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ARCH 4109


Prerequisite URBAN DESIGN I - ARCH 3201

Department of Architecture

American International University - Bangladesh

Ashik Ikbal, assistant professor

> Lecture 1, 2
Introduction: Urban Design- what, why, how and where?

> Lecture 3,4,5

Context and scale of Urban Design

> Lecture 6,7,8

Understanding Urban Space: Meaning, Form, Order
Typological and Morphological Elements of the Concepts of Urban Space
Introducing the concept of Figure ground and Nolli Map
Exercise: producing figure ground and Nolli Map of historical and present
Dhaka city

> URBAN DESIGN II Basic Premise: Design of Urban Space

> Lecture 9,10

Activities in Outdoor Space: Life Between Buildings
Urban Outdoor Space

>Defining Neighborhood 11,12

How relevant is planning by neighbourhoods today?
Exercise: Defining neighbourhood in Dhaka city-identifying the edge,
neighbourhood centre (land use and open space)
Exercise: Finding Lost Space in a particular area of a city (settlement level)

> Lecture 13
Urban Realities and Critique
Philosophical Base: Empiricism, Rationalism, Pragmatism

> URBAN DESIGN II Design of Urban Space: Theories and practice

> Lecture 14,15

Neo-Rationalist Approaches to Urban Design
Manfredo Tafuri, Aldo Rossi, The Krier Brothers
> Lecture 16,17
Neo-Empiricist Approaches to Urban Design
Gordon Cullen, Kevin lynch, Christopher Alexander, Robert Ventury.

>Lecture 18,19,20,21,22,23,24
Responsive environments

> URBAN DESIGN II Design Process and Reflections

Defining sustainable Urban Development : Environmental, Social and Economic

Global warming: cause of Global warming and its impact on Bangladesh
The Ecosystem approach in Urban Design: Introducing the Dutch concept of Ecopolis
Exercise: two specific area will taken as case study- one in the downtown and another
in the urban fringe; based on the guiding model of Ecopolis the student would
determine if those area are sustainable development or not giving detail explanation.
Due to the time constraint the exercise should be focused on environmental
sustainability; specifically on four chain management: Water, Waste, Energy and


> URBAN DESIGN II Design Process and Reflections


A+ 94 100, A 90 - 93.99, A- 86-89.99, B+ 82-85.99, B 78-81.99, B- 74-77.99 , C+ 70 73.99, C
66-69.99 , C- 62-65.99, D+ 58-61.99, D 54-57.99, D- 50-53.99, F 49.99 and below

**Lecture Schedule is subjected to change for reasons arising from unforeseen circumstances.

> URBAN DESIGN II Design Process and Reflections


Urban Design is the process of giving form, shape and

character to the arrangement of buildings, to whole
neighborhoods, or the city.
The design of the public realm, its central concerns
are the quality and usefulness of the public spaces
enclosed and defined by buildings.


contemporary urban strategies / a hybrid urban praxis,

opening up and communicating architecture to a wider
audience / urban survival strategies / time-based
architecture, temporary and momentary / urban
transformation and the reanimation of lost, forgotten, hidden
city spaces / neon-inspired / trans-cultural
collaboration / the city as a medium / scavenging, remapping,
re-sampling the city in light, sound and text / urban nomadic

> URBAN DESIGN II terms / movements / issues

the reinvention of spaces / intervention.....urban curtain /

communicating a mobile, fluid urbanity / reading the city as
text / the creation of urban situations / stalking peripheral
urban spaces / process-driven urban design / garage
settlements / urban voids / urban animators / to know is to
insert something into what is real and hence to distort reality /
container cities / urban design / reanimating the real /
multiple identities

> URBAN DESIGN II terms / movements / issues


G. Broadbent (1990) Emerging Concepts in Urban Space, London: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Jere Stuart French (1983). Urban space. A Brief History of the City Square, lowa: Kendall/Hunt
publishers Co.

Jan Gehl (1986). Life Between Buildings, Using Public Space, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Allan Jacobs & Donald Appleyard (1987). Toward an Urban Design Manifesto:, in APA Journal, Winter.
Rob Krier (1991). Urban Space, London: Academy Editions.

Matthew Carmona, Tim Heath, Taner Oc, Steve Tiesdell (2006). Public Places Urban Spaces,
Architectural Press

> URBAN DESIGN II Reference: Main Texts

Everything that you can see out of the window

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture 01


Urban design draws together the many strands of

place-making - environmental responsibility, social
equity and economic viability, for example - into the
creation of places of beauty and distinct identity.
Urban design is derived from but transcends related matters such as
planning and transportation policy, architectural design, development
economics, landscape and engineering. It draws these and other
strands together.
In summary, urban design is about creating a vision for an area and
then deploying the skills and resources to realize that vision.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture 01


> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture 0113

Rise of Urban Design


Urban design initially evolved at the end of 1960s, as a

critique of the built environment produced by modernist
architects, urban planners, landscape architects and the other
related professionals involved in the making of public realm.

The majority of urban design issues are the

product of post modern thinking.
The first usage of the term Urban design was in 1956 in urban
design conferences at Harvard.

> URBAN DESIGN II Rise of Urban Design


It gradually spread mainly through the work of Kevin Lynch and Jane
Jacobs in the 1960s and Christopher Alexander , Leon and Rob Krier,
Robert Venturi , amongst others, in 1970s and 1980s.
The last decade of the last century saw urban design colored by the views
and counter views of Charles Jencks and Sir Richard Rogers.

> URBAN DESIGN II Rise of Urban Design


Jacobss, Lynchs and Cullens works originated from the view of the city
dwellers. Other books, Rossis "Architecture of the City" (1965), Venturis
"Learning from Las Vegas" (1972), Colin Rowes "Collage City" (1984), and
Peter Calthorpes "The Next American Metropolis" (1993), were mostly based
on theoretical and philosophical context. While Rossi bringing "historicism"
and "collective memory" concept Rowe and Cotter proposed a "collage
metaphor" that means the collage of new and older forms within the same
urban space. On the other hand Calthorpe developed a manifesto for
sustainable urban living at medium densities and a design manual for building
new settlements with his concept of Transit Oriented Development (TOD).
These works gave urban designers a postmodern idea of urban space and

> URBAN DESIGN II Rise of Urban Design


This course is a continuation as well
as and extension of 'Urban Design I'.
Issues and theories discussed in this
course constitute a selective part
within the board field of Urban Design
that aimed to contribute to the design
of urban space to accommodate and
accentuate outdoor activities.
Specific emphasis will be given on the
design of urban space at a building,
cluster and neighborhood or block


To explain the different analysis of urban design.
To encourage critical thinking about the subject.
To provide the student with analytical tools at various levels of interpretation and link its
importance and application

> to the architectural design process.

To suggest an information base in the form of case studies and general reading in
support of the lecture series.


Form of a city and theories.
Theory of good city form

Urban textures and networks
City models and city design - Urban design process

Responsive Environment permeability, Varity, legibility, appropriateness,

richness and personalization.
Contemporary cogitation


Comprehensive Plans
Urban Design Plans
Regional Plans
Neighborhood Plans
Corridor Plans 23
Redevelopment Area Plans
Transportation Plans
Housing Plans
Economic Development Plans
Community Facilities Plans
Parks and Open-Space Plans
Critical and Sensitive Areas Plans
Hazard Mitigation Plans

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Is about relationships, the character of buildings

and spaces and how people > perceive and
use both.

Increasing interest is being shown, at

national and local levels, in the threedimensional quality of new development and
the role and contribution of urban design.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


The concept of the public realm, achieving a sense of place and the public
significance of new development, is vital within the urban design
Matters such as community

safety, accessibility,
sustainability, quality of life and protecting
the heritage legacy, are key concerns within the public realm
and are significant elements within the urban design agenda.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Urban designer Urban planner

Urban planners works in three

- Survey
- Plan
- Implementation

Urban Design is not urban


On the other hand, Urban

designers take the process one
step further by developing
generic plans.


Urban Design and Urban planning

are closely related disciplines but not

Recommendations and
regulations into specific design

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01 > Clarification


Urban design is generally considered neither a profession nor a

discipline. There is a trend to formulate urban design as the interface
between architecture and town planning, or the gap between them.
For example, when Kevin Lynch saw urban design as a branch of
architecture Michael Southworth thought urban design as a branch of
urban planning:
"Urban design is defined... as that branch of city planning that
focuses on analysis, design, and management of environments with
particular attention to the experiential qualities of place."
Most of urban design literature put urban design as an extension of
architecture, an extension of planning, or in a field lies between them.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Debate between Urban Design and Urban Planning

Urban planning emerged as the practical solution of the haphazard physical
environment of the 19th century industrial city but later on developed as a
discipline beyond the compressed framework of physical design. Because
planners focused primarily on social, political and managerial aspects of the built
environment they ignored the physical qualities of public realm. After 1960s
architecture, planning, landscape architecture and other professionals blamed
each other for declining urban quality. Urban design therefore initially developed
as an attempt to build bridges between different design and planning professions
and focused on the quality of the public realm. Although urban planning
recognized the importance of urban design there is a debate between urban
planning and urban design into two broad areas: emphasis on design, and scale.
Role of Design: Spatial or Social?
Urban Design Scale

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


The basis for a framework defining urban design can be

grouped under six main headings
1. Historic preservation and urban conservation
2. Design for pedestrians
3. Vitality and variety of use
4. The cultural environment
5. Environmental context
6. Architectural values

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


The jargon-free qualities, goals and principles describing urban design can be
grouped under eight major headings:
Mixed and compatible uses,
Pedestrianization and human scale,
Human culture,
Public realm,
Built environment
Natural environment
Undoubtedly these classifications should be extended in a very widely range of
topics. However in all these definitions we see that there is a strong emphasis
on livability, historic preservation, environmental quality associated with
aesthetic values, and positive urban space correspondence to basic human
needs which are also the major themes of postmodern urbanism.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Without movement and CHANGE, there is

no life in City.

Urban Design-what, why, how and

"If change is so essential, how do we

understand it and how do we relate it to
the urban society and urban space?
What kind of change is inevitable and
what kind of change do we want to

RANGS Building: Symbol of abuse of Power


> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01

Photograph: DRIK, Zaid Islam

If there are changes that we prefer to take

place, how do we promote and achieve

What do we do to prescribe change and to

implement it?

What kinds of processes can transform the
urban environment?
What are the nature and scope of the
design of the built environment?"

The body of a demolition worker under the ravage

RANGS Building. Dhaka. Bangladesh. Zaid Islam

Urban Design-what, why, how and


> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01

Photograph: DRIK, Zaid Islam


> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


A stream runs through the center of Seoul,

dividing the city into North and South, but for
three decades it was totally buried beneath a
busy downtown highway. In 2003, as part of
a vast urban renewal project, the highway
was removed and the stream was recovered
and turned into a beautiful 5.8 km urban
park. Demolishing roads in favor of urban
parks is is a development project we can
really get behind.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


One of Singapores most

popular parks has been
transformed into a dynamic
natural ecosystem with the
restoration of 2.7 kilometers of
the Kallang River that had
previously been forced into a
concrete drainage channel,
creating new recreation
opportunities while helping
protect the city from flooding.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


The approach
includes a series of
interventions to
renovate traditional
tanneries, create
public spaces and
pedestrian zones, and
restore wetlands as
well as biodiversity.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


The demolition of a vast

motorway through the centre of
South Koreas capital and the
restoration of a river and park
in its place proves that megacities can be changed for the

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


What is Urban Design?

Lots of architecture
Space between buildings
A thoughtful municipal policy

The interface between architecture,

town planning , and related
professions. A vital bridge, giving
structure and reality to two
dimensional master plans and
abstract planning briefs, before
detailed architectural of engineering
design can take place.
The design of the built-up area at the
local scale, including the grouping of
buildings for different use, the
movement systems and services
associated with them, and the spaces
and urban landscape between them.
and it goes on and on................

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Definitions of Urban Design

A short clear DEFINITION.....

......simply is not possible
Instead, we should focus on

Urban Design is an interdisciplinary area which

is concerned with Design of Urban space
Latin word Urbs originally mean a city, so
urban design means city design.
In other words Urban design indicates the
Architecture of Towns and cities which
means deep structure or internal structure of
cities not the appearance of its buildings.


What is Urban Design?

City is a large , relatively dense settlement

of heterogeneous people ( K.Lynch, 1981)
City is a place in which citizens with rights
of citizenship, live a civic life( Gibberd)

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


"Urban design is an integral part of the process of city and regional planning.

It is primarily and essentially three-dimensional design but must also deal with the
non-visual aspects of environment such as noise, smell or feelings of danger and
safety, which contribute significantly to the character of an area.
Its major characteristic is the arrangement

of the physical objects

and human activities in it is essentially external, as distinct
from internal space. Urban design includes a concern for the relationship of
new development to existing city from as much as to the social, political and
economic demands and resources available. It is equally concerned with the
relationship of different forms of movement to urban development.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Urban Space Design for People

Urban design concerns the arrangement, appearance and functionality of towns and
cities, and in particular the shaping and uses of urban public space.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Urban Space Design for People

Barcelona Water front

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Urban Space Design for People

Barcelona Water front

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Urban Space

Design for People

Coop Himmelbau, a 40-years old firm that active in architecture, urban planning, design, and
art, won the design competition of Museum of Contemporary Art & Planning Exhibition in
Shenzhen, China. As described by the architects, the design is an urban meeting point

and serves as a dynamic element in the progressive system of the city

of Shenzhen in the middle of their new center.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Urban Space Design for People by NAO (Normal + Architecture + Office) founded by Srdjan Jovanovic

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Architecture is moving from

style to flexible organization,
from form-centered design
to a psychology-driven
It needs to explore the inbetween; transitional zones,
moments of interaction
between people, goods and

Daniel Libeskind

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Urban Design Theory

Urban design concerns the arrangement,

appearance and functionality of towns and cities,

and in particular the shaping and uses of urban public space. It
has traditionally been regarded as a disciplinary subset of
urban planning, landscape architecture and architecture.
However, with its increasing prominence in the activities of
these disciplines, it is better conceptualised as a design
practice that operates at the intersection of all three, and
requires a good understanding of a range of others besides,
such as urban economics, political economy and social theory.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Urban design theory deals primarily with the design

and management of public space and the way
public places are experienced and used. Public
space includes the totality of spaces used freely on a
day-to-day basis by the general public, such as

streets, plazas, parks and public

Some aspects of privately owned spaces, such as
building facades or domestic gardens, also
contribute to public space and are therefore also
considered by Urban design theory. Important
writers on, and advocates for, urban design theory
include Edmund Bacon, Gordon Cullen, Jane Jacobs, Christopher
Alexander, William H. Whyte, Kevin Lynch, Aldo Rossi, Robert
Venturi, Colin Rowe, Peter Calthorpe and Jan Gehl.

Jane Jacobs
Jane Jacobs (1916-2006) was
an urban writer and activist who
championed new, communitybased approaches to planning
for over 40 years. Her 1961
treatise, The Death and Life of
Great American Cities, became
perhaps the most influential
American text about the inner

workings and failings

of cities, inspiring
generations of urban planners
and activists.

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01


Why Designing Urban Space?

Not for aesthetics only of course............
Our understanding of the problems, goals, and means for designing urban
space is different than past attempts, likeGarden City Movement by Ebenezer Howard
Charter of Athens (CIAM)

19th century industrialized city: Physical decay and social inequities

Physical requirements for healthy, humane and beautiful urban environments
Main focus PHYSICAL


> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01

CIAM - Congrs International d'Architecture Moderne


Such comparisons is
that there really is no
perfect form of street
fabric - many different
networks and patterns
are capable of
producing wonderful

> URBAN DESIGN II Lecture - 01