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SETS

Subsets of a Set

The symbol that represents is a subset of is . And the

symbol to mean is not a subset of.

Example 1

If A = {odd numbers} and B = {1, 3, 5}

Then B A.

If X = {1, 3, 5}, Y = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.

X Y because 1 is in X but not in Y

Formula for the number of subsets =

the number of elements of the given

set.

Example 2

, where n represents

Number of subsets =

2n

23

=2x2x2=8

Subsets of A are:

{ }, {a}, {b}, {c}, {a, b}, {a, c}, {b, c}, { a, b, c }.

Note:

1)

Every set is a subset of itself.

2)

The empty set () is a subset of every set.

3)

For any two sets A and B, if AB and B A

then A = B

The Venn diagram below shows subsets.

U

A

B

B is a subset of A. B

to A. In other words, if B is a proper subset of A, then all

elements of B are in A but A contains at least one element

that is not in B.

For example,

If A={1,3,5} then B={1,5} is a proper subset of A. The

set C={1,3,5} is a subset of A, but it is not a proper subset

of A since C = A.

Exercise

1)

a)

all odd numbers of A

b)

all even numbers of A

c)

all the prime numbers of A

d) all the numbers in A divisible by 2.

2)

B={5, 10, 15, 20}. Form all the subsets of B. How

many are there?

3)

If A = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15}, B={3, 6, 7, 12} and C={3,

12}, state which of the following statements are correct:

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

A

B

C

C

C

B

A

A

B

BA

4)

If A={1, 3}, B={1, 3, 5, 7} and C={1, 3, 5} is the

statement A B C correct? If not write down the

correct statement.

5)

6)

Below are given eight sets. Connect appropriate sets

by the symbol . Draw Venn diagrams to represent the

data.

a)

{natural numbers between 1 and 24}

b)

{all cutlery}

c)

{all footwear}

d)

{letters of the alphabet}

e)

{boot, shoe}

f)

{a, e, i, o, u}

g)

{2, 4, 6, 8}

h)

{knife, fork, spoon}

7)

A set has 5 members. How many subsets can be

formed from it?

8)

If P={2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16}, how many subsets

can be formed from it?

Intersection of sets

If two sets contain common elements, then they intersect.

Example

Then A

B = {2, 4}

intersection of sets.

Commutative Property:

A

B=B

Associative Property:

A

(B

C) = (A

)B

region on the Venn diagram below:

1)

2)

B when A

3)

B = No shaded part

B, i.e., A

B=A

Union of Sets

When two sets are joined together, the union of the two sets is

the set containing all the elements in both sets.

Example:

If A = {1, 2, 3, 5} and B = {2, 4}

Then A

B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

sets.

Commutative Property:

A

B=B

Associative Property:

A

(B

C) = (A

B)

The union of two sets can be shown as the shaded region on the

Venn diagram below:

Region I represents elements belonging to A and B.

Region II represents elements belonging to A only.

Region III represents elements belonging to B only.

A

B = I + II + III

10

Exercise

1)

6, 7, 8, 10, 12}.

b)

If P = {a, b, c} and Q = {b, c, d}; then p intersection

Q = {b, c}.

common to both the sets.

d)

Two disjoint sets have at least one element in

common.

11

sets, the sets are said to me disjoint.

g)

If A and B are two disjoint sets then A B = { }, the

empty set.

h)

If M and N are two overlapping sets then

intersection of two sets M and N is not the empty set.

2)

Set A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}, set B = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15} and set

C = {1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16}.

Find:

(i) A B

(ii) A B

(iii) B A

(iv) B A

(v) B C

12

(vi) Is A B = B A?

(vii) Is B C = B C?

3)

If A = {1, 3, 7, 9, 10}, B = {2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10}, C = {0,

1, 3, 10}, D = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, E = {negative natural

numbers} and F = {0}

Find:

(i) A B

(ii) E D

(iii) C F

(iv) C D

(v) B F

(vi) A B

(vii) C D

(viii) E D

(ix) C F

13

(x) B F

(xi) (A B) (A B)

(xii) (A B) (A B)

4)

If A = {2, 3, 4, 5}, B ={c, d, e, f} and C = {4, 5, 6,

7};

5)

Find:

(i) A B

(ii) A C

(iii) (A B) (A C)

(iv) A (B C)

(v) Is (A B) (A C) = A (B C)?

6)

If A = {a, b, c, d}, B = {c, d, e, f} and C = {b, d, f,

g};

14

Find:

(i) A B

(ii) A C

(iii) (A B) (A C)

(iv) A (B C)

(v) Is (A B) (A C) = A (B C)?

written symbolically and vice versa

Examples:

1)

B or A

to set A.

2)

15

that are Chinese.

Venn Diagrams

Venn diagrams are used to represent sets and their

relationships.

Problems involving the use of Venn diagrams

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