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Navigational Aids

AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV)

Radar

Is a method of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)


navigation that allows an aircraft to choose any
course within a network of navigation beacons,
rather than navigating directly to and from the
beacons.

Radar is an object-detection system which


uses electromagnetic waves, specifically radio
waves.The radar dish, or antenna, transmits
pulses of radio waves or microwaves which
bounce off any object in their path.

LONG RANGE NAVIGATION(LORAN)

Used to determine the range, altitude, direction,


or speed of both moving and fixed objects such
as aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided
missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations,
and terrain.

is a terrestrial radio navigation system


using low frequencyradio transmitters in
multiple deployment (multilateration) to
determine the location and speed of the
receiver.

A typical radar system consists of a combined


transmitter-receiver unit, which is equipped
with a parabolic dish antenna that is designed
to be efficient in both transmission and
reception of any reflected signals from the
same direction.

Typical LORAN set provides:

Transponder
Is an electronic device that produces a response
when it receives a radio-frequency
interrogation.
The four-figure discrete code to be used for the
flight will probably be assigned by ATC when
they issue an IFR clearance, and this should be
selected immediately by the pilot.
Vital codes
7700 -------emergencies
7600 -------radio failure, lost communication
7500 ------hi jack
~~The term squawk that is commonly used by
ATC is intended to mean transmit.
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DM
is a transponder-based radio navigation
technology that measures distance by timing
the propagation delay of VHF or UHF radio
signals.
The airborne DME equipment detects the
answering signal and measures the time
between the transmission of the interrogating
pulse from the airplane and the reception of the
ranging reply pulse from the DME ground
station. Then it converts this time to a distance
in nautical miles.
DME equipment is capable of computing and
displaying the rate of change of DME distance
(the rate of closure of the airplane with DME
ground station)

~Position (as latitude/longitude or


radial/distance)~
~Track and groundspeed~
~Windspeed and direction~
~Estimated time en route~
~Memory storage of all airports, airspace and
radio navigation aids.
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)
Is a space-based global navigation satellite
system(GNSS) that provides
reliable location and time information in all
weather and at all times and anywhere on or
near the Earth when and where there is an
unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS
satellites.
GPS Three Functional Elements:
~Space Segment
~Control Segment~
~User Segment
Space Segment - consists of a constellation of
24 satellites in six strategically defined orbital
planes. provide a window of at least four
satellites in view from any point on earth.
Control Segment
The control segment is composed of
~a master control station (MCS),
~an alternate master control station,
~four dedicated ground antennas
~six dedicated monitor stations
User Segment simply refers to the receiver.
The user segment is composed of hundreds of
thousands of U.S. and allied military users of
the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service,

C airspace is individually tailored to meet the


needs of the airport, the airspace usually consists
of a surface area with a 5 nautical mile (NM)
radius, an outer circle with a 10 NM radius that
extends from 1,200 feet to 4,000 feet above the
airport elevation and an outer area.

AIRSPACE

CLASS D Airspace
-The fourth airspace is Class D Airspace which is
generally that airspace from the surface to 2,500
feet above the airport elevation. Class D airspace
only surrounds airports that have an operational
control tower.

means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a


country above its territory, including its territorial water or,
more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of
the atmosphere.
Class A Airspace

All operations must be conducted under


Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) or Special visual
flight rules (SVFR) and are subject to ATC
clearance.

All flights are separated from each other by ATC.

Class A airspace starts at FL 180 (18,000 ft) to FL


600 (60,000 ft).

must change from the local altimeter to 29.92 inHg


or 1013.2 mb.

Class A airspace covers the entire 48 contiguous


states.

Aircraft flying in Class A airspace are required to be


IFR-equipped and have DME if flying above
FL240.

-Class D airspace is also tailored to meet the


needs of the airport. Pilots are required to establish
and maintain two-way radio communications with
the ATC facility providing air traffic control services
prior to entering the airspace. No separation
services will be provided to pilots of VFR (Visual
Flight Rules) aircraft. Pilots operating under VFR
must still use "see-and-avoid" for aircraft
separation. Airports without operating control
towers are uncontrolled airfields.

Class B Airspace

This airspace is layered, generally in the form of an


upside-down wedding cake, so that it surrounds all
aircraft approaching or departing from the airport
up to 10,000 feet msl.

Operations may be conducted under IFR, SVFR,


or Visual flight rules (VFR).

All aircraft are required to receive an ATC


clearance prior to entering Class B airspace.

All flights are separated from each other by ATC.

Required onboard equipment includes one VOR


navigation unit.

CLASS C Airspace
- is the airspace from the surface to 4,000 feet above
the airport elevation.

-Class C airspace will only be found at airports


that have an operational control tower, are serviced
by a radar approach control, and that have a
certain number of IFR operations. Although Class

Air traffic management

Radio Communications Phraseology and Techniques


PROPERLY CARRY OUT THEIR CONTROL DUTIES. THE
PILOT MUST KNOW EXACTLY WHAT THE CONTROLLER
WANTS YOU TO DO.
RADIO TECHNIQUE

LISTEN
THINK
SPEAK
BUTTON
ALERT

~LETTERS OR DIFFICULT WORDS DURING ADVERSE


COMMUNICATIONS CONDITION.

AS FOR CEILING HEIGHTS, AND UPPER WIND LEVELS


UP TO 9,900 SHALL BE SPOKEN IN ACCORDANCE WITH
THE FOLLOWING

WHEN RADIO FREQUENCY CONTAINS A DECIMAL


POINT, THE DECIMAL POINT, THE DECIMAL POINT IS
SPOKEN AS POINT.

EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE

ALTITUDES AND FLIGHT LEVELS

~BE SURE THAT YOU ARE WITHIN THE PERFORMANCE


RANGE OF YOUR RADIO EQUIPMENT AND THE
GROUND STATION EQUIPMENT

a.)
UP TO BUT NOT INCLUDING 18,000 FEET MSL,
STATE THE SEPARATE DIGITS OF THE THOUSAND
PLUS THE HUNDREDS IF APPROPRIATE

~REMOTE RADIO SITES DO NOT ALWAYS TRANSMIT


AND RECEIVE ON ALL FACILITYS AVAILABLE FREQ. ,
PARTICULARLY WITH REGARD TO VOR SITES WHERE
YOU CAN HEAR BUT NOT REACH A GROUND STATIONS
RECEIVER.
~REMEMBER THAT HIGHER ALTITUDES INCREASE THE
RANGE OF VHF LINE OF SITE COMMUNICATIONS.

CONTACT PROCEDURES

INITIAL CONTACT

THE TERMS INITIAL CONTACT OR INITIAL CALLUP


MEANS THE FIRST RADIO CALL YOU MAKE TO A GIVEN
FACILITY OR THE FIRST CALL TO A DIFFERENT
CONTROLLER OR FSS SPECIALIST WITHIN A FACILITY
1. Facility being called
2. Full name of aircraft, identification as filed in the flight plan

12,000 ( ONE TWO THOUSAND)


15,600 ( ONE FIVE THOUSANd SIX HUNDRED)

DIRECTIONS
THE THREE DIGITS OF BEARING, COURSE, HEADING
OR WIND DIRECTION SHOULD ALWAYS BE MAGNETIC.
THE WORD TRUE MUST BE ADDED WHEN IT APPLIES.
magnetic course (005)

ZERO ZERO FIVE

magnetic bearing (360)

THREE SIX ZERO

SPEED
THE SEPARATE DIGITS OF THE SPEED FOLLOWED BY
THE WORD KNOTS. EXCEPT, CONTROLLERS MAY
OMIT THE WORD KNOTS WHEN USING SPEED
ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES; reduce/increase SPEED
TO TWO FIVE ZERO

3. the message to follow

(speed ) 210 . TWO ONE ZERO KNOTS

4. over if required

(speed) 190 . ONE NINER ZERO KNOTS

~WHEN UNABLE TO ESTABLISH CONTACT AND YOU


WISH TO CALL ANY GROUND STATION, USE THE
PHRASE ANY RADIO (TOWER STATION), GIVE CESSNA
THREE ONE SIX ZERO FOXTROT A CALL ON (FREQ.) OR
(V-O-R).
~. TO RECEIVE ADDITIONAL ASSISTANCE WHILE
OPERATING IN AREAS OF CONCENTRATED AIR
TRAFFIC, PILOTS NEED ONLY IDENTIFY THEMSELVES
AS A STUDENT PILOT DURING THEIR INITIAL CALL TO
AN FAA RADIO FACILITY.
~USE THE PHONETIC EQUIVALENTS FOR SINGLE
LETTERS AND TO SPELL OUT THE GROUPS OF

MACH
FOR MACH, THE SEPARATE DIGITS OF THE MACH
NUMBER PRECEDED BY MACH .
(mach number) 1.5 ... MACH ONE POINT FIVE
(mach number) 0.64 ... MACH POINT SIX FOUR

- Input ( Booking, Process, Output)

- Process (forecast future demands, by sector, flight)


- Output (Process information flows into reservation
Evolution of Airline Pipeline

Sales Office vs. Sales Agencies

Sales Agencies vs. Internet

Fate of the Middle men

Revenge of the travel Agents

Cargo agent survival

Paperless Commercial Aviation

Aviation and Airline Organizations Management,


Functions and Operations

Structure of Global Distribution System


Customers Travel Agents GDS CRS

Basic Structure of an Airline Organization:

++ Administration

++ Marketing

Finance
++ Finance

++Operation

(Accounting TreasuryPurchasing Insurance)

The Complexities of Airline Organization Straightforward or Interlocking

====Functional (by set of activities)


==== Product (Brand)

===Geographic (by place, US, Mactan)


===Customer Oriented (significant market)

Administration
~~~The Board: Sets corporate goals, visions, missions, policies; e.g. nature,
extent, orientation and direction of business
~~~The CEO: Heart and soul ,,,,,Keeps the enterprise whole by his persona;
corp face & voice, Orchestrator of corporate vision, mission, activities

Corporate Communication.
(External, Internal Communication, Community )
Legal Services
(Corporate, Aeropolitical, Commercial, Industrial)
Human Resources
(Personnel, Motivational Activities, Productivity Program, Industrial
Relations)
Internal Audit and Control
(Management Audit, Operational Audit, IT Systems)
Security & Fraud Prevention
(Regulatory Interactions, Flight Security, Airport Security, Fraud potential
in every phase)
Safety and Enviroment
(Regulatory Body, Typhoon SOP, CO2 emmisions, Noise Pollution)

Marketing
The interlocking commercial functions that impact organization and
operation:Marketing - Aeropolitical - Line Operation Administration
Stake Holders
(Share Holders& Employee, Customer& Trade Partners, Community
and Society)
Market Demand Analysis
(Strategic Plan, Operational Analysis)
Sales and Marketing
(Contrast between Selling and Marketing Concepts)
Development of the Marketing Mix
(Product, Price, Promotion, Pipeline)
Advertising ad promotion
(Brand and Packages, Traditional Media, Collaterals, Events),
Product and Services
(Research &Planning, Branding & Packaging, Product Differentiation,
Levels of Product)
Evolution of Airline Pricing

Age of Regulation

Advent of Deregulations

Birth of Multiclass

Birth of RMS

LCC

Total Travel Marketplace Competition

Unabated Fuel Price Increase


Interline & Prorations
Revenue
Management Work

system of airline)

Financial Services
--stablish record of accounts, journal,SR, RRs,(Pax & cargo accounts,
Agents, Stablishment)
-- Produce financial Statements (Income statement, balance sheet, cash
flow, annual report)
-- Maintain financial system (Jade, Oracle)
Accounting Structure
--Direct and Indirect operating revenues and cost,
-- Difference in accting, Legacy airlines vs. Air Taxi vs. LCC,
--Core Airline vs Diversified Airline,
--Accounting by SBUs
Treasury
--manage the cash flow (sales report and remittance)
--Pay, collect, deposit (Account payrolls, IATA clearing houses, banking
community )
--Fund Management (Stock & Bond, Foreign currency market Futures
hedging)
Purchasing and Logistic
--maintaining supply lines
--outsourcing
--shipping, receiving, warehousing,
--over provisioning
--commonality
--capital assets acquisition &disposal (aircraft, engine leases, capital,
operating,, spares,, computer and hardware, major construction, sales
and lease back surplus mngt)
--Inventory system mangt ( Memis, Aircraft automatic diagnosis, airline
alliances and cooperation)
Risk Management
--Insurance Covers
--Fuel Hedging

Airline Operations
(Flight Operations Cabin Services -- Airport Services Catering -- Maintenance
& Engr. Operations Control Training & Dvlpmnt Emergency Services )
Safety, security, convenience: Passengers, crew, cargo, aircraft
AAI/Typhoon: Notification, Mobilization, Search, Rescue, Recovery, Family
Assistance
Marketing mandate: Create repeat customers through service
-PreFlight ( Inquiry Booking, Ticketing, Check-in, load control,
-Inflight ( Seating, Music, Cocktails, Briefing, Spcl Srvc. Movie)
-Post flight ( Deplaning, Unloading, Towing, Cargo Checking)

Flight Operations
(Technical supervision, Local regulation & licensing, Flight plan, A breed
separate, Crew militancy, Flight training)
Cabin Services
--Primordial role (Safety, demo/briefing equipment first aid)
--in-flight Service ( amenities, towels, newspapers, food and beverages)
-- Unsavory issues ( drugs and smuggling, irregular rest periods actvts)
Airport / Ground Services
-- Passenger Handling( E-ticketing, E-check in, Baggage, Lounge)
-- Cargo Handling ( Accptance, Checking, reweighing, warehousing,
towing, documentation)

-- Ramp Handling
-- BAR / AOC Coordination( Sec. reqmnts, Lending/Renting equipment)
Catering Services
(Procurement, Menu planning, Kitchen opertion Solid & waste disposal)
Maintenance & Engineering
--MRO ( Overcapacity, Facility& skill upgrading,)
--Engineering (Airline's responsibility, Airworthiness management: ADs
SBs and MBs, Phased-check planning)
--Maintenanace(Line, base, shop, Issues: Fast turnover, skills piracy)
Operation Control Center
--Command center (Day-to-day, Interface, During Emergencies)
--Mode Control (Manual environment board, Automated: FleetWatch)
Training & Development
--Commercial courses( Pax and Cargo tariffs, Reservation Ticketing)
--Motivational Courses ( Public Contract, GMRC, CRM crew-customer)
--Technical courses (Cabin services: mock-ups, first aids, emergency)
----Speech clinic, grooming, etiquette
--Flying school: Ground, flight, simulation Aircraft maintenance

Airline Economics
--PRODUCER ( Manufacturer, Govt. , Aviation Services, Airlines, Airport
Services)--CONSUMERS ( Passenger, Freight )
Total Performance System
--Inputs Resources ( Stockholders money Men machine&Material
Data) --Process Task (Production n Processing, Work Units, SOP Method,
Delivery)
--Outputs Product & Services (Product & Services , Costumer &
Users, Revenue)
Aircraft Analysis
(Strategic Plans, Financial Plans, Economic Plans )

Aircraft Acquisition

4 factors on owning or leasing (Industry, Financial, Operation,


Strategic)
Operating Lease Option (Dry vs. Wet lease, ACMI, Crew
&Maintenance Compatibilities, Operational flexibility vs. industrial
constraints)
Some Of the Lessors
--ILFC (International Lease Finance Corporation $19B)
-- GECAS GE Capital Aviation Services - $18B
-- Flightlease, Ansett Worldwide, Babcock & Brown, debis AirFinance,
ORIX, Pegasus, BAE Asset Airbus Asset, SALE, Boullioun, CIT, Saab $1 to 3B
Leasing Checklists
Aircraft physical inspection: damages, repairs, all sections,
emergency equipment, performance during checks
Aircraft maintenance inputs: schedule of phase checks, status of life
limited parts, status of ADs and MBs compliance
Docs, records, manuals from birth: COA, a/c registration, radio
station license, noise certificate, maintenance organization approval
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Summary of aircraft status: record of flight time and cycles,
FAA/JAA compliance report, structural inspection document,
modifications and certifications, life limited parts,
check/inspection
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History, deferments, incident/accident records, QA statement
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Aircraft maintenance records: log sheets, phase check
records, ADs, MBs, test flight reports
Historical records: log books, incident/accident records
Engine records: certification for time and cycles, master records,
ADs and compliance reports, repairs, modifications,
-alterations, borescope certification, on-wing performance reports,
incident/accident reports
Component records: installation, overhaul, paper trails for life-limited
parts, installation/serviceable tags
Miscellaneous technical documents: maintenance programs,
reference materials, configuration drawings, equipment inventory
records
Basic manuals: a/c flight, W&B, M&E, Wiring diagram, powerplant
buildup, parts catalogue, structural repair, engine maintenance, flight
crew, MEL, schematics
Aircraft Configuration

Brand New Aircraft


-- High cost of acquisition

Newer tech.: Fuel efficient (+30%), Few components, low inventory,


TCAS, EGPWS, Mandatory avionics, Noise pollution compliant
3-5 Year Honeymoon period, low maintenance, zero cycle, trouble-free
Made to order, tailor-fit, ready to use on day 1, no mods
Planned cockpit and cabin crew training and upgrades
Used Aircraft
Cheaper acquisition cost
Old tech.: Gas guzzler; Many spare parts, hi inventory, Non-TCAS, NonEGPWS, Non-regulation avionics, Non-regulation noise abatement
No honeymoon period, high maintenance, high cycle, trouble at day 1
Conversion & modifications: flexible but costly, time-constraining
Disruptive of crew schedules of upgrades, transitions
--Value Parameter
Availability in market
Age of aircraft
D Check condition
Power Plant : Engines
--Engine leasing & pool-ing; Turboprops/jets
--Engine MTOW upgrade: involves high pressure turbine blade mod
-- Costly engine removals/ overhauls/ maintenance
-- Engine leasing & pool-ing; Turboprops/jets
Airframe
-- MFE/SFE, BFE cockpit, cabin, belly;
-- Narrowbody/widebody
-- Engine pylon mod:
Heavy components
--(FC-related maintenance): wheels and brakes (recent JetBlue
incident), landing gears, APUs vs GPUs, thrust reversers; independent
maint sked)
Rotables
-- Avionics, emergency equipment, galley and interiors, flap
mechanisms, flight controls, hydraulics, pneumatics, fuel systems,
electrical
Mandatory avionics
-- redun-dant VHF, Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS),
Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS), Terrain
Awareness Warning System (TAWS),
Operating environment limitations
-- airports, terminals, runways, obstructions (strays, trees, mountains),
ATC, terminal/enroute weather
Commonality

Common cockpit & sister ships


-- Airbus innovation: common cockpit A330/340/350/380; joystick
-- Common fuselage: A330/A340/A350
Common engine GEnx:
-- B747Advance/B787
-- PAL: One-engine type airline (GE)
-- LCCs: one-fleet type policy; A320 or B737
Values gained in commonality
-- Economic inventory: engines, spares, rotables, and other parts
-- Crew flexibility: cross-crews qualifications,
-- Maintainability: one set of skills, tools, equipment, facilities
-- Schedule flexibility in scheduling
PayLoad Determination
Standard Weight Empty: Airframe + engine + all standard equipment
installed + unusable fuel + oil
Optional Equipment All additional instruments, e.g. radio equipment,
installed but not included as standard equipment + fixed ballast + full
engine coolant + hydraulic + de-icing fluid
Basic Weight Empty: Airplane+all optional equipment included + full oil
Disposable Load: Gross take-off weight - basic weight empty. Includes
the removable load not permanently part of the airplane (fuel + crew +
paxs + bge + frt).
Allowable Payload: The load available as passengers, , baggage,
freight, etc., after the weight of pilot, crew, usable fuel have been
deducted from the useful load.
Operating Weight: Basic empty wt + wt of crew + fuel
Operational Gross Weight: Loaded airplane for take-off + basic weight
empty + the useful load.
Maximum Gross Weight:
Maximum permissible weight of the airplane as its structures allow.
Maximum Take-Off Weight:
Maximum weight approved for the start of the take-off run.
Maximum Ramp Weight: Max weight for ground maneuvering.
Includes the weight of fuel used for start, taxi and run up.

Maximum Landing Weight: Max weight for landing at destination


airport. Occasions fur fuel dumping
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight: Limits of in the fuselage
counterbalanced by fuel in the wings
Actual Payload: Total weight of all revenue and non-revenue loads of
the aircraft
Passenger Weight: Passenger + 7 kgs handcarried baggage (male =
75 kgs, female = 62 kgs)
Checked Baggage Weight: Free baggage allowance + excess
baggage
Cargo Weight: Freight + mail + comat
Optimizing Payload
Seat factor = Actual occupied seats/seating configuration
Passenger Load factor (PLF) = RPK / ASK
Overall load factor (OLF) = RTK/ATK
Cargo Load Factor (CLF) = Actual cargo weight / allocated
cargo capacity
Volumetrics = ratio of weight to volume
Revenue Management System: Optimized balance of load
factor and yield for optimal revenue

Payload Range
Economics of distance:
--Surcharge for short sectors
--ETOPS extended twin-engine ops
--Hub-and-spoke operations
--Long-range aircraft have killed airports, e.g. Anchorage
--SST highflying victim of distance economics: speed vs. payload,
range
Payload and payload penalties:
--Airport obstructions: animals, trees, man-made structures, e.g. towers
--Runway: Short, narrow, unpaved; surface-bearing strength, CAOWW
--ASA limitations: hooding, F/S limits
--Airways: armed conflicts (ME), air space prohibition, overfly charges
--Political conflicts e.g. KE shooting by Soviet fighters; China/Taiwan
case
--Altitudes: revised vertical separation minima (RVSM)
Fuel & Oil
Economic impact: single biggest expense item of airlines
Sustaining increased fuel price:
Perceived recovery since 2003
OPEC: constricting fuel supply
Environmentalists crusade
Price shopping and hedging
Operational impacts -drivers and controls:

Contingency fuel cut reserves to safe levels


Choice of alternate A/P closer, save fuel
Controlled use of APUs more of GPUs
Refueling facilities to carry fuel consumes
Fuel tanks case of empty fuel tank incidents

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Operational impacts: drivers and controls:


Fuel theft ghost deliveries and diverted supplies; precise uplift
records
Excessive fuel burnout: weight & balance,
Fuel contamination quality control
Environmental issues compliance with emission regulations
Revised vertical separation minima (RVSM)

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Outsourcing
The way to go; spin-offs & 3rd party service providers; Issues :
Image and identity: blurred
Corporate vision, mission: no identification by service providers
Product and service quality: no total commitment by staff of service
providers
Legal and moral issues: social dislocations spin-offs, mergers

LCC Challenge
Why successful now but not in the 70s?

Impact of automation, e.g. CRS, biased display, Multiclass


and Supersavers
Divine intervention: Blessings in disguise to LCCs of unfortunate events:
911, Iraq War, SARS disease
Distinctive product differentiation: Convenient, Safe, Inexpensive, Low
cost of operation
Distinctive product differentiation: Convenient:

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Secondary airports: no traffic road & air


No terminal congestion
Modicum, not rigid inspection
No hubbing: no connecting flt/bge, no gate rush & wait
More private moment, peace & quiet inflight
Shorter elapsed time; more direct O&D flights
Perceived safe, no target of terrorists:
LCC too inconse-quential to be hit
Small aircraft
Secondary airports no media mileage
Inexpensive:
Inexpensive air-ports, access,
Lower fares by at least 30%
Fleet commonality;
High productivity: ground and aircrew
Negligible pipeline cost: No CRS, GDS, Agents; use of Web, SMS,
ATM, CCs

b.

He shall guard against conditions that are dangerous or threatening to


life, limb, or property on the work for which he is responsible, or if he is
not responsible.

c.

He shall have due regard for the safety of life and health of the public
who may be affective by the work for which he is responsible.

d.

He shall endeavour to extend public knowledge of aeronautical


engineering and he shall strive to win or maintain the public confidence
by discouraging the spread untrue, unfair and exaggerated statements
regarding his profession.

e.

As a witness before a court, commission, and/or other tribunal, he shall


express an opinion only when it is founded on adequate and honest
conviction.

f.

He shall not issue statements on matters connected with the public


policy, and ex-parte statements, critisms, or arguments which are
inspired or paid for by private interest, unless identifies on whose behalf
he is making the statements

g.

He shall refrain from expressing in public any opinion on an engineering


subject unless he is fully familiar and knowledgeable will all facts relating
to the subject.

h.

His integrity shall be unquestionable and he shall discharge his duties


and responsibilities with fidelity to the public, his employers and clients
and with fairness and impartiality to all.

Code of Ethics
Section 4- Relations with the Clients and Employers
Section 1
~~ Honesty , Justice and Courtesy form of moral philosophy which, associated
with mutual interest among men, constitutes the foundation of ethics
~~ He should uphold the honour and dignity of his profession and avoid
association with any enterprise or individual of questionable character. In his
dealings with fellow engineers. He should be fair and tolerant.
Section 2 Relations with the State
a.

Each and every engineer shall recognize and respect the supreme
authority of the State as expressed through its laws implemented by its
agencies, whenever and wherever such laws do not fringe upon the
rights and privileges of citizens as guaranteed by the Constitution.

b.

He shall recognize that the well-being of the public and the interest of the
state are above the well being and interest of any individual.

c.

In the interest of justice, he shall aid the state, if and when the
technology he is involved in is needed in the prevention and/or
prosecution of unjust, criminal or unlawful acts.

d.

In the interest of good government, he shall extend cooperation to the


State in the accomplishment of its goals and objectives.

e.

In the interest of social efficiency, he shall extend assistance, guidance


and training to subordinates under his jurisdiction in order to increase
their skill and ability, knowledge and experience for purposes of
eventually increasing their responsibilities.

f.

In the interest of national economy and well being, he shall always


strive in the execution of his work for optimum efficiency, economy and
safety.

g.

In the interest of national security, the state shall be given primary


consideration in all his inventions and/or devices on aeronautical
science and technology useful for national security and defence.

h.

In the event of any national emergency, he shall offer his technology,


skill, ability and experience to the services of the State, even if it will
involve personal sacrifices.
Section 3- Relations with the Public

a.

He shall interest himself in public welfare and be ready to apply his


special knowledge for the benefit of mankind.

a. He shall act in professional matters as a faithful agent or trustee and treat as


confidential all matters and information concerning business affairs, technical
processes, and others, of his clients and or employers.
b. He shall inform his client or employer of any financial interest on inventions,
equipment, and or any other device, before under taking any engagement in which
he may be called upon to decide on the use thereof.
c. He shall accept any other compensation, financial or otherwise, except from
an interested party for a particular service or other services related therewith,
without the consent of all parties concerned.
d. He shall exercise fairness and justice when dealing with contracts between his
clients or employers and the contractors.
e. He shall not accept any commissions or allowances, directly or indirectly, from
contractors, suppliers, and all other parties dealing with his clients and/or employers
in connections with the work for which he is responsible.
f. He shall not be financially interested in the bid or bids of contractors, suppliers
and other interested parties participating in a competitive work or job on which he
has been employed as engineer without full knowledge and consent of his clients or
employers.
g. He shall not allow any decision in connection with his work for which he has
been employed or on which he may be called to perform, to be affected by interest
in any business.
h. He shall present clearly the consequences to be expected from deviations
proposed if his engineering judgement is overruled by nontechnical authority in
cases where he is responsible for the technical adequacy of engineering work.
i.
He shall undertake only those engineering assignments for his qualified. He
shall engage or advise his employer or client to engage specialists and shall
cooperate with them whenever his employers or clients interest are served best by
such arrangement.
Section 5 Relations with the Engineers
a. He shall individually or collectively with others in the profession protect the
profession from misunderstanding and/or misrepresentations.
b. He shall not directly or indirectly injure the professional reputation, prospects, and
advancement, and/or practice of other engineers. However, if he has proof or
personal knowledge that an engineer has been unethical and/or illegal in his
practices he shall inform in writing the proper authorities for appropriate action.
c. He shall adequate uphold the principle of appropriate and adequate
compensation for those engaged in the engineering profession, including those in
the sub ordinate capabilities in the interest of public service, and maintain the
standards of the profession.
d. He shall not try to supplant another engineer in a particular employment after
becoming aware that definite steps have been taken towards the others
employment.

e. He shall not complete, by underbidding through reduction in his normal fees on


the basis of charges for work, after having been informed of the charges submitted
by another engineer.
f. He shall be fair and tolerant in his dealings with fellow engineers and give credit to
those to whom credit is properly due.
g. He shall uphold the honour and dignity of his profession and avoid association in
responsibility for work with engineers who do not conform to ethical practices .
h. He shall exercise due restraint in criticizing another engineers work in public,
recognizing the fact that the engineers work in public , recognizing the fact that the
engineering societies and the engineering press provide the proper forum for
technical discussions and criticism.
Section 6- Relations with the Profession
a. He shall cooperate in extending the effectiveness of the engineering profession
and endeavour to be well informed of the latest development in the profession by
sharing information and experience with other engineer, other professionals and
students and by contributing to engineering publications and participating in the
activities of engineering societies.
b. He shall cooperate in upholding the integrity and honour of the profession by
avoiding all conduct and practices that will be discrediting and injurious to the
profession.
c. He shall dignified in explaining and discussing his work and shall refrain from selflaudatory advertising or propaganda.
AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
The dynamic, integrated management of air traffic and airspace safely,
economically, and efficiently through the provision of facilities and seamless
services in collaboration with all parties.
Air traffic services
~~~Flight Information Service
~~~~Alerting Services
~~~Air Traffic Advisory Service ~~~ Air Traffic Control Service
Air traffic control services
1. Used to prevent Collision
a. between aircraft, and
b. On the manoeuvring area between aircraft and obstructions
2. Expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic
Air traffic control units
Area ControlCenter Approach Control Facility Aerodrome Control Tower
Aerodrome Control Tower
~~ unit established to provide ATC service to all traffic on the maneuvering area of
an aerodrome and all A/C flying in the vicinity of an aerodrome.
~~An aircraft is in the vicinity of an aerodrome when it is in, entering or leaving an
aerodrome traffic circuit, and/or when it is within five (5) nautical miles of the
aerodrome at traffic circuit altitudes
Approach control unit
~~A unit established to provide air traffic control service to controlled flights arriving
at, or departing from, one or more aerodromes.
A controlled flight is any flight that is subject to air traffic control clearance.
An ATC clearance is an authorization for an aircraft under conditions specified by
an ATC unit. These may include taxi, take-off, departure, en-route, approach or
landing to indicate the particular portion of flight.
Area control center
~~A unit established to provide air traffic control service to controlled flights in
control areas.
A control area is a controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified limit
above the earth.
APPLICATIONS of ATC service
Air Traffic Control Services shall be provided:
a.) to all IFR flights in airspace Classes A, B, C, D and E
b.) to all VFR flights in airspace Classes B, C, and D
c.) to all special VFR flights
d.) to all aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes.
VFR AND IFR Flights
VFR flight a flight conducted in accordance with the visual flight rule, where
aircraft flies under VMC (Visual Meteorological Condition).
VMC Meteorological condition expressed in terms of visibility, distance from
cloud, and ceiling, equal to or better than the specified minima.

IFR flight a flight conducted in accordance w/ the instrument flight rule, where
aircraft flies under IMC (Instrument Meteorological Condition).
IMC Meteorological condition expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud,
and ceiling, less than the minima specified for VMC.
Special VFR flight a VFR flight cleared by air traffic control to operate within a
control zone in meteorological conditions below VMC.
Operations
In order to provide air traffic control service, an air traffic control unit shall:
a.
Be provided with info. on the intended movement of each aircraft, or
variations there from, and with current info. on the actual progress of each aircraft.
b.
Determine from the information received, the relative positions of known
aircraft to each other;
c.
Issue clearance&info. for the purpose of preventing collision between aircraft
under its control and of expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic;
d.
Coordinate clearance as necessary with other units:
- -- whenever an aircraft might otherwise conflict with traffic operated under the
control of such other units
- --fore transferring control of an aircraft to such other units.
Clearances issued by air traffic control units shall provide separation:
--Between all flights in airspace Classes A and B;
--Between IFR flights in airspace Classes C, D and E;
--Between IFR flights and VFR flights in airspace Class C;
--Between IFR flights and special VFR flights;
--Between special VFR flights when so prescribed by the appropriate Air Traffic
Service authority
Separation by an ATC unit shall be obtained by at least one of the following:
1. Vertical separation obtained by assigning different levels selected from:
2. horizontal separation obtained by providing: longitudinal separation, by
maintaining an interval between aircraft operating along the same, converging or
reciprocal tracks, expressed in time or distance;
3. Composite separation consisting of a combination of vertical separation and
one of the other forms of horizontal separation, using minima for each which may
be lower than, but not less than half
Separation minima
Separation Minima within a given airspace shall be as follows:
1. As prescribed by the ICAO provisions of the PANS-ATM and the Regional
Supplementary Procedures
2. Established as necessary by the appropriate Air Traffic Service authority
(ATS), following consultations with operators, for routes or portion of routes
contained within the sovereign airspace of a State.
3.
Established by regional air navigation agreements for routes or portions of
routes w/ in airspace over the high seas or over areas of undetermined sovereignty.
4.
In consultation between the appropriate ATS authorities responsible for the
provision of air traffic services in neighboring airspace when traffic either will pass
or will be closer to the common boundar of the neighboring airspace.
details of d selected separationminima & of their areas of application be notified to:
1.
ATS units concerned
2. Pilots and operators through aeronautical information publications (AIP),
where separation is based on the use of the aircraft of specified navigation aids \
Responsibility for control
A controlled flight shall be under the control of only one ATC unit at any given time.
In a given block of airspace, control of an aircraft or aircrafts may be delegated to
other ATC units provided that coordination b/w all ATC units concerned is assured.
Transfer of Responsibility for control

between two units providing area control service


--at the time of crossing the common control area boundary as estimated by the
ACC having control of the aircraft or a point agreed upon by 2 units

between a unit providing area control service and a unit providing approach
control service
--at a point or time agreed upon by 2 units
b/w a unit providing approach control service and an aerodrome control tower.
Arrival
- - when aircraft is in the vicinity of the aerodrome
- - as prescribed on the LOA or ATS unit instructions
--Departure
- --Under VMC
when aircraft leaves the vicinity of the aerodrome
prior to aircraft entering IMC
as prescribed on the LOA or ATS unit instructions
- - Under IMC
immediately after the aircraft is airborne

as prescribed on the LOA or ATS unit instructions


between control sectors/positions within the same air traffic control unit.
--as specified in ATS unit instructions

B. IFR Requirements: IFR operations in any class of controlled airspace


requires that a pilot must file an IFR flight plan and receive an appropriate ATC
clearance.

Coordianation of Transfer
Transferring control unit shall communi-cate to the accepting control unit the
approriate parts of the current flight plan and any control information
Air traffic control clearances
Air traffic control clearances hall be solely based on the requirements providing
ATC service and shall indicate:
Read-back of clearances and safety related information
The flight crew shall read-back to the air traffic controller safety-related parts of
ATC clearance and instructions which are transmitted by voice
Read-back of clearances and safety related information
The controller shall listen to the read-back to ascertain that the clearance or
instruction has been correctly acknowledge by the flight crew and shall indicate that
they have been understood and will be complied
Coordiantion of clearances
An ATC clearance shall be coordinated between air traffic control units to cover
the entire route of an aircraft or a specified potion
Control of persons and vehicles at aerodromes
The movement of persons or vehicles including towed aircraft on the manoeuvring
area of an aerodrome shall be controlled by the aerodrome control tower as
necessary to avoid hazard
Provision of radar
Radar systems should provide for the display of safety-related alerts and
warnings,

C. VFR Separation: Standard IFR separation is provided to all aircraft


operating under IFR in controlled airspace.

----FLIGHT EXAMPLE MANILA CEBU


MIA-TWR MIA-APP MIA-ACC MCT-ACC MCT-APP MCT-TWR
AVIATION MANAGEMENT
++Airline Management ++Air Traffic Management ++ Airport Management
Airport Management
+Airspace
+++General Procedures of Air Traffic Control

The Airspace
-- Airspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a particular
country on top of its territory and territorial waters or, more generally, any specific
three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere
Controlled airspace exists where it is deemed necessary that air traffic control has
some form of positive executive control over aircraft flying in that airspace.
Uncontrolled airspace is airspace in which air traffic control does not exert any
executive authority, although it may act in an advisory manner.
Controlled airspace
---- is an aviation term used to describe airspace in which traffic levels are such
that it has been determined that air traffic control (ATC) must provide some form of
separation between aircraft.
---- exists in d immediate vicinity of busier airports, where A/C used in commercial
air transport flight climbing out from or making an approach to the airport, or at
higher levels where air transport flights would tend to cruise.

Safety Alerts: Safety Alerts: Safety alerts are mandatory services and are
provided to ALL aircraft.
Two types of Safety Alert
1. Terrain/Obstruction Alert: - is issued when, in controllers judgment, an aircrafts
altitude places it in unsafe proximity to terrain and/or obstruction.
2. Aircraft Conflict/ Mode C intrude Alert. is issued if the controller observes
another aircraft which paces it in an unsafe proximity, When feasible, the controller
will offer the pilot an alternative course of action.
Ultralight Vehicles: No person may operate an ultralight vehicle within
Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace within the lateral boundaries of the
surfaces area of class E airspace designated for an airport unless that person has
a prior authorization from authorization from the ATC facility having jurisdiction over
the airspace.
Unmanned Free Balloons : Unless otherwise authorized by ATC no person
may operate an unnamed free balloon below 2,000 feet above the surface with the
lateral boundaries of Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designated for
anairport.
Parachute jumps: No person may make a parachute jump, and no pilot in
command may allow a parachute jump to be mde from that aircraft, in or inot Class
A. Class B. Class C, Class D airspace withoutm or in violation of, the terms, of an
ATTC authorization issued by the ATC facility having jurisdiction over thr airspace.

D. VFR Requirements : It is the responsibility of the pilot to insure that ATC


clearance or radio communication requirements are met prior to entry into Class B,
Class C, or Class D airspace. The pilot retains this responsibility when receiving
ATC Radar advisories.
E. Traffic Advisories: Traffic advisories will provided to all aircraft as the
controllers work situation permits.
-----Controlled airspace consists of airspace classes A, B, C, D and E
>> control zones (CTR)
>> terminal control areas (TMA)
>> military control areas (MIL CTA)
>> airspace between FL 95 and FL 660
>> ATS routes between FL 65 and FL 95
Uncontrolled Airspace
---- The uncontrolled airspace consists of airspace classes F, G+ and G
---- A non-towered airport, sometimes referred to as an uncontrolled airport, is an
airport with no operating tower, or air traffic control unit.
---- The vast majority of the world's airports are non-towered, and even airports
with control towers may operate as un-towered during off-hours.
---- At un-towered airports, instead of taking instructions from a tower controller,
aircraft follow standard procedure,
The uncontrolled airspace includes:
--- flight information zones (FIZ)
--- airspace between SFC and FL 95 excluding controlled airspace
Identifying Classes of Airspace
Class A: all airspace between 18000' and 60000'. Not identified on charts.
(mnemonic: Above everything)
Class B: airspace around large regional airports. Identified on charts by thick blue
lines. (mnemonic: Big airport)
Class C: airspace around large city airports. Identified on charts by thick magenta
lines. (mnemonic: City airport)
Class D: airspace around small airports. Identified on charts by blue dashed lines.
(mnemonic: Dashed line)
Class G: uncontrolled airspace. From the ground up to the next overlying airspace
(usually E). (mnemonic: near the Ground )
Class E: controlled airspace. Floor is 14,500' MSL, and extends up to the next
overlying airspace (A, B, C or D). (mnemonic: Everywhere else) Exceptions:
--Class E floor is 1500' AGL if surface is above 14,500' MSL
--Class E floor is 1200' AGL (or more) if inside shaded blue line
--Class E floor is 700' AGL if inside shaded magenta line
--Broken blue lines differentiateClass E flor when floor is above 700' AGL
Airway(s)
-- air lane: a designated route followed by A/C in flying from one airport to another
-- an airway is a designated route in the air. Airways are laid out between
navigation aids such as VORs, NDBs and Intersections (NDB

Airport Requirements
-- Airports located in mountainous terrain may require daytime-only
operations.
-- Airports affected are primarily in the Rocky Mountain region of the
United States. They will be evaluated on an individual basis
-- The following table and bulleted list summarizes the requirements to
be addressed as part of the Alternatives Analysis section of this master
plan effort.
-- Based Aircraft Apron (Sq. Yds.) 15,720 19,080 26,340
-- Itinerant Aircraft Apron (Sq. Yds.) 4,320 5,400 7,200
-- Sub-total 20,040 24,480 33,540
-- Existing Area 12,888 12,888 12,888
-- Surplus (Deficiency) (7,152) (11,592) (20,652)
-- With 10 T-hangars (reduction in based aircraft apron space)
-- Surplus (Deficiency) after 10 T-hangars (4,152) (8,592)
-- Surplus (Deficiency) after 20 T-hangars (1,152) (5,592) -- Additional items to be analyzed in the Alternatives Analysis
-- Lengthening of Runway 04/22
-- Existing Runway and Taxiway Infrastructure Rehabilitation
-- o Runway 04/22 Rehabilitation
-- o Runway 16/34 Reconstruction

-- o Runway Intersection
-- Taxiway A Realignment
-- Parallel Taxiway to Runway 16/34
-- Runway 4 Runway Safety Area Drainage
-- Runway Protection Zone Issues All Runway Ends
-- Obstruction Clearing as determined by Obstruction Study
-- GA Terminal Building Facility
-- Apron B Rehabilitation
-- Expansion of Based Aircraft Apron
-- Expansion of Itinerant Aircraft Apron
-- T-Hangar Development
-- Conventional Hangar Development
-- Perimeter Fencing Improvements
-- Airport Signage

B.
Micro-environment: This segment includes all of the publics that have a
real potential, or perceived interest in the organizational mechanics. The airline
must be concerned with this groups potential effect on the carriers ability to
achieve objectives: financial, community relationship, safety, noise abatement,
schedule integrity, daily performance, and passengers preference.
Management
is the effective motivation of men and efficient utilization resources for the
attainment of predetermined objectives. Human resources being the most
important part of the business organization should be treated well for them to
perform their productively.
Organization
is a group of men with respective duties and responsibilities working together as a
team to attain its objective. It is a framework within which the management process
can be carried out. It is a structure that enables a large company to attain the same
efficiency as or greater efficiency than small firm run effectively by few employees.
In the highly competitive air business, an effective organizational structure may
proved to be necessary advantage one firm has over another.
A.
Single Proprietorship - it has an exclusive ownership and using a
license from the municipality. In this form, the control of the business is entirely on
the hands of the owner. He is free to do the best without interference. The owner is
forced to rely on his own resources.
B.
Partnership this composed of 2 to 5 partners, combining their capital
and labor to carry on business. The license came from the SEC, in this type more
personal talents become available more capital and credit facilities are also
accessible.

AirLine Management
~~Organization structure and management are intricately and together determine
to a large extent the success of an airline.
~~Air transport organization have emerged primarily because experienced showed
that, in a complex environment, organized groups pursue goals and objectives
more effective than the isolated individuals.
~~However these organizations have evolved to be more than mere instruments
providing air transportation decisions. Moreover, they provide a framework within
which management can coordinate their efforts toward a common goal to secure a
position in the market place allowing the carrier to complete successfully and
achieve a profit.

C.
Corporation - it consist of 6 to 20 stockholders with their respective
number of shares. Such shares are transferable without disrupting the
management or the continuity of the corporation. The stockholders elect directors
who formulate general plans and policies and appoint officers. These officers are
responsible for the active management of the corporation and are vested the right
to engage the necessary personnel for the corporation.
D.

Conglomerate Cooperative, Association.

Most airline growth occurs through internal expansion, which comes as a result of a
carrier increasing its share of a market, fleet size, total capacity, or increases in the
airlines total assets occur when a merger takes place.

Actually, one can say that the most important characteristic of airline organization is
their ability to pursue goals effectively and efficiently.
Two Main Factors to determine success:
++The intelligence of the organization structure.
++The intelligence of the organization management.
~~To meet the challenges of a complex competitive environment, an organization
must be well designed and well managed.
Airline organizations assume a variety of forms. Generally, they are either
government, publicly, or privately owned.
Thus the organization may be a single proprietorship,
partnership, a corporation a conglomerate, or a ward of state. In size, an airline may
range from a commuter line with a few employees. Air carriers may develop service
between two or more cities in a line, in a hub and spoke configuration, or in a
regional grid; they may setup a long-haul operation or serve a worldwide network.
There can also be any combination of the above.
A.
Macro-environment: The organization is structured to optimized market
opportunities. The organization also has an infrastructure and interactive process to
facilitate management actions, plans and the achievement of goals.

The primary motivation for airline mergers is to increase the


economic performance of the combined carriers. If two airline merge and the
combined firms value and/or earnings exceed that of the individual firms, then
synergy is said to exist, and such a merger is to them benefit of the shareholders of
both airlines.
Merger synergism can emerge from three sources:
1.

Economies of scale (operating and marketing)

2.

Financial strength (ability to survive business cycles,


competition, and lower cost of debt)

3.

Market strength (reduced competition or stronger ability to


perform in markets)

Four Generic Types of Airline Mergers:


1.

Horizontal (two airlines of the same category merge)

2.

Vertical (an airline merges with a non-airline firm, which is in


the production stream such as an airline limousine service, a
ground servicing company or an airport fueling
concessionaire )

3.

Congeneric (a merger or acquisition with related but not


horizontal or vertical )

B.
Micro-environment: The organization has two-tasks system, which
consist of base sub organization dealing with implementation and daily operations.
A.
Macro-environment: This segment includes demography, economics,
resources, technology, laws, politics, cultures, national sovereignty, and other forces
impacting on the organization.

4.

Conglomerate (unrelated enterprise combine:TWA acquired


century 21 Realtors, Hardee Restaurants Hilton Hotels
International, etc.)

Most carries have sales departments that consist of three


branches: outside sales(travel agents and commercial accounts);city
sales offices; and ticket counters at the airport.
Market research stretches from analysis of traveler taste to
organization strategy and it employs disciplines ranging from
psychology to advanced mathematics.

--Marketing management is an adaptive logic. Airline marketing management must


also be able to monitor and measure.
--Market positions, objectives, growth horizons, strategies, and long-range plans on
a continuing basis. Marketing managers must be sensitive of feedback and the
competitive environment, and be capable of responding quickly.
III. MARKETS
--Markets are both nonspecific (or ambient) and specific. The nonspecific
markets may require substantial capital investment to develop. Ambient markets
are not specific to any one airline. A specific market, on the other hand, is a division
of distinct and meaningful sets of travelers who might justify separate and distinct
marketing ethics and services
Establishing a market follows at least seven steps:
1.
Evaluate resources, goals and objectives
2.
Identify market demand and market-segment opportunities
3.
Match resources to selected market niche
4.
Establish a marketing organization and strategy
5.
Select intervention and penetration level
6.
Develop a long-range marketing plan
7.
Implement, monitor feedback, and respond
Market efforts strategies often follow one of four directions:
1.
Set a pricing strategy that optimizes market penetration
2.
Increase MS by introducing new equipment, adding flight frequencies,
more advertising, low-profit pricing, or upgrading services.
3.
Maintain MS at existing level.

AirLine Management

( Airline Marketing )
--Airline marketing is the process of matching the demands of present, potential

4.

and future passengers with the supply offerings of an air carrier.


--Marketing, by and large, includes all of the associated activities related to the
demand side of the coin.
--Marketing is a conversion process: converting demand into revenue; converting
available seats into revenue seats.

IV. THE MARKETING MIX


The marketing mix consist of the types and amounts of controllable marketingdecision variables that a company uses over a particular time period. Commonly
referred to as the four Ps these variables are:
1.
PRODUCT
2.
PRICE
3.
PROMOTION
4.
PLACE

Fundamental characteristics of marketing process


1.
It is primarily the demand portion of the airline equation.
2.
It is the revenue-producing side of the airline equation.
3.
It interacts horizontally across every department in airlines; and
4.
It cuts vertically through all layers of the company.

Marketing techniques and strategies:


1. Identifying the Target Market
2. Taking Time to Research
3. Internal Costumers
4. External Costumers
5. Partnering Tradition with Technology 6. Be Loyal To Your Brand

Functionally, marketing is demand analysis, research, development, control, and


planning. Marketing is determining the needs of passengers, the selling of tickets,
passenger handling, and responding to feedback. It is reliability scheduling,
frequency, loyalty, equipment, attitude, and quality of service.
In the 1970s, four changes took place that severely affected the marketing of air
transportation:
1.
The introduction of wide-bodied aircraft
2.
Rising costs of fuel and labor
3.
Stagflation
4.
Deregulation
Wide-bodied aircraft (two aisles) increased available seats well beyond the markets
ability to fill them. Many routes suddenly had double capacity and more, with no
increase in demand. The importance of the marketing function was highlighted as
carriers fought to fill the empty seats.
new methods were needed to make the product available inexpensively. Marketing
became the concern of all the executive hierarchy, middle managers, and all
employees.
II. THE MARKETING ORGANIZATION
The oldest and still most common basic organizational marketing format
has atleast three managers (Advertising, Sales, Market Research Manager)
reporting to the vice-president-marketing.

Advertising is such an important factor in the over-all marketing


picture that it is typically a separate department.,appr 2-5% of total
revenue is spent on advertising

Undertake market skimming (value-added prices).

Marketing need and demands of PASSENGERS


1.
Offer customers the lowest fare available.
2.
Notify customers of known delays, cancellations, and diversions.
3.
Deliver baggage on time.
4.
Support an increase in the baggage liability limit.
5.
Allow reservations to be held or cancelled.
6.
Provide prompt ticket refunds.
7.
Properly accommodate disabled and special needs passengers.
8
Meet customers essential needs during long on-aircraft delays.
9.
Handle bumped passengers with fairness and consistency.
10.
Disclose travel itinerary restrictions, cancellation policies, frequent flyer
11.
Ensure good customer service from code-share partners.
12.
Be more responsive to customer complaints.
Airline Operations
--- Operation is changed with the responsibility of transporting passengers(and/or
cargo) between points of origin and destination
The entire process covers three functions:
1.
INTAKES are the revenue passengers arriving at ticket counters for
check-in and boarding the aircraft (Ground Operation);
2.
CONVERSION takes them from the time they board the aircraft (Ground
and Flight Operation), are carried to their destination (Flight Operations),
3.
OUTPUTS are when the passengers leave the airplane, and finally
escape from the baggage claim area (Group Operations).
During the first two decades, airlines were driven by operations for four
explicit reasons:
1.
Mail was carried for most of the first decade;
2.
Airline were operational in nature;

3.
4.

Facilities and equipments were primitive;


There was virtually no regulation.

B. STRUCTURE
1. FLIGHT OPERATIONS 2. GROUND OPERATIONS 3. MTNC & ENGR (M&E)
GROUND OPERATIONS AND FACILITY LIMITATIONS
---- Ground service can be arranged in any conceivable schedule pattern,
provided there is no limitation on the gate positions, ground equipment, passenger
service facilities and personnel.
---- The objective of ground service then becomes to accommodates as many
flights as possible and as efficiently as possible, consistent with physical limitation
and prudent utilization of personnel and equipment.
---Schedule planner must consider the following at every station for every
proposed schedule (Wells, 1999):
---Are there enough gate ticket counter for the number of planes on the
ground simultaneously, a cushion for early arrivals or delayed departures.
---- Is there adequate ticket counter space to handle the passengers expeditiously.
---Is sufficient time provide for on-line or interline transfer of passengers
baggage, mail and cargo? ---Can the planned flights be handled efficiently by the present level of ticket
counter, ramp, and food service personnel?
---Is there ground equipment of the right type: Aircraft starter units, baggage
vehicles, cargo conveyors, forklifts, tow tractors? If not, is there sufficient lead-time
to purchase them, and can they be economically justified?
---Does the proposed schedule overtax food service facilities?
=====These and many other questions must be answered for every station on the
system for every schedule change. Any corrective action must be rechecked to
determine its effect on the delicate balance worked out to accommodate sales,
maintenance, and operational needs
=====Normally, the scheduling department measures the physical and personnel
requirements with a visual layout of the schedules at each station. All flights are
plotted on a station-plotting chart that document sequence and schedule time of
operation using certain standards and codes. It shows precisely the amount of time
an aircraft requires to maneuver into a gate positions, the schedule arrival time, the
period of time it is at the gate, its scheduled departure time, and the length of time
needed to clear the gate.

AirPort Management .

Two types of Airport Operation


a, Landsides- Includes Pax and cargo terminal, parking, public transportation.
b. b. Airsides- Includes ramp, bridge, apron, runway, ILS, tower control area and
others...

to the runway using only the flight instruments


-- In this lecture we focus on runways that can be used both for IFR and VFR.
Runway Markings (2)
Precision & Nonprecision Approaches
---- Runways for IFR can have two types of approach guidance - those using
electronic glide slope to guide landing are said to use precision approaches.
---- IFR runways that do not have electronic glideslope are said to use
nonprecision approaches. IFR runways with nonprecision approaches also have
somewhat different runway markings from those for precision approaches.
Runway Markings (3)
Precision & Nonprecision Approaches
---- A runway using nonprecision instrument approach has a threshold and
aiming point markings.
--In addition to the threshold and aiming point markings, precision approach
runways also include touchdown zone markings.
Runway Markings (4)
Displaced Threshold
---- Sometimes a runway might be obstructed by buildings or other objects near
the end.
---- In such case the initial part cannot be used for landing and the threshold is
displaced forward and a solid white line is added as the beginning of the threshold.
Landing has to be done starting or beyond the threshold.
---- The initial part is marked with white arrows. It cannot be used for landing but
can be used for taxiing, takeoff, and as landing rollout.
--A blast pad / stopway looks similar to the initial part preceding a displaced
threshold, except that the markings are yellow inverted-Vs instead of white arrows.
---However it cannot be used for takeoff or even for taxiing.
---- The area can only be used for decelerating after an aborted takeoff or an
abnormal landing from the other side. In this area jet blast dissipation will not affect
others.
NOTAM
---- If a runway has to be closed unexpectedly and there is not enough time to
publish the information on standard operational publications, a Notice to Airmen
(NOTAM) may be issued to pilots about the closure.
----- Also, NOTAMs can include changes in the status of navigational aids or
instrument approach facilities, radar service availability, or other information
ensential for landing operations.
Airport Visual Aids
- Taxiway markings ( 1 Taxiway marks 2 Ramp area hand signals )

Landsides
Passenger Terminal
- Departure Area ( Check in Passenger/Baggage, WaitingArea)
- Arrival Area (Claim of baggage)
Cargo Terminal
Custom police
Acceptance /Inspection of Cargo

Taxiway Markings
--The links between the runway and the parking areas for airplanes are the
taxiways.
--A taxiway can easily be identified with its continuous yellow centerline.
--In some airports, edge marking are added to separate the taxiway from
pavements that are not for airplane driving.
--When a taxiway intersects a runway a hold line is drawn to prevent airplanes
from wrongly entering the runway.

Airsides
Ground Handling Services
- Loading/Unloading of Passenger/Cargo/Baggag
- Re fuelling
- Marshalling
- Line Maintenance

Ramp Area
--- The area where airplanes park are called the apron or ramp area.
--Airport terminals & maintenance facilities are located near the ramp area.
--Standard hand signals are used by ramp personnel for directing pilots during
airplane ground movements and ground operations

.Airport Runways, Markings, Signs and Lightings


----- Airport Visual Aids
1... Runway markings 2... Taxiway markings, 3... Airport Signs
----- Airport Lighting
1... Airport Beacon, 2... Visual glideslope indicators
3... Runway edge lights 4... Taxiway lighting 5...Obstruction lighting

Airport Signs
--The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a United Nations
Agency that develop standard airport signs.
--The standard specification of these signs include their size, height, where the
signs should be put, and their illumination.
--There are six basic types of airport signs.

----- Runway markings


1 Runways with precision approaches and with 2non-precision approaches,
3 Displaced threshold, 4 Blast pad / stopway ,5.NOTAM

Airport Lighting
---- Airport Beacon
---Runway Edge Lights
---- Taxiway Lighting

Runway Markings (1)


-- Runway markings vary between runways used only for VFR and those that
can be used both for VFR and IFR.
-- A runway used for VFR alone usually is marked with only the runway number
and the dashed white centerline.
-- A runway that can be used for IFR has markings that allows pilots to navigate

Airport BeaconLights
--which might have different colors and might change with time that are
specifically used to guide pilots flying to airports in the dark are called airport
beacons.
--These beacons are most noticeable from one to ten degrees above the
horizon. (Remember that standard landing is at 3)

--- Visual Glideslope Indicators


---- In-Runway Light
--- Obstruction Lighting

Visual Glideslope Indicators


--Visual glideslope indicators are light systems to let you know your position in
relation to the desired glide path in landing to the runway.
--They are located on the side of the runway and can be used both during the
day and at night.
--One typical type is the visual approach slope indicator (VASI).
Runway Edge Lights
--Runway edge lights consists a row of lights on each side of the runway, plus
lights identifying the runway threshold.
--At some airports the pilot can adjust the intensity of these runway lights from
the cockpit using the radio transmitter.
--Some runway edge lights incorporates yellow runway remaining lights on
the last half of the runway (or the last 2000 feet of the runway, whichever is less).
--In some runways the threshold lights might be replaced with a row of green
lights across the beginning of the runway.
--These green lights are actually two-ways. When viewed from the other side
of the runway they are red in color, indicating the end of the runway from that
direction.
In-Runway Lighting
--Some precision approach runways have flush-mounted (level with the
ground) lightings for the runway centerline, the touchdown zone, and taxiway turnoff

area.
---The runway centerline lighting system (RCLS) is white until the last 3000
feet. From the 3000 to 1000-foot point, the lights are alternating between red and
white. In the last 1000 feet the lights are all red.
Taxiway LightingTaxiways
are lined with blue lights on both sides to guide the pilot on the taxiway from the
runway to the ramp area.
Obstruction Lighting
--- Obstruction lighting is used both on and off the airport, during day and night.
--- They are used to warn pilots of large structures such as towers, buildings, and
sometimes even powerlines.
--Bright red and high intensity white lights are typically used, and sometimes
flashing lights are employed.