(1)
x1 =
Hypothesis:
H o : 1 = 2 = 3 (Null hypothesis)
H1 : 1 , 2 and 3 are not all equal(Alternative hypothesis)
Machine 1
Machine 2
x2 =
= 24.93
(x
x1
(x
0.47
1.38
-0.83
-1.19
0.17
S =
2
1
x1
(x
0.2209
1.9044
0.6889
1.4161
0.0289
1
x1
(x
x1
n 1
(n
x2
4.2592
=
4
1)
( nT K )
S =
x2
0.6241
0.6561
0.7921
0.0196
1.0201
(x
2
2
= 20.59
(x
0.79
-0.81
0.89
0.14
-1.01
= 1.0648
2 =
= 4.2592
x3 =
= 22.61
(x
Machine 3
x2
(x
x2
(x
x3
(x
n 1
= 0.778
3.112
4
(x
-0.59
1.61
-0.84
0.01
-0.19
= 3.112
S32 =
x3
0.3481
2.5921
0.7056
0.0001
0.0361
3
x3
(x
x3
n 1
= 3.682
) = 3.682
= 0.9205
5 1
[1.0648 + 0.778 + 0.9205] = 0.9211
15 3
1
( 24.93 5 + 22.61 5 + 20.59 5) = 22.71
15
xx
( )
5
5
5
24.93
22.61
20.59
22.71
22.71
22.71
2.22
-0.1
-2.12
4.9284
0.01
4.4944
nj xj x
2 =
nj xj x
k 1
Fcal =
xx
( )
n xx
24.642
0.05
22.472
= 47.164
47.164
= 23.582
2
23.582
= 25.6
0.9211
0.05 of area
calculated value
3.89
25.6
Therefore there is evidence that the mean filling times of machine 1, 2 and 3 are
different under a 0.05 level of significance.
(2)
(a)
Hypothesis:
H o : SM = SF = TM = TF
(Null hypothesis)
(Alternative hypothesis)
(b) No.
( c) Analysis of variance technique is important to test for differences among several
sample means. Compared with using multiple t-tests, one-way and two-way ANOVA
require fewer measurements to discover significant effects. This is one reason why
x SM =
Sinhalese Female
= 15.67
(x
SM
x SM
) (x
2
SF x SF
(x
SF
x SF
16-15.69=0.33
0.1089
16-12.5=3.5
12.25
18-15.67=2.33
5.4289
12-12.5=-0.5
0.25
14-15.67=-1.67
2.7889
11-12.5=-1.5
2.25
14-15.67=-1.67
2.7889
14-12.5=1.5
2.25
16-15.67=0.33
0.1089
11-12.5=-1.5
2.25
16-15.67=0.33
0.1089
11-12.5=-1.5
2.25
(x
2
SM
x SM = 11.3334
SM
(x
SM
x SM
11.3334
5
2 =
=
x SF
(x
S =
2
SF
SF
x SF
21.5
5
nT k
= 12.25
(x
TM
x TM
(x
6.76
14-12.25=1.75
12-13.4=-1.4
1.96
10-12.25=-2.25
14-13.4=0.6
0.36
12-12.25=-0.25
14-13.4=0.6
0.36
13-12.25=0.75
11-13.4=-2.4
5.76
(x
TM
x TM
2
TM
(x
TM
x TM
TF
15.2
4
= 3.8
6 1
6 1
5 1
4 1
2.2667 +
4.3 +
3.8 +
2.9167
21 4
21 4
21 4
21 4
1
56.7836
= 3.3402
{11.3335 + 21.5 + 15.2 + 8.7501} =
17
17
1
285.02
= 13.57
(15.67 6 + 12.5 6 + 13.4 5 + 12.25 4 ) =
21
21
2
TF
(x
x TF
5.0625
0.0625
0.5625
TF
= 8.75
x TF
n 1
TF
3.0625
x TF
n 1
=
(x
= 15.2
x TF x TF
16-13.4=2.6
= 4.3
n j 1
x TM x TM
= 21.5
n 1
= 2.2667
2 =
SF
n 1
(x
14 + 10 + 12 + 13
4
x TF =
= 13.4
= 12.5
x SM x SM
Tamil Female
16 + 12 + 11 + 14 + 11 + 11
16 + 12 + 14 + 14 + 11
x TM =
6
5
x SF =
16 + 18 + 14 + 16 + 16
6
Tamil Male
8.75
3
= 2.9167
xx
( )
15.67
13.57
2.1
4.41
26.46
12.5
13.57
-1.07
1.1449
6.8694
13.4
13.57
-0.17
0.0289
0.1445
12.25
13.57
-1.32
1.7424
6.9696
nj xj x
( )
n xx
= 40.4435
nj xj x
2 =
Fcal =
xx
k 1
40.4435
= 13.48
3
13.48
= 4.0357
3.3402
0.05 of area
calculated value
3.2
4.0357
(c) Monte Carlo Simulation refers to the use of random sampling to estimate the output of an
experiment. It is regarded as the forerunner to present-day simulation.
(d) Data are given in frequencies. Then formulate a probability distribution and Cumulative
Probability distribution.
Demand
Frequency
Probability
Cumulative
(tons/day)
(No. days)
P(x)
probability
10
6
= 0.10
60
0.10
11
18
18
= 0.30
60
0.40
12
15
15
= 0.25
60
0.65
13
12
12
= 0.20
60
0.85
6
= 0.10
60
0.95
3
= 0.05
60
1.00
14
15
Total = 60
Next assign random number intervals, so that the number of values available to each class
corresponds with the probability.
Cumulative
Demand
P(x)
probability
F(x)
Corresponding
random numbers
10
0.10
0.10
00 09
11
0.30
0.40
10 39
12
0.25
0.65
40 64
13
0.20
0.85
65 84
14
0.10
0.95
85 94
15
0.05
1.00
95 - 99
Choose two-digit random numbers (00 to 99) from the table of random numbers in
your text book.
(4)
Demand
Random
Simulated
Period
Number
Demand
39
11
65
13
76
13
45
12
45
12
19
11
90
14
Objective Function:
Minimize
Constraints;
x1 + x 2 12
z = 400x1 + 1110x 2
x2
( 0,12 )
x 1 + x 2 = 12
( 0,10 )
Feasible
region
C
( 0,3 )
A
( 8,0 ) ( 12,0 )
( 50,0 )
200 x 1= 1600
B = (9, 3)
C = (8, 4)
x1 = 8
x2 = 3
Minimize
z = 4x1 + x 2
Subject to
3x1 + x 2 = 3
1000 x 2 = 3000
4x1 + 3x 2 6
x1 + 2x 2 4
x1 , x 2 0
r = a1 + a 2 --------- (1)
Phase I
Minimize
Subject to
x1 + 2x 2 + S2 = 4 ---------- (4)
Table 1:
Pivot element
x1
Basic
a1
x2
S1
S2
a1
a2
RHS
ratio
3
=1
3
a2
-1
6 3
=
4 2
S2
4
=4
1
-4
-1
r1
-1
To eliminate a1 and a 2 from equation (1), we add the constraints (2) and (3), then
subtract the result from (1).
Then we obtain r1 ( 3 3x1 x 2 ) ( 6 4x1 3x 2 + S1 ) = 0
r1 + 7x1 + 4x 2 S1 = 9
Table 2:
Basic
x1
x2
S1
S2
a1
a2
RHS
ratio
x1
1
3
1
3
1
=3
1
3
5
3
-1
4
3
2 6
=
5
5
3
1
3
3 9
=
5
5
3
a2
S2
5
3
1
3
r1
5
3
-1
4
3
7
3
Table 3:
Basic
x1
x2
S1
S2
a1
a2
x1
1
5
3
5
x2
S2
1
5
r1
3
5
1
5
ratio
3
5
3
5
6
5
-1
3
5
1
5
18
5
-1
-1
4
5
RHS
At this point all the artificial variables are non-basic variables and have value zero.
Phase II
(1)
(2)
After deleting the artificial columns, the original problem is written as,
Minimize z = 4x1 + x 2
Subject to
1
3
x1 + S1 =
5
5
3
6
x 2 S3 =
5
5
S1 + S2 = 1
x1 , x 2 ,S1 ,S2 0
Basic variable x1 , x 2 have non-zero coefficients in the z row, they must be substituted
out.
Now z row = old z row + (4 x1 row) + (1 x2 row)
= 0 0
1
18
0
5
5
x1
x2
S1
S2
RHS
ratio
x1
1
5
3
5
x2
6
5
-3
S2
1
5
18
5
Basic
x1
x2
S1
S2
RHS
x1
x2
3
5
9
5
S1
3
5
1
5
1
5
ratio
2
5
17
5
Since the objective row in above table has no positive entries, we have found an
optimal solution:
2
9
x1 = , x 2 = , S1 = 1
5
5
z=
(6)
(a)
17
5
Primal problem
x1 no. of x1 products
x 2 no. of x2 products
Objective function
Maximize z = 12x1 + 4x 2
Subject to
3x1 + 2x 2 6
(Machine M1)
1
x1 + x 2 4
2
(Machine M2)
x1 , x 2 0
(b)
Dual problem:
Objective function
Subject to
Minimize z = 6y1 + 4y 2
1
3y1 + y 2 12
2
2y1 + y 2 4
y1 , y 2 0
(c)
Standard form
Subject to
Minimize
z = 6y1 + 4y 2
1
3y1 + y 2 S1 + a1 = 12
2
2y1 + y 2 S2 + a 2 = 4 2
y1 , y 2 , a1 , a 2 ,S1 ,S2 0
We can use use two-phase method.
Phase I:
Minimize
r = a1 + a 2
Subject to
3y1 + y 2 S1 + a1 = 12
2y1 + y 2 S2 + a 2 = 4
y1 , y 2 , a1 , a 2 ,S1 ,S2 0
1
r1 12 3y1 y 2 + S1 ( 4 2y1 y 2 + S2 ) = 0
2
New row
3
r1 + 5y1 + y 2 S1 S2 = 16
2
Table 1:
Basic
y1
y2
S1
S2
a1
a2
RHS
ratio
a1
0.5
-1
12
a2
-1
-6
-4
r1
1.5
-1
-1
16
Basic
y1
y2
S1
S2
a1
a2
RHS
ratio
a1
-1
-1
1.5
-1.5
y1
0.5
-0.5
0.5
-1
-3
12
-1
-1
1.5
-2.5
Basic
y1
y2
S1
S2
a1
a2
RHS
S2
2
3
2
3
-1
y1
1
6
1
3
1
3
-3
-2
24
-1
-1
Table 2:
Table 3:
2
3
At this point all the artificial variables are non-basic variables & have value zero.
ratio
Phase II
(1)
(2)
y1
y2
S1
S2
RHS
S2
2
3
y1
1
6
1
3
-3
-2
24
2
3
ratio
Since the objective row in the above table has no positive entries, the optimal solution is
y1 = 4, S2 = 4, z=24
The optimal values of the primal variables can be obtained from the dual optimal solution.
Optimal values of
Primal variables
coefficients of basic
optimal solution of the basic
=
variables in the initial
var iables of the dual problem
tabelau of dual problem
( x1
x 2 ) = ( S2 y1 )
1 2
= ( 2 0)