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Article IV Citizenship

1. Citizenship a term denoting membership of a citizen in a political society,

which membership implies, reciprocally, a duty of allegiance on the part of
the member and duty of protection on the part of the Senate. In a monarchial
state, he is often called a subject
2. Citizen a member of a democratic community who enjoys full civil and
political rights and is accorded protection inside and outside the territory of
the State. Along with other citizens they compose the political community
Citizenship does not equate to Nationality.
All citizens are nationals of a state, not all nationals are citizens of state.
Pledge of allegiance = Nationality
3. Alien a citizen of a country residing in or passing through another country.
Popularly called a foreigner. He is not given full rights to citizenship but is
entitled to receive protection to his person and property
Ways of acquiring citizenship
1. Involuntary Method by birth, because of blood relationship or place of birth
2. Voluntary Method by naturalization, except in case of collective
naturalization of the inhabitants of a territory which takes place when it is
ceded by one state to another as a result of conquest or treaty
Natural born and Naturalized citizen
Citizens by Birth
1. Jus Sanguinis blood relationship is the basis for the acquisition of citizenship
under this rule. The children follow the citizenship of the parent or one
2. Jus Soli or Jus Loci place of birth serves as the basis for acquiring citizenship
under this rule. A person becomes a citizen of the state where he is born
irrespective of the citizenship of the parents. This principle prevails in the
United States
Naturalization the act of formally adopting a foreigner into the political body of the
state and clothing him with the rights and privileges of citizenship. It implies the
renunciation of a former nationality and the fact of entrance to a similar relation
toward a new body politic
Ways of acquiring citizenship by naturalization
1. By judgement of court apply in proper regional trial court
2. By act of congress our law making body simply enacts an act directly
conferring citizenship on a foreigner
3. By administrative proceedings -aliens born and residing in the Philippines
may be granted ph citizenship by administrative proceeding before special

committee on Naturalization, subject to certain requirements dictated by

national security and interest.
Kinds of citizens under the constitutions
1. Natural-born citizens refer to those:
a. Who at the moment of their birth are already citizens of the
b. Do not have to perform any act to acquire his Philippine citizenship
2. Citizens at the time of the adoption of the new constitution citizens under
1973 constitution at the time of adoption of new constitution
3. Citizens through election those born of Filipino mothers before Jan. 17, 1973
who, upon reaching the age of maturity , elect Philippine citizenship after the
ratification of the 1973 constitution
4. Naturalized citizens refer to those who were originally citizens of another
country, but who, by an intervening act have acquired new citizenship in a
different country
Loss of Citizenship
1. Volutarily they are:
a. By naturalization in a foreign country
b. By express renunciation of citizenship
c. By subscribing to an oath of allegiance to support the constitution and
laws of a foreign country
d. By rendering service to, or accepting commission in the armed forces
of a foreign country
2. Involuntarily they are:
a. By cancellation of his certificate of naturalization by court
b. By having been declared by competent authority, a deserter in the
Philippine armed forces in time of war
Reacquisition of lost Philippine Citizenship
*Citizenship may be reacquired
1. By naturalization, provided the applicant possesses none of the
disqualifications provided in the naturalization law
2. By repatriation of deserters of the Philippine armed forces and women who
lost their citizenship by reason of marriage to an alien of marriage to an alien,
after the termination of their marital status
3. By direct act of the Congress of the Philippines
Repatriation effected by merely taking the necessary oath of allegiance to the
Republic of the Philippines and registering the same in the proper civil registry
Dual Citizenship refers to possession of two citizenships by an individual, that of
his original citizenship and that of the country where he became a naturalized

Suffrage the right and obligation to vote of qualified citizens in the election of
certain national and local officers of the government and in the decisions of public
questions submitted to the people.
Nature of Suffrage
1. A mere privilege it is not a natural right but a privilege to be given or
withheld by the lawmaking power subject to constitutional limitations
2. A political right it enables every citizen to participate in the process of
government to assure that it can truly be said to derive its powers from the
consent of the governed
Scope of Suffrage
1. Election it is the means by which people choose their officials for definite
and fixed periods and to whom they entrust, for the time being as their
representatives, the exercise of powers of government
2. Plebiscite a name given to a vote of the people expressing their choice for
or against a proposed law or enactment submitted to them
3. Referendum It is the submission of a law or part thereof passed by the
national or local legislative body to the voting citizens of a country for their
ratification or rejection
4. Initiative It is the process whereby the people directly propose of enact laws
5. Recall It is a method by which a public officer during his tenure or before
the expiration of his term by a vote of the people after registration of a
petition signed by a requires percentage of the qualified voters
Qualification of voters

A citizen (male or female) of the Philippines

Not otherwise disqualified by law
At least 18 years of age
Have resided in the Philippines for at least one year and in the place wherein
he proposes to vote for at least 6 months preceding the election