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Module 4 = TEST CONSTRUCTION

Test Item= is a specific task test takers are asked to


perform.
Receptive skills= listening and reading
Productive skills= speaking and writing
Blooms Revised Cognitive Taxonomy
1.Knowlegde- Bringing to mind the appropriate
material.
2.Comprehension- understanding the meaning of
material.
3.Application- applying the knowledge of the
elements.
4.Analysis- breaking down a message into make
explicit.
5.Evaluation- making quantitative and qualitative
judgement.
6.Synthesis- arranging parts to produce a pattern in
ideas.
PHASES OF EVALUATION
a. Preparation Phase-teachers decide what is to be
evaluated.
b. Assessment Phase-teachers select appropriate
tools.
c. Evaluation Phase-teachers interpret the
assessment info.
d. Reflection Phase-teachers consider the extent to
phases.
STAGES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION
1.Planning- teachers or test developers determines a
few essentials, before the actual writing begins.
a.Goal-is a vital step in the development process.
b.Format-a few format-related dilemmas, paper
vs.digital.
c.Tasks- a myriad of possible test tasks.
List of Commonly used Tasks
a.Multiple choice
b.Single response
c.Multiple response
d.True/False
e.Ranking
f.Matching
g.Hotspot
h.Open answer
i.Text-numeric
j.Cloze
k.C-Cloze
l.Extended
response
2.Design-teacher of development team can get
down to design it. This Implies:
a.Collecting testing material- the test reflect
situations and interactions that appear both
meaningful and realistic.
b.Writing a draft version-test development team
gets down to writing the draft version of the test.
c.Evaluating the draft version-test and decide
w/c questions will be omitted, w/c items need further.
d.Rewriting the draft version- is rewritten and
refined until the whole team is happy with the test.
3.Development
a.Piloting-distributed to a group of end users.
b.Revising-final test will be composed.
Module 5 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
Is feasible for most test developers and will improve
the test quality considerably.
CRITERIA OF A GOOD TEST
1.Relevance-necessary that students are able to
perform.
2.Representativity-task represent a real situation.
3.Authenticity-situation and interaction are
meaningful.
4.Balance-relevant topic/ability receives an equal
amount.
5.Validity-test effectively measures is intended to
measure.
6.Reliability-consistency and stability w/c test
performance.
Sub Classification of VALIDITY
a.Concurrent Validity-gives correlate highly w/
external .
b.Construct Validity-reflect theory of nature of a
construct.
c.Content Vlidity-item/task made up constitute
sample test.
d.Convergent Validity-high correlation achieved in
measure

e.Criterion-related-relationship demonstrate test


scores.
f.Discriminant Validity-test of diff.trait is lower
correlation.
g.Face Validity-test appear to candidates, wish to
measure.
h.Predictive Validity-test predicts performance in
skill.
Factors that influence VALIDITY
1.Appropraiteness of test items
2.Directions
3.Reading vocabulary and sentence structure
4.Difficulty of items
5.Construction of test items
6.Length of the test
7.Arrangement of items
8.Patterns of answer
Variables influence test RELIABILITY
1.Specificity-question should not be open to diff.
Interpret.
2.Differentiation-test bet. Good and Poor students.
3.Difficulty-test has an adequate level of difficult.
4.Length-test contains enough items w/c is 40 for
MC.
5.Time-studentsvshuld have sufficient time to
perform.
6.Item Construction-well construct better than
poor one.
Possible reasons for the inconsistency of an
individuals score in a test:
=scorers inconsistency
=limited sampling of behaviour
=changes in the individual himself
Factors Affecting Reliability of a test:
-Objectivity
-Difficulty of the test
-Length of the test
-Adequacy
-Testing condition
-Test administration
COMMON STATISTICAL FORMULAS
1.Descriptive statistics-intended to offer a general
idea test
2.Correlation-relationship bet. two variables
scatter plot
3.Item Reliability-indicates the discriminatory of
test item.
Module 6= QUALITATIVE ANLYSIS
ARE very useful tools to identify the strength &
weaknesses
Categories of Approaches
1.Reflection=is aimed at gaining an insight into
thinking processes and opinions of the test takers.
2.Verbal reports/protocols=a way of collecting
qualitative data. They offer an insight to process of
informants.
3. Diary studies=allows researchers to get an
insight into their thoughts. There are a Number of
Varieties:
Unstructured-free to write what he/she wants in
format.
Guided-researcher gives the informant guidelines.
Structured-researcher offers the informant a diary
form with closed and open-form questions.
SELF ASSESSMENT= promotes students abilities to
assume more responsibility to identify where they
believe.
PEER ASSESSMENT=allows students to collaborate
and learn from others.
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
1.Conversation analysis(CA)
=contextual, has a stable and predictable nature.
2.Discourse analysis(DA)
=text and talk as social practices is mainly power
relation.
3.Test language analysis
=test takers responses for lexical richness, rhetoric,
genre.
4.Task characteristics

=correspond to the test goal. A number of expert


judges.
QUESTIONNAIRES=gather data such as opinions &
views.
Checklists= are a way of determining all procedure
present.
INTERVIEWS= are flexible way of gathering data.
Unstructured- no fixed interview schedule.
Semi structured- a preset schedule.
Structured-a fixed series of written questions w/o
deviating
One-on-One allows to zoom in on views of
respondent.
Group- is interaction might spark observations
KINDS OF REFERENCING
1.Norm-referencing=placement of learners in rank
order.
2.Criterion referencing-= reaction against norm
is learned.
3.The mastery criterion-referencing approach
=a single minimum competence standard or cut-off
point.
4.The continuum criterion-referencing
approach
=referenced to a defined continuum of ll relevant
degrees.

Module 7 TESTING THE RECEPTIVR SKILLs


A.Testing Listening
4 language skills are seen as interrelated skills
that occur simultaneously in oral or written
communication.
The skills of listening are two ways:
1.Sound Discrimination-is important that they are
able to distinguish the sounds of the language clearly
to help them
2.Listening Comprehension-vary according to
learners proficiency. Common test types are
Question- Answer, Stimulus- Response and Listen
Repeat.
B.Testing Reading
-one of the most commonly tested skills in school is
READING.
Reading test may consist of the ff. ACTIVITIES:
a.Skimming to identify the gist
b.Scanning to locate specific information
c.Making inferences
d.Guessing meanings of unfamiliar words
through context