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AN INTRODUCTION TO

ELECTROMAGNETIC
COMPATIBILITY (EMC)
PRESENTED BY
DR. WILLIAM G. DUFF
Applied Technology Institute
349 Berkshire Drive
Riva, Maryland 21140
888-501-2100/410-956-8805
Website: www.ATIcourses.com
Email: ATI@ATIcourses.com
ATI Course Schedule: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm
ATIs Introduction To EMI : http://www.aticourses.com/sampler/Intro_to_EMI.pdf

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INTRODUCTION TO EMC
DAY 1 SYLLABUS
Examples of EMI
Elements of EMI
Definition of Terms and Units
Types of EMI
Sources of EMI
Propagation and Coupling
Victims of EMI
EMC in Wireless Systems

INTRODUCTION TO EMC
DAY 2 SYLLABUS

EMI in Equipments and Systems


EMI Coupling Modes
Common Mode Coupling
Differential Mode Coupling
Common Impedance
Ground Loop
Grounding
EMI Mitigation
Filters, Ferrities, etc.

INTRODUCTION TO EMC
DAY 3 SYLLABUS

Electromagnetic Shielding
Shielding Applications
Characteristics of Electromagnetic Fields
Reflection
Absorption
Shielding Compromises
Shielding Cables
Design for EMC
EMI Diagnostics and Fixes
EMI Specifications and Standards

INTRODUCTION TO EMC
DAY 1
Examples

of EMI

What is EMI?
EMI = Electromagnetic Interference, Alias:
RFI = Radio Frequency

Relay Chatter

Interference
TVI = Television Interference
Radio Noise
Electrical Noise
Transient Disturbances
Electromagnetic Pollution
Surges and Sags
Ground Bounce
Crosstalk
Corona and Arcing
Sparking
Electrostatic Discharges
Lightning Discharges

Noise Immunity Level


Audio Hum
Shot Noise
Flicker Noise
White Noise
Thermal Noise
Johnson Noise
TV Snow
Hum Bars
Motorboating
Degenerative Feedback
Hiss, Buzz and Hum
Screen Flicker

E3 = Electromagnetic
Environmental Effects

EME = Electromagnetic Environment


EMC = Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMI = Electromagnetic Interference
EMP = Electromagnetic Pulse
ESD = Electrostatic Discharge
HEMP = High Altitude EMP

HERF = Hazards of EM Radiation to Flight


HERF = Hazards of EM Radiation to Fuel
HERO = Hazards of EM Radiation to Ordnance
HIRF = High Intensity Radiated Fields
HPM = High Power Microwave
RADHAZ = Radiation Hazards
RFI = Radio Frequency Interference

Historical EMI/E3-Related Incidents

Operation Restore Democracy (Haiti-1995)


Air wings of USS America & USS Eisenhower
replaced with men & helicopters of 10th
Infantry Div. and 75th Ranger Regiment.
Army aircraft not designed or tested for carrier
operation, carriers required to turn off almost all
communications and radar surveillance systems.

Blackhawk Helicopter (Germany and USA - 1987)


Several potentially fatal incidents and a fatal crash
Suspected cause was interference from high
power radio transmitters
Entire fleet grounded for 3 months during
investigation
Extensive test and retrofit program necessary

USS Forrestal (Vietnam -1969)


ZUNI rocket inadvertently launched by a ship radar
134 dead
27 aircraft destroyed
$72M damage to ship ($335M in 2000 dollars)
Largest Naval loss of life since WW II

Courtesy of Jose Reza

Pershing II Nuclear Missile (Germany)


Missile motor exploded during routine
maintenance
Electrostatic discharge identified as the
cause
3 dead

HMS Sheffield (Falkland Islands -1982)


Hit by undetected EXOCET missile
EMI caused degradation of surveillance
radar
21 dead,
Ship sank 4 days later

EMI CASE HISTORIES

Blackhawk Helicopter
Aircraft Flight Controls
Automobile Electronics
Ship Propulsion System
Medical Electronics
Office Electronics
Consumer Electronics
Process Control

Proper Grounding and/or


Shielding May Have Avoided
Some of These Problems

ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS


(E3)

Performance degradation of receiver signal


processing circuits
Erroneous or inadvertent operation of
electromechanical equipments, electronic
circuits, components, ordnance, etc.
Burnout or voltage breakdown of
components, antennas, etc.

ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS


(E3) CONTINUED

Unintentional denotation or ignition


of electroexplosive devices,
flammable materials, etc.
Personnel Injuries

POTENTIAL EMI INTERACTIONS

Interactions between on board equipments


Interactions between on board equipments and
the electromagnetic environment
Interactions between on board equipments and
test equipments

INTRODUCTION TO EMC
DAY 1
Elements

of EMI

ELEMENTS OF EMI

SOURCES
OF EMI

COUPLING

VICTIM OF
EMI

EMI CULPRIT AND VICTIM

EMI
Source

CULPRIT
VICTIM

Signal
Source

Signal
Receiver
COUPLING PATH

CONDUCTED OR RADIATED COUPLING

SOURCE

COUPLING

VICTIM

EMI SOURCES

TRANSMITTERS
COMPUTER CLOCKS
ELECTRIC MOTORS
SWITCHES AND RELAYS
LIGHTNING
ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE

EMI COUPLING

RADIATED
Antenna-to-Antenna
Case Radiation
Case Penetration
Field-to-Wire
Wire-to-Field
Wire-to-Wire

CONDUCTED
Power Lines
Interconnecting
Signal Cables
Common Ground
Impedance

EMI VICTIMS

RECEIVERS
ANALOG SENSORS
ANALOG AMPLIFIERS
CONTROL SYSTEMS
COMPUTERS
ORDNANCE
PERSONNEL

PRIMARY EMI INTERACTIONS


EMI
EMI SOURCE
SOURCE
(EMITTER)
(EMITTER)

PRIMARY
PRIMARYCOUPLING
COUPLING
MECHANISM
MECHANISM

EMI
EMI VICTIM
VICTIM
(RECEPTOR)
(RECEPTOR)

RADIATED
RADIATED
ANT-ANT
ANT-ANT

RECEIVERS
RECEIVERS

RADIATED
RADIATED
ANT-CABLE
ANT-CABLE
ANT-CASE
ANT-CASE

ELECTRONIC
ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT
EQUIPMENT

TRANSMITTERS
TRANSMITTERS

RADIATED
RADIATED
CABLE-ANT
CABLE-ANT
CASE-ANT
CASE-ANT
ELECTRICAL
ELECTRICAL&
&
ELECTRONIC
ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT
EQUIPMENT

RADIATED
RADIATED
CABLE-CABLE
CABLE-CABLE
CABLE-CASE
CABLE-CASE
CASE-CABLE
CASE-CABLE
CASE-CASE
CASE-CASE
CONDUCTED
CONDUCTED
POWER
POWERLINES
LINES
SIGNAL
LINES
SIGNAL LINES
GROUND
GROUND

RECEIVERS
RECEIVERS

ELECTRONIC
ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT
EQUIPMENT

EXAMPLES OF ELECTRONIC-SYSTEM EMI

1. POWER CABLE EMISSIONS


2. POWER CABLE CONDUCTED
SUSCEPTIBILITY
3. INTERCONNECTING CABLE
CONDUCTED EMISSION
4. INTERCONNECTING CABLE
SUSCEPTIBILITY
5. ANTENNA LEAD CONDUCTED
EMISSION
6. ANTENNA LEAD CONDUCTED
SUSCEPTIBILITY

EXAMPLES OF ELECTRONIC-SYSTEM EMI

7. COMMON GROUND IMPEDANCE


EMISSION COUPLING
8. COMMON GROUND IMPEDANCE
SUSCEPT. COUPLING
9. H-FIELD RADIATION
10. E-FIELD RADIATION
11. H-FIELD SUSCEPTIBILITY
12. E-FIELD SUSCEPTIBILITY

EMC ANALYSIS

Coupling

H();H(F)

Interfering
Transmitter

X(t)
X(f)

y(t)
Y(f)

y(t) h ( ) x (t ) d
-

Y(f) = H(f) Y(f)


LINEAR SYSTEMS

Susceptible
Receiver

INTRODUCTION TO EMC
DAY 1

Definition

of Terms and Units

BASIC TERMS--POWER AND DB SCALE


dB 10 log

10

V1 Z2
V1 /Z1
P1
10 log10
10 log10
V2 Z1
V2 /Z2

P2

V1
Z2
10 log10 10 log10
Z1
V2

V1
10 log10 , when Z2 Z1
V2

10

20 log

dB

Power
Ratio

0
3
6
9

1.00
2.00
4.00
8.00

Voltage
Ratio
1.00
1.41
2.00
2.82

V1

V2

dB

Power
Ratio

Voltage
Ratio

10
20
-10
-20

10
100
.1
.01

3.16
10
.300
.10

CIRCUIT AND FIELD RELATIONS

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

Time Varying
Spatial Varying
Electric Field
Magnetic Field
Velocity of Propagation
Wavelength = C/
(m) = 300

fMHz
(ft) = 984
fMHz

ANTENNA FACTOR: RELATION BETWEEN ARRIVING


FIELD STRENGTH, E, AND RECEIVER INDUCED VOLTAGE,
V.

INTRODUCTION TO EMC
DAY 1

Types of EMI

NARROWBAND AND BROADBAND EMISSIONS

RECEIVER IMPULSE BANDWIDTH

Vi/MHz

Bi
f
fc

V=Vi/MHz BiMHz
BiMHz=

V
7dB C.W.B.W.
Vi/MHz

BROADBAND EMI RELATIONSHIPS

V/MHz = V volts
Bi (MHz)
20log V/MHz = 20log Volts- 20log Bi MHz
dBV/MHz = dBV - BidB/MHz

EXAMPLES OF NARROWBAND EMI UNITS

Conducted
Power
W
dBW
dBm

Voltage
V
dBV
dBV

Current
A
dBA
dBA

Radiated
Power Density
W/m2
dBW/m2
dBm/m2

Field Strength
V/m
dBv/m
dBV/m

Magnetic Field (H)


A/m
dBA/m
dBA/m

Magnetic Flux Density (B)


Tesla (Weber/m2)
Picotesla (pT)
dBpT

EXAMPLES OF BROADBAND EMI UNITS

Conducted
Power
dBm/kHz

Voltage
dBV/MHz

Current
dBA/MHz

Radiated
Power Density
dBm/m2/kHz

Field Strength
dBV/m/MHz

Magnetic Field (H)


dBA/m/MHz

Magnetic Flux Density (B)


dBpT/MHz

FOURIER ANALYSIS

TIME DOMAIN
(OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW)

Frequency Domain
(Spectrum Analyzer,
EMI Receiver View)

Sine Wave

F
F0 = 1
T

TIME DOMAIN
(OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW)

Frequency Domain
(Spectrum Analyzer,
EMI Receiver View)

TIME-FREQUENCY TRANSFORMATION OF
PERIODIC FUNCTION

TIME-FREQUENCY TRANSFORMATION OF
SINGLE PULSE

LIGHTNING, EMP, AND ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE

EMI IMPACT VISIBLE IN FREQUENCY


DOMAIN