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Environmental Assessment and Management

TUTORIAL 1 (WEEK 22 FEB 2016)


CHAPTER 1: MASS BALANCE
Note: These questions will be discussed in class during the tutorial
sessions on Wednesday 24/02/2016, in Room 1104
(Session T1: 12:00 - 12:50 PM; Session T2: 6:00-6:50PM).
Problem 1.1
The proposed air quality standard for ozone (O3) is 0.08 ppmv.
a) Express that standard in g/m3 at 1 atm of pressure and 25C.
b) At the elevation of Denver, the pressure is about 0.82 atm.
Express the ozone standard at that pressure and at a temperature
of 15C.
Problem 1.4
A typical motorcycle emits about 20 g of CO per mile.
a) What volume of CO would a 5-mile trip produce after the gas
cools to 25C (at 1 atm)?
b) Per meter of distance traveled, what volume of air could be
polluted to the air quality standard of 9 ppmv?
Problem 1.6
Five million gallons per day (MGD) of wastewater, with a
concentration of 10.0 mg/L of conservative pollutant, is released into
a stream having an upstream flow of 10 MGD and pollutant
concentration of 3.0 mg/L.
a) What is the concentration in ppm just downstream?
b) How many pounds of substance per day pass a given spot
downstream? (you may want the conversions 3.785 L/gal and
2.2 kg/lbm from Appendix A.)

Tutorial 1: Mass Balance

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Problem 1.7
A river with 400 ppm of salts (a conservative substance) and an
upstream flow of 25.0 m3/s receives an agricultural discharge of 5.0
m3/s carrying 2,000 mg/L of salts (see Figure P1.7). The salts quickly
become uniformly distributed in the river. A municipality just
downstream withdraws water and mixes it with enough pure water
(no salt) from another source to deliver water having no more than
500 ppm salts to its customers. What should be the mixture ratio F of
pure water to river water?

500 ppm
3

25.0 m /s
400 ppm

Q m /s

FQ m /s
0 ppm

5.0 m /s
2,000 ppm
Figure P 1.7

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Environmental Assessment and Management

Problem 1.9
Plateau Creeks carries 5.0 m3/s of water with a selenium (Se)
concentration of 0.0015 mg/L. A farmer starts withdrawing 1.0 m3/s
of the creek water to irrigate the land. During irrigation, the water
picks up selenium from the salts in the soil. One-half of the irrigation
water is lost to the ground and plants, and the other half is returned to
Plateau Creek. The irrigation run-off to the Creek contains 1.00 mg/L
of selenium. Selenium is a conservative, nonreactive substance (it
does not degrade in the stream), and the stream does not pick up more
selenium from any other source.
a) If the farmer irrigates continuously, what will be the steady-state
concentration of selenium in the stream downstream from the
farm (after the irrigation run-off returns to the stream)?
b) Fish are sensitive to selenium levels over 0.04 mg/L. The farmer
agrees not to use more water than will keep the stream selenium
level below this critical concentration. How much water can the
farmer withdraw from the stream to use for irrigation?
Problem 1.10
When methanol is used to generate hydrogen, it reacts with the
following reaction:
2CH2OH
2CO + 3H2
The reactor is second order in methanol (CH2OH), and it is observed
that 100g of carbon monoxide (CO) can be produced in one day in a
batch reactor, if you start with 200g of methanol. What is the rate
constant for this reaction?
Problem 1.12
The two-pond system shown in Figure P1.12 is fed by a stream with
flow rate 1.0 MGD (millions gallons per day) and BOD (a
nonconservative pollutant) concentration 20.0 mg/L. The rate of
decay of BOD is 0.30/day. The volume of the first pond is 5.0 million
gallons, and the second is 3.0 million.
Assuming complete mixing within each pond, find the BOD
concentration leaving each pond.
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Environmental Assessment and Management

Figure P1.12

Problem 1.13
A lagoon is to be designed to accommodate an input flow of 0.10 m3/s
of nonconservative pollutant with concentration 30.0 mg/L and
reaction rate constant 0.20/day. The effluent from the lagoon must
have pollutant concentration of less than 10.0 mg/L. Assuming
complete mixing, how large must the lagoon be?
Problem 1.17
Consider the air over a city to be a box 100 km on a side that reaches
up to an altitude of 1.0 km. Clean air is blowing into the box along
one of its sides with a speed of 4 m/s. Suppose an air pollutant with
rate constant k = 0.2/hr is emitted into the box at a total rate of 10.0
kg/s. Find the steady-state concentration if the air is assumed to be
completely mixed.

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SOLUTIONS
Problem 1.1
Ozone at 0.08 ppmv;

or

a)
Class method

Tutorial method

b) In Denver, at 15C and 0.82 atm:

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Problem 1.4

Problem 1.6

Tutorial 1: Mass Balance

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Problem 1.7
Step I: Select your system boundary, i.e. generally at junctions, or when dealing with
mixtures of fluids, or over a lake/box, etc.
Step II: Write down the mass balance equation
ACCUMULATION RATE = INPUT RATE OUTPUT RATE + REACTION RATE
Step III: Look for key words, i.e. conservative, non reactive, non conservative, steady-state,
after long time, and/or uniformly distributed
ACCUMULATION RATE = ZERO when problem statement mentions steady-state, after
long time, or uniformly distributed
REACTION RATE = ZERO when problem statement mentions conservative, non reactive

Step IV: Apply simplified mass balance to system boundary

Tutorial 1: Mass Balance

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Environmental Assessment and Management

Problem 1.9
Step I: Select your system boundary, i.e. generally at junctions, or when dealing with
mixtures of fluids, or over a lake/box, etc.
Step II: Write down the mass balance equation
ACCUMULATION RATE = INPUT RATE OUTPUT RATE + REACTION RATE
Step III: Look for key words, i.e. conservative, non reactive, non conservative, steady-state,
after long time, and/or uniformly distributed
ACCUMULATION RATE = ZERO when problem statement mentions steady-state, after
long time, or uniformly distributed
REACTION RATE = ZERO when problem statement mentions conservative, non reactive

Step IV: Apply simplified mass balance to system boundary

a. A mass balance around control volume (C.V.) at the downstream junction yields

Cs

(Q f / 2)C f
Qs

Q C
b

(0.5 m3 / s)(1.00 mg / L) (4.0 m3 / s)(0.0015 mg / L)


0.112 mg / L
(4.5 m3 / s)

b. Noting that Qb = Q0 Qf and Qs = Q0 Qf/2 the mass balance becomes


(Qf/2)Cf + (Q0 Qf)C0 = (Q0 Qf/2)Cs
And solving for the maximum Qf yields
Qf

Q0 (C s C0 )
(5.0 m 3 / s)(0.04 0.0015 mg / L)

0.371 m 3 / s
Cf
1.0
0.04
Cs
(
0.0015
mg / L)
(
C0 )
2
2
2
2

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Problem 1.10

Tutorial 1: Mass Balance

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Problem 1.12
Step I: Select your system boundary, i.e. generally at junctions, or when dealing with
mixtures of fluids, or over a lake/box, etc.

Step II: Write down the mass balance equation


ACCUMULATION RATE = INPUT RATE OUTPUT RATE + REACTION RATE
Step III: Look for key words, i.e. conservative, non reactive, non conservative, steady-state,
after long time, and/or uniformly distributed
ACCUMULATION RATE = ZERO when problem statement mentions steady-state, after
long time, or uniformly distributed
REACTION RATE = ZERO when problem statement mentions conservative, non reactive

Step IV: Apply simplified mass balance to system boundary

Tutorial 1: Mass Balance

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Environmental Assessment and Management

Problem 1.13
Step I: Select your system boundary, i.e. generally at junctions, or when dealing with
mixtures of fluids, or over a lake/box, etc.

Step II: Write down the mass balance equation


ACCUMULATION RATE = INPUT RATE OUTPUT RATE + REACTION RATE
Step III: Look for key words, i.e. conservative, non reactive, non conservative, steady-state,
after long time, and/or uniformly distributed
ACCUMULATION RATE = ZERO when problem statement mentions steady-state, after
long time, or uniformly distributed
REACTION RATE = ZERO when problem statement mentions conservative, non reactive

Step IV: Apply simplified mass balance to system boundary

Tutorial 1: Mass Balance

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Environmental Assessment and Management

Problem 1.17
Step I: Select your system boundary, i.e. generally at junctions, or when dealing with
mixtures of fluids, or over a lake/box, etc.
Step II: Write down the mass balance equation
ACCUMULATION RATE = INPUT RATE OUTPUT RATE + REACTION RATE
Step III: Look for key words, i.e. conservative, non reactive, non conservative, steady-state,
after long time, and/or uniformly distributed
ACCUMULATION RATE = ZERO when problem statement mentions steady-state, after
long time, or uniformly distributed
REACTION RATE = ZERO when problem statement mentions conservative, non reactive

Step IV: Apply simplified mass balance to system boundary

Tutorial 1: Mass Balance

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