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# 1

SETS
Subsets of a Set
The symbol that represents is a subset of is . And the
symbol to mean is not a subset of.
Example 1
If A = {odd numbers} and B = {1, 3, 5}
Then B A.
If X = {1, 3, 5}, Y = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
X Y because 1 is in X but not in Y
Formula for the number of subsets =
the number of elements of the given
set.

Example 2

, where n represents

## Find the number of subsets from the set A = {a, b, c}

Number of subsets =

2n

23

=2x2x2=8

Subsets of A are:
{ }, {a}, {b}, {c}, {a, b}, {a, c}, {b, c}, { a, b, c }.
Note:
1)
Every set is a subset of itself.
2)
The empty set () is a subset of every set.
3)
For any two sets A and B, if AB and B A
then A = B
The Venn diagram below shows subsets.
U
A
B

B is a subset of A. B

## A proper subset of a set A is a subset of A that is not equal

to A. In other words, if B is a proper subset of A, then all
elements of B are in A but A contains at least one element
that is not in B.
For example,
If A={1,3,5} then B={1,5} is a proper subset of A. The
set C={1,3,5} is a subset of A, but it is not a proper subset
of A since C = A.

Exercise

1)

## List the subsets whose members are:

a)
all odd numbers of A
b)
all even numbers of A
c)
all the prime numbers of A
d) all the numbers in A divisible by 2.
2)
B={5, 10, 15, 20}. Form all the subsets of B. How
many are there?
3)
If A = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15}, B={3, 6, 7, 12} and C={3,
12}, state which of the following statements are correct:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

A
B
C
C
C

B
A
A
B
BA

4)
If A={1, 3}, B={1, 3, 5, 7} and C={1, 3, 5} is the
statement A B C correct? If not write down the
correct statement.

5)

## Write down all the proper subsets of {a, b, c, d}.

6)
Below are given eight sets. Connect appropriate sets
by the symbol . Draw Venn diagrams to represent the
data.
a)
{natural numbers between 1 and 24}
b)
{all cutlery}
c)
{all footwear}
d)
{letters of the alphabet}
e)
{boot, shoe}
f)
{a, e, i, o, u}
g)
{2, 4, 6, 8}
h)
{knife, fork, spoon}
7)
A set has 5 members. How many subsets can be
formed from it?
8)
If P={2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16}, how many subsets
can be formed from it?

Intersection of sets
If two sets contain common elements, then they intersect.
Example

Then A

B = {2, 4}

## The commutative and associative properties hold for the

intersection of sets.
Commutative Property:
A

B=B

Associative Property:
A

(B

C) = (A

)B

## The intersection of two sets can be shown as the shaded

region on the Venn diagram below:

1)

2)

B when A

3)

B, i.e., A

B=A

## Sets that do not intersect are said to be disjoint, e.g.

Union of Sets

When two sets are joined together, the union of the two sets is
the set containing all the elements in both sets.
Example:
If A = {1, 2, 3, 5} and B = {2, 4}
Then A

B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

## The commutative and associative properties hold for the union of

sets.
Commutative Property:
A

B=B

Associative Property:
A

(B

C) = (A

B)

The union of two sets can be shown as the shaded region on the
Venn diagram below:

## In the Venn diagram above,

Region I represents elements belonging to A and B.
Region II represents elements belonging to A only.
Region III represents elements belonging to B only.
A

B = I + II + III

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Exercise
1)

## a)If A = {5, 6, 7} and B = {6, 8, 10, 12}; then A B = {5,

6, 7, 8, 10, 12}.

b)
If P = {a, b, c} and Q = {b, c, d}; then p intersection
Q = {b, c}.

## c)Union of two sets is the set of elements which are

common to both the sets.

d)
Two disjoint sets have at least one element in
common.

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## f) If two given sets have no elements common to both the

sets, the sets are said to me disjoint.
g)
If A and B are two disjoint sets then A B = { }, the
empty set.

h)
If M and N are two overlapping sets then
intersection of two sets M and N is not the empty set.

2)

## Let A, B and C be three sets such that:

Set A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}, set B = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15} and set
C = {1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16}.

Find:
(i) A B
(ii) A B
(iii) B A
(iv) B A
(v) B C

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(vi) Is A B = B A?
(vii) Is B C = B C?

3)
If A = {1, 3, 7, 9, 10}, B = {2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10}, C = {0,
1, 3, 10}, D = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, E = {negative natural
numbers} and F = {0}

Find:
(i) A B
(ii) E D
(iii) C F
(iv) C D
(v) B F
(vi) A B
(vii) C D
(viii) E D
(ix) C F

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(x) B F
(xi) (A B) (A B)
(xii) (A B) (A B)

4)
If A = {2, 3, 4, 5}, B ={c, d, e, f} and C = {4, 5, 6,
7};
5)
Find:
(i) A B
(ii) A C
(iii) (A B) (A C)
(iv) A (B C)
(v) Is (A B) (A C) = A (B C)?

6)
If A = {a, b, c, d}, B = {c, d, e, f} and C = {b, d, f,
g};

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Find:
(i) A B
(ii) A C
(iii) (A B) (A C)
(iv) A (B C)
(v) Is (A B) (A C) = A (B C)?

## Interpretation of mathematical statements

written symbolically and vice versa
Examples:
1)

B or A

to set A.
2)

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## Then G D can be stated in words as: Guyanese doctors

that are Chinese.

Venn Diagrams
Venn diagrams are used to represent sets and their
relationships.
Problems involving the use of Venn diagrams