.>Jj^-iJo| ^_JU-

*^\

J4._^~j

zjy

(jjt<u-)

-rj^

<^\j*- *k\ j*>e.i

A.Gaselee, and Admiral Seymour.

The

j^**

(i-x*l

417

Letters.

^L\ j i>jJ

.jjJLLjul 111 JS>[J

hotels were decorated, and

the ordinary prices were main-

The terms

tained.

places

for

on the platforms were very moderate.

The enthusiasm was

great.

King

Edward, although

very

thin, looks very well.

occurred.
18.

The

5*-A

19.

sira

21. hadise (fayil of

The Coronation

in

Westminster

Abbey and the procession


an hour. The weather

is

bench, platform.
houdous [ 582]).

jLl^L-j

Ijj

the

to

^Jt-jlj

C-O

(^IjJJia.
*.1m

4.C-

<?J^ J

fUUTa)

thinner,

ceremony

caused him no fatigue.


(Fournier.)

Turkish Conv. -Grammar.

ojju'jS

Palace.

The King, who looks

donn

20.

magni-

King and Queen returned

that

lasted

After the ceremony the

declares

U-s-^ Jlj>-I *J*

National Agency.)

alay procession.

Buckingham

J-4-il <i.

No accident

low, moderate.

ficent.

<J jy

27

J|^S
Ji

>3

418

Ur^>->

utA

u-J^ Lesson 60.

Lesson 60.

Miscellaneous Idiomatic Phrases.

Elden geleni yap.


Shimdi gelir.
Iki gunde bir.
Ben olmasam boghoulajaq idi.

Az

qaldi

beni bir geozdcn

as

He

will

el

me

you can.

the loss of an eye.

That was

verir.

as

be here presently.
Once in two days.
But for my help he would
have been drowned.
He came very near causing

edi-yoroudou.

qadari

much

Do

sufficient.

I cannot afford it.


He beckoned me.
He winked at him.

Bana el vermes.
Bana el etdi.
Ona geoz etdi.
Aqli bashina geldi.

Basin dara geldiyi gibi.


Basin tasha gelir gelmez.
Onou bir shey yerine qomaz.
\

He came to his senses.


When he got into trouble.
He regards that as of no
account.

He
He

Pck chapouq aliniyor.


Yuzunu asmish.
Aqlima geldi.
Aqlina braq.
Bediklerimi fikrinde
Depetaqla getdi.

Eodum

It

tout.

bashini deyishdir.

Seozunii achmaq.
Ne qadar vaqit surer?

Bou

hick bir sheye yaramaz.

Geozden gechir.

Elime

beoyle bir kitah gech-

maya

gelir

amma

is out of humour.
occurred to me.

Remind him of it.


Remember what I say.
It went down head foremost.
alarms me excessively.
Change your clothes.

To commence

conversation.
it take?
How
This is good for nothing.
Cast your eye over it.

long will

Such "a book

had never

seen.

diyi yogiton don.

Yemeye

easily touched.

It

patladi.

TJstiinu

is

saqla-

gelmez.

Derisi qirmiiiya clicdar.


Sijimi iki qatla.
Evleri iki qat dtr.

good to eat, but


not do to keep.

It is

Its

skin

is

will

reddish.

Double the string.


Their house is two

stories

high.

Bir

dil

bagld verm /shier.

They had given a

token.

t^

Kitaba bir qab gechir.


Ordan oraya, ordan or ay a

Put a cover on the book.


Why move it about from
place to place?

ne olajaq beoyle?
Qoidaq asm a.
Tashi y trine qodou.

Top

419

Miscellaneous Idiomatic Phrases.

Don't care.
has hit the nail on the
head.
He has become bankrupt.
I cannot bear to speak (on

He

atdi.

Sedyl cmtyt aghzim varmayor

DiLim uste varmayor.


Eli ouzoun (tyri) dour.
Sen ne isen, bende o youm.

so painful a subject).
is thievish.

He
I

have equal claims with


you.

Adam
Bizi

var

adam da

car.

alt list etdi.

There are more


men than one.

He

has put us

sorts

all to

of

con-

fusion.

Bana
Bana

yaziq dirP
yaziq deyil mi?

am

Am

Sesiiii Jits!

Be

Eli achiq bir adem dir.


bashdan chiqara-

He

JBtni de'mi

jaqsinP

Ec

mibarqimibashimayiqdi.

to

be

pitied.

not to be pitied?

quiet!

is a liberal man.
Will you lead me
astray?

He

has

lost

me

all

my

also

pro-

perty.

Geozt geldi.
Geoz deydi.

Xazara geldi.]
Nazar deydi.\

Dagh dash adam hesilmish.


Baslunl yedi.

He

has been affected by an

evil eye.

The

He is bewitched.

of people.
the cause of his

hill is full

He was
death.

Ishimden gujumden oldoum.

Aqlim bashina

Jam

ft

topla.

mi chiqiyoroudou?

Dili ousoun dour.


Ne oldou ise oldou.
JBich

sorma!

was hindered in my work.


to your senses.
Were you dying, that you
were in such a hurry?
He talks much.
I

Come

Forget the past.


I cannot tell (how badly
matters are going).

27*

420

r*

Appendices.
The Ottoman Literature.
matters the Ottoman Turks have
singularly uninventive people: the
the
old and the new, into which we
two great schools,
may divide their literature, being closely modelled, the
one upon the classics of Persia, the other on those of
Modern Europe, and more especially of France. The
old or Persian school flourished from the foundation of the
Empire down to about 1830, and still continues to drag
on a feeble existence, though it is now out of fashion
and cultivated by none of the leading men of letters.
These belong to the new or European school, which
sprang up some fifty or sixty years ago, and which, in
spite of the bitter opposition of the partisans of the old
Oriental system, has succeeded, partly through its own
inherent superiority and partly through the talents and
courage of its supporters, in expelling its rival from the
position of undisputed authority which it had occupied
For the present
for upwards of live hundred years.
purpose it will be convenient to divide the old school into
three periods, which may be termed respectively the
pre-classical, the classical, and the post-classical.
Of
from
the early days of the empire to
these the first extends
the accession of Suleyman I., 13011520 (A.H.700 926);
the second from that event to the accession of MahmoudL,
15201730 (9261143); and the third from that date
to the accession of Abd-ul-Aziz, 17301861 (11431277).
The works of the old school in all its periods are
entirely Persian in tone, sentiment, and form. We find
in them the same beauties and the same defects that
we observe in the productions of the Iranian authors.
The formal elegance and conventional grace, alike of
thought and of expression,' so characteristic of Persian
classical literature, pervade the works of the best Ottoman

In

all

literary

shown themselves a

tr

The Ottoman

421

Literature.

and they are likewise imbued, though in a less


degree, with that spirit of mysticism which runs through
But the Ottomans
so much of the poetry of Iran.
did not stop here. In their romantic poems they chose
as subjects the favorite themes of their Persian masters,
writers,

such as Leyla and

Mejnoun, Ferhad and Shirin,

Youssouf and Zuleykha, and

so on.

They constantly

Persian heroes whose stories occur in the


Shah-Name and other storehouses of Iranian legendary
lore; and they wrote their poems in Persian metres and
The mesnevi, the qaside, and
in Persian forms. 1
all of them, so far at least as the
the ghazel,
were the favorite
Ottomans are concerned, Persian,
A mesnevi is a poem
verse-forms of the old poets.
written in rhyming couplets, and is usually narrative
The qaside and the ghazel are both
in subject.
monorhythmic; the first as a rule celebrates the praises
of some great man, while the second discourses of the
joys and woes of love. Why Persian rather than Arabian
or any other literature became the model of Ottoman
writers, is explained by the early history of the race.
Some two centuries before the arrival of the Turks in
Asia Minor, the Seljouks, then a mere horde of savages,
had overrun Persia, where they settled and adopted the
civilization of the people they had subdued.
Thus
Persian became the language of their court and Government, and when by and by they pushed their conquests
into Asia Minor, and founded there the Seljouk empire
of Rouin, they carried with them their Persian culture,
and diffused it among the peoples newly brought under
their sway. It was the descendants of those Persianized
Seljouks whom the early Ottomans found ruling in Asia
alluded

to

Minor on

their arrival there.

What had happened

to

Seljouks two centuries before, happened to the


Ottomans then: the less civilized race adopted the
culture of the more civilized.
As the Seljouk empire
fell to pieces and the Ottoman came gradually to occupy
its place, the sons of men who had called themselves
Seljouks began thenceforth to look upon themselves as
Ottomans. Hence the vast majority of the people whom
the

See the Reading Exercises in pages 259, 806307.

422

Appendices.

<^yy

we

are accustomed to think of as Ottomans are so only


by adoption, being really the descendants of Seljouks
or Seljoukian subjects, who had derived from Persia
whatever they possessed of civilization or of literary
taste.
An extraordinary love of precedent, the result
apparently of conscious want of original power, was
sufficient to keep their writers loyal to their early guide
for centuries, till at length the allegiance, though not
the fashion of it, has been changed in our own days,
and Paris has replaced Shiraz as the shrine towards
which the Ottoman scholar turns. While conspicuously
lacking in creative genius, the Ottomans have always
shown themselves possessed of receptive and assimilative
powers to a remarkable degree, the result being that
the number of their writers both in prose and verse is
enormous. It ought to be premised that the poetry of
the old school is greatly superior to the prose.
When we reach the reign of Mahmoud II., the
great transition period of Ottoman history, during which
the civilization of the West began to struggle in earnest
with that of the East, we find the change which was
coming over all things Turkish affecting literature along
with the rest, and preparing the way for the appearance
of the new school.
The chief poets of the transition
are Fazil Bey, Vasif, notable for his not altogether
unhappy attempt to write verses in the spoken language
of the capital, Izzet Molla, Pertev Pasha, Akif
Pasha, and the poetesses Fitnet and Leyla. In the
works of all of these, although we occasionally discern
a hint of the new style, the old Persian manner is
still

supreme.

with Western Europe and


a pretty general study of the French language and
literature, together with the steady progress of the
reforming tendency fairly started under Mahmoud II.,
have resulted in the birth of the New or Modern school,
whose objects are truth and simplicity. In the political
writings of Res hid and Akif Pashas we have the first
clear note of change; but the man to whom more than
to any other the new departure owes its success is
Shinasi Effendi, who employed it for poetry as well as

More intimate

for

prose.

relations

The European

style,

on

its

introduction,

The Sultans of the House of Osuian.

<i.rr

423

encountered the most violent opposition, but now it


If any of
alone is used by living authors of repute.
a
it is
write
pamphlet
in
old
manner,
the
these does
merely as a tour de force, or to prove to some faithful but clamorous partisan of the Persian style that
lack of ability which causes
it is not, as he supposes,
the modern author to adopt the simpler and more
natural fashion of the West. The whole tone, sentiment
and form of Ottoman literature have been revolutionized
by the new school varieties of poetry hitherto unknown
have been adopted from Europe; an altogether new
branch of literature, the drama, has arisen; while the
:

now

sciences are

and seriouslv studied

treated

after the

system of the West.

Among
tinction are

men and

writers

school

of this

who have won

dis-

Ziya Pasha, Jevdet Pasha: the

states-

Ahmed Midhat

Sami

historians.

Effendi.

Bey: the lexicographer and encyclopedist, Ebuz-Ziya


TeVfiq Bey, Mouallim Naji Effendi, Hamid Bey:
who holds the first place among Ottoman dramatists,
Mi bran Effendi: the grammarian, and Kemal Bey:
the leader of the modern school and one of the most
illustrious

men

He

of letters whom his country has produced.


with conspicuous success in almost

has written
every branch of
poetry,

literature,

history,

romance,

and the drama.

ethics,

G.

Sultans of the House of Osuian.

The dates are those of the Sultan's accession,


according to the Moslem and Christian eras.
1.

2.
3.
4.

Osman

Son of Er-Toghroul

I.

Orkhan
Mourad

I.

Bayazid (Bajazef
Interregnum

5.

Mehemmed

6.

Mourad

7.

Mehemmed

8.

Bayazid

9.

Selim

I.

Osman
Orkhan
Mourad
Bayazid

I.

I.

I.

>

II.

Mourad

Mehemmed

Bayazid

II.

II.

I.

I.

Mehemmed

I.

II.

II.

II.

A. H.

A. D.

700

1301

726

1326

761

1359

791

1389

804

1402

816
824

1413
1421

855

1451

886

1481

918

1512

424i

10.

Appendices.

Souleyman

11.

Selim

Mourad

13.
14.

M^hemmed
Ahmed I.

15.

Moustafa

16.

Son of Selim I.

Souleyman

I.

12.

II.

Osman

III.
III.

I.

II.

Moustafa

uri

A. D.

926

1520

974

1566

982

1574

I.

Selim

Mourad HI.
Mehernmed III.

I.

A. H.

II.

Ahmed

1003

1595

1012

1603

1026

1617

1027

1618

(restored)

1031

1622

Ahmed

1032

1623

I.

17.

Mourad IV.

18.

Ibrahim

1049

1640

19.

Mehernmed IV.

Ibrahim

1058

1648

20.

Souleyman

1099

1687

21.

Ahmed

1102

1691

22.

Moustafa

23.

Ahmed III.
Mahmoud I.

24.

II.

II.

II.

25.

Osman

26.
27.

Moustafa III.
Abd-ul-Hamid

28.

Selim

29.

Moustafa IV.

30.

Mahmoud

31.

Abd-ul-Mejid

32.

Abd-ul-Aziz

III.

I.

III.

II.

I.

Mhemmd

IV.

Moustafa

11.

Ahmed

III.

Moustafa HI.
Abd-ul-Hamid I.

Mahmoud

11.

1106

1695

1115

1703

1143

1730

1168

1754

1171

1757

1187

1773

1203

1789

1222

1807

1223

1808

1255

1839

1277

1861

1293

1876

33.

34.

Abd-ul-Hamid

V_^9=A pj^fr

The Arabic,

II.

Abd-ul-Mejid

Arabic Calendar

(pp.

96

98).

Lunar, Year being 10 days, 21 hours


and 14 /5 seconds shorter than the Christian i. e. solar year,
does not correspond exactly with it. Its reckoning begins
from the Hijret or departure of Muhammed from Mecca
to reside in Medina, A. D. 622 July 15/19 (Mouharrem 1).
In order approximately to convert a year of our
Era into one of the Moslem Era: subtract 622, divide
the remainder by 33 and add the quotient to the divident.
Conversely, a year of the Moslem Era is converted
into one of the Christian Era by dividing it by 33,
subtracting the quotient from it, and adding 622 to
the remainder; as:
2

i. e.

425

The Ottoman Financial Calendar.

ire

=
622 =
622 =
622

1902

1904
1328

1280

-r-

1282

-~-

706

-f-

= 40;
33 = 40;
33 = 23;

33

1280
1282
706

+ 40
+ 40
+ 23

)rrr

vr\

Conversely

= 40
33 = 40
33 = 23
33

)rr*

\rrr

rr .

)rrr
Yr ^

_ 40 =
40 =
rr =

+ 622
1282 + 622
706 + 622

1902

1280

1904
1328.

The Ottoman Financial Calendar.

*JU

In the 1205 th year of the Hejira ( x /i2 March 1789),


Sultan Selim III. issued an Irade to use this calendar
in financial and commercial transactions. It corresponds
exactly to the Old Style, only the new year begins in
March instead of in January. The following table shows
the years of the Financial Calendar corresponding to
those of ours,
c.

F.

till

1909.

F.

F.

C.

F.

C.

F.

C.

1205 1789 1225 1809 1245 1829 1265 1849 1285 1869
6 1790
6 1850
6 1870
6 1810
6 1830
!

8
9

2
3

8
9

1210

4 1230

2
3

6
7

2
3

2
2
2
8
2
8
8
3
9
3
3
3
9
9
4
4 1250
4 1270
4 1290
5
5
5
1
1
5
1
6
6
2
6
6
2
2
7
7
7
7
3
3
3
8
8
4
8
4
8
4
9
9
9
5
9
5
1820
6 1840
6 1860
6 1880

5
9
6 1800

8
9

2
3

8
9

2
3

2
3

7
8

2
3

4 1280
5
I

4 1300

5
6

5
6

2
3

1220
1

2
3

4 1240

4 1260

5
6

5
6

2
3

2
3

2
3

426

Appendices.

F.

c.

F.

F.

c.

i-r-\

F.

C.

F.

C.

C.

1305 1889 1309 1893 1313 1897 1317 1902 1321 1906
8
2
7
6 1890 1310
4
4
8
3
1
9
4
3
8
7
1
5 1900
5
4
9
8
6
6
1 1320
5
2
2

Jj^ Tahleel.

Parsing.

The method of parsing in Arabic includes Grammatical and Logical Analysis. But in Ottoman-Turkish
all that is really necessary is to give such particulars
as are given in the subjoined parsing of a piece. The
genders, numbers, moods, tenses and all particulars about
the words must be mentioned, and the parts of Regular
and Irregular Verbs must be given. Read first with
expression the following Exercise, and analyse it afterwards.
Tarn up all references to the Grammar.

cSjw^ *Ja^ The Prophet's Speech.

O.L

jJL

Jj*s

oJjs>1j cSU"|

^3-4.==.*

<jXJ,j>_jl

j^JJy

Ju^j.

<o k_jl$^i.j-j

tjJjl fjlc- aj-CiJu.

r.a! j

j (3=-^JJjJ>

lj.9 <s\

..*>

*^>Ij -^-^^

d)-4_o Cj|x)

Ij

i/jl

1>.<Jo4w*^) jP

'

c^JJiHi

j\^> Uj^>\ J^-'J*"' oJ>oLA&Us

J~.il|j.^

Lx

j-Z.

t^-Olj

4.1

lj*9

'U>

^r*'

(j^Us

t_rli til

-^US pi

^ji <-SjbojK

UjjM

<J\

i)j|jJ

*1

.r31

'

<o

'

{jjl

Ca^\

427

Parsing. Ji^J Tahleel.

<urv

*M

j-Uj

<^-3a

<5j^

<u-o

*'1

'

j'^Vjj

(3jl

^-"OlIjI

(i^n=-

Khouibeyi Peyghamberi the prophetic

(JjUjL) 4_Ja^

sermon, or the sermon of the prophet


first

noun ends

<ul-

is

vowel

in

a hernze

lu\

an Ar. noun, measure v^JJJ

Pers. Izafet: if the

placed over

is

592):

"a

it

519):

special homily

and prayer, in which they praise God, bless Mouhammed and


pray for the reigning Caliph, delivered by an official preacher

(wJai

before the midday service

Jchatib)

(Joumd'a namazt)?
'message,

p. ,Ao-iri is

revelation'

( 535, 554); by the


of Rel. ( 527).

Prophet': Pers.

Yj\

composed of

omitted

is

addition of

Resoii'lou

fjfl Jjj

*prophet, apostle

elif

Izafet

of worship in Friday

EArem.

560)

-/ it is

<i

p^-o

'

N. of Superiority of s2+AJ>

'carry'

changed into Noun

'The most venerable

^iLj
f

peygham

oer

j:

composed of two Ar. words

Adj. Qual. of

U-j

J^-j

( 517).

of the meas.

J}j*-3

masc. meas. J-iil

c^-l^^is a

'

miracle wrought through the agency of a saint, but


is a miracle wrought by Divine power.

607).

rnujize

a \*l*a

<jj>

ajJ^

jhir Joumd'a gunu on a Friday':

y,

Turk.

Ind. Article ( 60),

J/"***- Turk.

meas. <iii

the fayil being !> 'collector, mosque', other

derivatives:

( 592),

9-j<^>*

'

*cj*j>&-

with pron. affix third person


4^~- j3 <^JiJL$^

Izafet with pron.

'

Izafet ( 181).

p-*^
(

105

o^

Ar. noun,

Turk, noun

3
).

Kendi devesine

<jxS^

j/""

-u^-

on his camel'

pers. pron. 147), 4i~oj.>

ojj

'

Turk, noun with pron. affix third person sing, dative case.

Turk.
--oj^

irA

Appendices.

428

bindi

(_ JlLj

sing, third

Ul

conjunctive

Ju 3jj

>U

number

men

*lX.^/_Juu

e/*Z?

JU|

pi.

( 650).

'

vUlJlIxj

Keg. Fern.

JaL"

and

Arab. Pers.
Ar.

noun

pi.

ol^

Comp.noun (695 5
J-aa.7

islam He

( 192), ^jL!

( 203):

J*l Pers. Izafet 'Moslem'.

meas. J-ai, Irregular

marry;

^**# we/er

Turk. Card,

( 470), j^j

meas. JJii 'individual' used for


f

Der.

two hundred in number: 3

with believers

( 576);

Turk, intran. verb, Ind. Past

person of the masdar vli^io

*MJ

<Jb!

he mounted'

a.

).

te-ehliid

>\
to

submitting himself to the divine disposal, IV. of

f>^-l_

a>L-, fayil JL-.

muslim 'one who submissively obeys God, Moslem'

(512, 634

aJL

d);

Turk, post position, sign of Instrumental case

( 232).
c

i^JuHlS i>z\J
a. <j>}\S

Qoubadan qalqdi he started from Qouba

prop, noun, sing, abl.; nom. Qouba

(i-ulU Ind. Past, sing, third

deriv.:

ji^jJlS

4>4I>jl

of Medina'

'

we/si

t"<?

distinguished from

its

to the

[main] city

outlying regions):

Pers.

oi

prop.

main' meas. JJii;

a.

Abstract noun by the

aJLas,

'a<e/m

oZ^o?*

he departed toward

5
:

comp.

Intrans. verb., Ind. Past sing, third person, formed by using

with aux. verb jljl, Masdar jljl


d-J&; deriv. IV.

Jlisl

J^p|

*j\*

( 272):

esnayi rahde, -rcthda

road,

or journey,

a.

Irreg. plural of

..llil

i.

e.

on the way

jj sewee

in Turkish as a sing., in

a.

noun

*jl* fayil

of

dJl^Ij (^lljl

>

[ 582]).
c

ljJjI aJIc

Medineye

noun, sing, dative of the measure

place near Medina';

person the primitive masdar J^Jil^

Izafet: a. ^^Ai 'the very substance,

addition of he

j^JLZllS ( 263, 268).

.Ju
(as

'a

639

in the course of the

5
:

Pers. Izafet ( 518):

b) 'twisting, winding',

used

the sense of 'the course of a journey,

Y\

429

Parsing. JJUJ Tahleel.

the time of a stay, a period of time':


c

of the stay', <olli Jj|

0.XI.I3I

cSLJl

in the course

at that time, in that interval';

sing,

oJjt>\j

loc. case.

**S$Ja

<L^

and noun:

tarafina

sol

J^* adj.,

t.

'to

dja

a.

his left side'

<i^ meas.

'

i_i^i

<U

the Turk. conj.


(

430\

a.

J~ meas.

oSsSjy
c

in

and Turk.
.y_

JJj

express

to

Jjjlj1

meaning of

the

Aj

Jj

masc.

of j,

pi.

669

ben OF:

of Salim

children

);

'

^Jo

ojiojjj

}jy_

tent, home' second member of Turk. Izafet, with pron.


person sing, locative.

tarafina

Ranona

member

a.

^J>Jo

motion

=
(

of the Turkish Izafet, Ar.

^-j\ Turk,

sing, genitive;

J*J*

postposition

ija noun,

'

Primitive masdar
fi^ljjl

pi.

it

he halted':

ilJLil,

or ad a

locative case,

denilen vadinin

noun meas.

used as an

<-il^U

639

b);

Jcli

adj. ( 452);
it

indicates

deriv.

Ind. Past singular third person

v1L^_aM

( 144), sing,

237).

4JUJb C-j^ ghayet belighane bir khoutbe

oqouyoup

he

<iUJj super],

degree of Turk. adj.

528, 684):

( 263).

there': adverbial demonstrative

indicates location

^jjyjl Ja>-

affix third

237).

^JJoi endi

adv.

Banona

iS*jy_

Ar. prop, noun; jXJu^ mefoul of UULL.> (402);

\'>y\j

*iilolj first

fejiij

'

upper part of the valley called

the

'in

?
:

vib^lj *Juio

JL-

( 575);

ust

iJjoJul

Benee Salim ben Of yourdounda

of the

Izafets.

-ci)a +~* j\

J**:

stands for patronym

/*

used

Jx iL*

J*f

the settlement

Pers.
^J^c.

is

).

'swerving, turning' for

tie

with

JJLi

pron. affix third person singular dative ( 99, 105

&\ Jw meyl

Turk. adj.

recited

a. *JL

very

eloquent

( 226).

speech':

a. p. aJUJu

^U.

pers. adj. or

adj. Qual. of c~i->L 'eloquence'; ^_>y_yj\

Appendices.

430

Turk. Gerund 'having recited? or


(for

c^JdJ

ij\

cij^

w-

qttdi

.'
.

member,

he performed

w-

third person of p.

jls.

Turk. Izafet

<ij second

member,

first

Jouma'a namad

**?

Friday prayer

'ii'ii

he recited and afterwards

ut"*

... j tS*yj\).

cijJii

his

a.

109):

the Divine worship of Islam, consisting of fixed recitals of praise

jUi jit

with prostration of the body, five times a day',

to

make

272); tjiS Ind. Past, singular

his prayers', comp. trans, verb (


third person.

Khatim'ul enbiya hazreflerinm en iptida qildighi Jouma'a


namazi bou dour 'This is the first Friday prayer which
the seal i. e. the last, of the prophets (Mouhamraed) has

performed
f

l.

JUi

'

*U\

of ^; we&ee ( 645

pi.

Oj-i nubouvvet 'prophecy';


Ar.

*l\j

JS^x>-

noun meas. cJL5 with pron.

used after the

UM

111

meas. JU1

500).

( 413); ^j

j^l

name

Turk. Superl. adj.

*U ^Jl

Cj^o>-

'

and great

hi

brief:

\JZ>\ Turk. pron. adj. ( 138).

( 317);

Quadriliteral
*j-J Ar.

Aorist, sing, third person.

Adj. Qual. of
'

fayil

tfj-v**-

personalities ( 497,

*UM

Ar. deriv.

kJmlasa

jemesi bourada iyrad olounour This


(or oration), the translation of which

a\

is

J^r^

Demonstrative (Pron.) Adj.; ji copula

jjjj\ Masdar ^Jj\

fU

masdar

JuoAJ Obj. participle of

iptidaki Jchoutbesi o dour

of

a,

third person pi. Genitive,

( 224):

'

),

which

c),

affix

of God, saints

627) of

Izafet ( 668

*UVI fU. Arabic

is
is

( 67).

vejti

He

ter-

his first speech


given below in

^Pers.

Masdar meas.

jJi

Relative pron.

A-LLSi ( 595); >\j>}

Turk. comp. passive verb

( 274),

Ind.

Conjugation of Turkish Verbs.

vn

431

Conjugation of Turkish Verbs.

jUil sJo_JZ>

Y+mek,

Masdar: the Root

Masdar.

Yerbs jji^*

Infinitive of

Sevmek'

\^+?nnq;

Yazmaq.

Negative: Seu'memek, Yaz'mamaq.

Verbal Substantives:

SevmekZik' ,

1.

2.

Sevme,

Sevish'

3.

( 288).

Derivative Forms ( 261268):

Otourtmaq

Basdtrmaq, Yatirmaq, Taranmaq

Yazilmaq

Cliekishmek'

,
'

Potential verbs: Sevebilmek', neg.

Sevetnemek

Accelerative verb: Sevi'verniek

; 286).

Verbs derived from nouns and adjectives:


Hazirlamaq , Hazirhinmaq, Hazirlatmaq

Compound Verbs (Nouns


Stoat etmek,

Mood

'yazan
yaza r
yazdiq'
03

>
a

<
i

03

yazmish'
yazajaq
olan

>
-

On

yazar.jasina

GO

B.yazin'ja

Q.yazali'
1.

8.

10.

yaza yaza

Noun
Noun

2.

aclnq

3.

Elelc',

03

yazdighi&iz'
yazdiqlari'

yazajaghiniz'
yazajaqlarl'

206 207).

(pp.

yaza'raq

12.

yazajaghiha

surguri,

4.

yazdighimda
yazajaghindan

13. yazib

yazlp

14. yazar'ken.

4^ ^JU>

daraq.

yazajagMn

yazdighimiz

( 436).

eofa',

of Excess: ChalUhqan suzgef, dalgij.


of Location: Yataq, otlaq.

Instrumental noun:

5 yazajaghi'
yazajaghimlz

11. yazin'ja

411

yazajaghiw

yazdighi n
yazdighi'

d.yazasi'

Yerbal Adjectives
Yaziji' ,

Mood

'yazdigMm

yazilajaq
olan

i.yazdiq'da
5. yazdiq ja

yazar yazmaz

s>j

Objective

yazildtq'
yazilmisli

2.yaz'madan

1.

J*$

399).

Gerunds J*L*> ^Lb


\.

277

yazilan
yazUir'

'

with Auxiliaries) ( 272):


bouyourmaq.
qtlniaq,

eylemek,

Participles

Subjective

283).

5.

sevinj'.

432

Appendices.

;ii
4*>

JUI

'

*urr

u Finite Yerb.

Indicative

Conditional

Mood

Mood
Imperative

^U^i

( 316).

yazsiri

yazalim
ya'ziniz ft
yazsinlar'

Present
y or own

sevi

sevi' yorsoun

sevi'yor
sevi' yorouz
sevi' yorsounouz

JU

sevi'yor idim
idin

idi

idik

idiniz

sevi' yorlar

sevi'yor imishim

sevi

imishsin
imish
imishiz

,,

ijiiishiniz

Aorist <>jUsever idim


idin

sever imishim
imishsin'

ise

isek
iseniz
iseler.

sever isem
isen

idi

.,

severiz

idtfc

imi's/* iz

sever siniz

idiniz

imishsiniz
imishler

severUr

idiler

^^ ^U

Past
sevdim

isen

326).

sever

yor isem

imishler

idiler

'

seve rim
sever sin

318

sevdi'

iscfiiz

iseler.

( 344).

idim

sevdi'

isem

sevdin

idin

isen

sevdi'
sevdik'
sevdihiz
sevdilcr'

idi

ise

idik
idiniz

isek
isen iz
iseler.

idiler

^U

Dulritative

J*

sevmx shim

sevmisli

idim

sevmisli sin

<dm

seomish'

idi

sevmish'iz

id*ft

.,

sevmisli siniz

idiniz

sevmishler

sevejek' sin

imishim
imishsin
imish
imishiz
imishsiniz
imishler

sevmisli'

ide'ler

Future JJLlscveje yiin

sevejek'

idim
idin

( 351).

sevejek'

sevmisli isem
iseh

ise

.,

sek

isen

i:

iseler.

357).

imishim

sevejek' isem

imishsin

isen

Conjugation of Turkish Verbs.

\.rr

433

Indicative

Assertive

Conditional

Mood

Mood

Mood

sevejek'

sivijek' imish

sevejek' idi

seveje'yiz
sevejek' siniz

idik
idiniz

sevejekler

idilir

,.

imisltiz

isek

imishsiniz
imishlir

isiniz

Optative ^|JU\
seveyim

iselir.

( 365).

sive idim
idin

sevesin

seve

idi

secelim
sevesiaiz

idik
idiniz
idiler

,.

si-viler'

Snppositive
sev

sevejek' ise

sem

sev'se

idim

sev'se

sev'seftiz

idin
idi
idik
idiniz

siv'silir

idiler

siv'sin

,.

siv'se
siv'sik

..

ij.l Z[]\ ( 377).

im ish im
iynishsifi

imish
imish is
imishsiniz
imishler

Xecessitative <i_^j
sevmeli yim

idim

sevmeli'

( 384).

sevmeli' imish im

sevmeli' sin

idin

sevmeli'

idi

sivmeli'yiz
sevmeli siniz
sevmeli' dirlir

idik
idiniz

sevmeli' ise'm

imish sin
imish
imish iz

idiler

isin

ise

6 ^ h.

imishsifiiz

iseniz

imishler

iseler.

The Yerb To Have.


Binim
Binde
Bindi
Benim
Bende
Binim
Benim
Binim
Benim
Benim

car, senin car, ononri rar


var, sendi var, onda var

have a

dir, sende' dir, onda dir


var idi, senin rar idi, onoun rar idi
rar idi, sende rar idi, onda rar idi
rar imish, senin rar imish
rar isa; Bende var isa
oldou, senin oldou
.

olajaq, senin olajaq

olsa; senin olsa idi.

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

have the

(book),

had a

(book),

(They say that)


If 1 had" a
I

got a

have a
were mine.

I shall

If

it

have.

28

I.**".

434

\-***L*'

jg^***

The Official
The Imperial Palace

Part,

a*^U CjJ**-

of)*

His Imperial Majesty the Sultan ^tS^l


li^ll
.-IftU J\S

ij-li

'

<u

iSj\i

Z>

CjU JL7 Teshrifati

*i JL o:>UJljb Dar-us-sa'adet ush-sherife aghast,


Qizlar aghast, The Chief of the
Eunuchs of the Imp. Palace.
Ja><i^*^- S6'*' qourenayi Hazreti Sheh'riyari,
Bash Mabeynji, The Chief (Lord
High-) Chamberlain.
ii*~*k
''

^lz.Cjj-1 jjil/ i>jI


1

J'S

ij{,

Jt,

O^^ Zfo

oumoumiye Naziri, The


Grand Master of Ceremony.

yt
1

-le-i

j^

i>l*

J-L ijj>L^

jj*a>- 'lyojieL

T5

Mabeyni Hiimayoun Bash

Kitabeti,

The Imperial Chancellary.


Mabeyni Humayoun Bash KQtibi,
The First Secretary of the Imp.
Palace.
Kiatibi Khousousiyi Hazreti Shehriyari, The Private Secretary of

H. I. M.
i)y\& o\y* Divani Humayoun Bash Terjemani,

jl-P-,7 \j*\i

The Premier Dragoman

of the

Imp. Divan.
J?-Ji*

<jil o\ji*

ij-l)

Humayoun Bash Muterjimi,


The Premier Translator of the

Divani

Imp. Divan.
i>)U Mabeyni Humayoun Imaml, The
Chief Almoner (Imam) of the
Imp. Palace.
aliol o**a- f f\ jjIj Yaveri Ekremi Hazreti Padishah i,
The Aide-de-Camp of H. I. M.
(i^sei jjl>
Obj^ <i^i Fakhri aver an, The Honorary
aides-de-camp.
ubj^ JJ^ Tavdr, pi. yaveran, Aide-de-camp,
^\a\

<j>j>{

'

Aides de camp.

The Sublime

iro

v_s.L^. J^l

Port.

43!

The Premier
(French Courtisan).
Humayoun, The Privy Purse.

Bash

Mousahib,

Courtier

4.1

Uli

i)j{#

Jebi

4^5 U.

4/)J>-

Khazineyi Khassayi Shahane, The


Civil List.

cS^i*

^uj**

O^jl

e_/-U
c^^ju.
_lc.\

4.JU1

4.;Uli ii.wM

Mayeti Shahane Erkianl Harbiye


Musheeri, The Chief of the
Military Household.

Mabeyni Humayoun Mudiri, The


Palace,
A Director of the Imp.
o^lc J.L^l Istabli Amire Mudiri, The Grand
Equerry of H. I. M.
wol*-J'i il Babus Sa'adetiil aliye Aghasi, The

oj'^

u*'

Director
Palace.
-l jJtiS^^l-s.^ 15

of

the

Porte

of

the

Qapoujoidar Ket'kh iidasi,The Chief


of the Porters.

__/

^L>- Hatab anbari Mudiri, The Director


of the Depot of Combustibles.
lijle** ** uj^ CrtjL. Mabeyni Humayoun Se'r Miymari,
The Premier Architect of the
Imp. Palace.
^-LM j~. i)y\& CniU Mabeyni Humayoun Ser atibbasi,
The Premier Physician of the
Imp. Palace,
li^jo. J^jj's j 7^-k* Matbakh ve Fourounlar Mudiri,
Vw
The Director of the Imp. Kitchens
and Ovens.
_.
Erzaq
anbari Mud in'. The Director
i$J^
\j\Jj\
&JA*
i^^JU

cijLi\

'

of the Provisions.
anbari mudiri, The
Director
the Granaries.
of
p
Shahane Mudiri, The
\S j>,* 4.]Uli- 4l.bw Hadiqayi
.
Director of the Imp. Gardens.
ii^__u tjj'^ o&J :&,.> Chiftlikmti Humayoun Mudiri, The
Director of the Imp. Farms.

<Sj>* <j\^\ CjIj ---

Houboubat

The Sublime Porte

JU ^l

The Council of Ministers Mfj

^t

J^-

The Grand Vizier.


o \\\ Shcykh-ul Islam.
The Minister
f *"
Cof the Canon Law of Islam.
iSj^ <J-b Dakhiliye Xaziri, The Minister
pj=&\

(i.tl]

jj^ SodH

jdL'&sm,

of the Interior.
Kltarijiye Xaziri,

The Minister for


Foreign A flairs.
Jxl_&^~ SiraskSr, (Harbiye Xaziri) The
Minister for War.
oj'b.

tibial;

4.j^>-

'

2S*

u^J r~;

436

Shourayi Devlet Reijisi, The President of the Council of State.


Mezahib Naziri, The
4tfZ/e
Minister of Justice and Public

_J; cJjs tfb^


-

w*U.

iil:

c<;

W-n

Official Part.

The

^^

"

worship.

M%^ JVosH

.tfjik <JU
iS

The Minister

of

Finance.
The
?* -Jjl~ Mearifi oumoumiye Nazhi,
Minister of Public Instruction,
>ll <, jso Bahrii/e Naziri, The Minister for

Jit *~*

~^

"

(i

Naval Affairs (Navy).

musheeri, The
fly .lp^Ue..> Top-haneyi Amire
**
Grand Master of Ordnance.
i$jX vJSj\ Evqaf Naziri, The Minister of
Religious Funds.
Tijaret ve Nafiija Naziri, The

(i^v.1.

^^UJl;jO>:

Minister of Commerce and Public-

Works.

^ ^JL
i^\

U^

<^lil;

._Jj
"

oU
"

Shehir Emeeni,
the Citv.
Zaptiye Naziri,
the Police.

Lw

Reyisi,

The Prefect

of

The Prefect

of

The Prefect of the

Port.

rj

RousoumatEmini, Director General


of Customs.
De/fcW Khaqani Naziri, Director
<i Jill Jlali. ^:>
General of the Imperial Archives.
g TeUgraf Naziri, DirectorPosta
OjdJ
Jill 3\
j
v
General of Post and Telegraphs.
i^i

ol*

e<

i*

Jit

U^ J

si-pbjj

'at Naziri,
0^JJ\ OrmanveMeadinvezird

The Minister

of Mines, Forests

and Agriculture.

tiULJ JVT^UM
"

"

The Grand
dt,

=*j^T'
-

6*^
*

u^
"^

I*/w2/**/e

&%$

Commander

Yizieriate

JEofiwmc&mS, The
of the Fire-Bngade.

W^ CjM*

t5AT Amediyi Divani Humayoun, Referendary of the Imp. Divan.


Mektoubi Odasi, The Bureau of

-4>jt J-.j^

Correspondence.

JS oUj-JS
"
J5 jli

oWj
'

""

Teshrifat Qah'mi, The Bureau of


the Master of Ceremonies.
Vilayati Mumtaze Qalemi, The
Bureau of the privileged Pro-

vinces.
\^i- Sd/Vra T4shHfatj%six Introducer of
J5
r-*;l*

the Ambassadors.

The Sublime

try

The Council of State


^^ a j*

s A.Cl.

437

Port.

cJj:> <ib>^

Milkiye Dayiresi, The Civil Depart-

ment.

O~o^/b olcJ^r Tanzimat Dayiresi, The Legislative Department.


^-o^U ol<Sbc* Mouhakemat Dayiresi, The Judiciary Department.
The
it abet i,
jliba
cJji <i\j^ Shourayi Declet
Bureau of the Council of State.

Oiimourou Nafiya Qomisionou, The


High Commission of public Constructions (Improvements).
,^-j^* klJji (iljji Shourayi Devlet mulazimi, The
Auditor of the Council of State.

^jr^.jS

AjJll

The Foreign

jj^\

Office

^4JL>-

Z>J&

<u>-jU

Kharijiye Musteshari, The UnderSecretary of State for For. Affairs.


Terjeme qalemi, The Bureau of
+&
Translation.
.
dLj-jl. '<J-j^ Mektoubiyi Kharijiye qalemi, The
Bureau of Correspondence.
Tahriratl Kjnebiye Qalemi, The
<suu-l o\ y^eJ
Bureau of Foreign Correspondence.
^-.aJsj! Jljjl Euraq Odasx, The Bureau of Ar-

cijLU-w. <u.jU.

^y

O'

L>

15

.Jl5

*.l5

chives.
<u-Uc* Mouhasebe Qalemi,

*kl^. <Jji*

j_^.\

Board of Audit.

Oumourou Houqouqiye'yi Mnkhtelite Qalemi, The Bureau of Disputed Claims.

~<d>jl liJjjLi* 3j*>-

Houqouq mushacirleri

Odasi,

The

Bureau of Legists.
0<j

c^ulj Tabiyiyet Qalemi, The Bureau of


Nationality (naturalization).
Matbou'ati Ejnebiye Odasi, The
Bureau of the Foreign Press.
J?= Sijli ahval Qalemi, The Bureau
of personnel.

-4.Ljl ^uswl ole-a-k.


^jjjs \}\j>-\

The Ministry of Internal


^15
jj

Ji ,y jja

Affairs

^^LU-

Ojliai a.JL^I^

Matbou'at Qalemi, The Bureau of


the Press.
t_je3i Intikhabi Memoureen Qomisiyonou,

oic-j-Ia*

L.

The Commission
of functionaries.

for the Selection

^~-J ?-> The

438

wfA

Official Part.

Teqayud sandigM Nazareti, The


Direction of the Pension Funds.

j^ISJ
JjUi; ^;.a:^
"

The Sheikh-ul Mamate ^*b Z**~+

cS>~^ ^JJ
oj*?*

o^

JJ J *

The vice-Chancellor

^_

-A

of Turkey.

The Second vice-Chancellor

of Turkey (p. 458).


^' >u ni The Superintendent
**
( c5 .3 )
i-\ \_P
J** i>.\
J
^'
of Canonical Decisions.
a judge of the Canon Law
(the Fayil of .til
of Islam.
'

'

-Ju
c5

'

= ^) W/H

The Ministry of Finance

*.-u. cJ-

-^

^^r ^^

Idareyi Oumoumiyesi, The


General Directorate of revenues.
Mesarifat Idareyi Oumoumiyesi,
The General Directorate of Ex-

obl objb Varid at

^ obi olsjU
.ovf
-

penses.

Doteyoun Zdarey* Oumoumiyesi,


The General Directorate of PublicDebts.
The
-Olc CjL-W- Mouhasebati atiqa dayiresi,
ancient
of
regulation
Bureau of

'^i
-*"

*.K*Jt ojbl

^ "^
L

^^ 9 ^yb

accounts.

^V>M r^l J

J^

>

^Oj

<JU
"

Ashar ou aghnam Emaneti, The


administration of the tithes and
taxes on sheep.
Directorate of Weights and
^jj

'

r&^
Test.

\i

^M
-UL-*\

^
C

r" a*w" **- ~>

o\ y
-'lOj*

Qa?

W*^
The

and correspondence

LW.
<JU

Ejnebiyc

Tahrirati
office of

Tran8 iation
in

foreign

languages.
Mouhasebat, The Court of
Divani
CAjl*
Accounts.
Muts'sSsati maltye*, Financial Esta-

oLJ>

blishments.

The Imperial Mint


^-Jb uJ<^

^oj^b
~9

,b

J^jcA*

j^ t4^j^

Day
Sikkezen
^ikkezen Dayiresi,
of Minting

The department

^.U. Chashni Dayirisi, The department

^^

of assays.
itfflfcwa Dayiresi,

of Machines.

The department

\.r\

The Customs Admin.

439

Ministry of Pub. Inst.

5.

^-a^/U

*A5

The Customs Administration


c ^,ojU\

JjLi* Sj^> aJ>^ j~* o!J>T

JjUal

JjUkJ

&Jj*J^

'

,.4JU.

rj-J Bousoumou

"0L-

>.

of

c-jUI Ol*,-j

Sitte Idaresi,

The Ad-

ministration of the six indirect


taxes (p. 390;.
muskirat zakhire gebmruyu
* Jifa
^~
nezareti, The Directorate of the

t^y

S^Jj*J^ o J\~ j

The department

Dayiresi,
Refining.

()Z

oj-

customs on cereals and liquors.


Kereste gebmruyu Xezareti, The
Directorate of the Customs on
wood.
Meyce re Sebze gebmruyu

Xezare'ti,

The Directorate of the customs


on

cJji

fruits

and vegetables.

BaltqhanSN&tar&ifTheiyirectoTate
of the Fishery.
0^ J^t-Jl -^idl il^Li* Mushterekid Meufa'a inhisari doukhani Devleti Aliyeyi Osmaniye,
cijj'v^*6, V^
The Regie co-interesse of tobaccos
of the Ottoman-Empire.
^-ojbl <4*j^ <j> Douyounou Oumoumiye Idaresi,
The Administration of Public
Debts.
Douyounou
Oumoumiye bash qo(_JI.li
[$.
<.*^
Ji
oj'
misiri, Imperial Commissary of
the Ottoman Public Debts.
JjLL;

A.;lseilL

-^

^~<>lAs>~ slouaj

~*Jr

^j

*c*

The Ministry of Public Instruction


oIm j (luJ

tV*-aw1

Enjumeni

Teftish ou Mouaye'ne,

The

Council of Inspection and Censure (Supervision),


^te <^jua-\ ol&j^k. Matbou'ati Ejnebiye Qalemi, The
Bureau of the Domestic Press.
^J?} <Sa~\* oUj-L. Matbou'erfi DakhiJiye Qalemi, The
Bureau of the Domestic Press.
tSj>* 4~i-\.s olfr^-la- Matbou'ctl DakhiJiye Mudiri, The
Director of the Domestic Press
Bureau.
.eJ^JU aJIc s_^J&* Mekfatibi AJiye Mudiri yet i, The
Directorate of the Higher Schools.
.
.
i
4jULi 4..xJu v^I>* Mektebi Miikiyt'yi Shahane, The
Imperial Civil College.
.
jUaL. v_^ix Mektebi Soul t a ni The Imp. Lyceum
.
of Galata Seray.
Mektebi Houqouqou Shahane, The
<] U Li J^to- ^-^}

Imp. Lyceum of Law.

440

^-.j

The

fv~i

ijU Lisan

eix.
(

^<f

Official Part,

Mektebi,

The Imp. Lyceum

of Languages.
juL** ^:fC Mektebi Sanayi, The School of
Arts and Industry.
.
A Primary
(aJIJwTjI v_^&T* ) aJ\Ju\ kIx* Mektebi Iptidayiye,
School.
.
.7\^T. ) AjjJ-j ^_^i>-.
Mektebi Rushdiye, A Grammar
C-oJu-j
School.
(Aj^lAfrl) ^ix.) aj^U&1 wlx* Mektebi Idadiye, An Academy or
Preparatory School (which pre.
pares for a College).
(-die wo'^C ) Jlc ^ix. Mektebi Alt, A Superior (High-)
School or College.
A Normal
C**Al\ j\s Dar-iil Mouallimeen,
School for teachers.
Monallimat,
A Normal
olell\ jb Dar-iil
School for lady teachers.
t
^IX. Mektebi Tibbiyeyi Milkiye, The
d^JU <Jh
"*
Civil Medical School.
,:jC o,^\-ifr Ashiret Mektebi, A School for
Nomadic Tribes.
6

'

"

o^lc- aIU-Jl^j

Rasadkhaneyi Amire,

The Imp.

Meteorological Observatory.
jj

yl#> 4.il-oj^.
fr

o^l&

<u-Ja

The Ministry of

Mitze'khaneyi Humayoun,
perial Museum.

Matba'ayi Amire,
Printing-House.

Justice and Public

(i^x. ^&\J^ Mezdhib

The Im-

The Imperial

Worship

Miidiri, Director of Public

Worship

(Religions).

Enjiimeni adliye Hiyeti, The Board


of the Justice.
^Jt ^uxW* Mehkemeyi Temyeez, The Court
of Cassation.
. yf
&.L. (J-l Bash Miiddayi oumoumi, The Procuror General of the Court of
Cassation.
Jz\^lJ\ ^.jCt* Mehkemiyi Istinaf, The Court of
"
appeals.
^o^-b lfrAi-\ Istida dayiresi, The Section of
Requests (in the C. of Cassation).
^o^/b wL- Jinayet Dayiresi, The Criminal

:L<& < Jj.fr

^<^\
.

g,

fr

Section.

fr

^.-a^r-b

<^c-La-

The Correctional

Section.

^o^U

Jicnha Dayiresi,

lJ^a*-

Houqouq
Section.

Dayiresi,

The

Civil

Vl

The Ministry

-0<b i>

^L&

,jr"^b a^I^I

i>-*>*^ C-fU

^
^^

'

c.U

Prefecture of Police.

OjUc.;

c>~^ *=O^J

c^^

<^S^

Ojl*J

>.

U.

'

The Court of

Mehkemeyi Tijaret, The tribunal


of Commerce.
Bi 2Y/ar# Mejlisi, The First
Commercial Court (where the
cases between foreigners and
Ottoman subjects are dealt with).
Mehkemeyi Tijareti Bahriye, The
Maritime Com. Court.

Hakim,

pi.

houk'kmm, Judge.

lt-Jj i?e>/s, President.

U&I

441

Jeza Dayiresi, The Court of


Criminal jurisdiction.
HiyetiIt-hamiyeDayiresi,TheCourt
of accusation.

V*.C~ Mehkemeyi Bidayet,


first instance.

^
*X&.

^-^

of Justice.

^-Ut| ^Jk^ Mehkeme

(The presiding

Member

Azast, aza,

of

council.

oV^ u^*

M&ddayi

Oumoumi,

Procuror

General.

(Public prosecutor.)
JjU* ^*jS- ^c_u Muddayi Oumoumi moxCavini,
The
assistant Proc. Gen.
^5 Ja-^ Zabt Ktatibi, The Clerk.

ujl*

Mouavin, Assistant.

jia^-. Moustantiq,

r^ *

tary Public.
darajl,

c
'

trial justice.

CjVjU. Mouqavelat Mouharriri, The No-

cij^rt*
1

The

t^L**- 3
4J*

'

uM* M&ddayi,

khasim,

The

plaintiff.

Muddayi

-Xali

Shahid, vulg. shahad Witness.

^->- J^? ^ &


'

->

y
^LzJSj

aleyh',

ftww *&#*,
nev

The defendant.

avoqat,

Lawver,

attor-

"

VekTaletname,

The Prefecture of Police

o~^

LrJjJ Pol is

^V
mejlisi,

-U.- <ujU1j Jandarma

A power of attorney.
Ojlli

The

L.>

council of police.

mejlisi,

The

council of

gendarmery.

^-r-^j 9 u-J#
u-*k->l

^->J^

^'
s Qomiseri, The commissary
of police.
Pasaport odasi (vulg. pashaport),
The bureau of passports.
jP(9

442

r-~*

The

official

$j>* jjJjj Pol is

Part

The

miidirliyi,

prefects of

police.
Jjlii:

j^ Sou

The

nezareti,

directorate of

waters.

*>* <;ls^->. Habskhaneyioumoumi, The central


prison,

-a^ viJM *

S7ie7uV emaneti behiyesi, The Prefecture of the City (of Const.),

^b j*y

^ji

Birinjidayireyibelediye,
municipality circle.

^o^b

*i-x]i;

BeUdiye

^-Jj

*>ji

BeUdiye

The

ddyiresi,

The

first

munici-

pality.

^J^>

a.jJu

reyisi,

The mayor

(of

city).

BeUdiye

mejlisi,

The municipal

council.

^lUoleJ Timarliliane,

^^jU-wi.

l^fc

Asylum

of the insane.

Goureba Khastahanesi

The

ho-

spital for strangers.

The Ministry of Commerce and Public Works

-~ ob\
^~<u**

* J'*--"
J^ *"
v
"

Demir y oil ar idareyi oumoumiyesi,


xhe general directorate of rail-

roads.
^_x> JMttdtnot*woMmt,GeneralmanageF.
.

^y^
^ojb\

r.U.
'

j J

>

Tourouq ou meabir

idaresi,

The

general directorate of roads and


bridges.

Cj

XllswJ^* Muhmdiskhaneyi H&mayoun, The


School of Engineers.

*\J>

The Council of International Sanitation


<-*.* jj*\ jbl
A

^=^

ojb

CJnjla'AlUli'^U^i*;

Idareyi oumourou s'thhiye,


sanitary administration.

Dayireyi

Sihlriye,

The

The Bureau

of

Sanitation.
Tehaffouzlchane, Qarantina, The
Lazaretto, Quarantine Station.

^LU OjJi UJi^ ^ ^


l

The Ministry of Religious Funds


c.\^a

Jli:;i

Firagh, Alienation, Quitclaim.

Transmission
Intiqal,
heritance.

by

in-

Wr

The Ministry of War.

443

The Administration of Posts and Telegraphs


iSj&S^-ji

olpi *J& oJj.i Dcvleti Aliyeyi Osmaniye Ittihad


Postalari, The International Otto-

.aUeJl

man

g.

Posts.

4jU-^:> Defterkhaneyi Kliaqani Nezareti,

JjLSai JlSli.

u-4iilj c&ljj
^.--uil Jile^

jlc^

<i^_-^

(3^*

The Ministry of Archives.


Zira'at banqasi, The Agricultural
Bank.
Osmanli banqasi, The Ottoman
Bank.
Banqi Osmani Mudiri, The manager of the Imp. Ottoman Bank.

The Ministry of War


iS^^s-jr* (iVlj

>L

^^LU Zjjfe

^j-

Valayi
The
Seraskeri
Seraskeriat (The War Office

Babi

'-r'J*-

^-o^b

<-->j*-

i)6j\

ErkTani Harb, The General

Staff.

o6j\ rj& Oumoum Erktani Harb Dayiresi,


The Department of the General
Staff.

Piyade Dayiresi, The Infantry


Department,
6
^-o^b cijlj Suvari Dayiresi, The Cavalry
Department.
^-.9^/b (j^-J-k Topjou Dayiresi, The Artillery
Department.
^
-o^/\^ o^LiJl j oUlx=c^-l Istilikilimat ve Insha'at Dayiresi,
(J

~<o^>\} <oLj

"

The

Department of Military
and buildings.
*jJn& 01,51^. Mouhakematl askeriye Dayiresi,
The Department of Military
fortification

^o^-b

j^o^b

Justice,

4j^Sw& *^z^a Sihhiyeyi askeriye Dayiresi, The

Department
^

a~*L <ajL.;\ 4-je^a jja\

^\j~>-

<->z.-<3

jj\

^-Jlt

jj^w.y

Military

Sani-

Oumourou Sihhiyeyi Insaniye shubesi, The Department of MiJitary medical Inspection.

^^Jl

of

tation.

..

<^i^s_c ^liLT

Oumourou Sihhiyeyi Hayvaniye


Shubesi, The Department of equestrian hygiene.

Qomisiyonou alisi,
High Military Commission.
^,-o^/b ^j-^ oLj\jl Levazimati oumoumiye Dayiresi,
The Commissaiy-General's Dep.
t
^-o^b Vj^ ^V-^=- 4 Mouhasebati oumoumiye Dayiresi,
The Department of General
Teftishi askeriye

accounts.

444

~^j The

,j

__o^b

A-5liL\

<uj*-

^iSC

'

School.

'

^^C

JxLc. aJ

Mektebi Tibbiyeyi Askeriye, The


Medical Military School.

'

.j^x.

~c-

a;

T\^C1

'v.'u't

Itfayiye alayi, Touloumbaji alayi,


The Brigade of Firemen.
Mektebi Harbiye, The Military

~
aj

Part.

Jandarma dayiresi, The Department of Gendarrnery.

a.j\jJ\3

jVT j**-*Jb JVT

Official

*^f

Oumoam Mekmtibi

Askeriye
Director General of
Military Schools.

Muthe

diri,

Military Grades

^
jr*
j\Jl

jjj

*>^~&

Serdar, General

Serdar

(cf. p.

uiJj* ^
458).

Ekrem, Grand Marshal

Musheer, Marshal,

i Feriq, General of division.

\Jj\*

Miriliva, General of hrigade.

ciVT^v. Miralay, Colonel.


Aliil5

Qaymaqam, Lieutenant

IsS
a
n

colonel

to

CO

1-5

il dJb Bin bashi, Major.

Jy

~1&1

JLL jjj

Qol aghast, Adjutant major.


2>a/it,

y<8?

Captain.
ft-*"

jj\ ^3^- Mulazimi

evvel,

Lieutenant.

(iU fj>U Mulazimi sani, Sub-lieutenant.

I*

^*\ iVT J7a# 2?romt, Intendant of a regiment.

^"IS^ciVT -4toy Kuitibi, Sec. of a regiment,


^U\ ciVT
*Ll j^jIL

J-jU. J-l

^s-jU-"
.

e^n^

Jil

l^A;

^Cj^

Alay Imami, Chaplain of a regiment.


labour Imami, Chaplain of a battalion
I?as7<

Sim

chavoush, Sergeant major.

chavoushou, Sergeant.

}g'^2~
I
I

m 2
"l

**
co

^jl

On

'^il

2V2/2r, asfcer neferi, Soldier, Private.

bashi,

ft

Corporal.
o
0*5

.att

ii

'

(i^lc a&^s Qour'a


,<lt J^L^l

askeri, Aje'mi, Conscript.

Ihtiyat askeri,

The army

reserve.

S.

The Ministry

Vuo
jzj\ Ordou,

of War.

<^i Firqa, Division.

Army.

*\J Liva, Brigade.

Sjji

445

iiV

AJay, Regiment.

(SjI^- ^j*-^ {J^-.j^ Topjou yakhod souvari bebluyu,

Squa-

dron.

oLj

<ijwll

'jjjU Tabour, piyade tabourou, Battalion.

Sjji oi^'^JjBedluk, piyade


Jf"L* oLj Piyade

'

(i^il

beoluyu,

Company.

asakiri; -neferi, Infantry; Foot-

(i

soldier.
<^^i]
iSyi,
<SjX>
(

<^"L,& yr^ij^ Topjou

'

li^L-t

'

'

v_aV^-*

(ij\_^-

Souvari asakiri, Cavalry.

*j^y

Baliriye asakiri. Marines.

(ijTLx.
)

asakiri; -neferi, Artillery; -man.

jTu-c Asakiri nizamiye, -Mouvazzaf, Regulars.

4~*Ua]

ioj
A^a?-:,,^

^L~

c-

^L~c

<i^L_c

-u^U.

Asakiri redife, Militia.

Asakiri moustahfUa, The last Reserves.

Khassa

asakiri,

The corps of the Imp.

Guards.

uj^

<J*j\

^oji

Debrduvju Ordouyi Humayoun, The 4th

Army

Corps.

1. The centre of the Imp. Guards is Constantinople,


iV'ote.
2nd Edirne, 3r d Monastir. 4th Erzinjan, 5th Damascus, 6 th
Bagdad, 7th Sana.
Note. 2. All the Moslems in Turkey are called to enter the
Army at the age of 20, which is called the age of Maturity (esnanj.
The term is 9 years in the Regular Army (Asakiri Nizamiye):
3 years under arms and 6 years in the army reserve (IJitiyat);
6 in the territorial army (Militia Rt'dif) and 3 in the territorial
reserve (Moustalifiz).

Arms
ajjI;
Ajwjla.

&jj

<3cL-|

Eslihayi nariye, Fire arms.

ojul Eslihayi
Gun.

Tufe'ng,

jJjjj Revolver, Revolver.

^Jh

Top, Canon.

ojjLLS Qatsatoura,

Oo'<^J

<*li

(?flia,

jarilia,

Pointed arms.

<i\iJ Fishing, Rocket.


4.^.1

Lli

Tabanja,

Pistol.

S^J~ Sunyu, Bayonet.


Strap.

Qabze, ain, Sheath.

jLv- Mizraq,

ajc.L-\

Lancet.

Dagger.

*JlJ

Q'tl/j,

Sword.

aUV Balta, Axe.

li-

KJiancher, Sabre.

,jkUl Yatayan, Yatagan.