You are on page 1of 15

1

SETS
Subsets of a Set
The symbol that represents is a subset of is . And the
symbol to mean is not a subset of.
Example 1
If A = {odd numbers} and B = {1, 3, 5}
Then B A.
If X = {1, 3, 5}, Y = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
X Y because 1 is in X but not in Y
Formula for the number of subsets =
the number of elements of the given
set.

Example 2

, where n represents

Find the number of subsets from the set A = {a, b, c}


Number of subsets =

2n

23

=2x2x2=8

Subsets of A are:
{ }, {a}, {b}, {c}, {a, b}, {a, c}, {b, c}, { a, b, c }.
Note:
1)
Every set is a subset of itself.
2)
The empty set () is a subset of every set.
3)
For any two sets A and B, if AB and B A
then A = B
The Venn diagram below shows subsets.
U
A
B

B is a subset of A. B

Proper subset definition

A proper subset of a set A is a subset of A that is not equal


to A. In other words, if B is a proper subset of A, then all
elements of B are in A but A contains at least one element
that is not in B.
For example,
If A={1,3,5} then B={1,5} is a proper subset of A. The
set C={1,3,5} is a subset of A, but it is not a proper subset
of A since C = A.

Exercise

1)

A = {3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15}

List the subsets whose members are:


a)
all odd numbers of A
b)
all even numbers of A
c)
all the prime numbers of A
d) all the numbers in A divisible by 2.
2)
B={5, 10, 15, 20}. Form all the subsets of B. How
many are there?
3)
If A = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15}, B={3, 6, 7, 12} and C={3,
12}, state which of the following statements are correct:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

A
B
C
C
C

B
A
A
B
BA

4)
If A={1, 3}, B={1, 3, 5, 7} and C={1, 3, 5} is the
statement A B C correct? If not write down the
correct statement.

5)

Write down all the proper subsets of {a, b, c, d}.

6)
Below are given eight sets. Connect appropriate sets
by the symbol . Draw Venn diagrams to represent the
data.
a)
{natural numbers between 1 and 24}
b)
{all cutlery}
c)
{all footwear}
d)
{letters of the alphabet}
e)
{boot, shoe}
f)
{a, e, i, o, u}
g)
{2, 4, 6, 8}
h)
{knife, fork, spoon}
7)
A set has 5 members. How many subsets can be
formed from it?
8)
If P={2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16}, how many subsets
can be formed from it?

Intersection of sets
If two sets contain common elements, then they intersect.
Example

If A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {2, 4}


Then A

B = {2, 4}

The commutative and associative properties hold for the


intersection of sets.
Commutative Property:
A

B=B

Associative Property:
A

(B

C) = (A

)B

The intersection of two sets can be shown as the shaded


region on the Venn diagram below:

1)

A B when neither A B nor B A

2)

B when A

3)

B = No shaded part

B, i.e., A

B=A

Sets that do not intersect are said to be disjoint, e.g.

Union of Sets

When two sets are joined together, the union of the two sets is
the set containing all the elements in both sets.
Example:
If A = {1, 2, 3, 5} and B = {2, 4}
Then A

B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

The commutative and associative properties hold for the union of


sets.
Commutative Property:
A

B=B

Associative Property:
A

(B

C) = (A

B)

The union of two sets can be shown as the shaded region on the
Venn diagram below:

In the Venn diagram above,


Region I represents elements belonging to A and B.
Region II represents elements belonging to A only.
Region III represents elements belonging to B only.
A

B = I + II + III

10

Exercise
1)

State whether the following are true or false:

a)If A = {5, 6, 7} and B = {6, 8, 10, 12}; then A B = {5,


6, 7, 8, 10, 12}.

b)
If P = {a, b, c} and Q = {b, c, d}; then p intersection
Q = {b, c}.

c)Union of two sets is the set of elements which are


common to both the sets.

d)
Two disjoint sets have at least one element in
common.

e)Two overlap sets have all the elements common.

11

f) If two given sets have no elements common to both the


sets, the sets are said to me disjoint.
g)
If A and B are two disjoint sets then A B = { }, the
empty set.

h)
If M and N are two overlapping sets then
intersection of two sets M and N is not the empty set.

2)

Let A, B and C be three sets such that:

Set A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}, set B = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15} and set
C = {1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16}.

Find:
(i) A B
(ii) A B
(iii) B A
(iv) B A
(v) B C

12

(vi) Is A B = B A?
(vii) Is B C = B C?

3)
If A = {1, 3, 7, 9, 10}, B = {2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10}, C = {0,
1, 3, 10}, D = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, E = {negative natural
numbers} and F = {0}

Find:
(i) A B
(ii) E D
(iii) C F
(iv) C D
(v) B F
(vi) A B
(vii) C D
(viii) E D
(ix) C F

13

(x) B F
(xi) (A B) (A B)
(xii) (A B) (A B)

4)
If A = {2, 3, 4, 5}, B ={c, d, e, f} and C = {4, 5, 6,
7};
5)
Find:
(i) A B
(ii) A C
(iii) (A B) (A C)
(iv) A (B C)
(v) Is (A B) (A C) = A (B C)?

6)
If A = {a, b, c, d}, B = {c, d, e, f} and C = {b, d, f,
g};

14

Find:
(i) A B
(ii) A C
(iii) (A B) (A C)
(iv) A (B C)
(v) Is (A B) (A C) = A (B C)?

Interpretation of mathematical statements


written symbolically and vice versa
Examples:
1)

B or A

B = A can be stated in words as:

set A is included in set B or set A intersection set A is equal


to set A.
2)

If G = {Guyanese} and D = {Chinese doctors}

15

Then G D can be stated in words as: Guyanese doctors


that are Chinese.

Venn Diagrams
Venn diagrams are used to represent sets and their
relationships.
Problems involving the use of Venn diagrams