belajar bentangan

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belajar bentangan

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- Book of Knowledge 1.5
- True Shape of the Section
- NMTC 2014 Inter Screening
- Inv 2011 Chapter 10
- An Application of Sondat’s Theorem Regarding the Orthohomological Triangles, by I. Patrascu & F. Smarandache
- Chapter 10 Sheet Metal Design
- Add Maths Notes
- Revision Booklet
- sheetmetaloperations1class-110925104115-phpapp02
- MQP - 1.pdf
- intro-en
- ZomeIntro
- Vapi D_c - Technical Specification _annexure- i
- EN(306)
- QCS 2010 Section 17 Part 5 Light Metal Support and Cladding System
- math 207 potfolio 1
- 4068 001
- geoboards
- Datasheet Strenx 100 XF
- 4024_w14_qp_22

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

materials

Many articles such as cans, pipes, elbows, boxes, ducting,

hoppers, etc. are manufactured from thin sheet materials.

Generally, a template is produced from an orthographic

drawing when small quantities are required (larger quantities

may justify the use of press tools), and the template will

include allowances for bending and seams, bearing in mind

the thickness of material used.

Exposed edges which may be dangerous can be wired or

folded, and these processes also give added strength, e.g.,

cooking tins and pans. Some cooking tins are also formed by

pressing hollows into a flat sheet. This type of deformation is

not considered in this Chapter, which deals with bending or

forming in one plane only. Some common methods of finishing edges, seams, and corners are shown in Fig. 13.1.

The following examples illustrate some of the more commonly used methods of development in pattern-making, but

note that, apart from in the first case, no allowance has been

made for joints and seams.

Where a component has its surfaces on flat planes of

projection, and all the sides and corners shown are true

lengths, the pattern is obtained by parallel-line or straightline development. A simple application is given in Fig. 13.2

for an open box.

Allowance

for folded

edge

Allowance for

corner lap

(c)

(b)

(a)

Bend lines

(d)

(e)

(f)

(j)

(g)

(k)

(h)

(l)

FIGURE 13.1

Manual of Engineering Drawing

Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

FIGURE 13.2

13.3. The pattern length is obtained by plotting the distances

across the flat faces. The height at each corner is projected

from the front elevation, and the top of the prism is drawn

from a true view in the direction of arrow X.

An elbow joint is shown developed in Fig. 13.4. The

length of the circumference has been calculated and divided

into 12 equal parts. A part plan, divided into six parts, has the

93

94

FIGURE 13.3

B

A

X

C

B

A

View X

4

6

Development of part B

7

12

11

10

10

11

12

7

6

5

B

4

3

2

1

A

7

2

3

5

Circumference D

FIGURE 13.4

appropriate point on the pattern. It is normal practice on a

development drawing to leave the joint along the shortest

edge; however, on part B the pattern can be cut more economically if the joint on this half is turned through 180.

An elbow joint made from four parts has been completely

developed in Fig. 13.5. Again, by alternating the position of

the seams, the patterns can be cut with no waste. Note that the

centre lines of the parts marked B and C are 30 apart, and that

the inner and outer edges are tangential to the radii which

position the elbow.

13.6. The development has been drawn in line with the plan

view by taking the length along the front elevation in small

increments of width C and plotting the corresponding depths

from the plan.

A typical interpenetration curve is given in Fig. 13.7. The

development of part of the cylindrical portion is shown

viewed from the inside. The chordal distances on the inverted

plan have been plotted on either side of the centre line of the

hole, and the corresponding heights have been projected

from the front elevation. The method of drawing a pattern

10

11

12

6 7

10

11

12 1

10

11

12

6 7

10

11

12 1

FIGURE 13.5

D

C

A

7

1

2

6

3

Circumference D

5

4

Front elevation

FIGURE 13.6

End elevation

Plan

Development

FIGURE 13.7

4

G

F

E

D

2

1

C

B

A

AB

6

5

4

3

1

FG

95

96

Slan

t he

ight

O

G

F

E

D

C

B

A

eig

nt h

S la

R=

3

D

1

2

3

7

6

G

F

E

D

5 67

G

H

ht

O

12 3

5

F

F

5

B

FIGURE 13.8

O

H

G

G

H

C

E

F

View on arrow X

A

FIGURE 13.9

Sla

nt h

eigh

t

Z

True

lengths

D

1

A

B

A

F

Q

4

E

2

6

nt heigh

F

C

A

of arrow z

5

FIGURE 13.10

C

B

4

A

3

1

6

E F

A

D

C B

3

5

R = Sla

elbow in Fig. 13.4.

An example of radial-line development is given in Fig.

13.8. The dimensions required to make the development are

the circumference of the base and the slant height of the

cone. The chordal distances from the plan view have been

used to mark the length of arc required for the pattern;

alternatively, for a higher degree of accuracy, the angle can

be calculated and then sub-divided. In the front elevation,

lines O1 and O7 are true lengths, and distances OG and OA

have been plotted directly onto the pattern. The lines O2O6

inclusive are not true lengths, and, where these lines cross the

sloping face on the top of the conical frustum, horizontal

lines have been projected to the side of the cone and been

marked B, C, D, E, and F. True lengths OF, OE, OD, OC, and

OB are then marked on the pattern. This procedure is repeated for the other half of the cone. The view on the sloping face

will be an ellipse, and the method of projection has been

described in Chapter 12.

Part of a square pyramid is illustrated in Fig. 13.9. The

pattern is formed by drawing an arc of radius OA and stepping off around the curve the lengths of the base, joining the

points obtained to the apex O. Distances OE and OG are true

lengths from the front elevation, and distances OH and OF

are true lengths from the end elevation. The true view in

direction of arrow X completes the development.

The development of part of a hexagonal pyramid is

shown in Fig. 13.10. The method is very similar to that given

in the previous example, but note that lines OB, OC, OD, OE,

and OF are true lengths obtained by projection from the

elevation.

Figure 13.11 shows an oblique cone which is developed

by triangulation, where the surface is assumed to be formed

from a series of triangular shapes. The base of the cone is

divided into a convenient number of parts (12 in this case)

97

A

True

lengths

True lengths

O

1

4 5

5

RAD C

6

1

3 4 5

1

RAD C

2 1

5

2

O

6

6

1

5

2

4

3

4

6

RAD C

RAD C

FIGURE 13.11

drawn up to the apex A. Lines 0A and 6A are true-length

lines, but the other five shown all slope at an angle to the

plane of the paper. The true lengths of lines 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A,

and 5A are all equal to the hypotenuse of right-angled triangles where the height is the projection of the cone height and

the base is obtained from the part plan view by projecting

distances B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5 as indicated.

Assuming that the join will be made along the shortest

edge, the pattern is formed as follows. Start by drawing line

6A, then from A draw an arc on either side of the line equal in

length to the true length 5A. From point 6 on the pattern,

draw an arc equal to the chordal distance between successive

points on the plan view.

This curve will intersect the first arc twice at the points

marked 5. Repeat by taking the true length of line 4A and

swinging another arc from point A to intersect with chordal

arcs from points 5. This process is continued as shown on the

solution.

Figure 13.12 shows the development of part of an oblique

cone where the procedure described above is followed. The

points of intersection of the top of the cone with lines 1A, 2A,

2

1

FIGURE 13.12

constructions, and true-length distances from the apex A are

marked on the pattern drawing.

A plan and front elevation is given in Fig. 13.13 of a

transition piece which is formed from two halves of oblique

cylinders and two connecting triangles. The plan view of the

base is divided into 12 equal divisions, the sides at the top

into six parts each. Each division at the bottom of the front

elevation is linked with a line to the similar division at the

top. These lines, P1, Q2, etc., are all the same length. Commence the pattern construction by drawing line S4 parallel to

the component. Project lines from points 3 and R, and let

these lines intersect with arcs equal to the chordal distances

C, from the plan view, taken from points 4 and S. Repeat the

process and note the effect that curvature has on the distances

between the lines projected from points P, Q, R, and S. After

completing the pattern to line P1, the triangle is added by

swinging an arc equal to the length B from point P, which

intersects with the arc shown, radius A. This construction for

part of the pattern is continued as indicated.

Part of a triangular prism is shown in Fig. 13.14, in

orthographic projection. The sides of the prism are

98

B

P Q RS

SC

C

R

C

Q

2 3

True

lengths

H

B

1

D

D

E

FIGURE 13.13

elevation. Note that radius OC is the only true length of a

sloping side in any of the three views. The base length CA is

marked around the circumference of the arc three times, to

obtain points A, B, and C.

True length OE can be taken from the end elevation, but a

construction is required to find the true length of OD. Draw

an auxiliary view in direction with arrow Y, which is square

to line OA as shown. The height of the triangle, OX, can be

E

E

A, B

C

E

True shape of

bottom triangle

A

True view on

arrow Y

B

O

O

C

FIGURE 13.14

K

D

FIGURE 13.15

C

2

D A

K

H

C A

3

2

B

4

E J

True length

the side of the triangle gives the true length OD. The true

shape at the bottom can be drawn by taking lengths ED, DB,

and BE from the pattern and constructing the triangle shown.

A transition piece connecting two rectangular ducts is

given in Fig. 13.15. The development is commenced by

drawing the figure CBFG, and the centre line of this part

can be obtained from the front elevation which appears as

line CG, the widths being taken from the plan. The next

problem is to obtain the true lengths of lines CG and DH

and position them on the pattern; this can be done easily by

the construction of two triangles, after the insertion of line

DG. The true lengths can be found by drawing right-angled

triangles where the base measurements are indicated as

dimensions 1, 2, and 3, and the height is equal to the height

of the front elevation. The length of the hypotenuse in each

case is used as the radius of an arc to form triangles CDG and

GDH. The connecting seam is taken along the centre line of

figure ADHE and is marked JK. The true length of line JK

appears as line HD in the front elevation, and the true shape

of this end panel has been drawn beside the end elevation to

establish the true lengths of the dotted lines EK and HK,

since these are used on the pattern to draw triangles fixing the

exact position of points K and J.

A transition piece connecting square and circular ducts is

shown in Fig. 13.16. The circle is divided into 12 equal

99

1 2

Typical construction

for true lengths

5 67

P

1

2

3

4

AD

BC

2

3

1

4

6

7

11 10

12

10

11

2

3

1

SEAM

12

6

4

5

C

FIGURE 13.16

component as shown. A construction is required to establish

the true lengths of lines A1, A2, A3, and A4. These lengths

are taken from the hypotenuse of right-angled triangles

whose height is equal to the height of the front elevation,

and the base measurement is taken from the projected

lengths in the plan view. Note that the lengths A2 and A3

are the same, as are A1 and A4, since the circle lies at the

centre of the square in the plan. The constructions from the

other three corners are identical to those from corner A. To

form the pattern, draw a line AB, and from A describe an arc

of radius A4. Repeat from end B, and join the triangle. From

point 4, swing an arc equal to the chordal length between

points 4 and 3 in the plan view, and let this arc intersect with

the true length A3, used as a radius from point A. Mark the

intersection as point 3. This process is repeated to form the

pattern shown. The true length of the seam at point E can

be measured from the front elevation. Note that, although

chordal distances are struck between successive points

around the pattern, the points are themselves joined by a

curve; hence no ultimate error of any significance occurs

when using this method.

Figure 13.17 shows a similar transition piece where the

top and bottom surfaces are not parallel. The construction is

generally very much the same as described above, but two

separate true-length constructions are required for the corners marked AD and BC. Note that, in the formation of the

pattern, the true length of lines AB and CD is taken from the

front elevation when triangles AB4 and DC10 are formed.

The true length of the seam is also the same as line A1 in the

front elevation.

1 2 3 4

True

lengths

4

7

4

1

5

6

3

2

B

C

12

E

11 10

7

6

4

1

3

A

1

1

2

12

11

3

10

FIGURE 13.17

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