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HECHMSANDHYDROLOGICMODELING

ENVI512
February2003
1. HydrologicandHydraulicModels
Representationoffloodingisaccomplishedusingtwotypesofmodels:hydrologicandhydraulic.
Hydrologicmodelingsimulatesthehydrologicresponse(flow)ofabasintoagiveninputofrainfall.
HEC1 and HECHMS are two types of hydrologic models. Hydraulic modeling simulates the
hydraulic response (water surface profiles) of a stream to a given input of flows. HEC2 and
HECRASarebothhydraulicmodels.Bothhydrologicandhydraulicmodelsareneededforanin
depth flood analysis of any watershed system. While this exercise will only deal with using
HECHMSforhydrologicmodeling,abriefdescriptionofthefourpreviouslymentionedmodelsare
givenbelow:
A. HEC-1
TheHEC1FloodHydrographpackagecalculatesdischargehydrographsforagivenrainfallevent.
AccordingtotheU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers,TheHEC1modelisdesignedtosimulatethe
surface runoff response of a river basin to precipitation by representing the basin as an
interconnectedsystemofhydrologicandhydrauliccomponents.Representationofacomponent
requires a set of parameters which specify the particular characteristics of the component and
mathematicalrelationswhichdescribethephysicalprocesses.Theresultofthemodelingprocessis
the computation of streamflow hydrographs at desired locations in the river basin. Thus for
computermodelingpurposes,HEC1dividesthewatershedintosubwatershedsandreaches.Each
subwatershedandreachusesaveragedvaluesovertheareaorstreamlengthforthemathematical
coefficientsforthehydrologicandhydrauliccomputations.Forthisreason,HEC1isreferredtoasa
lumpedparametermodel.

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B. HEC-HMS
TheU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineersHydrologicModelingSystem(HECHMS)istheWindows
based hydrologic model that supersedes HEC1 and contains many improvements over its
predecessor.Themostnotabledifferenceisaneasytousegraphicaluserinterface(GUI)shownin
Figure1whichallowsfortheeasymanipulationofhydrologicelementssuchasbasinandriver
reachesandtheeasyinputofbasincharacteristics.TheGUIalsoallowsfortheeasyviewingof
resultsatanypointinthemodelschematic,asshowninFigure2.Inthefuture,themodelshould
havethecapabilitytomodelgriddedrainfall,suchasNEXRADestimatedrainfall.

Figure1:HECHMSUserInterface

Figure2:GraphicalOutputfromHECHMS
AnotherdifferencebetweenHECHMSandHEC1istheorganizationofthecomponentsthatmake
up each hydrologic modeling run. In HECHMS, a project is created which contains separate
models:theBasinModel,thePrecipitationModel,andtheControlModel.Theusermayspecify
differentdatasetsforeachmodelandthenthehydrologicsimulationiscompletedbyusingofdata
setfortheBasinModel,thePrecipitationModel,andtheControlModel.TheBasinModelcontains

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the basin and routing parameters of the model, as well as connectivity data for the basin. The
PrecipitationModelcontainstherainfalldata,eitherhistoricalorhypothetical,forthemodel.The
ControlModelcontainsallthetiminginformationforthemodel,includingmodeltimestepsand
startandstopsdateandtimesofthesimulation.Thisallowsforeasierorganizationofmodelingdata
thaninHEC1,whichrequiredaseparatedatasetdescribingallaspectsofthemodelingrunforeach
independentmodelingrun.
C. HEC-2
TheHEC2WaterSurfaceProfileprogramcomputesonedimensionalwatersurfaceprofilesfor
steadyflowinastreamwithagivenchannelgeometry.Theprogramusesabackwatercalculationto
determinewatersurfacelevelsstartingfromthegivenstartingwatersurfaceelevationattheoutletat
each profile based on peak flow, roughness (Mannings) coefficients, crosssectional geometry,
bridges,culverts,andstreamlength.LikeHEC1,theprogramisaDOSbasedprogram.
D. HEC-RAS
HECRAS is the nextgeneration hydraulic model which supercedes HEC2. Like HECHMS,
HECRASfeatures aneasytouseGUI,andtheability totake advantage ofHECDSS.Future
versionsofHECRASwillbeabletomodelunsteadyflow.
E. Other Modeling Tools
Thereareanumberoftoolsthatassistinthehydrologicandhydraulicmodelingprocess.HECDSS
andVisualDSSBasics97arepresentedbelow.
1.

HEC-DSS

A major difference between HECHMS and HEC1 is the use of the Data Storage System, or
HECDSS,tomanagetimeseriesandtabulardata.Thesystemwastheresultofaneedinhydrologic
engineering torelate similar types ofdata. Previously,data fromone formatwouldneed tobe
enteredintoanotherformatbyhandbyeachuser.Eachprogramwouldthenuseseparatefunctions
toanalyzeandgraphthedata.TheHECDSSsoftwareistheresultofanefforttomakehydrologic

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data management more efficient and allow for the HEC family of programs to use the same
database.
WhatthisentailsisthattimeseriesandtabulardataarenotstoredintheHECHMSdataset;rather,
thedataarestoredinaseparateHECDSSdatafile,whichisaccessedbytheHECHMSmodel.The
databaseconsistsofsixparts:theAPart,BPart,CPart,DPart,EPart,andFPart.Thedataare
storedunderauniquepathname,whichincludesalloftheparts:/APart/BPart/CPart/DPart/E
Part/FPart.Usingtheseparts,itiseasyfortheuserandthemodeltoqueryandmanagethedata,
especiallybetweenmodels.
Table1:HECDSSPartNames
Part

Description

APart

Riverbasinorprojectname

BPart

Locationofgageidentifier

CPart

Datatype(e.g.flow,rainfall,etc.)

DPart

Startingdate

EPart

Timeintervalofdata

Fpart

Userdefineddescriptorofdata

Longtermdataseries(yearsandgreater)canbestoredinHECDSSandmultiplemodelrunscanbe
madeindifferenttimeswithinthedataseries.ThedatacanalsobeaccessedbyotherHECmodels,
suchasHECFDA,whichanalyzesthecostbenefitoffloodcontrolandfloodplainmanagement
alternatives.
2.

Visual DSS Basics 97

WhiletheHECDSSsoftwarepackageisanimprovedmeansofmanaginghydrologicdata,thereis
notaneasymethodtotransferthedatafromaspreadsheettoaHECDSSfile.AMicrosoftExcel
AddInproducedbySaracinoKirby,Inc.titledVisualDSSBasics97allowstheusertoeasilystore
regulartimeseriesdatafromExcelintoaHECDSSdataset.VisualDSSBasics97alsoallowsfor

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retrievalofdatafromtheHECDSSdatabase,whichallowsfortheeasygraphingofresultsinExcel
withminimaluserformatting.

2. HydrologicModelingandParameterEstimation
A. Unit Hydrograph Methods (Runoff Transformations)
Therearenumerousmethodsofmodelingrunofftransformationsforeachsubwatershed.Wewill
presenttwoofthemorecommonmethods,theClark(TC+R)UnitHydrographandtheSnyderUnit
Hydrograph.FurtherdiscussiononbothmethodsispresentedinHoggan(1997)andBedientand
Huber(1992).
1. Clark (TC + R) Unit Hydrograph
Need:
TimeofConcentration(Tc):Hours
StorageCoefficient(R):Hours
Both the Brays Bayou and White Oak Bayou models use the Clark T C+R method for unit
hydrographcomputations.Intheory,theClarkmethodusesaconceptualmodelconsistingofalinear
channel,whichflowsintoalinearreservoir.Tcisthetimeofconcentration,whichcanbemeasured
inagagesbasinasthetimefromtheendofaburstofrainfalltoitsinflectionpointonthereceding
limb,normallymeasuredinhours.Tcshouldalsobethetraveltimefromthemostremotelocationin
thewatershedtotheoutlet.R,thestoragecoefficient,usuallyexpressedinhours,canbeestimated
bytakingtheflowattheinflectionpointoftherecedinglimbofthehydrographanddividingitby
theslopeoftherecessionatthesameflow.Figure3showshowtocalculatethecoefficientsforT c
andR,basedonanobservedhydrograph.
BedientandHuber(1992)presenttheequationsforthedeterminationofTcandR:
L
Tc R C

0.706

,where

C=4295[%development]0.678[%conveyance]0.967,if%development>18;
C=7.25if%developmentis18.

Figure3:CalculationofTcandRfromanObservedHydrograph
(adaptedfromHoggan1997)
L
Tc C ca
S

1.06

,whereCistakenfrom:
S0(ft/mi)

%development

>40

5.12

20<S040

3.79

20

2.46

>40

100

1.95

20

100

0.94

R TC R TC ,where
L = lengthofchannel(outflowtobasinboundary)(mi)
Lca = lengthalongchanneltocentroidofarea(mi)
S = channelslope(ft/mi)
S0 = representativeoverlandslope(ft/mi)
%development = percentoflandthatisdeveloped(%)

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%conveyance = ratioofflowtooverlandflow(%)
Tc = timeofconcentration(hr)
R = storageconstant(hr)
Ofthesecoefficients,determinationofLcaisoftenthemostconfusing.Todeterminethiscoefficient,
findthecentroidofthesubwatershedanddrawtheshortestlinetothestream(say,pointA).The
distancefrompointAtotheoutletalongthelengthofthestreamisLca.
2. Synder Unit Hydrograph
Need:
SnydersStandardLag(Tp):Hours
SnydersStorageCoefficient(Cp)
TheSnydermethoddoesnotdefineacompleteunithydrograph,sothehydrologicmodel(HEC1or
HECHMS) completes the hydrograph using a trial and error procedure. With the given input
parameters,TpandCp,theprogramuseshydrologicmodeltodeterminetheoptimalClarkparameters
basedontheSnydercoefficients.BedientandHuber(1992)presentequationstodetermineTpand
Cp:
Tp Ct LLc ,where
0.3

Tp
L
Lc
Ct

=
=
=
=

Snydersstandardlag(hr)
lengthofchannel(outflowtobasinboundary)(mi)
lengthalongchanneltocentroidofarea(mi)
coefficientusuallyrangingfrom1.8to2.2(Cthasbeenfoundtovaryfrom0.4
inmountainousregionsto8.0alongtheGulfofMexico)

Cp isthestoragecoefficientthatnormallyrangesfrom0.4to0.8,wherelargervaluesof Cp are
associated with smaller values of Ct. Cp can also be estimated in the peak flow from the unit
hydrographisknown:

Cp
Qp
A

Q pTp
,where
640A

= peakdischargeofunithydrograph(cfs)
= drainagearea(mi2)

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B. Stream Routing
Therearenumerousmethodsofmodelingstreamroutingforeachstreamsegmentinahydrologic
model. We will present two of the more common methods, Modified Puls (StorageOutflow)
Routing and Muskingum Routing. Further discussion on both methods is presented in Hoggan
(1997)andBedientandHuber(1992).
1. Modified Puls (Storage-Outflow) Routing
Need:
Storage:acftvs.Outlflow:ft3/s
TimeSteps(orsubreaches)
StreamroutingforthemajorityofthereachesintheBraysBayouandWhiteOakBayouwatersheds
isaccomplishedusingtheModifiedPulsMethod,orstorageoutflowrouting.Thebasisbehindthe
ModifiedPulsMethodisthattheoutflow inthechannelisauniquefunctionofstorageinthe
channel. Calculation of the storage outflow relationship often involves a simple hydraulic
computation of each river reach using a program such as HECRAS or HEC2. A table of
correspondingstorageandoutflowsisthenenteredintothemodelateachriverreach.
Figure4showshowtherelationshipofstorageandoutflowisdetermined.Theflow,Q,isafunction
ofthewatersurfaceelevation,WS.Thetotalstorage,S,isthenthesimplegeometriccalculationof
thevolumeofwaterbetweenriversegmentsAandB,andbelowtheWS.Therefore,flowisa
functionofstorageandtheserelationshipsareenteredinthehydrologicmodel.

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Figure4:ModifiedPulsStreamRouting(adaptedfromHoggan1997)
Majorcomplexitiesaredeterminingtheaccuratestorageineachreach.Often,idealizedgeometries
forthemodelneedtobeassumedandsimpleopenchannelflowormorecomplexhydraulicanalysis
usingHEC2orHECRAScanbeusedtodeterminetheassociatedflow.
Thenumberoftimestepsisthetimeittakesadropofwatertotraveltheentirelengthoftherouting
reachdividedbythecomputationtimeofthehydrologicmodel.Toestimatethetimeittakeadrop
ofwatertotravelthelengthofthereach,ahydraulicmodelshouldbeused.Asaruleofthumb,

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waterinastreamcantravel2mi/hr,althoughinchannelizedstreams,theratecanincreaseto10
mi/hr,orevengreater,dependingonoverlandslopeandchannelroughness.
2. Muskingum Routing
Need:
MuskingumK(TravelTime):hr
MuskingumX(StorageRouting)
TimeSteps(orsubreaches)
MuskingumKisthetraveltimeforthereach,andisdeterminedbydividingthemeanvelocityby
thereachlength.Velocitycanbedeterminedfromahydraulicmodel,suchasHEC2orHECRAS,
orperformingasimpleopenchannelflowcalculationusingManningsequation.Channelvelocities
canalsobeassumed,usingtheruleofthumbpresentedintheprevioussection.
MuskingumXistheonlymeansrepresentstoragefortheroutingstepusingthisroutingprocedure.
MuskingumXrangesfrom0to0.5,where0.5isusedforsmoothuniformchannelswithapure
translationofthefloodwave.Avalueof0.2isgenerallyusedfornaturalstreamsandavalueof0.45
isusedformostimprovedurbanchannels.
Thenumberoftimestepsisthetimeittakesadropofwatertotraveltheentirelengthoftherouting
reachdividedbythecomputationtimeofthehydrologicmodel.Toestimatethetimeittakeadrop
ofwatertotravelthelengthofthereach,ahydraulicmodelshouldbeused.Asaruleofthumb,
waterinastreamcantravel2mi/hr,althoughinchannelizedstreams,theratecanincreaseto10
mi/hr,orevengreater,dependingonoverlandslopeandchannelroughness.
Figure5showstheeffectofMuskingumKandXcoefficientsontheroutedhydrographs.

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Figure5:MuskingumRouting
C. Diversions
Diversionsforhydrologicmodels useasimpletablerelatingriverflowtodiverted flow.These
relationshipscanbedeterminedusinggeometriccalculationsandhydraulicmodels.
D. Loss Rates
ThelossrateusedinHarrisCountyandmanyothercommunitiesisthesimpleInitialConstantLoss
Method.Underthismethod,aninitialamountofrainfallislost,orinfiltrates(orevaporates)anda
constantrateofrainfallislostperhour.ForHarrisCounty,theseratesrangefrom0.5to1.0inches
ofinitialloss,and0.05to0.15inchesperhourofconstantloss,dependingofdegreeofurbanization
andsoiltype(Table2)

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Table2:HCFCDRecommendedLosses
SandySoils

ClaySoils

Losses

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Initial(in)

1.00

0.75

1.00

0.50

Constant(in/hr)

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.05

E. Baseflow
ThebaseflowmethodusedinHEC1isanexponentialdecayfunctionofadefinedstartingbaseflow
accordingtothefollowingequation:

Q Qo x

nt

where Qo isthestartingbaseflow, x istheempiricalratiobetweentherecessionbaseflowandthe


recessionbaseflowonehourlater(alwaysgreaterthan1.0),andntisthenumberoftimesteps.In
simplehydrologicmodelsovershorttimeperiods,baseflowcanbeneglected.

III. ExampleProblem
Thisexampleproblem,willhopefullyshowtheapplicationofbothunithydrographtransformation
methods and both routing methods. This problem is adapted from the U.S. Army Corps of
EngineeringHECHMSUserManual(Chapter9).Theusermanualisavailablefreeofcharge,asis
themodel,fromtheirwebsitehttp://www.hec.usace.army.mil.ThisexercisewilladdresstheCastro
Valleywatershed,asmallbasinlocatedinnorthernCalifornia,anditsresponsetoarainfalleventin
1973.
A. Background information
TheCastroValleyexampleproblemusesasmallwatershed,consistingoffoursubbasinsandtwo
streamreacheswhichwillbemodeledasroutingsteps(Figure6).Followingisadescriptionofall
thedatanecessarytosetupHMSforthiswatershed,andalistofcommandsneededtodothesetup.

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B. HEC-HMS Model Set-Up (Getting Started)
ThisexercisewillrecreateaHECHMSmodelfromscratchfortheCastroValleywatershedin
northernCalifornia.

OpenHECHMSprogrambydoubleclickingontheHMSicon.

To create a new project, select New in the popup window. Name the project Castro
Example andtype CastroValleyurbanstudy forthedescription.Allinformation
willbe,bydefault,storedinthefolderintheC:\hmsproj\CastroExamplefolder.ClickOK.

Tosetthedefaultsforthenewprojectandthedesiredunitsystem,select ProjectAttributes
from the File menu. Select English units, Initial/Constant loss rate, Clark UH, and
Muskingumrouting,andthenclickOKtosavethedefaults.

C. Gage Data
Therearethreewaystoentergage(precipitationandflowdata)intotheHECHMSmodel.Thefirst
wayistodirectlyenterthedata.ThesecondwayistoimportthedatafromanexistingDSSfile.The
lastwayistoimportthedatafromExcelusingVisualDSSBasics97.

Toentergagedatabytheuser,selectPrecipitationgagesundertheDatamenu.Thefirsttime
youusethis,anewgagewillautomaticallybecreated.Foradditionalgages,youwillchoose
Add Gage from the Edit menu. Enter Fire Dept. under Gage ID, and make sure that
Incremental Precipitation and Inches are selected in the Data Type and Units windows,
respectively.SelectManualEntryandclickOK.Enter16JAN73and0300forstartingdate
andtime(January16,1973at3:00AM)andenter 16JAN73 and 1000 forendingdateand
time.Select 10Minute timeintervalandclick OK.Entertherainfallateachtimestepfrom
Table3andclickOKandClose.
Table3:FireDept.Rainfallon16JAN73
(Timeisendofrainfalltotal)

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3:10

0.00

4:20

0.03

5:30

0.03

6:40

0.07

7:50

0.03

9:00

3:20
3:30
3:40
3:50
4:00
4:10

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.08
0.03
0.05

4:30
4:40
4:50
5:00
5:10
5:20

0.02
0.05
0.05
0.02
0.05
0.04

5:40
5:50
6:00
6:10
6:20
6:30

0.09
0.08
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.07

6:50
7:00
7:10
7:20
7:30
7:40

0.07
0.02
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.03

8:00
8:10
8:20
8:30
8:40
8:50

0.01
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.01

9:10
9:20
9:30
9:40
9:50
10:00

0.00
0.01
0.06
0.02
0.04
0.01
0.00

OPTIONAL:ToseehowVisualDSSBasics97works,closedownHECHMS.Wehavetodo
thisbecausetoprogramscannotaccessthesameDSSfileatthesametime.OpenupExcel,and
clickIAgreefortheVisualDSSBasics97dialogbox.InExcel,clickOpenundertheVisual
DSSBasics97Filemenu(whichshouldbebelowtheFilemenuforExcelorinaseparatedialog
box.Exploretothehmsprojfile,opentheCastro2folder,doubleclickonCastro2.dssfile,and
clickOK.ThisnowallowsaccesstotheDSSdataset.IntheVisualDSSBasics97menu,click
Retrieve andthen RegularTimeSeries and BySelection.ClickonFullandclickOK.If
yourDSSdatasethasbecometoolarge,youmaynarrowthesearchusingdifferentqualifiersfor
thedifferentpartsusingtheSelectivesearch.UnderTimeWindow,enterthestartingdatetime
fortheseries(January16,1973at3000)andtheendingdataandtime(January16,1973at
1000).ScrolldownuntilyoufindtheDSSfilefortheFireDept.gage,whichshouldbeat
something like: /CASTRO VALLEY/FIRE DEPT./PRECIPINC/16JAN73/10MIN/OBS/.
HighlighttheDSSpathnameandclickOK.Youcanmakeanychangestothedatathatyouwish
insideofExcel,orimportnewdataandchangethenameofthegageinPartB.Tostorethenew
data,simplyhighlightfromthelowerrighthandcornerofthedatatoPartA:andclickonStore
andthenRegularTimeSeries.Atthedialogbox,clickOKandthenewdatashouldbestoredin
theDSSfile.ClosetheDSSfilebyclickingFileontheVisualDSSBasics97menuandClose.
Youcansavetheworksheetifyou,foreasyimportlaterintoHECHMS.DSSfilesimportedinto
theDSSdatabaseusingVisualDSSBasics97neededtohaveagageidentifiedwiththeDSS
file.Todothis,inthemainmenuofHECHMS,clickonEditGageDataPrecipitation.In
thepopupmenu,clickonAddGageandgivethegageanameintheGageIDfield.Clickon
ExternalDSSFileandclickOK.Inthenextpopupmenu,clickonGenerateCatalog(again,

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youcanlimityourquerybyusingthedifferentparts).Findthegageandhighlightitspathname
andclickOKandClose.

ThefinalwaytoinputgagedataintotheHECHMSmodelistoretrievedatafromanexisting
DSSdataset.Wewilldothisfortheobservedflowattheoutletofthewatershed.SelectData
DischargeGage.Thefirsttimeyouusethis,anewgagewillautomaticallybecreated,afterthat,
youwillhavetoselect File AddGage foranewgage.Namethegage Outlet andselect
ExternalDSSRecord, thenclick OK.TheDSSfileisactuallyintheexistingCastrofile,so
clickonFileBrowserintheupperrighthandcornerofthewindowtoselecttherightDSSfile.
Explore tothe castro folderinthe hmsproj folderandopen castro.dss.ClickonGenerate
Catalog and highlight the pathname for /CASTRO VALLEY/OUTLET/FLOW/16JAN73/
10MIN/OBS/, click OK and then
Close. You have now imported an
existing DSS file from another
programintoanewdataset.
D. Basin Model
The majority of the hydrologic
computations aredescribedinthebasin
model.Wewillfirstdescribetheexisting
conditions. At the Project Definition
window, select Component Basin
ModelNew.EnterCastro1forthe
basin name and

Existing

conditions for the description and


clickOK.

Map File HECHMS allows the


usertoimportordefineamapfile.

Figure6:HECHMSBasinSchematic

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ClickonBasinModelAttributesfromtheFilemenu,clicktheFiletab,thenclickBrowsenext
to Map File window. Explore to the castro folder in the C://hmsproj directory and open
castro.map.ClickOK.

BasinSchematicHECHMSallowsfortheeasyuseandmanipulationofhydrologicfeatures.
Toaddafeature,dragtheiconfromthelefthandmenutotheplaceyouwantitontheschematic.
Therearefoursubwatershedsinthismodel.Toaddasubwatershed,clickandholdtheSubbasin
iconanddragittothemiddleofthedelineatedwatershed.Thefirstwillbenamedsubbasin1,so
drag itto thelocation shownin Figure 6.To edit asubbasin, doubleclick onthe icon. If
necessary,youcanandrenamethewatershedssothattheymatchthenamesfromFigure6(or
youcanjustdragthemaround).Therearetworeaches(routingsteps)andthesecanbeaddedin
asimilarmanner.Again,besuretomatchthenamesandlocations ofthereachesshownin
Figure6.Therearethreejunctionsinthemodel.Placethejunctionsandrenamethemtomatch
thenamesandlocationsinFigure6.ToconnectEastBranchandWestBranchwithReach2and
Reach1,placeeachjunctionovertheendofthereach.Eachsubbasinneedstobeconnectedto
eitherthebeginningofareachortoajunction.Toconnectthebasintothebeginningofthe
reach(Sub2andSub4),rightclickonthesubbasinandchooseConnectDownstreamandthen
clickontheupstreamendofthereach.Thesamemethodcanbeusedtoconnecttheothertwo
basinstotheEastandWestBranchjunctionsandcanbeusedtoconnectbothjunctionstothe
outlet.Oncealloftheconnectivityisinplace,SAVEthebasinmodel.

Allhydrologiccomponentscanbeeditedintwoways.Thefirstistosimplydoubleclickonthe
subbasiniconorreachicon,whichallowsyoutoeditthepropertiesofthatonesubbasinorreach.
Thesecondistoselect Parameters inthebasinmodelmenu,whichallowsyoutoeditalimited
amount of information for all subbasins that use a particular method. To use this, click on
Parameters,andthenclickonthedatatypeyouwishtoenter/edit.Coefficientsfortheremaining
BasinModelparametersareeithergivenorcalculatedbelow(forinstance,subbasinarea/baseflow
informationisinTable2).Usingthedoubleclickmethod,fillinalloftheparmeters,savethebasin
modelandclosetheSCHEMATICwindow.

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SubbasinArea/BaseFlowCharacteristicsandLossRateCharacteristics
Table4,shownbelow,givessomebackgroundinformationofdifferentcharacteristics.Usingthe
doubleclickmethod,edittheLossRatevalues.SelecttheInitial/Constantmethod.Also,editthe
Baseflowvalues,selectingtheRecessionmethod.NotethatintheBaseflowmenu,youmayhaveto
changetheunitsoftheThresholdtoratio.
Table4:CastroValleySubbasinCharacteristics
LossRate

Baseflow/Area

Initial
Loss

Const.
Loss

Imperv

Area

InitialQ

in

in/hr

mi2

cfs/mi2

0.02

0.14

1.52

0.54

0.79

0.1

0.02

0.14

10

2.17

0.54

0.79

0.1

0.02

0.14

15

0.96

0.54

0.79

0.1

0.02

0.14

0.86

0.54

0.79

0.1

SubbasinID

Recess.
Const.

Thresh
ratio

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RoutingMethods
Wewillbeusingtwotypesofroutingmethodsfortheexample.
Reach1utilizes MuskingumRouting.Again,wecandoubleclickonthereachtoenterthese
values.Thecomputationtimeofthemodelis5minandtheaveragevelocityofwaterinthestream
is0.75mi/hr.Thetotalreachlengthis0.45miles,anditisanaturalstream.So,sinceitisanatural
channel,wellassumethatX=0.2.Kisequaltolengthofthereach,dividedbythetotalvelocity,or
0.45mi/0.75mph,whichyieldsatraveltime(K)of0.6hours.0.6hoursisabout36minutes,which
wouldgiveabout7fiveminutesubreaches.
Reach 2 utilizes the Modified Puls Routing method. We must use the doubleclick method
Again,theaveragevelocitywasdeterminedtobeabout0.75mi/hr,butthelengthofthisreachis
0.25mi.Thetraveltimeequals0.25mi/0.75mph,or0.33hr,whichisabout20min.Thereare4
subreaches,calculatedbydividingthetraveltime(20min)bythecomputationtime.HECRASwas
usedtodeterminethestorageoutflowrelationshipshownbelowin Table 5.Thisrelationshipcan
alsobederivedusinganidealizedchannelandManningsequation.
Table5:StorageOutflowRelationshipforReach2
Storage(acft)

0.2

0.5

0.8

1.5

2.7

4.5

750

5000

Outflow(cfs)

10

20

30

50

80

120

1500

3000

Transform(UnitHydrographMethods)
Subwatersheds1and4willbemodeledusingtheClarkUnitHydrographandSubwatershed2and3
willbemodeledusingtheSnyderUnitHydrograph.
WewillbeginwithSubs2and3.DoubleclickonthesubbasinandselecttheTransformtab.The
totallengthoftheflowfromthefurtherpointinSub3toitsoutletis0.4mi.Thelengthofthepoint
inthestreamclosesttothecentroidtotheoutletofSub3isabout0.15mi.Ctisdeterminedtobe
about0.4(mountainousregion).ThelengthofthelongestflowpathinSub2is0.55mi,andlength

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fromthecentroidtotheoutletis0.18mi.LikeSub3, Ct is0.4. Cp forbothwatershedsis0.16.
Basedonthisinformation,Tpcanbecalculatedasfollows.
ForSub2,Tp=0.20.

ForSub3,Tp=0.17.

Next,wewilldoSubs1and4.WhilethegivenempiricaldataforHoustonforthedeterminationof
TcandRareprobablynotapplicablefornorthernCalifornia,wewillusetheformulastodemonstrate
howClarkparameterestimationforSubs1and4.ThevalueslistedinTableweredeterminedfrom
topographicandlandusemaps.
Table6:LandUseandTopographicDataforSubs1and4
Sub1

Sub4

L(mi)

0.5

0.4

Lca(mi)

0.3

0.2

S(ft/mi)

20

25

S0(ft/mi)

%development

25

%conveyance

96

96

Usingthesecoefficients,thefollowingTcandRvaluesarecalculated:
ForSub1,Tc=0.25hrsandR=1.79hrs.

ForSub4,Tc=0.17hrsandR=1.85hrs.

E. Precipitation Model
Theprecipitationmodeliswheretherainfallfromthegagesisenteredintothemodel.

Fromthemainmenu,select MeteorologicModel New fromthe Component menu.Enter


GageWtsforthePrecipitationModelnameandThiessenweights;10mindatafor
thedescriptionandclick OK. Thenselect UserGageWeighting inthe Method dropdown
menuandclickOK.Forthisarea,therearethreegages:theFireDept.recordinggagethatwe
havealreadyenteredandtwononrecording(stormtotal)gages.ToaddtheFireDept.gage,

21
clickonAddGage:RecordingandselectFireDept.andclickAddandClose.Toaddthetwo
nonrecordinggages,clickonAddGageTotalStorm.AddProctorSchoolandSidneySchool,
with1.92inand1.37intotalstormrainfalltotals,respectively.TheIndexPrecipfieldisusedto
adjust for bias in the rain gages, and will not be used in this example. Next, click on the
SubbasinsListbutton,andclickAddunderneathCastro1.Thefoursubbasinsthatweentered
in thebasinmodel shouldappear. Finally, click onthe Weights taband enterthe Thiessen
weightsfromTable7below.Ifthegagenamesdonotappearinthe GageID column,click
insidethecolumnandchoosetheappropriategagesforeachsubbasin(ieyouwillonlyuseFire
Dept.andProctorSchoolforSubbasin1).Everywatershedmusthaveatleastonegagethatisa
recordinggagefortheTemporalDistribution,eveniftheGageweightissettozero.Enterthe
ThiessenweightsintheTotalstormGageWeightfileandbesuretoincludetheFireDept.with
aweightof1.0undertheTemporalDistribution.TheweightsareshownbelowinTable7.
Table7:TotalStormThiessenWeights
Subbasin

Fire
Dept.

.8

.33

.8

Proctor
School

.2

.33

Sidney
School

.33

1
.2

NOTE:Youdonthavetoincludethegagesyourenotusingonaparticularsubbasin,butifyou
accidentallydo,gototheEditmenuanddeletetheselectedrow.

Saveandclosetheprecipitationmodel.

22
F. Control Model
Thecontrolmodelsetsthetimingparameters,bothstartingandendingtimes ofthehydrologic
computations,aswellasthecomputationsteps.

Select ControlSpecificationsNewfromComponentsonthemainmenu.Enter Jan73for


theControlSpecsnameand StormofJanuary16,1973 forthedescription.Enter
16Jan73fortheStartingandEndingDatesand0300(whichis3:00AM)fortheStarting
Time and 1255 (whichis12:55PM)forthe EndingTime.Select 5Minutes forthe Time
Interval,whichmeansthatahydrologiccomputationwillbemadeevery5minutes.ClickOK.
E. RunningtheModel

Wenoware(hopefully)readytorunthemodel.

Openthebasinmodel(Castro1).Clickon Simulate RunConfiguration andselect one


componentfromthebasinmodel,theprecipitationmodelandthecontrolmodel.Atthispoint,
thereshouldonlybeoneofeach,sohighlightCastro1,GageWts,andJan73.Keepthename
Run1 inthe RunID box,buttype ExistingConditions;16Jan73storm.Click
Add and Close.Torunthemodel,clickonthe C buttononthetoprightofthebasinmodel
screen.

Toviewresults,rightclickonanycomponentandyourcanseeaGraph,aSummaryTable,
andaTimeSeriesTable.Byaddinganewbasinmodel,saywithincreasedurbanization,ora
differentprecipitationmodel,sayofahypotheticalstormorevenofanotherrainfallevent,you
caneasilycompareresultsfromthedifferentmodelingruns.

TheseresultscanbeexportedtoExcelusingVisualDSSBasics97inmuchofthesamemanner
aswasdescribedinearliersections.

23
IV. ProblemAssignment

Determinethehydrologiceffect(peakflowandtiming)ofincreasingthepercentdevelopment
from25percentto45percentandthepercentimperviousincreasesfrom8percentto30percent
forSubwatershed1forCastroValley.WhataretheeffectsatWestJunctionandattheOutlet
comparedtotheExistingConditions?Todothis,opentheexistingconditionsbasin,selectsave
asundertheFilemenu,renameiturbanization,andthenmakechangestothesubbasin.Use
thesamerainfallevent.ShowyournewTC&RcalculationsforSubbasin1also.

What is the hydrologic effect on the Existing Condition if the rainfall at each of the non
recordinggagesisdoubledandtherainfallattheFireDept.isincreasedby50%.

24

Sources
Bedient,P.B.,andW.C.Huber.1992.HydrologyandFloodplainAnalysis.Reading,Massachusetts,
AddisonWesley.
Hogan,D.H.1997.ComputerAssistedFloodplainHydrologyandHydraulics.NewYork:McGraw
Hill.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Hydrologic Engineering Center. 1991. HEC2, Water Surface
Profiles,Version4.6.DavisCalifornia.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Hydrologic Engineering Center. 1995. HECDSS, Hydrologic
EngineeringCenter,DataStorageSystem.Davis,California.
U.S.Army Corps ofEngineers. Hydrologic Engineering Center. 1998a. HECHMS, Hydrologic
ModelingSystem,Version1.1.Davis,California.
U.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers.HydrologicEngineeringCenter.1998b.HEC1,FloodHydrograph
Package,Version4.1.Davis,California.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Hydrologic Engineering Center. 1998c. HEC-RAS, River Analysis
System, Version 2.2. Davis, California