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Class No:




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Communication Skills

Explain the process of communication

Communication is the process of transmission information between two or
more than two people through a proper channel. In order to achieve a
successful communication we have to follow the steps involve in
communication. There are several components in communication process.
1. Context:
A message which is either Oral or written must start with context. It is a
broad term which consist of many things like country, organization and
their culture. External and Internal Stimulus are also the important parts
of the context. Hence Context is a plat form on which the senders plan,
design and convey their message in a way which is understandable by the
receiver. In simple words context is the desired which compel the sender
to convey the message.
2. Sender:
A sender is a party who needs to convey the message. Sender encode the
message in a form which can be orally, written or in a form of picture etc
which is understandable by the other party.
3. Message:
The core idea of communication is the message which can be in the form
of verbal and non-verbal. The sender first decide what should be the main
idea of my message. Either the receiver will be able to interpret my
message correctly or it will affect our relationship by misinterpreting.
Hence the message should be plan properly.
4. Medium:
One of the important component of communication process is also a
medium. A medium of the message should be chosen wisely because it
can create issues for the sender in the future. Medium can be mail, print
media, electronic media, mobile phones etc.
5. Receiver Decoder:
A message has two parties, one is the sender and the other one is the
reader or the listener. The second party is also known as receiver decoder
because this party decode the message encode by the sender. A message
can have more than one decoder. A receiver decoder get the message
with the help of eyes and ears. A receiver can get different meanings and
it totally depend upon the understanding between these two parties.
6. Feedback:
Sender always needs a feedback from the receiver so that the sender can
conform the success of communication. Feedback can be oral and can be
in written form. Sometime silence can be the feedback but it is always
considered as ineffective.

1.1 Assess the appropriate use of different modes of communication for different purposes
People use different modes for their communication. It totally depend upon
the ease. The easier the mode, the higher will be the usage of that mode.
Following are few modes of communication along with the purpose which are
discussed in detail.
1. Written:
A message can be in the form of written. In our daily life we convey our
message through our cell phone in the form Texts to inform each other about
certain information. We see noticeboards and the purpose of these
noticeboards are to provide information about the specific product or event.
We read newspapers on daily basis to gain information which are happening
around us and write letters to our friends and family to keep in touch with
them. Businesses use memo for the internal communication and letters and
emails for external communication. These all are in the form of words and
2. Face to face/ Oral:
We meet each other on daily basis and talk face to face formally and
informally. This is another form of mode of communication. Lecturer give us a
briefing face to face and appraisal students for their hard work orally. Most of
us conducts interview to judge the candidates for the job. There are some
formal meetings like annual general meetings, extraordinary general
meetings. All of these are conducted orally or face to face.
3. Electronic Media:
Social Media is now a days on the top trend for the communication. Most of
the businesses use electronic media for the flow of information from upward
to downwards in the organizations. Email are widely used for this purpose.
Each of us use social media accounts like Facebook, twitter, blog, Linkedin etc
for the communication purposes.
Hence we can say that communication has several modes and their purposes
and all are a little bit different from each other. Some are used for oral
messages and other are used for written messages.


Analyze barriers to effective communication within organizations

Many organizations failed to develop effective communication within the
organization due to different issues like physical separation, gender
difference, culture barriers and language problems. However there are few
other barriers which will be discussed follow
1. Clarity of written/Oral Message:
One of the main issue with communication is clarity. It can be due to
difference in language. Sometime the message is conveyed in a language

which is not understandable by the receiver like accent. This can be a barrier
in communication. Similarly tone can create a hurdle in communication. Very
low tone and very high tone will make the voice unclear and communication
will become difficult to understand.
2. Technology:
Technology can be one of the main reason for communication hurdle due to
poor connections and inappropriate use of it.
3. Non-verbal communication:
Non-verbal communication like lack of eye contact with the speaker can
produce barrier in communication. An inappropriate posture like leaning back
or swinging on a chair or lack of head nods are the examples of non-verbal
communication barrier.


Evaluate formal communication systems used by organizations to communicate

with customers
Every organization has its own way to communicate inside and outside the
organization. Even they have a proper channel for communication inside
organization. Most of the business uses different modes for communication
with customers. Companies use websites for their promotion of products like
with the help of Apple website you can buy any apple product easily. Similarly
we have seen different brochures in our daily life which are used to convey
different messages to its customers by the organization. Restaurants uses
brochures for the customers awareness.
Organizations which mostly provide services used telephone calls like most of
the telecom companies calls back when the customer faces any issue.
Similarly organization conduct face to face meetings to finalize the business.
Now days social media also play an important role in the communication
because it is easily accessible. Todays organization trying to sale products on
social media. If they want to convey any message they use social media.
All of the above modes are used by the organizations either inside or outside
for their communication purpose with their customers. Each and every mode
has its own importance.


Analyze the effectiveness of using social media to communicate with customers

Social media like Facebook, twitter and other accounts are used widely for the
purpose of communication with customers. One of the main advantage of
social media is the sharing of information with ease. These information
promotes the communication skill between organization and its customers.
Social networking sites like twitter are now used as a means of publicity,
which is embrace by each and every brand thorough out the world.
Entrepreneur uses social media to generate new business and in order to
improve the business entrepreneur use social media to directly interact with
customers and solve their problem directly. Hence we can say that with the
help of social media the companies will be updated with new trends and

competition. It also increase the social networks by making new followers and
customers. Organizations can find target customers and can increase their
sales with the help of promotion to target customers. Social media can also
be used to gain publicity and fame.


Assess the images organizations portray through their communications

Every organization has its image and this image can be due to their services,
their products or due to their communication. Many organization have week
internal communication which result in the poor management and work while
on the other hand those organization which have strong communication will
have competitive edge in the industry because each and every employee of
the organization will show commitment to their work and position. They will
show contemporary situation in which all the employees are conformed about
the organizational goal. They will avoid traditional style of working instead
due to strong communication they will come up with new ideas. They worker
will be energized and the organization will be called one of the most
successful organization. Hence we can say that communication is the main
tool to make the image in society.


Assess the impact of personal relationships on effective communications





Following are the personal relationships factors that has impact on the
effectiveness of communication.
Team Cohesion:
There is a direct relation between team cohesion and communication. The
higher the team cohesion the stronger will be the understanding between the
team and most effective will be the communication process. On the other
hand the lower the team cohesion the weaker will be the effectiveness and
hence the communication process will be weak among the team. Hence team
cohesion is important for the effective communication to take place.
Personal conflict
Personal conflict occurs when the parties have opposite view points which
can be expressed verbally and non-verbally. When personal conflict exist
between the parties it will lead to poor communication because both the
parties will not convey the required message on time and as well on proper
channel. Therefore we can say that personal conflict decrease the
effectiveness of the communication.
When there is a factor of favoritism in any place the effectiveness of
communication decreases because of the lack of interest by the rest of the
employees or students. The morale of the people get down and resentment
among the follower increase which will result in the weak communication
system. The affected people will not give the right feedback and hence it will
result in the poor communication system.
Job satisfaction/dissatisfaction
Satisfaction and dissatisfaction have equal and opposite relation on
communication. The more satisfied an employee is the stronger will be the
communication process and the more dissatisfaction a person has from the

job the weaker will be the communication process. A satisfied employees will
give their feedback on time and with proper channel.


Assess the impact of non-verbal communication on oral communications

Like verbal communication, non-verbal communication has also influence on
oral communications. Someone said that The eyes are the window to the
Non-verbal communication like listening actively and focusing on the words of
speaker will improve the confidence of the speaker and will have positive
impact on the oral communication. The speaker will give more information as
compare to listening and focusing less. Tone of voice is also one of the
important factor on which the communication can be effected. The higher
and clear the tone of the speaker is the best will be the oral communication.
A low tone sound will create boredom. Similarly body language is important
tool for oral communication. People with confident words and body language
will lead to strong oral communication.


Assess the impact of technology on oral and written communication

Everything has both positive and negative impact. Similarly technology has
positive and negative impact on communication process. It is a mixed bag in
which both the positivity and negativity exist. We start our day with text
message from our beloved persons on a mobile application and end our day
with a Good Night on the same application. Technology has changed the
world from very big into very small village where we can find anything we
want. Following are some positive and some negative aspects of technology
on communication.
1. Positive aspects of technology on communication:
Its the technology which make our communication easy. If we want to convey
a message to someone urgent we can do it within seconds with the help of
mobile and tablets. Technology has made our life easy to keep in touch with
old contacts.
We can clearly receive the required information with the help of technology.
Take example of internet, Skype etc. There are many website available on
internet with the help of which many students can learn according to its own
learning styles. Take example of YouTube where you can watch hundreds of
videos on one topic. Hence we can say that technology has brought ease in
the communication process.
2. Negative aspects of technology on communication
Technology does not have only positive impact on communication but it also
have negative impact on the communications. Now a days we totally relay on
the slides. We cannot speak without power point slides. Sometime the
presentations get much bored which create stress for the listener. We have
seen many teenagers who are more close to their online friends then their

family because of the technology. They avoid oral communication and prefer
written communication on mobiles and other applications and websites.


Review the use of conventions in written communications

Convention is a word which we use for the description of punctuation, spelling and
grammar. The so-called rules of writing are not considered rules at all nowadays but
actually these are the agreements between the speaker and the society. Formal and
informal reports, emails and letter have conventions. People used to write email instead
of long formal letters. There were formal greetings, punctuation and grammar sign off
and the tone in one letter. Now all these are just in books. People in daily life dont use
them. They write as simple as they can without any hesitation.


Design an oral presentation for a specified audience

Following are the steps for oral presentation for a specified audience.
1. Identify your purpose
Determine your specific purpose. What is the purpose of your presentation?
2. Know your audience
Before going for a presentation one must know the audience. Either the
audience are a group of businessmen or a group of colleagues.
3. Research about the topic
You must have a command on the subject which you are going to present.
Underline all critical points which need to be discussed.
4. Write your speech
Write your speech so that you dont need to speak from the slides.
5. Prepare the Slides show
Write main points on the slides show so that the listener can see it on the
6. Be Organized
Whether the presentation is 10 minutes or 30 minutes organize the
information so that all the information required are delivered. Summarize the
presentation in five minutes.


Present complex information orally

While presenting the presenter must have slides show so that the listener can
read the slides while the presenter is speaking but there are some
information which are complex and must be discuss orally like an introduction
about the topic. There is no need to write those information on slides. For
example an explanation for figures will need much space and will make the
presentation lengthy and bore. Instead of writing each and every bit of
information about the figure just explain the information orally.

4.3 Use technology to support presentation skills




Using Visual Aids

Visual aids are very important for presentation because it helps people to
understand topic. Most of the listener face difficulties if presenter accent is
different from the listener.
It is an older form of communication but still people prefer to use it. They are
easy and reliable visual aid.
Power Point
For a professional overheads power point is the main tool. It is a computer
based presentation.
Print Handouts
Handouts are another important tool for presentation. Distribution of notes
before or after the presentation for reading will make your presentation
interesting because the listener will understand the presentation.
Excel spread sheet are another technology aspect which is used for
presentation purpose. You can easily show facts and figures on spreadsheet.

Assess effectiveness of own communication

Effectiveness of communication depend on several things. We should keep in
mind many points which are necessary for the effectiveness of
communication. As we expect best from others in response we should also
have something good.
First of all gather the required data. What you need to talk about. Maintain a
positive attitude and smile on your face .Then consider the audience and
treat them equally. Arrange the message words according to them because
there can be the case of formality and informality. If the audience are the
elder then the words used in message should be too formal so that the
audience get their desired respect. Try to add a little humor to your message
because it will bring smile on the faces of the audience which will relieve
stress. Use of appropriate body language is another aspect which should be
kept in mind while talking to someone because your body language can tell
you everything about you what you feel inside rather you speak. The last but
not least we should ask ourselves either the purpose of our message is
fulfilled or not. The message which I want to convey to the audience is
transmitted to them successfully or not. The audience get the message in
positive aspect or in negative.


Communicate complex information for specific purposes

There are various complex information which needs to be on records and as

well to inform others for specific information. For this purpose various
procedures and modes are used. Some people use Reports which is a
description of an event happened at the back of that person who are absent
on the concerned day. Similarly briefing notes are prepared to brief the
audience or the employees to about specific information. Press releases are
another tool for the transmission of information from the source to the
audience. Companies use press releases for the purpose of promotion of their
new products. Social media like Facebook, twitter, Instagram and blogs are
the various methods which the companies and organization use for the
purpose of conveying different messages to the employees and as well as to
the customers. The main purpose of all these is to convey a specific and
complex information either to the employees inside the organization or to the
shareholders living abroad. If the board of directors need a results or they
want to launch new product they will have to use one of the above method.


Document a meeting
Every business needs a record of every event happening in the boundary of
the organization. Similarly meetings are important tools in business in which
too many issues are discussed and proper solution are involved. Now to
document a meeting we should take care of the following
1. Agenda
Agenda of the meeting is also called outline of the meetings. Agenda
represent the purpose of the meeting. What this meeting is all about is an
agenda of the meeting. Its really important to have the agenda of the
meeting because during the meeting we will take notes and it minutes and it
should be in the order so that the minutes match the agenda.
2. Minutes of the meeting
Minutes of the meeting are meant to record all the basic information which
are assigned and decided to do. They always keep the employees on the right
track so that they know what their roles are in the concerned project. Before
the meeting start try to gather as much information as you can. If you are not
comfortable with writing try to bring the laptop and type all the information
needed. The minutes of the meeting can should contain the following things.
a) Date and time
b) Main theme of the meeting
c) Who will lead the meeting
d) What will be the actions assigned
e) What will be the decision


Use charts and graphs to convey quantitative data

Sometimes we have information which needs representations and its explanation in
words will grab too much space thats why we represent those information in the form of
charts and graphs. These charts and graph mention each and every point but in figures
and hence the presenter need to define those figures in a proper manner.

Examples can be Financial Results which are always represented in figures. Similarly
sales figures and energy efficiency are represented by figures.

Review written communication

Written communication is very useful for transmission of information within the

organization or company. The information provided in the written communications are clear
from the mistakes and errors and do not make any issue for future. Written communications are
always on the record. One can always access to this record. This type of communication can be
found in different formats. One can add visuals like charts, graphs and pictures. The tone and the
language used in written communication are understandable. If its not one can change its
language easily. Hence we can say that written communication are better than other