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10.

6 Product of Inertia
Product of Inertia:
I xy xy dA

When the x axis, the y


axis, or both are an axis
of symmetry, the product
of inertia is zero.

Parallel axis theorem for


products of inertia:
I xy I xy x yA
9- 1

Sample Problem 10.6


Determine the product of inertia of the
right triangle

(a) with respect to the x and y axes and


(b) with respect to centroidal axes
parallel to the x and y axes.

SOLUTION:
Determine the product of inertia using direct integration with
the parallel axis theorem on vertical differential area strips
Apply the parallel axis theorem to evaluate the product of
inertia with respect to the centroidal axes.
9- 2

Sample Problem 10.6

(continue)

SOLUTION:
Determine the product of inertia using direct
integration with the parallel axis theorem on
vertical differential area strips
x
x
y h1 dA y dx h1 dx
b
b
x
xel x
yel 12 y 12 h1
b

Integrating dIx from x = 0 to x = b,


b

I xy dI xy xel yel dA x
0
b

12

x
h 1 dx
b

2
3
4

x
x
x
x
x
x
dx h
h2

2
2 b 2b 2
4
3
b
8
b
0

0
2

1 b2h2
I xy 24
9- 3

Sample Problem 10.6 (continue)


Apply the parallel axis theorem to evaluate the
product of inertia with respect to the centroidal
axes.

x 13 b

y 13 h

With the results from part a,

I xy I xy x yA

13 h12 bh

1 b2h2 1 b
I xy 24
3

1 b 2h2
I xy 72

9- 4

10.7 Moments of Inertia about inclined axis


In structural and mechanical design, it is sometimes necessary to calculate
the moment of inertia with respect to a set of inclined u, v, axes when the
values of q , Ix, Iy, Ixy are known.
To do this we will use transformation
equations which relates the x, y, and
x, y coordinates.

From Figure, these equations are:


Note: x x cosq y sin q
y y cosq x sin q

9- 5

Moments of Inertia about inclined axis,, continue


The change of axes yields
Ix I y Ix I y
I x

cos 2q I xy sin 2q
2
2
Ix I y Ix I y
I y

cos 2q I xy sin 2q
2
2
Ix I y
I xy
sin 2q I xy cos 2q
2

Given

I x y 2 dA I y x 2 dA
I xy xy dA

we wish to determine moments and


product of inertia with respect to
new axes x and y.

By adding the equations for Ix and Ix we


can show that the polar moment of inertia
about z axis passing through point O is
independent of the orientation of x and y;

Jo = Ix + Iy = Ix + Iy
These equations show that Ix , Iy and Ixy
depend on the angle of the inclination, q,
of the x, y axes.
9- 6

Principal Axes and Principal Moments of Inertia


We will now determine the orientation of these axes about which Ix , Iy
are maximum and minimum. This particular axes are called principal axes
By differentiating the first of Eqs. 10-9 with respect to q and setting the
result to zero. Thus;
dI x'
dq

Therefore, at q = qp ;

By substituting for q in Ix , Iy and Ixy equations and simplifying ,


we obtain;

9- 7

Summary,,,,,
I x
I y

Ix I y
2
Ix I y

I xy

2
Ix I y
2

Ix I y
2
Ix Iy
2

cos 2q I xy sin 2q

.. 10-9 (a)

cos 2q I xy sin 2q

.. 10-9 (a)

sin 2q I xy cos 2q

.. 10-9 (a)

.. 10-10

.. 10-11

9- 8

Principal Axes and Principal Moments of Inertia


Squaring Eqs. 10-9a and 10-9c and
adding, it is found that;

I x I ave 2 I x2y

R2

where;
I ave
R

Ix Iy
2

Ix Iy

2
I xy

At the points A and B, Ixy = 0 and


Ix is a maximum and minimum,
respectively.

I max, min I ave R


tan 2q m

2 I xy
Ix I y

The equation for qm defines two


angles, 90o apart which correspond to
the principal axes of the area about O.
Imax and Imin are the principal moments
of inertia of the area about O.
9- 9

10.8 Mohrs Circle for


Moments and Products of Inertia
The moments and product of inertia for an
area are plotted as shown and used to
construct Mohrs circle,

I ave

Ix I y
2

Ix I y 2
I xy
R
2

Mohrs circle may be used to graphically or


analytically determine the moments and
product of inertia for any other rectangular
axes including the principal axes and
principal moments and products of inertia.

9 - 10

Sample Problem 10.7


For the section shown, the moments of
inertia with respect to the x and y axes
are Ix = 10.38 in4 and Iy = 6.97 in4.
Determine (a) the orientation of the
principal axes of the section about O,
and (b) the values of the principal
moments of inertia about O.
SOLUTION:
Compute the product of inertia with respect to the xy axes by dividing
the section into three rectangles and applying the parallel axis theorem
to each.
Determine the orientation of the principal axes (Eq. 9.25) and the
principal moments of inertia (Eq. 9. 27).
9 - 11

Sample Problem 10.7


SOLUTION:
Compute the product of inertia with respect to the xy axes
by dividing the section into three rectangles.
Apply the parallel axis theorem to each rectangle,

I xy I xy xyA

Note that the product of inertia with respect to centroidal


axes parallel to the xy axes is zero for each rectangle.

Rectangle
I

Area, in 2
x , in. y , in.
1.5 1.25 1.75

x yA, in 4
3.28

II
III

1.5
0
0
1.5 1.25 1.75

0
3.28

x yA 6.56
I xy x yA 6.56 in 4
9 - 12

Sample Problem 10.7


Determine the orientation of the principal axes (Eq. 9.25)
and the principal moments of inertia (Eq. 9. 27).
tan 2q m

2 I xy
Ix I y

2 6.56
3.85
10.38 6.97

2q m 75.4 and 255.4

q m 37.7 and q m 127.7

I x 10.38 in
I y 6.97 in

I xy 6.56 in 4

I max,min

Ix I y
2

Ix I y
2
I xy

2
2

10.38 6.97
10.38 6.97
2


6.56
2
2

I a I max 15.45 in 4
I b I min 1.897 in 4
9 - 13

Sample Problem 10.8


SOLUTION:
Plot the points (Ix , Ixy) and (Iy ,-Ixy).
Construct Mohrs circle based on the
circle diameter between the points.
Based on the circle, determine the
orientation of the principal axes and the
principal moments of inertia.
The moments and product of inertia
with respect to the x and y axes are Ix =
7.24x106 mm4, Iy = 2.61x106 mm4, and
Ixy = -2.54x106 mm4.

Based on the circle, evaluate the


moments and product of inertia with
respect to the xy axes.

Using Mohrs circle, determine (a) the


principal axes about O, (b) the values of
the principal moments about O, and (c)
the values of the moments and product
of inertia about the x and y axes
9 - 14

Sample Problem 10.8


SOLUTION:
Plot the points (Ix , Ixy) and (Iy ,-Ixy). Construct Mohrs
circle based on the circle diameter between the points.

OC I ave 12 I x I y 4.925 106 mm4

CD 12 I x I y 2.315 106 mm4


R

I x 7.24 106 mm4


I y 2.61 106 mm4
I xy 2.54 106 mm4

CD 2 DX 2 3.437 106 mm4

Based on the circle, determine the orientation of the


principal axes and the principal moments of inertia.

tan 2q m

DX
1.097 2q m 47.6
CD

q m 23.8

I max OA I ave R

I max 8.36 106 mm4

I min OB I ave R

I min 1.49 106 mm4

9 - 15

Sample Problem 10.8


Based on the circle, evaluate the moments and product
of inertia with respect to the xy axes.
The points X and Y corresponding to the x and y axes
are obtained by rotating CX and CY counterclockwise
through an angle Q 2(60o) = 120o. The angle that CX
forms with the x axes is f = 120o - 47.6o = 72.4o.

I x' OF OC CX cos I ave R cos 72.4o


I x 5.96 106 mm4
I y ' OG OC CY cos I ave R cos 72.4o
I y 3.89 106 mm4
I xy ' FX CY sin R sin 72.4o
OC I ave 4.925 106 mm4
R 3.437 106 mm4

I xy 3.28 106 mm4


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