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Diesel engine

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A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906

Rudolf Diesel's 1893 patent on his engine design


The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compression ignition, in
which fuel ignites as it is injected into air in the combustion chamber that has been
compressed to temperatures high enough to cause ignition. By contrast, gasoline
engines utilize the Otto cycle in which fuel and air are typically mixed before entering
the combustion chamber and ignited by a spark plug, making compression ignition
undesirable (engine knocking).
The engine operates using the Diesel cycle named after German engineer Rudolf
Diesel, who invented it in 1892 based on the hot bulb engine and for which he
received a patent on February 23, 1893. Diesel intended the engine to use a variety of
fuels including coal dust and peanut oil. He demonstrated it at the 1900 Exposition
Universelle (World's Fair) using peanut oil (see biodiesel).

Early history timeline


1862: Nicolaus Otto develops his coal gas engine, similar to a modern gasoline
engine.

1891: Herbert Akroyd Stuart, of Bletchley perfects his oil engine, and leases
rights to Hornsby of England to build engines. They build the first cold start,
compression ignition engines.

1892: Hornsby engine No. 101 is built and installed in a waterworks. It is now
in the MAN truck museum in Northern England.

1892: Rudolf Diesel develops his Carnot heat engine type motor which burnt
powdered coal dust. He is employed by refrigeration genius Carl von Linde,
then Munich iron manufacturer MAN AG, and later by the Sulzer engine
company of Switzerland. He borrows ideas from them and leaves a legacy
with all firms.

1892: John Froelich builds his first oil engine powered farm tractor.

1894: Witte, Reid, and Fairbanks start building oil engines with a variety of
ignition systems.

1896: Hornsby builds diesel tractors and railway engines.

1897: Winton produces and drives the first US built gas automobile; he later
builds diesel plants.

1897: Mirrlees, Watson & Yaryan build the first British diesel engine under
license from Rudolf Diesel. This is now displayed in the Science Museum at
South Kensington, London.

1898: Busch installs a Rudolf Diesel type engine in his brewery in St. Louis. It
is the first in the United States. Rudolf Diesel perfects his compression start
engine, patents, and licences it. This engine, pictured above, is in a German
museum.

1899: Diesel licences his engine to builders Burmeister & Wain, Krupp, and
Sulzer, who become famous builders.

1902: F. Rundlof invents the two-stroke crankcase, scavenged hot bulb engine.

1902: A company named Forest City started manufacturing diesel generators.

1903: Ship Gjoa transits the ice-filled Northwest Passage, aided with a Dan
kerosene engine.

1904: French build the first diesel submarine, the Z.

1908: Bolinder-Munktell starts building two stroke hot-bulb engines.

1912: First diesel ship MS Selandia is built. SS Fram, polar explorer


Amundsens flagship, is converted to a AB Atlas diesel.

1913: Fairbanks Morse starts building its Y model semi-diesel engine. US


Navy submarines use NELSECO units.

1914: German U-Boats are powered by MAN diesels. War service proves
engine's reliability.

1920s: Fishing fleets convert to oil engines. Atlas-Imperial of Oakland, Union,


and Lister diesels appear.

1924: First diesel trucks appear.

1928: Canadian National Railways employ a diesel shunter in their yards.

1930s: Clessie Cummins starts with Dutch diesel engines, and then builds his
own into trucks and a Duesenberg luxury car at the Daytona speedway.

1930s: Caterpillar starts building diesels for their tractors.

1933: Citron introduced the Rosalie, a passenger car with the worlds first
commercially available diesel engine developed with Harry Ricardo.

1934: General Motors starts a GM diesel research facility. It builds diesel


railroad enginesThe Pioneer Zephyrand goes on to found the General
Motors Electro-Motive Division, which becomes important building engines
for landing craft and tanks in the Second World War. GM then applies this
knowledge to market control with its famous Green Leakers for buses and
railroad engines.

1936: Mercedes-Benz builds the 260D diesel car. A.T.S.F inaugurates the
diesel train Super Chief.

1936: Airship Hindenburg is powered by diesel engines.

How diesel engines work


Compressing any gas raises its temperature, the method by which fuel is ignited in
diesel engines. Air is drawn into the cylinders and is compressed by the pistons at
compression ratios as high as 25:1, much higher than used for spark-ignite engines. At
near the end of the compression stroke, diesel fuel is injected into the combustion
chamber through an injector (or atomizer). The fuel ignites from contact with the air
that due to compression has been heated to a temperature of about 700900 C (1300
1650 F). The resulting combustion causes increased heat and expansion in the
cylinder which increases pressure and moves the piston downward. A connecting rod
transmits this motion to a crankshaft to convert linear motion to rotary motion for use

as power in a variety of applications. Intake air to the engine is usually controlled by


mechanical valves in the cylinder head. For increased power output, most modern
diesel engines are equipped with a turbocharger, and in some derivatives, a
supercharger to increase intake air volume. Use of an aftercooler/intercooler to cool
intake air that has been compressed, and thus heated, by the turbocharger increases
the density of the air and typically leads to power and efficiency improvements.
In cold weather, diesel engines can be difficult to start because the cold metal of the
cylinder block and head draw out the heat created in the cylinder during the
compression stroke, thus preventing ignition. Some diesel engines use small electric
heaters called glow plugs inside the cylinder help ignite fuel when starting. Some
even use resistive grid heaters in the intake manifold to warm the inlet air until the
engine reaches operating temperature. Engine block heaters (electric resistive heaters
in the engine block) connected to the utility grid are often used when an engine is
turned off for extended periods (more than an hour) in cold weather to reduce startup
time and engine wear. Diesel fuel is also prone to 'waxing' in cold weather, a term for
the solidification of diesel oil into a crystalline state. The crystals build up in the fuel
(especially in fuel filters), eventually starving the engine of fuel. Low-output electric
heaters in fuel tanks and around fuel lines are used to solve this problem. Also, most
engines have a 'spill return' system, by which any excess fuel from the injector pump
and injectors is returned to the fuel tank. Once the engine has warmed, returning
warm fuel prevents waxing in the tank. Fuel technology has improved recently so that
with special additives waxing no longer occurs in all but the coldest climates.
A vital component of all diesel engines is a mechanical or electronic governor, which
limits the speed of the engine by controlling the rate of fuel delivery. Unlike Otto
cycle engines, incoming air is not throttled and a diesel engine without a governor can
easily overspeed. Mechanically governed fuel injection systems are driven by the
engine's gear train. These systems use a combination of springs and weights to control
fuel delivery relative to both load and speed. Modern, electronically controlled, diesel
engines control fuel delivery and limit the maximum RPM by use of an electronic
control module (ECM) or electronic control unit (ECU). The ECM/ECU receives an
engine speed signal from a sensor and controls the amount of fuel and start of
injection timing through electric or hydraulic actuators.
Controlling the timing of the start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is a key to
minimizing emissions, and maximizing fuel economy (efficiency), of the engine. The
timing is usually measured in units of crank angle of the piston before Top Dead
Center (TDC). For example, if the ECM/ECU initiates fuel injection when the piston
is 10 degrees before TDC, the start of injection, or timing, is said to be 10 deg BTDC.
Optimal timing will depend on the engine design as well as its speed and load.
Advancing the start of injection (injecting before the piston reaches TDC) results in
higher in-cylinder pressure and temperature, and higher efficiency, but also results in
higher emissions of oxides of nitrogen NOx through higher combustion temperatures.
At the other extreme, delayed start of injection causes incomplete combustion and
emits visible black smoke made of particulate matter (PM) and unburned hydrocarbon
(HC).

Fuel injection in diesel engines


Early fuel injection systems
The modern diesel engine is a combination of two inventors' creations. In all major
aspects, it holds true to Diesel's original design, that of the fuel being ignited by
compression at an extremely high pressure within the cylinder. However, nearly all
present-day diesel engines use the so-called solid injection system invented by
Herbert Akroyd Stuart, for his hot bulb engine (a compression-ignition engine that
precedes the diesel engine and operates slightly differently). Solid injection is where
the fuel is raised to extreme pressures by mechanical pumps and delivered to the
combustion chamber by pressure-activated injectors in an almost solid-state jet.
Diesel's original engine injected fuel with the assistance of compressed air, which
atomised the fuel and forced it into the engine through a nozzle. This is called an airblast injection. The size of the gas compressor needed to power such a system made
early diesel engines very heavy and large for their power outputs, and the need to
drive a compressor lowered power output even more. Early marine diesels often had
smaller auxiliary engines whose sole purpose was to drive the compressors to supply
air to the main engine's injector system. Such a system was too bulky and inefficient
to be used for road-going automotive vehicles.
Solid injection systems are lighter, simpler, and allow for much higher RPMs, and so
are universally used for automotive diesel engines. Air-blast systems provide very
efficient combustion under low-speed, high-load conditions, especially when running
on poor-quality fuels, so some large cathedral marine engines use this injection
method. Air-blast injection also raises the fuel temperature during the injection
process, so is sometimes known as hot-fuel injection. In contrast, solid injection is
sometimes called cold-fuel injection.
Because the vast majority of diesel engines in service today use solid injection, the
information below relates to that system.

Mechanical and electronic injection


Older engines make use of a mechanical fuel pump and valve assembly which is
driven by the engine crankshaft, usually from the timing belt or chain. These engines
use simple injectors which are basically very precise spring-loaded valves which will
open and close at a specific fuel pressure. The pump assembly consists of a pump
which pressurizes the fuel and a disc-shaped valve which rotates at half crankshaft
speed. The valve has a single aperture to the pressurized fuel on one side, and one
aperture for each injector on the other. As the engine turns, the valve discs will line up
and deliver a burst of pressurized fuel to the injector at the cylinder about to enter its
power stroke. The injector valve is forced open by the fuel pressure, and the diesel is
injected until the valve rotates out of alignment and the fuel pressure to that injector is
cut off. Engine speed is controlled by a third disc, which rotates only a few degrees
and is controlled by the throttle lever. This disc alters the width of the aperture
through which the fuel passes, and therefore how long the injectors are held open
before the fuel supply is cut, which controls the amount of fuel injected.

Older diesel engines with mechanical injection pumps could be inadvertently run in
reverse, albeit very inefficiently as witnessed by massive amounts of soot being
ejected from the air intake. This was often a consequence of bump starting a vehicle
using the wrong gear.
This contrasts with the more modern method of having a separate fuel pump which
supplies fuel constantly at high pressure to each injector. Each injector then has a
solenoid which is operated by an electronic control unit, which enables more accurate
control of injector opening times that depend on other control conditions, such as
engine speed and loading, resulting in better engine performance and fuel economy.
This design is also mechanically simpler than the combined pump and valve design,
making it generally more reliable, and less noisy, than its mechanical counterpart.
Both mechanical and electronic injection systems can be used in either direct or
indirect injection configurations.

Indirect injection
An indirect injection diesel engine delivers fuel into a chamber off the combustion
chamber, called a prechamber, where combustion begins and then spreads into the
main combustion chamber, assisted by turbulence created in the chamber. This system
allows smoother, quieter running, and because combustion is assisted by turbulence,
injector pressures can be lower, which in the days of mechanical injection systems
allowed high-speed running suitable for road vehicles (typically up to speed of around
4,000 rpm). The prechamber had the disadvantage of increasing heat loss to the
engine's cooling system and restricting the combustion burn, which reduced the
efficiency by between 5-10% in comparison to a direct injection engine, and nearly all
require some form of cold-start device such as glow plugs. Indirect injection engines
were used widely in small-capacity high-speed diesel engines in automotive, marine
and construction uses from the 1950s, until direct-injection technology advanced in
the 1980s. Indirect injection engines are cheaper to build and it is easier to produce
smooth, quiet running vehicles with a simple mechanical system, so such engines are
still often used in applications which carry less stringent emissions controls than roadgoing vehicles, such as small marine engines, generators, tractors, and pumps. With
electronic injection systems, indirect injection engines are still used in some roadgoing vehicles, but most prefer the greater efficiency of direct injection.
During the development of the high-speed diesel engine in the 1930s, various engine
manufacturers developed their own type of pre-combustion chamber. Some, such as
Mercedes-Benz, had complex internal designs. Others, such as the Lanova precombustion chamber, used a mechanical system to adjust the shape of the chamber for
starting and running conditions. However, the most commonly-used design turned out
to be the 'Comet' series of swirl chambers developed by Harry Ricardo, using a twopiece spherical chamber with a narrow 'throat' to induce turbulence. Most European
manufacturers of high-speed diesel engines used Comet-type chambers or developed
their own versions (Mercedes stayed with their own design for many years), and this
trend continues with current indirect-injection engines.

Direct injection
Modern diesel engines make use of one of the following direct injection methods:
Distributor pump direct injection
The first incarnations of direct injection diesels used a rotary pump much like indirect
injection diesels; however the injectors were mounted in the top of the combustion
chamber rather than in a separate pre-combustion chamber. Examples are vehicles
such as the Ford Transit and the Austin Rover Maestro and Montego with their
Perkins Prima engine. The problem with these vehicles was the harsh noise that they
made and particulate (smoke) emissions. This is the reason that in the main this type
of engine was limited to commercial vehicles the notable exceptions being the
Maestro, Montego and Fiat Croma passenger cars. Fuel consumption was about
fifteen to twenty percent lower than indirect injection diesels, which for some buyers
was enough to compensate for the extra noise.
One of the first small-capacity, mass-produced direct-injection engines that could be
called refined was developed by the Rover Group.Fact|date=February 2007 The
200Tdi 2.5-litre four-cylinder turbodiesel was used by Land Rover in their vehicles
from 1989, and the engine used an aluminum cylinder head, Bosch two-stage
injection and multi-phase glow plugs to produce a smooth-running and economical
engine while still using mechanical fuel injection.
This type of engine was transformed by electronic control of the injection pump,
pioneered by Volkswagen Audi group with the Audi 100 Turbo Direct Injection|TDI
introduced in 1989. The injection pressure was still only around 300 bar, but the
injection timing, fuel quantity, EGR and turbo boost were all electronically controlled.
This gave much more precise control of these parameters which made refinement
much more acceptable and emissions acceptably low. Fairly quickly the technology
trickled down to more mass market vehicles such as the Mark 3 Golf TDI where it
proved to be very popular. These cars were both more economical and more powerful
than indirect injection competitors of their day.
Common rail direct injection
In older diesel engines, a distributor-type injection pump, regulated by the engine,
supplies bursts of fuel to injectors which are simply nozzles through which the diesel
is sprayed into the engine's combustion chamber.
In common rail systems, the distributor injection pump is eliminated. Instead an
extremely high pressure pump stores a reservoir of fuel at high pressure - up to 1,800
bar (180 MPa, 26,000 psi) - in a "common rail", basically a tube which in turn
branches off to computer-controlled injector valves, each of which contains a
precision-machined nozzle and a plunger driven by a solenoid, or even by piezoelectric actuators (now employed by Mercedes for example, in their high power
output 3.0L V6 common rail diesel).

Most European automakers have common rail diesels in their model lineups, even for
commercial vehicles. Some Japanese manufacturers, such as Toyota, Nissan and
recently Honda, have also developed common rail diesel engines.
Different car makers refer to their common rail engines by different names, e.g.
DaimlerChrysler's CDI, Ford Motor Company's TDCi (most of these engines are
manufactured by PSA), Fiat Group's (Fiat, Alfa Romeo and Lancia) JTD, Renault's
dCi, GM/Opel's CDTi (most of these engines are manufactured by Fiat, other by
Isuzu), Hyundai's CRDi, Mitsubishi's DI-D, PSA Peugeot Citron's HDi (Engines for
commercial diesel vehicles are made by Ford Motor Company), Toyota's D-4D, and
so on.
Unit direct injection
Unit direct injection also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of the engine. However,
in this system the injector and the pump are combined into one unit positioned over
each cylinder. Each cylinder thus has its own pump, feeding its own injector, which
prevents pressure fluctuations and allows more consistent injection to be achieved.
This type of injection system, also developed by Bosch, is used by Volkswagen AG in
cars (where it is called a Pumpe-Dse-System - literally "pump-nozzle system") and
by Mercedes Benz (PLD) and most major diesel engine manufacturers in large
commercial engines (CAT, Cummins, Detroit Diesel). With recent advancements, the
pump pressure has been raised to 2,050 bar (205 MPa), allowing injection parameters
similar to common rail systems.
Hypodermic injection injury hazard
Because many diesel engine fuel injection systems operate at extremely high pressure,
there is a risk of injury by hypodermic injection of fuel, if the fuel injector is removed
from its seat and operated in open air.

Types of diesel engines


Early diesel engines
Rudolph Diesel intended his engine to replace the steam engine as the primary power
source for industry. As such diesel engines in the late 19th- and early 20th-centuries
used the same basic layout and form as industrial steam engines, with long-bore
cylinders, external valve gear,cross-head bearings and an open crankshaft connected
to a large flywheel. Smaller engines would be built with vertical cylinders, whilst
most medium- and large-sized industrial engines were built with horizontal cylinders,
just as steam engines had been. Engines could be built with more than one cylinder in
both cases. The largest early diesels resembled the triple-expansion reciprocating
engine steam engine, being tens of feet high with vertical cylinders arranged in-line.
These early engines ran at very slow speeds- partly due to the limitations of their airblast injector equipment and partly so they would be compatible with the majority of
industrial equipment designed for steam engines- speed ranges of between 100 and

300 RPM were common. Engines were usually started by allowing compressed air
into the cylinders to turn the engine, although smaller engines could be started by
hand.
In the early decades of the 20th century, when large diesel engines were first being
fitted to ships, the engines took a form similar to the compound steam engines
common at the time, with the piston being connected to the connecting rod via a
crosshead bearing. Following steam engine practice, double-acting 4-stroke diesel
engines were constructed to increase power output, with combustion taking place on
both sides of the piston, with two sets of valve gear and fuel injection. This system
also meant that the engine's direction of rotation could be reversed by altering the
injector timing. This meant the engine could be coupled directly to the propeller
without the need for a gearbox. Whilst producing large amounts of power and being
very efficient, the double-acting diesel engine's main problem was producing a good
seal where the piston rod passed through the bottom of the lower combustion chamber
to the crosshead bearing. By the 1930s it was found easier and more reliable to fit
turbochargers to the engines, although crosshead bearings are still used to reduce the
stress on the crankshaft bearings in large long-stroke cathedral engines.

Modern diesel engines


There are two classes of diesel and gasoline engines, two-stroke and four-stroke. Most
diesels generally use the four-stroke cycle, with some larger diesels operating on the
two-stroke cycle, mainly the huge engines in ships. Most modern locomotives use a
two-stroke diesel mated to a generator, which produces current to drive electric
motors, eliminating the need for a transmission. To achieve operational pressure in the
cylinders, two-stroke diesels must utilize forced aspiration from either a turbocharger
or supercharger. Diesel two-strokes are ideal for such applications because of their
high power density--with twice as many power strokes per crankshaft revolution
compared to a four-stroke, they are capable of producing much more power per
displacement.
Normally, banks of cylinders are used in multiples of two, although any number of
cylinders can be used as long as the load on the crankshaft is counterbalanced to
prevent excessive oscillation|vibration. The inline-6 is the most prolific in medium- to
heavy-duty engines, though the V8 and straight-4 are also common. Small-capacity
engines (generally considered to be those below 5 litres in capacity are generally 4- or
6-cylinder types, with the 4-cylinder being the most common type found in
automotive uses. 5-cylinder diesel engines have also been produced, being a
compromise between the smooth running of the 6-cylinder and the space-efficient
dimensions of the 4-cylinder. Diesel engines for smaller plant machinery, boats,
tractors, generators and pumps may be 4-, 3-, 2-cylinder types, with the single
cylinder diesel engine remaining for light stationary work.
The desire to improve the diesel engine's power-to-weight ratio produced several
novel cylinder arrangements to extract more power from a given capacity. The Napier
Deltic engine, with three cylinders arranged in a triangular formation, each containing
two opposed-action pistons, the whole engine having three crankshafts, is one of the
better known. The Commer van company of the United Kingdom developed a similar
design for road vehicles. The Commer engine had 3 horizontal in-line cylinders, each

with two opposed action pistons and the engine had two crankshafts. Whilst both
these designs succeeded in producing greater power for a given capacity, they were
complex and expensive to produce and operate, and when turbocharger technology
improved in the 1960s this was found to be a much more reliable and simple way of
extracting more power.
As a footnote, prior to 1949, Sulzer started experimenting with two-stroke engines
with boost pressures as high as 6 atmospheres, in which all of the output power was
taken from an exhaust turbine. The two-stroke pistons directly drove air compressor
pistons to make a positive displacement gas generator. Opposed pistons were
connected by linkages instead of crankshafts. Several of these units could be
connected together to provide power gas to one large output turbine. The overall
thermal efficiency was roughly twice that of a simple gas turbine. (Source Modern
High-Speed Oil Engines Volume II by C. W. Chapman published by The Caxton
Publishing Co. Ltd. reprinted in July 1949)

Carbureted compression ignition model engines


Simple compression ignition engines are made for model propulsion. This is quite
similar to the typical glow-plug engine that runs on a mixture of methanol (methyl
alcohol) and lubricant (typically castor oil) (and occasionally nitro-methane to
improve performance) with a hot wire filament to provide ignition. Rather than
containing a glow plug the head has an adjustable contra piston above the piston,
forming the upper surface of the combustion chamber. This contra piston is restrained
by an adjusting screw controlled by an external lever (or sometimes by a removable
hex key). The fuel used contains ether, which is highly volatile and has an extremely
low flash point, combined with kerosene and a lubricant plus a very small proportion
(typically 2%) of ignition improver such as Amyl nitrate or preferably Isopropyl
nitrate nowadays. The engine is started by reducing the compression and setting the
spray bar mixture rich with the adjustable needle valve, gradually increasing the
compression while cranking the engine. The compression is increased until the engine
starts running. The mixture can then be leaned out and the compression increased.
Compared to glow plug engines, model diesel engines exhibit much higher fuel
economy, thus increasing endurance for the amount of fuel carried. They also exhibit
higher torque, enabling the turning of a larger or higher pitched propeller at slower
speed. Since the combustion occurs well before the exhaust port is uncovered, these
engines are also considerably quieter (when unmuffled) than glow-plug engines of
similar displacement. Compared to glow plug engines, model diesels are more
difficult to throttle over a wide range of powers, making them less suitable for radio
control models than either two or four stroke glow-plug engines although this
difference is claimed to be less noticeable with the use of modern schneurle-ported
engines.

Advantages and disadvantages versus spark-ignition


engines
Power and fuel economy
Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines of the same power,
resulting in lower fuel consumption. A common margin is 40% more miles per gallon
for an efficient turbodiesel. For example, the current model koda Octavia, using
Volkswagen Group engines, has a combined Euro rating of 38 miles per US gallon
(6.2 L/100 km) for the 102 bhp (76 kW) petrol engine and 54 mpg (4.4 L/100 km) for
the 105 bhp (75 kilowatts) diesel engine. However, such a comparison doesn't take
into account that diesel fuel is denser and contains about 15% more energy. Adjusting
the numbers for the Octavia, one finds the overall energy efficiency is still about 20%
greater for the diesel version, despite the weight penalty of the diesel engine. When
comparing engines of relatively low power for the vehicle's weight (such as the 75 hp
engines for the VW Golf), the diesel's overall energy efficiency advantage is reduced
further but still between 10 and 15 percent.
While higher compression ratio is helpful in raising efficiency, diesel engines are
much more economical than gasoline (petrol) engines when at low power and at
engine idle. Unlike the petrol engine, diesels lack a butterfly valve (choke) in the inlet
system, which closes at idle. This creates parasitic drag on the incoming air, reducing
the efficiency of petrol/gasoline engines at idle. Due to their lower heat losses, diesel
engines have a lower risk of gradually overheating if left idling for a long periods of
time. For example, in many applications, such as marine, agriculture and railways,
diesels are left idling unattended for many hours or sometimes days. These
advantages are especially attractive in locomotives (see dieselization for more
information).
Naturally aspirated diesel engines are heavier than gasoline engines of the same
power for two reasons. The first is that it takes a larger displacement diesel engine to
produce the same power as a gasoline engine. This is essentially because the diesel
must operate at lower engine speeds.[1] Diesel fuel is injected just before ignition,
leaving the fuel little time to find all the oxygen in the cylinder. In the gasoline
engine, air and fuel are mixed for the entire compression stroke, ensuring complete
mixing even at higher engine speeds. The second reason for the greater weight of a
diesel engine is it must be stronger to withstand the higher combustion pressures
needed for ignition, and the shock loading from the detonation of the ignition mixture.
As a result, the reciprocating mass (the piston and connecting rod), and the resultant
forces to accelerate and to decelerate these masses, are substantially higher the
heavier, the bigger and the stronger the part, and the laws of diminishing returns of
component strength, mass of component and inertia - all come into play to create a
balance of offsets, of optimal mean power output, weight and durability.
Yet it is this same build quality that has allowed some enthusiasts to acquire
significant power increases with turbocharged engines through fairly simple and
inexpensive modifications. A gasoline engine of similar size cannot put out a
comparable power increase without extensive alterations because the stock
components would not be able to withstand the higher stresses placed upon them.

Since a diesel engine is already built to withstand higher levels of stress, it makes an
ideal candidate for performance tuning with little expense. However, it should be said
that any modification that raises the amount of fuel and air put through a diesel engine
will increase its operating temperature which will reduce its life and increase its
service interval requirements. These are issues with newer, lighter, high performance
diesel engines which aren't "overbuilt" to the degree of older engines and are being
pushed to provide greater power in smaller engines.
The addition of a turbocharger or supercharger to the engine greatly assists in
increasing fuel economy and power output, mitigating the fuel-air intake speed limit
mentioned above for a given engine displacement. Boost pressures can be higher on
diesels than gasoline engines, and the higher compression ratio allows a diesel engine
to be more efficient than a comparable spark ignition engine. Although the calorific
value of the fuel is slightly lower at 45.3 MJ/kg (megajoules per kilogram) to gasoline
at 45.8 MJ/kg, diesel fuel is much denser and fuel is sold by volume, so diesel
contains more energy per litre or gallon. The increased fuel economy of the diesel
over the gasoline engine means that the diesel produces less carbon dioxide (CO2) per
unit distance. Recently, advances in production and changes in the political climate
have increased the availability and awareness of biodiesel, an alternative to
petroleum-derived diesel fuel with a much lower net-sum emission of CO2, due to the
absorption of CO2 by plants used to produce the fuel.
The two main factors that held diesel engine back in private vehicles until quite
recently were their low power outputs and high noise levels (characterised by knock
or clatter, especially at low speeds and when cold). This noise was caused by the
sudden ignition of the diesel fuel when injected into the combustion chamber. This
noise was a product of the sudden temperature change, hence it was more pronounced
at low engine temperatures. A combination of improved mechanical technology (such
as two-stage injectors which fire a short 'pilot charge' of fuel into the cylinder to warm
the combustion chamber before delivering the main fuel charge) and electronic
control (which can adjust the timing and length of the injection process to optimise it
for all speeds and temperatures) have almost totally solved these problems in the
latest generation of common-rail designs. Poor power and narrow torque bands have
been solved by the use of turbochargers and intercoolers.

Emissions
Diesel engines produce very little carbon monoxide as they burn the fuel in excess air
even at full load, at which point the quantity of fuel injected per cycle is still about
50% lean of stoichiometric. However, they can produce black soot (or more
specifically diesel particulate matter) from their exhaust, which consists of unburned
carbon compounds. This is often caused by worn injectors, which do not atomize the
fuel sufficiently, or a faulty engine management system which allows more fuel to be
injected than can be burned completely in the available time.
The full load limit of a diesel engine in normal service is defined by the "black smoke
limit", beyond which point the fuel cannot be completely combusted; as the "black
smoke limit" is still considerably lean of stoichiometric it is possible to obtain more
power by exceeding it, but the resultant inefficient combustion means that the extra
power comes at the price of reduced combustion efficiency, high fuel consumption

and dense clouds of smoke, so this is only done in specialised applications (such as
tractor pulling) where these disadvantages are of little concern.
Likewise, when starting from cold, the engine's combustion efficiency is reduced
because the cold engine block draws heat out of the cylinder in the compression
stroke. The result is that fuel is not combusted fully, resulting in blue/white smoke
and lower power outputs until the engine has warmed through. This is especially the
case with in-direct injection engines which are less thermally efficient. With
electronic injection, the timing and length of the injection sequence can be altered to
compensate for this. Older engines with mechanical injection can have manual control
to alter the timing, or multi-phase electronically-controlled glow plugs, that stay on
for a period after start-up to ensure clean combustion- the plugs are automatically
switched to a lower power to prevent them burning out.
Particles of the size normally called PM10 (particles of 10 micrometres or smaller)
have been implicated in health problems, especially in cities. Some modern diesel
engines feature diesel particulate filters, which catch the black soot and when
saturated are automatically regenerated by burning the particles. Other problems
associated with the exhaust gases (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides) can be mitigated
with further investment and equipment; some diesel cars now have catalytic
converters in the exhaust.

Power and torque


For commercial uses requiring towing, load carrying and other tractive tasks, diesel
engines tend to have more desirable torque characteristics. Diesel engines tend to
have their torque peak quite low in their speed range (usually between 1600
2000 rpm for a small-capacity unit, lower for a larger engine used in a truck). This
provides smoother control over heavy loads when starting from rest, and crucially
allows the diesel engine to be given higher loads at low speeds than a petrol/gasoline
engine, which makes them much more economical for these applications. This
characteristic is not so desirable in private cars, so most modern diesels used in such
vehicles use electronic control, variable geometry turbochargers and shorter piston
strokes to achieve a wider spread of torque over the engine's speed range, typically
peaking at around 25003000 rpm.

Reliability
The lack of an electrical ignition system greatly improves the reliability. The high
durability of a diesel engine is also due to its overbuilt nature (see above) as well as
the diesel's combustion cycle, which creates less-violent changes in pressure when
compared to a spark-ignition engine, a benefit that is magnified by the lower rotating
speeds in diesels. Diesel fuel is a better lubricant than gasoline so is less harmful to
the oil film on piston rings and cylinder bores; it is routine for diesel engines to cover
250,000 miles (400 000 km) or more without a rebuild.
Unfortunately, due to the greater compression force required and the increased weight
of the stronger components, starting a diesel engine is a harder task. More torque is
required to push the engine through compression.

Either an electrical starter or an air start system is used to start the engine turning. On
large engines, pre-lubrication and slow turning of an engine, as well as heating, are
required to minimize the amount of engine damage during initial start-up and running.
Some smaller military diesels can be started with an explosive cartridge, called a
Coffman starter, which provides the extra power required to get the machine turning.
In the past, Caterpillar and John Deere used a small gasoline pony motor in their
tractors to start the primary diesel motor. The pony motor heated the diesel to aid in
ignition and utilized a small clutch and transmission to actually spin up the diesel
engine. Even more unusual was an International Harvester design in which the diesel
motor had its own carburetor and ignition system, and started on gasoline. Once
warmed up, the operator moved two levers to switch the motor to diesel operation,
and work could begin. These engines had very complex cylinder heads (with their
own gasoline combustion chambers) and in general were vulnerable to expensive
damage if special care was not taken (especially in letting the engine cool before
turning it off).
As mentioned above, diesel engines tend to have more torque at lower engine speeds
than gasoline engines. However, diesel engines tend to have a narrower power band
than gasoline engines. Naturally-aspirated diesels tend to lack power and torque at the
top of their speed range. This narrow band is a reason why a vehicle such as a truck
may have a gearbox with as many as 16 or more gears, to allow the engine's power to
be used effectively at all speeds. Turbochargers tend to improve power at high engine
speeds, superchargers do the same at lower speeds, and variable geometry
turbochargers improve the engine's performance equally (or make the torque curve
flatter).

Quality and variety of fuels


Petrol/gasoline engines are limited in the variety and quality of the fuels they can
burn. Older petrol engines fitted with a carburetor required a volatile fuel that would
vaporise easily to create the necessary fuel/air mix for combustion. Because both air
and fuel is admitted to the cylinder, if the compression ratio of the engine is too high
or the fuel too volatile (with too low an octane rating), the fuel will ignite under
compression, in a similar fashion to in a diesel engine, before the piston reaches the
top of its stroke. This pre-ignition causes a power loss and over time major damage to
the piston and cylinder. The need for a fuel that is volatile enough to vaporise but not
too volatile (to avoid pre-ignition) means that petrol engines will only run on a narrow
range of fuels. There has been some success at dual-fuel engines that use
gasoline/Ethanol, gasoline/Propane, and gasoline/Methane.
In diesel engines, a mechanical injector system vaporises the fuel (instead of a Venturi
jet in a carburetor as in a petrol engine). This forced vaporisation means that less
volatile fuels can be used. More crucially, because only air is inducted into the
cylinder in a diesel engine, the compression ratio can be much higher as there is no
risk of pre-ignition provided the injection process is accurately timed. This means that
cylinder temperatures are much higher in a diesel engine than a petrol engine allowing
less combustible fuels to be used.
Diesel fuel is a form of light fuel oil, very similar to kerosene, but diesel engines,
especially older or simple designs that lack precision electronic injection systems, can

run on a wide variety of other fuels. One of the most common alternatives is vegetable
oil from a very wide variety of plants. Some engines can be run on vegetable oil
without modification, and most others require fairly basic alterations. Bio-diesel is a
pure diesel fuel refined from vegetable oil and can be used in nearly all diesel engines.
The only limits on the fuels used in diesel engines are the ability of the fuel to flow
along the fuel lines and the ability of the fuel to lubricate the injector pump and
injectors adequately.
Most large marine diesels (often called cathedral engines due to their size) run on
heavy fuel oil (sometimes called "bunker oil"), which is a thick, viscous and almost
un-flammable fuel which is very safe to store and cheap to buy in bulk as it is a waste
product from the petroleum refining industry. The fuel must be heated to thin it out
(often by the exhaust header) and is often passed through multiple injection stages to
vaporise it.

Dieseling in spark-ignition engines


A gasoline (spark ignition) engine can sometimes act as a compression ignition engine
under abnormal circumstances, a phenomenon typically described as pinging or
pinking (during normal running) or dieseling(when the engine continues to run after
the electrical ignition system is shut off). This is usually caused by hot carbon
deposits within the combustion chamber that act as would a glow plug within a diesel
or model aircraft engine. Excessive heat can also be caused by improper ignition
timing and/or fuel/air ratio which in turn overheats the exposed portions of the spark
plug within the combustion chamber. Finally, high-compression engines that require
high octane fuel may knock when a lower-octane fuel is used.

Fuel and fluid characteristics


Diesel engines can operate on a variety of different fuels, depending on configuration,
though the eponymous diesel fuel derived from crude oil is most common. Goodquality diesel fuel can be synthesised from vegetable oil and alcohol. Biodiesel is
growing in popularity since it can frequently be used in unmodified engines, though
production remains limited. Recently, Biodiesel from coconut which can produce a
very promising coco methyl esther (CME) has characteristics which enhances
lubricity and combustion giving a regular diesel engine without any modification
more power, less particulate matter or black smoke and smoother engine performance.
The Philippines pioneers in the research on Coconut based CME with the help of
German and American scientists. Petroleum-derived diesel is often called petrodiesel
if there is need to distinguish the source of the fuel.
The engines can work with the full spectrum of crude oil distillates, from compressed
natural gas, alcohols, gasolene, to the fuel oils from diesel oil to residual fuels. The
type of fuel used is a combination of service requirements, and fuel costs.
Residual fuels are the "dregs" of the distillation process and are a thicker, heavier oil,
or oil with higher viscosity, which are so thick that they are not readily pumpable
unless heated. Residual fuel oils are cheaper than clean, refined diesel oil, although
they are dirtier. Their main considerations are for use in ships and very large

generation sets, due to the cost of the large volume of fuel consumed, frequently
amounting to many tonnes per hour. The poorly refined biofuels straight vegetable oil
(SVO) and waste vegetable oil (WVO) can fall into this category. Moving beyond
that, use of low-grade fuels can lead to serious maintenance problems. Most diesel
engines that power ships like supertankers are built so that the engine can safely use
low grade fuels.
Normal diesel fuel is more difficult to ignite than gasoline because of its higher flash
point, but once burning, a diesel fire can be fierce.

Diesel applications
The worldwide usage of the diesel engine is very much dependent on local conditions
and the specific application. Applications which require the diesel's reliability and
high torque output (such as tractors, trucks, heavy equipment, most buses etc.) are
found practically world-wide (obviously these applications also benefit from the
diesel's improved fuel economy). Local conditions such as fuel prices play a big part
in the acceptance of the diesel engine- for example, in Europe most tractors were
diesel-powered by the end of the 1950s, whilst in the USA diesel did not dominate the
market until the 1970s. Similarly, around half of all the cars sold in Europe (where
fuel prices are high) are diesel-powered, whilst practically no North American private
cars have diesel engines, because of much lower fuel costs and a poor public image.
Besides their use in merchant ships and boats, there is also a naval advantage in the
relative safety of diesel fuel, additional to improved range over a gasoline engine. The
German "pocket battleships" were the largest diesel warships, but the German
torpedo-boats known as E-boats (Schnellboot) of the Second World War were also
diesel craft. Conventional submarines have used them since before the First World
War. It was an advantage of American diesel-electric submarines that they operated a
two-stroke cycle as opposed to the four-stroke cycle that other navies used.
Mercedes-Benz, cooperating with Robert Bosch GmbH, has had a successful run of
diesel-powered passenger cars since 1936, sold in many parts of the World, with other
manufacturers joining in the 1970s and 1980s. Other car manufacturers followed,
Borgward in 1952, Fiat in 1953 and Peugeot in 1958.
In the United States, diesel is not as popular in passenger cars as in Europe. Such cars
have been traditionally perceived as heavier, noisier, having performance
characteristics which make them slower to accelerate, sootier, smellier, and of being
more expensive than equivalent gasoline vehicles. From the late seventies to about the
mid-eighties, General Motors' Oldsmobile, Cadillac, and Chevrolet divisions
produced a low-powered and unreliable diesel version of their gasoline-powered V8
engines which is one very good reason for this reputation. Dodge with its ever-famous
Cummins inline-six diesels optioned in pickup trucks (since about the late 1980s)
really revitalized the appeal for diesel power in light vehicles among American
consumers, though, but a superior and widely-accepted American regular-production
diesel passenger car never materialized. Trying to convert a gasoline engine for
diesel use proved foolhardy on the part of GM. Ford Motor Company tried diesel
engines in some passenger cars in the 1980s, but to not much avail. In addition, before

the introduction of 15 parts per million ultra-low sulfur diesel, which started at 15
October 2006 in the U.S. (1 June 2006 in Canada), diesel fuel used in North America
still had higher sulfur content than the fuel used in Europe, effectively limiting diesel
use to industrial vehicles, which had further contributed to the negative image. Ultralow sulfur diesel is not mandatory until 2010 in the US. This image does not reflect
recent designs, especially where the very high low-rev torque of modern diesels is
concerned which have characteristics similar to the big V8 gasoline engines
popular in the US. Light and heavy trucks, in the U.S., have been diesel-optioned for
years. After the introduction of ultra-low sulfur diesel, Mercedes-Benz has marketed
passenger vehicles under the BlueTec banner. In addition, other manufacturers such
as Ford, General Motors, Honda planned to sell Diesel vehicle in the US in 20082009, designed to meet the tougher emissions requirements in 2010.
In Canada, Smart Fortwo was first introduced in 2004 with a diesel engine, up until
2008.[2]
In Japan, newly registered Diesel vehicles were less than 1% in 2005[1]. Honda and
Mercedes-Benz have made plans to offer Diesel vehicles in the future, with
Mercedes-Benz having already started selling the Mercedes-Benz E320 CDI in
autumn 2006.
European governments tend to favor diesel engines in taxation policy because of
diesel's superior fuel efficiency.
In Europe, where tax rates in many countries make diesel fuel much cheaper than
gasoline, diesel vehicles are very popular (over half the new cars sold are powered by
diesel engines) and newer designs have significantly narrowed differences between
petrol and diesel vehicles in the areas mentioned. Often, among comparably
designated models, the turbodiesels outperform their naturally aspirated petrolpowered sister cars. One anecdote tells of Formula One driver Jenson Button, who
was arrested while driving a diesel-powered BMW 330cd Coup at 230 km/h (about
140 mph) in France, where he was too young to have a gasoline-engined car hired to
him. Button dryly observed in subsequent interviews that he had actually done BMW
a public relations service, as nobody had believed a diesel could be driven that fast.
Yet, BMW had already won the 24 Hours Nrburgring overall in 1998 with a 3-series
diesel. The BMW diesel lab in Steyr, Austria is led by Ferenc Anisits and develops
innovative diesel engines.
Mercedes-Benz, offering diesel-powered passenger cars since 1936, has put the
emphasis on high performance diesel cars in its newer ranges, as does Volkswagen
with its brands. Citron sells more cars with diesel engines than gasoline engines, as
the French brands (also Peugeot) pioneered smoke-less HDI designs with filters. Even
the Italian marque Alfa Romeo, known for design and successful history in racing,
focuses on diesels that are also raced.
A few motorcycles have been built using diesel engines, but the weight and cost
disadvantages generally outweigh the efficiency gains in this application.
Within the Diesel Engine industry, engines are often categorized by their speed into
three unofficial groups:

High-speed
High-speed (approximately 1200 rpm and greater) engines are used to power
trucks (lorries), buses, tractors, cars, yachts, compressors, pumps and small
electrical generators.
Medium-speed
Large electrical generators are often driven by medium speed engines,
(approximately 300 to 1200 rpm) which are optimised to run at a set
(synchronous) speed depending on the generation frequency (50 or 60 Hz) and
provide a rapid response to load changes. Medium speed engines are also used
for ship propulsion and mechanical drive applications such as large
compressors or pumps. The largest medium speed engines produced today
(2007) have outputs up to approximately 22,400 kW (30,000 bhp). Medium
speed engines produced today are primarily four-stroke machines, however
there are some two-stroke units still in production.
Low-speed
(aka "Slow-speed") The largest diesel engines are primarily used to power
ships, although there are a very few land-based power generation units as well.
These extremely large two-stroke engines have power outputs up to 80MW,
operate in the range from approximately 60 to 120 rpm, and are up to 15 m
tall, and can weigh over 2000 tons. They typically run on cheap low-grade
"heavy fuel", also known as "Bunker" fuel, which requires heating in the ship
for tanking and before injection due to the fuel's high viscosity. Companies
such as MAN B&W Diesel, (formerly Burmeister & Wain) and Wrtsil
(which acquired Sulzer Diesel) design such large low speed engines. They are
unusually narrow and tall due to the addition of a crosshead bearing. Today
(2007), the 14 cylinder Wrtsil RT-flex 96C turbocharged two-stroke diesel
engine built by Wrtsil licensee Doosan in Korea is the most powerful diesel
engine put into service, with a cylinder bore of 960 mm delivering 80.08 MW
(108,920 bhp). It was put into service in September 2006, aboard the world's
largest container ship Emma Maersk which belongs to the A.P. Moller-Maersk
Group.

Unusual applications
Aircraft
The zeppelins Graf Zeppelin II and Hindenburg were propelled by reversible diesel
engines. The direction of operation was changed by shifting gears on the camshaft.
From full power forward, the engines could be brought to a stop, changed over, and
brought to full power in reverse in less than 60 seconds.
Diesel engines were first tried in aircraft in the 1930s. A number of manufacturers
built engines, the best known probably being the Packard air-cooled radial, and the
Junkers Jumo 205, which was moderately successful, but proved unsuitable for
combat use in WWII. Postwar, another interesting proposal was the complex Napier
Nomad. In general, though, the lower power-to-weight ratio of diesels, particularly
compared to kerosene-powered turboprop engines, has precluded their use in this
application.

The very high cost of avgas in Europe, and the advances in automotive diesel
technology have seen renewed interest in the concept. New, certified diesel-powered
light planes are already available, and a number of other companies are also
developing new engine and aircraft designs for the purpose. Many of these run on the
readily-available jet fuel, or can run on either jet fuel or conventional automotive
diesel. To gain the high power:weight ratio needed for an aero engine, these new
'aero-diesels' are usually two-strokes and some, like the British 'Dair' engine, use
opposed-action pistons to gain further power.
Automobile racing
Although the weight and lower output of a diesel engine tend to keep them away from
automotive racing applications, there are many diesels being raced in classes that call
for them, mainly in truck racing and tractor pulling, as well in types of racing where
these drawbacks are less severe, such as land speed record racing or endurance racing.
Even diesel engined dragsters exist, despite the diesel's drawbacks of weight and low
peak rpm, specifications central to performance in this sport.[3]
1931 - Clessie Cummins installed his diesel in a race car, hitting 162 km/h at Daytona
and 138 km/h at the Indianapolis 500 race, where Dave Evans drove it to 13th place
by finishing the entire race without a pit stop, relying on torque and fuel efficiency to
overcome weight and low peak power. [2],[3]
In 1933, A 1925 Bentley with a Gardner 4LW engine was the first diesel-engine car to
take part in the Monte Carlo Rally when it was driven by Lord Howard de Clifford. It
was the leading British car and finished fifth overall. [4]
In 1952, Fred Agabashian in a Cummins diesel won the pole at the Indianapolis 500
race with a turbocharged 6.6 liter diesel car, setting a record for pole position lap
speed, 222.108 km/h or 138.010 mph[5]. Don Cummins and his chief engineer Neve
Reiners recognized that the low center of gravity of the flat engine configuration
(designed to lie beneath the floor of a bus) plus the power advantage gained by the
novel use of Elliott turbocharging would be a winning combination[6]. At the start, a
slow pace lap (reportedly less than 80 mph) apparently induced what is now referred
to as "turbo lag" and badly hampered the throttle response of the Cummins Diesel.
Although Agabashian found himself in eighth place before reaching the first turn, he
moved up to fifth in a few laps and was running competitively (albeit well back in the
field after a tire change) until the badly situated air intake of the car swallowed
enough debris from the track to disable the turbocharger at lap 71; he finished 27th.
[7] (The reference to the Cummins Diesel leading laps in the race on the
www.mg.co.za web page is incorrect; see the Wiki page on the 1952 Indianapolis
500)
With turbocharged diesel cars getting stronger in the 1990s, they were also entered in
touring car racing, and BMW even won the 24 Hours Nrburgring in 1998 with a
320d, against other factory-entered diesel competition of Volkswagen and about 200
normally powered cars. Alfa Romeo even organized a racing series with their Alfa
Romeo 147 1.9 JTD models.

The VW Dakar Rally entrants for 2005 and 2006 are powered by their own line of
TDI engines in order to challenge for the first overall diesel win there. Meanwhile, the
five time 24 Hours of Le Mans winner Audi R8 race car was replaced by the Audi
R10 in 2006, which is powered by a 650 hp (485 kW) and 1100 Nm (810 lbfft) V12
TDI common rail diesel engine, mated to a 5-speed gearbox, instead of the 6 used in
the R8, to handle the extra torque produced. The gearbox is considered the main
problem, as earlier attempts by others failed due to the lack of suitable transmissions
that could stand the torque long enough.
After winning the 12 Hours of Sebring in 2006 with their diesel-powered R10, Audi
obtained the overall win at the 2006 24 Hours of Le Mans, too. This is the first time a
sports car can compete for overall victories with diesel fuel against cars powered with
regular fuel or methanol and bio-ethanol. However, the significance of this is slightly
lessened by the fact that the ACO/ALMS race rules encourage the use of alternative
fuels such as diesel.
Audi again triumphed at Sebring in 2007. It had both a speed and fuel economy
advantage over the entire field including the Porsche RS Spyder's which are gasoline
powered purpose-built race cars. After the Sebring win it's safe to say that Audi's
diesels will win the 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans again this year. The only competition
coming from Peugot's diesel powered 908 racer. But that car has not turned a wheel in
a race.
In 2006, the JCB Dieselmax broke the diesel land speed record posting an average
speed of over 328 mph. The vehicle used "two diesel engines that have a combined
total of 1,500 horsepower (1120 kilowatts). Each is a 4-cylinder, 4.4-liter engine used
commercially as a backhoe loader." See MSNBC news See BBC news
Motorcycles
With a traditionally poor power-to-weight ratio, diesel engines are generally unsuited
to use in a motorcycle, which requires high power, light weight and a fast-revving
engine. However, in the 1980s NATO forces in Europe standardised all their vehicles
to diesel power. Some had fleets of motorcycles, and so trials were conducted with
diesel engines for these. Air-cooled single-cylinder engines built by Lombardini of
Italy were used and had some success, achieving similar performance to petrol bikes
and fuel usage of nearly 200 miles per gallon. This led to some countries re-fitting
their bikes with diesel power.
Development by Cranfield University and California-based Hayes Diversified
Technologies led to the production of a diesel powered off road motorbike based on
the running gear of a Kawasaki KLR650 petrol-engine trail bike for military use. The
engine of the diesel motorcycle is a liquid cooled, single cylinder four- stroke which
displaces 584 cm and produces 21 kW (28 bhp) with a top speed of 85mph
(136 km/h). Hayes Diversified Technologies mooted, but has subsequently delayed,
the delivery of a civilian version for approx USD$19,000. Expensive compared to
comparable models.
In 2005 the United States Marine Corps adopted the M1030M1, a dirtbike based on
the Kawasaki KLR650 and modified with an engine designed to run on diesel or JP8

jet fuel. Since other U.S. tactical vehicles like the Humvee utility vehicle and M1
Abrams tank use JP8, adopting a scout motorcycle which runs on the same fuels made
sense from a logistical standpoint.
In India, motorcycles built by Royal Enfield can be bought with 650 cm singlecylinder diesel engines based on the similar petrol engines used, due to the fact that
diesel is much cheaper than petrol and of more reliable quality. These engines are
noisy and unrefined, but very popular due to their reliability and economy.

Current and future developments


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Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. (help, get involved!)
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been tagged since October 2006.

Already, many common rail and unit injection systems employ new injectors using
stacked piezoelectric crystals in lieu of a solenoid, which gives finer control of the
injection event.
Variable geometry turbochargers have flexible vanes, which move and let more air
into the engine depending on load. This technology increases both performance and
fuel economy. Boost lag is reduced as turbo impeller inertia is compensated for.
Accelerometer pilot control (APC) uses an accelerometer to provide feedback on the
engine's level of noise and vibration and thus instruct the ECU to inject the minimum
amount of fuel that will produce quiet combustion and still provide the required
power (especially while idling.)
The next generation of common rail diesels is expected to use variable injection
geometry, which allows the amount of fuel injected to be varied over a wider range,
and variable valve timing similar to that on gasoline engines.
Particularly in the United States, coming tougher emissions regulations present a
considerable challenge to diesel engine manufacturers. Other methods to achieve even
more efficient combustion, such as HCCI (homogeneous charge compression
ignition) are being studied.

Modern diesel facts


Fuel passes through the injector jets at speeds of nearly 1500 miles per hour (2400
km/h)
Fuel is injected into the combustion chamber in less than 1.5 ms about as long as a
camera flashes.
The smallest quantity of fuel injected is one cubic millimetre about the same volume
as the head of a pin. The largest injection quantity at the moment for automobile
diesel engines is around 70 cubic millimetres.
If the crankshaft of a six-cylinder engine is turning at 4500 rpm, the injection system
has to control and deliver 225 injection cycles per second.
On a demonstration drive, a Volkswagen 1-litre diesel-powered car used only 0.89
litres of fuel in covering 100 kilometres (264 mpg {US}, 317 mpg
{Imperial/English}) making it probably the most fuel-efficient car in the world.
Boschs high-pressure fuel injection system was one of the main factors behind the
prototypes extremely low fuel consumption. Production record-breakers in fuel
economy include the Volkswagen Lupo 3 L TDI and the Audi A2 3 L 1.2 TDI with
standard consumption figures of 3 litres of fuel per 100 kilometres (78 mpg {US}, 94
mpg {Imperial}). Their high-pressure diesel injection systems are also supplied by
Bosch.
In 2001, nearly 36% of newly registered cars in Western Europe had diesel engines.
By way of comparison: in 1996, diesel-powered cars made up only 15% of the new
car registrations in Germany. Austria leads the league table of registrations of dieselpowered cars with 66%, followed by Belgium with 63% and Luxembourg with 58%.
Germany, with 34.6% in 2001, was in the middle of the league table. Sweden is
lagging behind, in 2004 only 8% of the new cars had a diesel engine (in Sweden,
diesel cars are much more heavily taxed than equivalent gasoline cars).

Diesel car history


The first production diesel cars were the Mercedes-Benz 260D and the Hanomag
Rekord, both introduced in 1936. The Citron Rosalie was also produced between
1935 and 1937 with an extremely rare diesel engine option (the 1766 cc 11UD
engine) only in the Familiale (estate or station wagon) version. [8]
Following the 1970s oil crisis, turbodiesels were tested (e. g. by the Mercedes-Benz
C111 experimental and record-setting vehicles). The first production turbo diesel car
was, in 1978, the 3.0 5-cyl 115 HP (86 kW) Mercedes 300 SD, available only in
North America. In Europe, the Peugeot 604 with a 2.3 litre turbo diesel was
introduced in 1979, and then the Mercedes 300 TD turbo.

Many Audi enthusiasts claim that the Audi 100 TDI was the first turbo charged direct
injection diesel sold in 1989, but actually it isn't true, as the Fiat Croma TD-i.d. was
sold with turbo direct injection in 1986 and two years later Austin Rover Montego.
What was pioneering about the Audi 100 however was the use of electronic control of
the engine, as the Fiat and Austin had purely mechanically controlled injection. The
electronic control of direct injection really made a difference in terms of emissions,
refinement and power.
It's interesting to see that the big players in the diesel car market are the same ones
who pioneered various developments (Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Peugeot/Citron, Fiat,
Alfa Romeo, Volkswagen Group), with the exception of Austin Rover- although
Austin Rover's ancestor, The Rover Motor Company had been building smallcapacity diesel engines since 1956, when it introduced a 2051 cm 4-cylinder diesel
engine for its Land Rover 4 4.
In 1998, for the very first time in the history of racing, in the legendary 24 Hours
Nrburgring race, a diesel-powered car was the overall winner: the BMW works team
320d, a BMW E36 fitted with modern high-pressure diesel injection technology from
Robert Bosch GmbH. The low fuel consumption and long range, allowing 4 hours of
racing at once, made it a winner, as comparable petrol-powered cars spent more time
refueling.
In 2006, the new Audi R10 TDI LMP1 entered by Joest Racing became the first
diesel-engined car to win the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The winning car also bettered the
post-1990 course configuration lap record by 1, at 380. However, this fell short of the
all-time distance record set in 1971 by over 200 km.

Hydraulics
Preface
A hydraulic or hydrostatic drivesystem or hydraulic power transmission is a
drive- or transmission system that makes use of a hydraulic fluid under pressure to
drive a machinery.
Such a system basically consists out of:

Generator part of the transmission, in general a hydraulic pump, driven by an


electric motor, a combustion engine or maybe a windmill.
Valves, filters, piping etc. to guide and control the system
Motor part of the transmission a hydraulic motor or hydraulic cylinder to drive
the machinery.

Hydrostatic means that the energy comes from the flow and the pressure, but not from
the kinetic energy of the flow.

Principle of a hydraulic drive

Principle of hydraulic drive system


Pascal's law is the background of hydraulic drive systems. As the pressure in the
system is the same, the force that the fluid gives to the surroundings is therefore equal
to pressure x area.
In such a way, a small plunger feels a small force and a large piston feels a large
force.
The same counts for a hydraulic pump with a small sweptvolume, that asks for a small
torque, combined with a hydraulic motor with a large sweptvolume, that gives a large
torque.
In such a way a transmission with a certain ratio can be built.
Most hydraulic drive systems make use of hydraulic cylinders. Here the same
principle is used- a small torque can be transmitted in a large force.
By throttling the fluid between generator part and motor part, or by using hydraulic
pumps and/or motors with adjustable swept volume, the ratio of the transmission can
be changed easily. In case throttling is used, the efficiency of the transmission is

limitted; in case adjustable pumps and motors are used, the efficiency however is very
large. In fact up to say 1980, a hydraulic drive system had hardly competition from
other adjustable (electric) drive systems.
Nowadays electric drive systems using electric servo-motors can be controlled in an
excellent way and can easily compete with rotating hydraulic drive systems.
Hydraulic cylinders are in fact without competition for linear (high) forces. For these
cylinders anyway hydraulic systems will remain of interest and if such a system is
available, it is easy and logical to use this system also for the rotating drives of the
system.

Hydraulic pump
Under item hydraulic pump more detailed information is given about hydraulic
pumps. For this item it is of interest to know for what pressure and size hydraulic
pumps are available. The smallest gearpumps (except miniature ones) have a
sweptvolume of 1 cm3 and the largest axial plungerpump that is available from stock
will have a swept volume of 1000 cm3 (2000 cm3 might be possible for a special
delivery). Other pumps are between these two figures. For continuous hydraulic
drives, the maximum working pressure will be some 200 bars. The pumps may be
used up to 450 bars, but at these pressures special components are required and pump
life is limited. Low cost hydraulic drives on garbage trucks may use gearpumps with
maybe 180 bars, depending on the number of working hours. Small pumps can rotate
at high speeds of say 3-5000 rpm, whereas large pumps only can rotate at 1200 or
1500 rpm. Sometimes it is important to use multiple pumps, so that each motor or
cylinder within the hydraulic drive system can have his own pump. In case an
adjustable speed is required, it is often better to use adjustable pumps in order to save
energy (no throttling). For constant power or constant pressure systems also
adjustable vanepumps are used. The simple control system decreases the swept
volume automatically if the pressure that is asked for increases. Sometimes closed
loop systems are used, in that case normally axial plunger-pumps are used (with
separate leakage connection. These systems can cope with negative forces and
because of the boost pressure, the pumps can be rotated at a higher speed.

Hydraulic motor
A hydraulic motor can in fact be a rotating hydraulic motor as well as a linear
hydraulic motor (cylinder). Hydraulic cylinders are described here separately. In fact
a hydraulic motor is more or less identical to a hydraulic pump. The main difference
is that a hydraulic motor is designed for the working pressure at both sides of the
motor, like a hydraulic pump for a closed loop system. Following types of hydraulic
motors are available

Gear motor
Vane motor

Axial plungermotor bent axis


Axial plungermotor Swash plate
Radial plungermotor

Gear and vane motors are used in simple rotating systems that may be used now and
then. If high quality rotating drive systems are used in general plungermotors are
used. Whereas the speed of hydraulic pumps is mostly 1200 -1800 rpm, the
machinery that should be driven by the motor asks for a much lower speed. This
means that in case an axial plungermotor (swept volume maximum 2 litres) is used,
mostly a gearbox is needed. Radial pistonmotors can be obtained with very large
sweptvolumes. Sometimes because the total piston volume of the pump is large
(sometimes up to 8-9 litres), sometimes because the pistons move more than one time
each revolution(sometimes up to 250 (!) litres working sweptvolume). By decreasing
the sweptvolume of the motor, the speed goes up and the maximum torque decreases.
For a continuous adjustable swept volume, axial pistonmotors are used. Radial motors
can get an adjustable sweptvolume by switching off a part of the plungers. Hydraulic
motors have a leakage connection, this means that a hydraulic motor in a drive system
can never hold the load, like a hydraulic cylinder can do. There is always a need for a
brake or a locking device device. Hydraulic motors are used for winch and crane
drives and as wheelmotors for military vehicles, self driving cranes and excavators.

Hydraulic cylinder
Hydraulic cylinder(also called linear hydraulic motors) are mechanical actuators that
are used to give a linear force through a linear stroke. A hydraulic cylinder is without
doubt the best known hydraulic component. Hydraulic cylinders ar able to give
pushing and pulling forces of millions of metric tons, with only a simple hydraulic
system. Very simple hydraulic cylinders are used in presses; here the cylinder consists
out of a volume in a piece of iron with a plunger pushed in it and sealed with a cover.
By pumping hydraulic fluid in the volume, the plunger is pushed out with a force of
plungerarea * pressure. More sophisticated cylinders have a body with end cover, a
pistonrod with piston and a cylinderhead. At one side the bottom is for instance
connected to a single clevis, whereas at the other side, the pistonrod also is foreseen
with a single clevis. The cylindershell normally has hydraulic connections at both
sides. A connection at bottomside and one at cylinderheadside. If oil is pushed under
the piston, the pistonrod is pushed out and oil that was between the piston and the
cylinderhead is pushed back to the oiltank again. The pushing or pulling force of a
hydraulic cylinder is:
F = Ab * pb - Ah * ph
F = Pushing Force in N
Ab = (/4) * (Bottomdiameter)^2 [in m2]
Ah = (/4) * ((Bottomdiameter)^2-(Pistonroddiameter)^2)) [in m2]
pb = pressure at bottomside in [N/m2]
ph = pressure at cylinderheadside in [N/m2]
Apart from miniature cylinders, in general, the smallest cylinderdiameter is 32 mm

and the smallest pistonrod diameter is 16 mm. Simple hydraulic cylinders have a
maximum working pressure of say 70 bars, the next step is 140 bars, 210 bars.
320/350 bars and further, the cylinders are in general custom build. The stroke of a
hydraulic cylinder is limitted by the manufacturing proces. The majority of hydraulic
cylinders have a stroke between 0,3 and 5 metres, whereas 12-15 metre stroke is also
possible, but for this length only a limitted number of suppliers are on the market.
In case the retracted length of the cylinder is too long for the cylinder to be build in
the structure. In this case telescopic cylinders can be used. One has to realise that for
simple pushing applications telescopic cylinders might be available easily; for higher
forces and/or double acting cylinders, they must be designed especially and are very
expensive. If hydraulic cylinders are only used for pushing and the pistonrod is
brought in again by other means, one can also use plunger cylinders. Plunger
cylinders have no sealing over the piston, or the piston does not exist. This means that
only one oilconnection is necessary. In general the diameter of the plunger is rather
large compared with a normal pistoncylinder, because this large area is needed.
Whereas a hydraulic motor will always leak oil, a hydraulic cylinder does not have a
leakage over the piston nor over the cylinderheadsealing, so that there is no need for a
mechanical brake.

Hydraulic valves
Hydraulic piping
Open and closed loop system

Principle circuit diagram for open loop and closed loop system.

Hydraulic machinery
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Excavator. Main hydraulics: Boom cylinders, swing and trackdrive.

Hydraulic drill unit. Main hydraulics: Rock drill, feed, boom cylinders, dustcollector
fan and trackdrive.
Hydraulic machinery are machines and tools which use fluid power to do work.
Heavy equipment is a common example.
In this type of machine, high pressure hydraulic fluid is transmitted throughout the
machine to various hydraulic motors and hydraulic cylinders. The fluid is controlled
directly or automatically by control valves and distributed through hoses and tubes.
The popularity of hydraulic machinery is due to the very large amount of power that
can be transferred through small tubes and flexible hoses, and the high power density
and wide array of actuators that can make use of this power.

Hydraulics used to increase force and torque.

Hydraulic power
The science of Fluid pressure provides some of the theory of hydraulics.
1. A force acting on a small area can create a much larger force by acting on a
larger area by virtue of hydrostatic pressure.
2. A large amount of energy can be carried by a small flow of highly pressurized
fluid.
Hydraulic machinery offers a very large amount of power and force with relatively
small components. A typical hydraulic cylinder with a 75 mm (3 inch) bore, for
example, can supply 89 000 N (20,000 lbf). The power transmission in a hydraulic
system is easily controlled with valves.
Some parts of a hydraulic system will operate at about 2000 kPa (300 psi) (pilot
controls, vehicle brakes). The main hydraulic actuators (for example, cylinders or
fluid motors) will typically operate in the range of 7000 - 42000 kPa (1000 - 6000
psi). With advances in materials and design, there is a trend toward higher pressure,
with some systems operating to 100 000 kPa (15,000 psi) and some exotic systems
with titanium hardware operating at over 350 000 kPa (50,000 psi).

Force Multiplication
An interesting thing about hydraulic systems is the ability to apply force
multiplication. Imagine if cylinder one (C1) is one inch in diameter, and cylinder two
(C2) is ten inches in diameter. If the force exerted on C1 is 10 lbs, the force exerted
by C2 is 1000 lbs because C2 is a hundred times larger in area (S=pi*radius*radius)
as C1. The downside to this is that you have to move C1 a hundred inches to move C2
one inch.

Hydraulic circuits

A simple open center hydraulic


circuit.
The equivalent circuit schematic.

For the hydraulic fluid to do work, it must flow to the actuator and or motors, then
return to a reservoir. The fluid is then filtered and re-pumped.
The path taken by hydraulic fluid is called a hydraulic circuit of which there are
several types.
Open center circuits use pumps which supply a continuous flow. The flow is
returned to tank through the control valve's open center; that is, when the control
valve is centered, it provides an open return path to tank and the fluid is not pumped
to a high pressure. Otherwise, if the control valve is actuated it routes fluid to and
from an actuator and tank. The fluid's pressure will rise to meet any resistance, since
the pump has a constant output. If the pressure rises too high, fluid returns to tank
through a pressure relief valve. Multiple control valves may be stacked in series[1].
This type of circuit can use inexpensive, constant displacement pumps.
Closed center circuits supply full pressure to the control valves, whether any valves
are actuated or not. The pumps vary their flow rate, pumping very little hydraulic
fluid until the operator actuates a valve. The valve's spool therefore doesn't need an
open center return path to tank. Multiple valves can be connected in a parallel
arrangement and system pressure is equal for all valves.

Constant pressure system versus load-sensing system

Open loop and closed loop circuit.

The closed center circuits exist in two basic configurations, normally related to the
regulator for the variable pump that supplies the oil:
Constant pressure systems (CP-system), standard. Pumppressure always equals the
pressure setting for the pumpregulator. This setting must cover the maximum required
load pressure. Pump delivers flow according to required sum of flow to the
consumers. The CP-system generates large power losses if the machine works with
large variations in load pressure and the average system pressure is much lower than
the pressure setting for the pump regulator. CP is simple in design. Works like a
pneumatic system. New hydraulic functions can easily be added and the system is
quick in response.
Constant pressure systems (CP-system), unloaded. Same basic configuration as
'standard' CP-system but the pump is unloaded to a low stand-by pressure when all
valves are in neutral position. Not so fast response as standard CP but pump life time
is prolonged.
Load-sensing systems (LS-system) generates less power losses as the pump can
reduce both flow and pressure to match the load requirements, but requires more
tuning than the CP-system with respect to system stability. The LS-system also
requires additional logical valves and compensator valves in the directional valves,
thus it is technically more complex and more expensive than the CP-system. The LSsystem system generates a constant power loss related to the regulating pressure drop
for the pump regulator:
Power loss = pLS Qtot; The avarage pLS is around 20 bar (290 psi). If the pump
flow is high the extra loss can be considerable. The power loss also increase if the
load pressures varies a lot. The cylinder areas, motor displacements and mechanical
torque arms must be designed to match in load pressure in order to bring down the
power losses. Pump pressure always equals the maximum load pressure when several
functions are run simultaneously and the power input to the pump equals the (max.
load pressure + pLS) x sum of flow.
There exists basically 4 type of load-sensing system:
(1) Load sensing without compensators in the directional valves. Hydraulically
controlled LS-pump.
(2) Load sensing with up-stream compensator for each connected directional valve.
Hydraulically controlled LS-pump.
(3) Load sensing with down-stream compensator for each connected directional valve.
Hydraulically controlled LS-pump.
(4) Load sensing with a combination of up-stream and down-stream compensators.
Hydraulically controlled LS-pump.
System type (3) gives the advantage that activated functions are synchronized, flow
relation remains independent of load pressures even if pumps reach the maximum
swivel angle. This feature is important for machines that often run with the pump at

maximum swivel angel and with several activated functions, such as with excavators.
With type (4) system, the functions with up-stream compensators have priority.
Example: Steering-function for a wheel loader.
Other basic system configurations:
Open-loop: Pump-inlet and motor-return (via the directional valve) are connected to
the hydraulic tank.
Closed-loop: Motor-return is connected directly to the pump-inlet. To keep up
pressure on the low pressure side, the circuits have a charge pump (a small gearpump)
that supplies cooled and filtered oil to the low pressure side. Closed-loop circuits are
generally used for hydrostatic transmissions in mobile applications. Advantages: No
directional valve and better response, the circuit can work with higher pressure. The
pump swivel angle covers both positive and negative flow direction. Disadvantages:
The pump cannot be utilized for any other hydraulic function and cooling can be a
problem due to the limited exchange of oil flow. Closed loop systems generally have
a 'flush-valve' assembled in the hydraulic motor in order to exchange more flow than
the basic leakage flow from the pump and the motor, for increased the cooling and
filtering effects. The leakage flow as well as the extra flush flow must be supplied by
the charge pump. Closed loop systems in mobile equipment are generally used for the
transmission as an alternative to mechanical and hydrodynamic (converter)
transmissions. The advantage is a stepless gear ratio (hydrostatic gear ratio) and a
more flexible control of the gear ratio depending on load and operating conditions.

Hydraulic pump

A magnified view of an external gear pump.


Hydraulic pumps supply fluid to the components in the system. Pressure in the system
develops in reaction to the load. Hence, a pump rated for 5,000 psi is capable of
maintaining flow against a load of 5,000 psi.
Pumps have a power density about ten times greater than an electric motor (by
volume). They are powered by an electric motor or an engine, connected through
gears, belts, or a flexible elastomeric coupling to reduce vibration.
Common types of hydraulic pumps to hydraulic machinery applications are;

Gear pump: cheap, durable, simple. Less efficient, because they are constant
displacement, and mainly suitable for pressures below 200 bar (3000 psi).
Vane pump: cheap and simple, reliable (especially in g-rotor form). Good for
higher-flow low-pressure output.
Axial piston pump: many designed with a variable displacement mechanism, to
vary output flow for automatic control of pressure. There are various axial
piston pump designs, including swashplate (sometimes referred to as a
valveplate pump) and checkball (sometimes referred to as a wobble plate
pump). The most common is the swashplate pump. A variable-angle swash
plate causes the pistons to reciprocate.
Radial piston pump A pump that is normally used for very high pressure at small
flows.
Piston pumps are more expensive than gear or vane pumps, but provide longer life
operating at higher pressure, with difficult fluids and longer continuous duty cycles.
Piston pumps make up one half of a hydrostatic transmission.

Control valves
Directional control valves route the fluid to the desired actuator. They usually
consist of a spool inside a cast iron or steel housing. The spool slides to different
positions in the housing, intersecting grooves and channels route the fluid based on
the spool's position.
The spool has a central (neutral) position maintained with springs; in this position the
supply fluid is blocked, or returned to tank. Sliding the spool to one side routes the
hydraulic fluid to an actuator and provides a return path from the actuator to tank.
When the spool is moved to the opposite direction the supply and return paths are
switched. When the spool is allowed to return to neutral (center) position the actuator
fluid paths are blocked, locking it in position.
Directional control valves are usually designed to be stackable, with one valve for
each hydraulic cylinder, and one fluid input supplying all the valves in the stack.
Tolerances are very tight in order to handle the high pressure and avoid leaking,
spools typically have a clearance with the housing of less than a thousandth of an
inch. The valve block will be mounted to the machine's frame with a three point
pattern to avoid distorting the valve block and jamming the valve's sensitive
components.
The spool position may be actuated by mechanical levers, hydraulic pilot pressure, or
solenoids which push the spool left or right. A seal allows part of the spool to
protrude outside the housing, where it is accessible to the actuator.
The main valve block is usually a stack of off the shelf directional control valves
chosen by flow capacity and performance. Some valves are designed to be

proportional (flow rate proportional to valve position), while others may be simply
on-off. The control valve is one of the most expensive and sensitive parts of a
hydraulic circuit.
Pressure relief valves are used in several places in hydraulic machinery; on the
return circuit to maintain a small amount of pressure for brakes, pilot lines, etc... On
hydraulic cylinders, to prevent overloading and hydraulic line/seal rupture. On the
hydraulic reservoir, to maintain a small positive pressure which excludes moisture and
contamination.
Pressure reducing valves reduce the supply pressure as needed for various circuits.
Sequence valves control the sequence of hydraulic circuits; to insure that one
hydraulic cylinder is fully extended before another starts its stroke, for example.
Shuttle valves provide a logical or function.
Check valves are one way valves, allowing an accumulator to charge and maintain its
pressure after the machine is turned off, for example.
Pilot controled Check valves One way valve that can be opened (for both directions)
by a foreign pressure signal. For instance if the load should not be hold by the chack
valve anymore. Often the foreign pressure comes from the other pipe that is connected
to the motor or cylinder.
Counterbalance valves A counterbalance valve is in fact a special type of pilot
controled checkvalve. Whereas the checkvalve is open or closed, the counterbalance
valve acts a bit like a pilot controled flow control.
Cartridge valves is in fact the inner part of a check valve; they are off the shelf
components with a standardized envelope, making them easy to populate a proprietary
valve block. They are available in many configurations; on/off, proportional, pressure
relief, etc. They generally screw into a valve block and are electrically controlled to
provide logic and automated functions.
Hydraulic fuses are in-line safety devices designed to automatically seal off a
hydraulic line if pressure becomes too low, or safely vent fluid if pressure becomes
too high.
Auxiliary valves. Complex hydraulic systems will usually have auxiliary valve
blocks to handle various duties unseen to the operator, such as accumulator charging,
cooling fan operation, air conditioning power, etc... They are usually custom valves
designed for the particular machine, and may consist of a metal block with ports and
channels drilled. Cartridge valves are threaded into the ports and may be electrically
controlled by switches or a microprocessor to route fluid power as needed.

Actuators

Hydraulic cylinder
Rotary actuator (hydraulic)
Motor (a pump plumbed in reverse)
hydrostatic transmission
Brakes

Reservoir
The hydraulic fluid reservoir holds excess hydraulic fluid to accommodate volume
changes from: cylinder extension and contraction, temperature driven expansion and
contraction, and leaks. The reservoir is also designed to aid in separation of air from
the fluid and also work as a heat accumulator to cover losses in the system when peak
power is used. Design engineers are always pressured to reduce the size of hydraulic
reservoirs, while equipment operators always appreciate larger reservoirs.
Some designs include dynamic flow channels on the fluid's return path that allow for
a smaller reservoir.

Accumulators
Accumulators are a common part of hydraulic machinery, they store energy by using
pressurized gas. One type is a tube with a floating piston. On one side of the piston is
a charge of pressurized gas, on the other side is the fluid. Bladders are used in other
designs.
Examples of accumulator uses are backup power for steering or brakes, or to act as a
shock absorber for the hydraulic circuit.

Hydraulic fluid
Also known as tractor fluid, hydraulic fluid is the life of the hydraulic circuit. It is
usually petroleum oil with various additives. Some hydraulic machines require fire
resistant fluids, depending on their applications.
In addition to transferring energy, hydraulic fluid needs to lubricate components,
suspend contaminants and metal filings for transport to the filter, and to function well
to several hundred degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius.

Filters
Filters are a very important part of hydraulic machinery. Metal filings are continually
produced by mechanical components and need to be removed, along with other
contamination.
Filters may be positioned in a variety of locations. The filter may be located between
the reservoir and the pump intake. Blockage of the filter will cause cavitation and
possibly failure of the pump. Sometimes the filter is located after the pump, and
before the control valves. This arrangement is more expensive, since the filter housing
is pressurized, but eliminates cavitation problems and protects the control valve from
pump failures. The third common filter location is just before the return line enters the
reservoir. This location is relatively insensitive to blockage and does not require a
pressurized housing, but any contaminants that may enter the reservoir (from external
sources) are not filtered until they pass through the system at least once.

Tubes Pipes and Hoses


Hydraulic tubes are seamless steel precision pipes, specially manufactured for
hydraulics. The tubes have standard sizes for different pressure ranges and the
standard diameters go up to some 100 mm. The tubes are supplied in length of 6 m,
cleaned, oiled and plugged. The tubes are interconnected by different types of flanges
(especially for the larger sizes and pressures), welding cones/nipples (with o-ring
seal), several types of flare connection and by cut-rings. In case the sizes are larger,
Hydraulic pipes are used.Direct welding of 2 tubes together is not acceptable because
one cannot check the inside surface.
Hydraulic pipe is used in case standard hydraulic tubes are not available. In general
these pipes are used for low pressure. They can be connected by threat connections,
but mostly by welding. Because of the larger diameters, in general the pipe can be
inspected internally after welding. Steel suppliers carry black pipe, which is nongalvanized and suitable for welding.
Hydraulic hose is graded by pressure, temperature, and fluid compatibility. Hoses are
used when pipes or tubes can not be used. Usually to provide flexibility for machine
operation or maintenance. The hose is built up with rubber and steel layers. A rubber
interior is surrounded by multiple layers of woven wire and rubber. The exterior is
designed for abrasion resistance. The bend radius of hydraulic hose is carefully
designed into the machine, since hose failures can be deadly, and violating the hose's
minimum bend radius will cause failure. Hydraulic hoses generally have steel fittings
swaged on the ends. The weakest part of the high pressure hose is the connection of
the hose to the fitting. Another disadvantage of hoses is the shorter life of rubber
which requires periodic replacement on the order of every 5- 7 years.
Tubes and pipes for hydraulic applications are internally oiled before the system is
commissioned. In general the steel piping is painted outside. In case flare- and other
couplings are used, under the nut, there are spots where the paint is removed; here the
rust process will start. For this reason, for Marine and Offshore use, more and more
piping (especially outside and especially small size)is made from stainless steel.

Seals, fittings and connections


In general, valves, cylinders and pumps have female threaded bosses for the fluid
connection, and hoses have female ends with captive nuts. A male-male fitting is
chosen to connect the two. Many standardized systems are in use.
Fittings serve several purposes;
1. To bridge different standards; O-ring boss to JIC (hydraulic), or pipe threads
to face seal, for example.
2. To allow proper orientation of components, a 90, 45, straight, or swivel
fitting is chosen as needed. They are designed to be positioned in the correct
orientation and then tightened.
3. To incorporate bulkhead hardware.
4. A quick disconnect fitting may be added to a machine without modification of
hoses or valves
A typical piece of heavy equipment may have thousands of sealed connection points
and several different types of seals, below are some of the most common types;

Pipe fittings, the fitting is screwed in until tight, difficult to orient an angled
fitting correctly without over or under tightening.
O-ring boss, the fitting is screwed into a boss and orientated as needed, an
additional nut tightens the fitting, washer and o-ring in place.
Flare seal, a metal to metal compression seal with a cone and flare mating.
Face seal, metal flanges with a groove and o-ring are fastened together.
Beam seal, an expensive metal to metal seal used mostly for aircraft.
Swaged seals, tubes are connected with fittings that are swaged in place (nonserviceable). Primarily used in aircraft.

Elastomeric seals (O-ring boss and face seal) are the most common types of seals in
heavy equipment and are capable of reliably sealing 6000+ psi (41368+ kPa) of fluid
pressure.

Oil cooler
Calculation of the required diesel engine power,
mobile machinery
Calculation of the required max. power output for the diesel engine, rough estimation:
(1) Check the max. powerpoint, i.e. the point where Pressure x Flow reach the max.
value.
(2) Ediesel = (Pmax Qtot) .

Qtot = calculate with the theoretical pumpflow for the consumers not including
leakages @ max. power point.
Pmax = actual pumppressure @ max. power point.
Note: is the total efficiency = (output mechanical power input mechanical power).
For rough estimations, = 0.75. Add 10-20% (depends on the application) to this
power value.
(3) Calculate the required pumpdisplacement from required max. sum of flow for the
consumers in worst case and the dieselengine rpm in this point. The max. flow can
differ from the flow used for calculation of the diesel engine power. Pump volumetric
efficiency avarage, piston pumps: vol= 0.93.
Pumpdisplacement Vpump= Qtot ndiesel 0.93.
(4) Calculation of prel. cooler capacity: Heat dissipation from hydraulic oiltanks,
valves, pipes and hydraulic components is less than a few percent in standard mobile
equipment and the cooler capacity must include some margins. Minimum cooler
capacity, Ecooler = Ediesel 0.25
At least 25% of the input power must be dissipated by the cooler when peak power is
utilized for long periods. In normal case however, the peak power is used for only
short periods, thus the acual cooler capacity required might be considerably less. The
oilvolume in the hydraulic tank is also used as a heat accumulator when peak power is
used. The system efficiency is very much dependant on the type of hydraulic pumps
and motors used and powerinput to the hydraulics may vary a lot. Each circuit must
be evaluated and the load cycle estimated. New system designs and system
modifications must always be tested in practice and the tests must cover all type of
load cycles.

Hydraulic pump
A Hydraulic pump is a pump that is used in Hydraulic/hydrostatic drive systems.

Principle of screw pump

Gearpump with external teeth

Gearpump with internal teeth

Fixed displacement vane pump

A Gerotor, image does not show intake/exhaust

Axial piston pump, bent axis principle

Axial piston pump, swash plate principle

Radial piston pump

Hydraulic pumps are positive displacement pumps, which means that the flow is
directly related to the displacement (per revolution) of the pump and the speed of the
pump. Depending on the required flow and pressure, but also related to the required
efficiency and life time expectancy, simple (low budget) pumps or high quality pumps
are used. Simple, low budget pumps have in general a fixed displacement. High
quality pumps, sometimes have an adjustable displacement.

Different types of hydraulic pumps.

Screw pumps (fixed displacement)


Gear pumps external teeth (fixed displacement)
Gear pumps internal teeth (fixed displacement)
Vane pumps (fixed and simple adjustable displacement)
Gerotor pumps (fixed displacement)
Bent axis pumps (fixed and adjustable displacement)
Axial piston pumps swash plate principle (fixed and adjustable
displacement)
Radial piston pumps (fixed displacement)

Screw pumps are a sort of double spiral of Archimedes, but closed. This means that 2
screws are used in one body. The pumps are used for high flows and relatively low
pressure (max 100 bar). They were used on board ships where the constant pressure

hydraulic system was going through the whole ship, especially for the control of ball
valves aboard the ship, but also for the steering gear and help drive systems. The
advantage of the screw pumps is the low sound level of these pumps; the efficiency is
not that high.
Gear pumps are simple and economic pumps that are used in simple hydraulic
systems. The efficiency is not very good, especially at higher pressures the efficiency
goes down rapidly. Although the design pressure for gearpumps might be given as
275 bars, they should not be used over about 180 bars, whereas the normal working
pressure should be below 120 bars. The swept volume of gearpumps for hydraulics
will be between about 1 cm3 (0.001 litre) and 200 cm3 (0,2 litre).
Gerotor pumps are very special pumps. The efficiency as well as the sound level are
very good for such a medium pressure pump.
Vanepumps have higher efficiencies than gearpumps, but are also used for mid
pressures up to 180 bars in general. Some types of vane pumps can change the centre
of the vane body, so that a simple adjustable pump is obtained. These adjustable
vanepumps are in general constant pressure or constant power pumps: the
displacement is increased until the required pressure or power is reached and
subsequently the displacement or swept volume is decreased until an equilibrium is
reached.
Axial piston pumps of the bent axis principle have the best efficiency of all pumps.
Although in general the largest displacements are approximately 1 litre per revolution,
if necessary a swept volume of 2 litres can be built. Often variable displacement
pumps are used, so that the necessary oil flow can be adjusted carefully. These pumps
can in general work with a working pressure of up to 350 bars.
Axial piston pumps of the swash plate principle have a quality that is almost the
same as the bent axis model. They have the advantage of being more compact in
design. The pumps are easier and more economical to manufacture; the disadvantage
is that they are more sensitive to oil contamination.
Radial piston pumps are used especially for high pressure and relatively small flows.
Pressures of up to 650 bar are normal. In fact variable displacement is not possible,
but sometimes the pump is designed in such a way that the plungers can be switched
off one by one, so that a sort of variable displacement pump is obtained.

Pumps for open and closed loop systems


Most pumps are working in an open loop system. This means that the pumps suck the
oil from an oil tank of atmosferic pressure. It is very important that there is no
cavitation at the suction side of a pump. For this reason the connection of the suction
side of a pump is larger in diameter than the connection of the pressure side. In case
of the use of multi pump assemblies, the suction connection of the pump is often
combined. It is always better to have a free flow to the pump (pressure at inlet of
pump at least 0.8 bars). The body of an open loop pump is often in open connection
with the suction side of the pump. In case of the use of a closed loop system, both
sides of the pump can be the high pressure side of the pump whereas the other side
also is pressurised up to 6-20 bars boost pressure. For these pumps both pressure sides
are identical. For closed loop systems normally axial pistonpumps are used and
because of the fact that both sides can be pressurised, the body of the pump needs a
separate leakage connection.

Multi pump assembly


In a hydraulic installation, one pump can serve more cylinders and motors. The
problem however is that in that case a constant pressure system is required and the
system always needs the full power. It is more economic to give each cylinder and
motor its own pump. In that case multi pump assemblies can be used. Gearpumps can
often be obtained as multi pumps. The different chambers (sometimes of different
size) are mounted in one body or built together. Also vane pumps can often be
obtained as a multi pump. Gerotor pumps are often supplied as multi pumps. Screw
pumps can be built together with a gearpump or a vanepump. Axial piston
swashplatepumps can be built together with a second pump of the same or smaller
size, or can be built together with one or more gearpumps or vane pumps (depending
on the supplier). Axial plunger pumps of the bent axis design can not be built together
with other pumps.

Hydraulic pumps, calculation formulas


Flow
Q = n * Vstroke * vol
Q = Flow in m3/sec
n = revs per second
Vstroke = sweptvolume in m3
vol is volumetric efficiency
Power
P = n * Vstroke * p / mech,hydr
P = Power in Watt (Nm/sec)
n = revs per second.
Vstroke = sweptvolume in m3
p = pressure difference over pump in N/m2
mech,hydr = mechanical/hydraulical efficiency

Hydraulic press

Hydraulic force increase.


A hydraulic press is a hydraulic mechanism for applying a large lifting or
compressive force. It is the hydraulic equivalent of a mechanical lever, and is also
known as a Bramah press after the inventor, Joseph Bramah. Hydraulic presses are
the most commonly-used and efficient form of modern press.

How it works
The hydraulic press depends on Pascal's principle: the pressure throughout a closed
system is constant. At one end of the system is a piston with a small cross-sectional
area driven by a lever to increase the force. Small-diameter tubing leads to the other
end of the system. A fluid, such as oil, is displaced when either piston is pushed
inward. The small piston, for a given distance of movement, displaces a smaller
amount of volume than the large piston, which is proportional to the ratio of areas of
the heads of the pistons. Therefore, the small piston must be moved a large distance to
get the large piston to move significantly. The distance the large piston will move is
the distance that the small piston is moved divided by the ratio of the areas of the
heads of the pistons.
For example, if the ratio of the areas is 5, a force of 100 newtons on the small piston
will produce a force of 500 newtons on the large piston, and the small piston must be
pushed 50 cm to get the large piston to rise 10 cm. This is how energy, in the form of
work in this case, is conserved. Work is force times distance, and since the force is
increased on the larger piston, the distance the force is applied over must be
decreased. The work of the small piston, 100 newtons multiplied by 0.5 meter (50 cm)
is 50 joules (J}, which is the same as the work of the large piston, 500 newtons
multiplied by 0.1 meter (10 cm).

Hydraulics

Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.


Hydraulics is a topic of science and engineering subject dealing with the mechanical
properties of liquids. Hydraulics is part of the more general discipline of fluid power.
Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on
the engineering uses of fluid properties. Hydraulic topics range through most science
and engineering disciplines, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluid
control circuitry, pumps, turbines, hydropower, computational fluid dynamics, flow
measurement, river channel behavior and erosion.
The word "hydraulics" originates from the Greek word (hydraulikos)
which in turn originates from meaning water organ which in turn comes
from (water) and (pipe).

History
The earliest masters of this art were Ctesibius (flourished c. 270 BC) and Hero of
Alexandria (c. 1070 AD) in the Greek-Hellenized West. In ancient China there was
Sunshu Ao (6th century BC), Ximen Bao (5th century BC), and those such as Du Shi
(circa 31 AD), Zhang Heng (78 - 139 AD), Ma Jun (200 - 265 AD), and Su Song
(1020 - 1101 AD). The ancient engineers focused on sacral and novelty uses of
hydraulics, rather than practical applications. Ancient Sinhalese used hydraulics in
many applications, in the Ancient kingdoms of Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa etc. The
discovery of the principle of the valve tower, or valve pit, for regulating the escape of
water is credited to Sinhalese ingenuity more than 2,000 years ago. By the first
century A.D, several large-scale irrigation works had been completed. Macro- and
micro-hydraulics to provide for domestic horticultural and agricultural needs, surface
drainage and erosion control, ornamental and recreational water courses and retaining
structures and also cooling systems were in place in Sigiriya, Sri Lanka.
In 1690 Benedetto Castelli (15781643), a student of Galileo Galilei, published the
book Della Misura dell'Acque Correnti or "On the Measurement of Running Waters,"
one of the foundations of modern hydrodynamics. He served as a chief consultant to
the Pope on hydraulic projects, i.e., management of rivers in the Papal States,
beginning in 1626.[1]
Joseph Bramah (16231662) study of fluid hydrodynamics and hydrostatics centered
on the principles of hydraulic fluids. His inventions include the hydraulic press, which
multiplied a smaller force acting on a smaller area into the application of a larger
force totaled over a larger area, transmitted through the same pressure (or same
change of pressure) at both locations. Pascal's law or principle states that for an
incompressible fluid at rest, the difference in pressure is proportional to the difference
in height and this difference remains the same whether or not the overall pressure of
the fluid is changed by applying an external force. This implies that by increasing the
pressure at any point in a confined fluid, there is an equal increase at every other point
in the container, i.e., any change in pressure applied at any point of the fluid is
transmitted undiminished throughout the fluids.

Hydrostatic power transmission


A hydrostatic power transmission system makes use of fluid under pressure to drive a
mechanical load. In this sense, hydrostatic means that energy transfer is brought about
by fluid flow and pressure, but not from the kinetic energy of the flow (the latter
would be characteristic of a hydrodynamic drive, such as a fluid coupling or torque
converter).
A basic hydrostatic power transmission system consists of a positive displacement
pump driven by the prime mover, a positive displacement hydraulic motor,
interconnecting piping (which may be a combination of steel tubing, actual pipe and
hoses), and a reservoir. Additional components, such as valves and filters, are often
part of such a system, the former to provide control of the transmission system and the
latter to protect precision machined parts from damage due to oil-borne contaminants.

Motion is transmitted by the pump drawing oil from the reservoir, pumping it into the
motor, with the discharge returning to the reservoir. The flow of oil causes the motor
to rotate at a speed that is proportional to the pump speed. Any resistance to motor
rotation will cause system pressure to rise due to the use of the positive displacement
pump, which will translate as torque at the motor.
The maximum torque that can be exerted by the motor is determined by the maximum
pressure in the system, as well as the ratio between the displacement of the pump and
the displacement of the motor, displacement being expressed in cubic inches or cubic
centimeters per revolution. For example, a pump specified as displacing 10 cubic
inches per revolution will (in theory) pump exactly 10 cubic inches of oil for each
revolution (the actual output will be lower due to internal leakage in the pump. If said
pump is mated with a motor that displaces 20 cubic inches per revolution, the drive
ratio will be 2:1 and the motor will run at one half the speed of the pump, but develop
approximately twice the torque applied to the pump. Hence hydrostatic power
transmission behaves in a fashion similar to that of a purely mechanical equivalent of
gears and shafts.
Hydrostatic power transmission is widely used in industrial machinery and
earthmoving equipment, and has found some application in transportation. A principle
advantage of hydrostatic power transmission systems is the flexibility of pump and
motor positioning within the equipment. Since the only connection between the pump
and motor is through the piping, which can be routed in whatever fashion is
convenient for the machine designer, hydrostatic motors can often be used to drive
machinery placed in difficult to access areas.
The main disadvantage of hydrostatic drive is its inefficiency relative to other power
transmission systems. Most of the inefficiency is brought about by resistance to fluid
flow through the piping and fittings. The resulting turbulence wastes some of the
energy imparted to the fluid as heat.

Pneumatics

Table of Pneumaticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia


This article is about the tool. For information of the religious concept see
Pneumatic (Gnosticism).
Pneumatics (from the Greek pneumatikos, coming from the wind) is the
use of pressurized gas to do work in science and technology.
Pneumatics was first documented by Hero of Alexandria in 60 A.D., though the
subject had been known before then.

Application
Pneumatics is employed in a variety of settings. In dentistry applications, pneumatic
drills are lighter, faster and simpler than an electric drill of the same power rating

(because the prime mover, the compressor, is separate from the drill and pumped air is
capable of rotating the drill bit at extremely high rpm). Pneumatic transfer systems are
employed in many industries to move powders and pellets. Pneumatic tubes can carry
objects over distances. Pneumatic devices are also used where electric motors cannot
be used for safety reasons, such as deep in a mine where explosive dust or gases may
be present.
Examples of pneumatic tools:

Pneumatic drill (jackhammer) used by road workers


Pneumatic switches
Pneumatic actuators
Air compressors
Vacuum pumps
Barostat systems used in Neurogastroenterology and for researching

electricity
Cable Jetting - a way to install cables in ducts
Pneumatic mail systems
Air brakes on buses, trains and trucks

Comparison to Hydraulics
Both pneumatics and hydraulics are applications of fluid power. Pneumatics uses air,
which is compressible, while hydraulics uses relatively incompressible liquid media
such as oil or water. Most industrial pneumatic applications use pressures of about 80
to 100 pounds per square inch (psi) (500 to 700 kilopascals). Hydraulics applications
commonly use from 1,000 to 5,000 psi (7 to 35 MPa), but specialized applications
may exceed 10,000 psi (70 MPa).

Advantages of pneumatics

The working fluid is very light in weight so supply hoses are not heavy.

Because the working fluid is (mostly) just air, there is usually no need for a return
line for the working fluid and leaks of the working fluid tend not to be messy.

Advantages of hydraulics
Higher energy density owing to the much higher working pressures usually
employed.
The hydraulic working fluid is basically incompressible, leading to a minimum of
spring action. When hydraulic fluid flow is stopped, the slightest motion of the

load releases the pressure on the load; there is no need to "bleed off"
pressurised air to release the pressure on the load.
Barber's chair is a pneumatic system

Pneumatic Components

oil terminal with pneumatic barrier


Common industrial pneumatic components include:
pneumatic direct operated solenoid valve
pneumatic pilot operated solenoid valve
pneumatic external piloted solenoid valve
pneumatic manual valve
pneumatic valve with air pilot actuator
pneumatic filter
pneumatic pressure regulator
pneumatic lubricator
pneumatic pressure switch

pneumatic manual OSHA-type lock out and dump valve


pneumatic solenoid dump valve
pneumatic pressure vessel
pneumatic rodless cylinder
pneumatic gripper
pneumatic rotary actuator
pneumatic fitting
pneumatic flow control
pneumatic quick exhaust valve
pneumatic pressure booster
pneumatic polyurethane tubing
pneumatic quick disconnect
sorteberg relay
pneumatic process controller
control valve

Pneumatic Logic
See Main article Fluidics
Pneumatic logic systems are often used to control industrial processes, consisting of
primary logic units such as:

And Units
Or Units
'Relay or Booster' Units
Latching Units
'Timer' Units

Pneumatic logic is a reliable and functional control method for industrial processes. In
recent years, these systems have largely been replaced by electrical control systems,
due to the smaller size and lower cost of electrical components. Pneumatic devices are
still used in processes where compressed air is the only energy source available or

upgrade cost, safety, and other considerations outweigh the advantage of modern
digital control.

Solenoid valve
A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas controlled
by running or stopping an electrical current through a solenoid, which is a coil of
wire, thus changing the state of the valve. The operation of a solenoid valve is similar
to that of a light switch, but typically controls the flow of air or water, whereas a light
switch typically controls the flow of electricity. Solenoid valves may have two or
more ports: in the case of a two-port valve the flow is switched on or off; in the case
of a three-port valve, the outflow is switched between the two outlet ports. Multiple
solenoid valves can be placed together on a manifold

How they work


A solenoid valve has two main parts: the solenoid and the valve. The solenoid
converts electrical energy into mechanical energy which, in turn, opens or closes the
valve mechanically.
Solenoid valves may use metal seals or rubber seals, and may also have electrical
interfaces to allow for easy control. A spring may be used to hold the valve opened or
closed while the valve is not activated.

A- Input side
B- Diaphragm
C- Pressure chamber
D- Pressure relief conduit
E- Solenoid
F- Output side
In some solenoid valves the solenoid provides the full power for the operation of the
main valve while there is a certain type where the solenoid, using very little power,
controls a secondary pilot valve and it is the pressure of the fluid itself which provides
the power for the actuation of the main valve. These types of valves are commonly
used in washing machines, gardening and similar uses.
The diagram to the right shows the design of one such valve. If we look at the top
figure we can see the valve in its closed state. The water under pressure enters at A. B
is an elastic diaphragm and above it is a weak spring pushing it down. The function of
this spring is irrelevant for now as the valve would stay closed even without it. The
diaphragm has a pinhole through its center which allows a very small amount of water
to flow through it. This water fills the cavity C on the other side of the diaphragm so
that pressure is equal on both sides of the diaphragm. While the pressure is the same
on both sides of the diaphragm, the force is greater on the upper side which forces the
valve shut against the incoming pressure. By looking at the figure we can see the
surface being acted upon is greater on the upper side which results in greater force.
On the upper side the pressure is acting on the entire surface of the diaphragm while
on the lower side it is only acting on the incoming pipe. This results in the valve being
securely shut to any flow and, the greater the input pressure, the greater the shutting
force will be.

Now let us turn our attention to the small conduit D. Until now it was blocked by a
pin which is the armature of the solenoid E and which is pushed down by a spring. If
we now activate the solenoid, the water in chamber C will flow through this conduit
D to the output side of the valve. The pressure in chamber C will drop and the
incoming pressure will lift the diaphragm thus opening the main valve. Water now
flows directly from A to F.
When the solenoid is again deactivated and the conduit D is closed again, the spring
needs very little force to push the diaphragm down again and the main valve closes.
From this explanation it can be seen that this type of valve relies on a differential of
pressure between input and output as the pressure at the input must always be greater
than the pressure at the output for it to work. Should the pressure at the output, for any
reason, rise above that of the input then the valve would open regardless of the state
of the solenoid and pilot valve.
The thermostatically controlled gas valve in a water heater is generally of this type.
The tiny solenoid is controlled by the weak current provided by a thermocouple which
gets its energy from the heat in the water. This obviates the need for any external
power source for the solenoid or the valve. This type of valve is also used in
household washing machines, dishwashers, garden automatic watering systems and
other similar uses.
A common use for 2 way solenoid valves is in central heating. The solenoid valves
are controlled by an electrical signal from the thermostat to regulate the flow of
heated water from a heat pump to the in room radiators. Such valves are particularly
useful when multiple heating zones are driven by a single heat pump. Commercially
available solenoid valves for this purpose are often referred to as Zone valves.
Solenoid valves are also used in industry to control the flow of all sorts of fluids.

Valve

These water valves are regulated by handles.


A valve is a device that regulates the flow of substances (either gases, fluidized solids,
slurries, or liquids) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.
Valves are technically pipe fittings, but usually are discussed separately.
Valves are used in a variety of applications including industrial, military, commercial,
residential, transportation. Plumbing valves are the most obvious in everyday life, but
many more are used.
Some valves are driven by pressure only, they are mainly used for safety purposes in
steam engines and domestic heating or cooking appliances. Others are used in a
controlled way, like in Otto cycle engines driven by a camshaft, where they play a
major role in engine cycle control.

Application
A large variety of valves are available and have many applications with sizes ranging
from tiny to huge. The cost of valves ranges from very cheap simple disposable
valves in some items to very expensive valves for specialized applications. Often not
realized by some, small valves are even inside some common household items
including liquid or gel mini-pump dispenser spigots, spray devices, some rubber bulbs
for pumping air, etc., manual air pumps and some other pumps, and laundry washers.
Valves are almost as ubiquitous as electrical switches. Often a valve is part of some
object, the valve body and the object made in one piece; for example, a separatory
funnel. Faucets, taps, and spigots are all variations of valves. Many fluid systems such
as water and natural gas lines in houses and other buildings have valves. Fluid
systems in chemical and power plants and other facilities have numerous valves to
control fluid flow.

Valve parts
Body
The majority of the valve consists of the valve body, including most of the exterior.
The valve body is the vessel or casing that holds the fluid going through inside the
valve. Valve bodies are most commonly made of various metals or plastics, although
valve bodies fused with glass laboratory items in one piece are also made of glass.

Ports
The body consists of two or more openings, called ports from which movement
occurs from one opening to the next. These ports are controlled by a valve. Valves
with two or three ports are the most common, while valves consisting of four or more
ports are not as frequently used. Extra ports that are not needed can be closed off by
the valve. Manufacturing of valves often occurs with the intent that they will be
connected with another specific object. These objects can vary, but generally these
include some type of piping, tubing, or pump head. In some cases, a valve port is
immediately connected to a spray nozzle or container. To make a connection, valves
are commonly measured by the outer diameter the ports they connect to. For example,
a 1-inch valve is sized to connect to 1-inch outer diameter tubing.
Combined with the a valve, ports have the ability to act as faucets, taps, or spigots, all
while one or more of it's remaining ports are left unconnected. Most valves are made
with some means of some sort connection at the ports. This includes threads,
compression fittings, glue or cement application (especially for plastic), or welding
(for metals).

Discs and rotors


Inside the valve body, flow through the valve may be partly or fully blocked by an
object called a disc. Although valve discs of some kinds of valves are traditionally
disc-shaped, discs can come in various shapes. Although the valve body remains
stationary within the fluid system, the disc in the valve is movable so it can control
flow. A round type of disc with fluid pathway(s) inside which can be rotated to direct
flow between certain ports can be called a rotor. Ball valves are valves which use
spherical rotors, except for the interior fluid passageways. Plug valves use
cylindrically-shaped or conically-tapered rotors called plugs. Other round shapes for
rotors are possible too in rotor valves, as long as the rotor can be turned inside the
valve body. However not all round or spherical dics are rotors; for example, a ball
check valve uses the ball to block reverse flow, but is not a rotor because operating
the valve does not involve rotation of the ball.

Seat
The valve seat is the interior surface in the body which contacts or could contact the
disc to form a seal which should be leak-tight, particularly when the valve is shut
(closed). If the disc moves linearly as the valve is controlled, the disc comes into
contact with the seat when the valve is shut. When the valve has a rotor, the seat is

always in contact with the rotor, but the surface area of contact on the rotor changes
as the rotor is turned. If the disc swings on a hinge, as in a swing check valve, it
contacts the seat to shut the valve and stop flow. In all the above cases, the seat
remains stationary while the disc or rotor moves. The body and the seat could both
come in one piece of solid material, or the seat could be a separate piece attached or
fixed to the inside of the valve body, depending on the valve design.

Stem
The stem is a rod or similar piece spanning the inside and the outside of the valve,
transmitting motion to control the internal disc or rotor from outside the valve. Inside
the valve, the rod is joined to or contacts the disc/rotor. Outside the valve the stem is
attached to a handle or another controlling device. Between inside and outside, the
stem typically goes through a valve bonnet if there is one. In some cases, the stem and
the disc can be combined in one piece, or the stem and the handle are combined in one
piece.
The motion transmitted by the stem can be a linear push or pull motion, a rotating
motion, or some combination of these. A valve with a rotor would be controlled by
turning the stem. The valve and stem can be threaded such that the stem can be
screwed into or out of the valve by turning it in one direction or the other, thus
moving the disc back or forth inside the body. Packing is often used between the stem
and the bonnet to seal fluid inside the valve in spite of turning of the stem. Some
valves have no external control and do not need a stem; for example, most check
valves. Check valves are valves which allow flow in one direction, but block flow in
the opposite direction. Some refer to them as one-way valves even though they have
two ports.
Valves in which the disc is between the seat and the stem and where the stem moves
in a direction into the valve to shut it are normally-seated (also called 'front seated').
Valves in which the seat is between the disc and the stem and where the stem moves
in a direction out of the valve to shut it are reverse-seated (also called 'back seated').
These terms do not apply to valves with no stem nor to valves using rotors.

Bonnet
A bonnet basically acts as a cover on the valve body. It is commonly semipermanently screwed into the valve body. During manufacture of the valve, the
internal parts were put into the body and then the bonnet was attached to hold
everything together inside. To access internal parts of a valve, a user would take off
the bonnet, usually for maintenance. Many valves do not have bonnets; for example,
plug valves usually do not have bonnets.

Spring
Many valves have a spring for spring-loading, to normally shift the disc into some
position by default but allow control to reposition the disc. Relief valves commonly
use a spring to keep the valve shut, but allow excessive pressure to force the valve
open against the spring-loading,

Valve Balls
A valve ball is also used for severe duty, high pressure, high tolerance applications.
They are typically made of stainless steel, titanium, Stellite, Hastelloy, brass, and
nickel. They can also be made of different types of plastic, such as ABS, PVC, PP or
PVDF.

Valve operating positions


Valve positions are operating conditions determined by the position the disc or rotor
in the valve. Some valves are made to be operated in a gradual change between two or
more positions.

2-way valves
2-port valves are commonly called 2-way valves. Operating positions for such valves
can be either shut (closed) so that no flow at all goes through, fully open for
maximum flow, or sometimes partially open to any degree in between. Many valves
are not designed to precisely control intermediate degree of flow; such valves are
considered to be either open or shut, with maybe qualitative descriptions in between.
Some valves are specially designed to regulate varying amounts of flow. Such valves
have been called by various names like regulating, throttling, metering, or needle
valves. For example, needle valves have elongated conically-tapered discs and
matching seats for fine flow control. For some valves, there may be a mechanism to
indicate how much the valve is open, but in many cases other indications of flow rate
are used, such as separate flow meters.
In some plants with fluid systems, some 2-way valves can be designated as normally
shut or normally open during regular operation. Examples of normally shut valves are
sampling valves, which are only opened while a sample is taken. Examples of
normally open valves are isolation valves, which are usually only shut when there is a
problem with a unit or a section of a fluid system such as a leak. Then, isolation
valve(s) are shut in order to isolate the problem from the rest of the system.
Although many 2-way valves are made in which the flow can go in either direction
between the two ports, when a valve is placed into a certain application, flow is often
expected to go from one certain port on the upstream side of the valve, to the other
port on the downstream side. Pressure regulators are variations of valves in which
flow is controlled to produce a certain downstream pressure, if possible. They are
often used to control flow of gas from a gas cylinder. A back-pressure regulator is a
variation of a valve in which flow is controlled to maintain a certain upstream
pressure, if possible.

3-way valves
3-way valves have three ports. 3-way valves are commonly made such that flow
coming in at one port can be directed to either the second port in one position or the

third port in another position or in an intermediate position so all flow is stopped.


Often such 3-way valves are ball or rotor valves. Many faucets are made so that
incoming cold and hot water can be regulated in varying degrees to give outcoming
water at a desired temperature. Other kinds of 3-port valves can be designed for other
possible flow-directing schemes and positions; for example, see Ball valve.
In valves having more than 3 ports, even more flow-directing schemes are possible.
For examples, see this external site. Such valves are often rotor valves or ball valves.
Slider valves have been used also.

Control

A valve controlled by a wheel (left).


Many valves are controlled manually with a handle attached to the valve stem. If the
handle is turned a quarter of a full turn (90) between operating positions, the valve is
called a quarter-turn valve. Butterfly valves, ball valves, and plug valves are often
quarter-turn valves. Valves can also be controlled by devices called actuators
attached to the stem. They can be electromechanical actuators such as an electric
motor or solenoid, pneumatic actuators which are controlled by air pressure, or
hydraulic actuators which are controlled by the pressure of a liquid such as oil or
water. Actuators can be used for the purposes of automatic control such as in washing
machine cycles, remote control such as the use of a centralized control room, or
because manual control is too difficult; for example, the valve is huge. Pneumatic
actuators and hydraulic actuators need pressurized air or liquid lines to supply the
actuator: an inlet line and an outlet line. Pilot valves are valves which are used to
control other valves. Pilot valves in the actuator lines control the supply of air or
liquid going to the actuators.
The fill valve in a commode water tank is a liquid level-actuated valve. When a high
water level is reached, a mechanism shuts the valve which fills the tank.
In some valve designs, the pressure of the flow fluid itself or pressure difference of
the flow fluid between the ports automatically controls flow through the valve. In an
open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure.

Other considerations
Valves are typically rated for maximum temperature and pressure by the
manufacturer. The wetted materials in a valve are usually identified also. Some valves
rated at very high pressures are available. When a designer, engineer, or user decides
to use a valve for an application, he/she should ensure the rated maximum
temperature and pressure are never exceeded and that the wetted materials are
compatible with the fluid the valve interior is exposed to.
Some fluid system designs, especially in chemical or power plants, are schematically
represented in piping and instrumentation diagrams. In such diagrams, different types
of valves are represented by certain symbols.
Valves in good condition should be leak-free. However, valves may eventually wear
out from use and develop a leak, either between the inside and outside of the valve or,
when the valve is shut to stop flow, between the disc and the seat. A particle trapped
between the seat and disc could also cause such leakage.

Types of valves

4-stroke cycle engine valves,


Aspin valve, a cone-shaped metal part fitted to the cylinder head of an engine.
Ball cock, often used as a water level controller (cistern).
Ball valve, which is good for on/off control.
Bibcock, provides a connection to a flexible hosepipe
Blast valve, used to prevent rapid overpressures in a fallout shelter or a
bunker.
Butterfly valve, particularly in large pipes.
Check valve or Non-return valve, allows the fluid to pass in one direction
only.
Cock, colloquial term for a small valve or a stopcock.
Demand valve on a diving regulator.
Diaphragm valve, a sanitary valve predominantly used in the pharmaceutical
industry
Double check valve.
A flow control valve maintains a constant flow rate through the valve.
Foot valve, a check valve on the foot of a suction line to prevent backflow.
Freeze valve, in which freezing and melting the fluid creates and removes a
plug of frozen material acting as the valve.
Gate valve, mainly for on/off control.
Choke valve, Is a heavy duty valve which controls flow to a certain Flow
Coefficient (CV) determined by how far the valve is opened, regularly used in
the Oil industry.
Globe valve, which is good for regulating flow.
A heart valve regulates blood flow through the heart in many organisms.
Hydraulic valve (diaphragm valve).

A leaf valve is a one-way valve consisting of a diagonal obstruction with an


opening covered by a hinged flap.
Needle valve for gently releasing high pressures.
Pilot valves regulate flow or pressure to other valves.
Piston valves
Plug valve, for on/off control.
A poppet valve is commonly used in piston engines to regulate the fuel
mixture intake and exhaust. The sleeve valve is another valve type used for
this purpose.
A pressure reducing valve (PRV), also called pressure regulator, reduces
pressure to a preset level downstream of the valve.
A pressure sustaining valve, also called back-pressure regulator, maintains
pressure at a preset level upstream of the valve.
Presta and Schrader valves are used to hold the air in bicycle tires.
A Reed valve consists of two or more flexible materials pressed together along
much of their length, but with the influx area open to allow one-way flow,
much like a heart valve.
A regulator is used in SCUBA diving equipment and in gas cooking
equipment to reduce the high pressure gas supply to a lower working pressure
Rotary valves and piston valves are parts of brass instruments used to change
their pitch.
A saddle valve, where allowed, is used to tap a pipe for a low-flow need.
A safety valve or relief valve operates automatically at a set differential
pressure to correct a potentially dangerous situation, typically over-pressure.
Schrader valves are used to hold the air inside automobile tires.
Solenoid valve, an electrically controlled hydraulic or pneumatic valve.
Stopcocks restrict or isolate the flow through a pipe of a liquid or gas.
Tap (British English), faucet (American English) is the common name for a
valve used in homes to regulate water flow.
Thermostatic Mixing Valve
A three-way valve routes fluid from one direction to another.
Some trap primers either include other types of valves, or are valves
themselves
Vacuum breaker valves prevent the back-siphonage of contaminated water
into pressurized drinkable water supplies.

Images

Ball valve
Globe valve

Piping

Large-scale piping system in an HVAC mechanical room


Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids, from one location
to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the best and most
efficient manner of transporting fluid to where it is most needed.[1][2]
Industrial process piping (and accompanying in-line components) can be
manufactured from wood, glass, steel, aluminum, plastic and concrete. The in-line
components, known as fittings, valves, and other devices, typically sense and control
the pressure, flow rate and temperature of the transmitted fluid, and usually are
included when one discusses the concept of piping design. Piping systems are
documented in Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams. If necessary, pipes can be
cleaned by the tube cleaning process.
Plumbing is a piping system that most people are familiar with, as it constitutes the
form of fluid transportation that is used to provide potable water and fuels to their
homes and business. Plumbing pipes also remove waste in the form of sewage, and
allow venting of sewage gases to the outdoors. Fire sprinkler systems also use piping,
and may transport potable or nonpotable water, or other fire-suppression fluids.
Piping also has many other industrial applications, which are crucial for moving raw
and semi-processed fluids for refining into more useful products. Some of the more
exotic materials of construction are titanium, chrome-moly and various other steel
alloys.

Pipe stress analysis


Process piping and power piping are typically checked by pipe stress engineers to
verify that the routing, nozzle loads, hangers, and supports are properly placed and
selected such that allowable pipe stress is not exceeded under the appropriate ASME
code.[3][4] This checking is usually done with the assistance of a finite element pipe
stress analysis program such as Caesar II or ANSYS.

Pressure vessel

Steel Pressure Vessel


A pressure vessel is a closed, rigid container designed to hold gases or liquids at a
pressure different from the ambient pressure. The end caps fitted to the cylindrical
body are called heads.
In addition to industrial compressed air receivers and domestic hot water storage
tanks, other examples of pressure vessels are: diving cylinder, recompression
chamber, distillation towers and many other vessels in oil refineries and
petrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessel, habitat of a space ship, habitat of a
submarine, pneumatic reservoir, hydraulic reservoir under pressure, rail vehicle
airbrake reservoir, road vehicle airbrake reservoir and storage vessels for liquified
gases such as ammonia, chlorine, propane, butane and LPG.
In the industrial sector, pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific
pressure and temperature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and
"Design Temperature". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high
pressure constitutes a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and
certification of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the
EU (PED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada and other
international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd, Det Norske Veritas,
Stoomwezen etc.

Shape of a pressure vessel


Theoretically a sphere would be the optimal shape of a pressure vessel. Most pressure
vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a spherical pressure vessel, forged parts
would have to be welded together. Some mechanical properties of steel are increased
by forging, but welding can sometimes reduce these desirable properties. In case of
welding, in order to make the pressure vessel meet international safety standards,
carefully selected steel with a high impact resistance should be used. Most pressure
vessels are arranged from a pipe and two covers. Disadvantage of these vessels is the
fact that larger diameters make them relatively more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1000 litres, 250 bar pressure vessel might be a diameter
of 450 mm and a length of 6500 mm.

Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with the
pressure and volume it contains. For a sphere, the mass of a pressure vessel is

Where M is mass, p is pressure, V is volume, is the density of the pressure vessel


material, and is the maximum working stress that material can tolerate. Other
shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2, although some tanks, such as
non-spherical wound composite tanks can approach this.
As can be seen from the equation, there is no theoretical efficiency of scale to be had
in a pressure vessel; and further, for storing gases, tankage efficiency can be easily
shown to be independent of pressure.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a
pressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape
constant, carbon fiber for best possible / , and very cold helium for best possible M
/ pV.
A spherical tank has less surface area for a given volume than any other tank shape.
Also, the hoop stress in the wall of a sphere is half that of a cylinder at the same
pressure.[citation needed] Thus if the walls are made of the same material, the spherical
tank can hold twice the pressure of the cylindrical tank, or at the same pressure, the
spherical tank wall can be half the thickness.[citation needed]

Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels


The stress in a thin-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is:

Where is the hoop stress, or stress in the radial direction, p is the internal gage
pressure, r is the radius of the sphere, and t is the thickness. A vessel can be

considered "thin-walled" if the radius is at least 20 times larger than the wall
thickness.[1]
The stress in a thin-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is:

Where is the hoop stress, or stress in the radial direction, long is the stress in the
longitudinal direction, p is the internal gage pressure, r is the radius of the cylinder,
and t is the wall thickness.

Welding
Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics,
by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a
filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld puddle) that cools to
become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by
itself, to produce the weld. This is in contrast with soldering and brazing, which
involve melting a lower-melting-point material between the workpieces to form a
bond between them, without melting the workpieces.

Arc welding
Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame, an
electric arc, a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound. While often an
industrial process, welding can be done in many different environments, including
open air, underwater and in space. Regardless of location, however, welding remains
dangerous, and precautions must be taken to avoid burns, electric shock, poisonous
fumes, and overexposure to ultraviolet light.

Until the end of the 19th century, the only welding process was forge welding, which
blacksmiths had used for centuries to join metals by heating and pounding them. Arc
welding and oxyfuel welding were among the first processes to develop late in the
century, and resistance welding followed soon after. Welding technology advanced
quickly during the early 20th century as World War I and World War II drove the
demand for reliable and inexpensive joining methods. Following the wars, several
modern welding techniques were developed, including manual methods like shielded
metal arc welding, now one of the most popular welding methods, as well as semiautomatic and automatic processes such as gas metal arc welding, submerged arc
welding, flux-cored arc welding and electroslag welding. Developments continued
with the invention of laser beam welding and electron beam welding in the latter half
of the century. Today, the science continues to advance. Robot welding is becoming
more commonplace in industrial settings, and researchers continue to develop new
welding methods and gain greater understanding of weld quality and properties.

History

The Iron Pillar in Delhi.


The history of joining metals goes back several millennia, with the earliest examples
of welding from the Bronze Age and the Iron Age in Europe and the Middle East.
Welding was used in the construction of the Iron pillar in Delhi, India, erected about
310 and weighing 5.4 metric tons.[1] The Middle Ages brought advances in forge
welding, in which blacksmiths pounded heated metal repeatedly until bonding
occurred. In 1540, Vannoccio Biringuccio published De la pirotechnia, which
includes descriptions of the forging operation. Renaissance craftsmen were skilled in
the process, and the industry continued to grow during the following centuries.[2]
Welding, however, was transformed during the 19th centuryin 1800, Sir Humphry
Davy discovered the electric arc, and advances in arc welding continued with the
inventions of metal electrodes by a Russian, Nikolai Slavyanov, and an American,
C.L. Coffin in the late 1800s, even as carbon arc welding, which used a carbon
electrode, gained popularity. Around 1900, A. P. Strohmenger released a coated metal
electrode in Britain, which gave a more stable arc, and in 1919, alternating current
welding was invented by C.J. Holslag, but did not become popular for another
decade.[3]

Resistance welding was also developed during the final decades of the 19th century,
with the first patents going to Elihu Thomson in 1885, who produced further advances
over the next 15 years. Thermite welding was invented in 1893, and around that time,
another process, oxyfuel welding, became well established. Acetylene was discovered
in 1836 by Edmund Davy, but its use was not practical in welding until about 1900,
when a suitable blowtorch was developed.[4] At first, oxyfuel welding was one of the
more popular welding methods due to its portability and relatively low cost. As the
20th century progressed, however, it fell out of favor for industrial applications. It was
largely replaced with arc welding, as metal coverings (known as flux) for the
electrode that stabilize the arc and shield the base material from impurities continued
to be developed.[5]
World War I caused a major surge in the use of welding processes, with the various
military powers attempting to determine which of the several new welding processes
would be best. The British primarily used arc welding, even constructing a ship, the
Fulagar, with an entirely welded hull. The Americans were more hesitant, but began
to recognize the benefits of arc welding when the process allowed them to repair their
ships quickly after German attacks in the New York Harbor at the beginning of the
war. Arc welding was first applied to aircraft during the war as well, as some German
airplane fuselages were constructed using the process.[6]
During the 1920s, major advances were made in welding technology, including the
introduction of automatic welding in 1920, in which electrode wire was fed
continuously. Shielding gas became a subject receiving much attention, as scientists
attempted to protect welds from the effects of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere.
Porosity and brittleness were the primary problems, and the solutions that developed
included the use of hydrogen, argon, and helium as welding atmospheres.[7] During
the following decade, further advances allowed for the welding of reactive metals like
aluminum and magnesium. This, in conjunction with developments in automatic
welding, alternating current, and fluxes fed a major expansion of arc welding during
the 1930s and then during World War II.[8]
During the middle of the century, many new welding methods were invented. 1930
saw the release of stud welding, which soon became popular in shipbuilding and
construction. Submerged arc welding was invented the same year, and continues to be
popular today. Gas tungsten arc welding, after decades of development, was finally
perfected in 1941, and gas metal arc welding followed in 1948, allowing for fast
welding of non-ferrous materials but requiring expensive shielding gases. Shielded
metal arc welding was developed during the 1950s, using a consumable electrode and
a carbon dioxide atmosphere as a shielding gas, and it quickly became the most
popular metal arc welding process. In 1957, the flux-cored arc welding process
debuted, in which the self-shielded wire electrode could be used with automatic
equipment, resulting in greatly increased welding speeds, and that same year, plasma
arc welding was invented. Electroslag welding was introduced in 1958, and it was
followed by its cousin, electrogas welding, in 1961.[9]
Other recent developments in welding include the 1958 breakthrough of electron
beam welding, making deep and narrow welding possible through the concentrated
heat source. Following the invention of the laser in 1960, laser beam welding debuted
several decades later, and has proved to be especially useful in high-speed, automated

welding. Both of these processes, however, continue to be quite expensive due the
high cost of the necessary equipment, and this has limited their applications.[10]

Welding processes
Arc welding
These processes use a welding power supply to create and maintain an electric arc
between an electrode and the base material to melt metals at the welding point. They
can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and consumable or nonconsumable electrodes. The welding region is sometimes protected by some type of
inert or semi-inert gas, known as a shielding gas, and filler material is sometimes used
as well.
Power supplies
To supply the electrical energy necessary for arc welding processes, a number of
different power supplies can be used. The most common classification is constant
current power supplies and constant voltage power supplies. In arc welding, the
voltage is directly related to the length of the arc, and the current is related to the
amount of heat input. Constant current power supplies are most often used for manual
welding processes such as gas tungsten arc welding and shielded metal arc welding,
because they maintain a relatively constant current even as the voltage varies. This is
important because in manual welding, it can be difficult to hold the electrode perfectly
steady, and as a result, the arc length and thus voltage tend to fluctuate. Constant
voltage power supplies hold the voltage constant and vary the current, and as a result,
are most often used for automated welding processes such as gas metal arc welding,
flux cored arc welding, and submerged arc welding. In these processes, arc length is
kept constant, since any fluctuation in the distance between the wire and the base
material is quickly rectified by a large change in current. For example, if the wire and
the base material get too close, the current will rapidly increase, which in turn causes
the heat to increase and the tip of the wire to melt, returning it to its original
separation distance.[11]
The type of current used in arc welding also plays an important role in welding.
Consumable electrode processes such as shielded metal arc welding and gas metal arc
welding generally use direct current, but the electrode can be charged either positively
or negatively. In welding, the positively charged anode will have a greater heat
concentration, and as a result, changing the polarity of the electrode has an impact on
weld properties. If the electrode is positively charged, it will melt more quickly,
increasing weld penetration and welding speed. Alternatively, a negatively charged
electrode results in more shallow welds.[12] Nonconsumable electrode processes, such
as gas tungsten arc welding, can use either type of direct current, as well as alternating
current. However, with direct current, because the electrode only creates the arc and
does not provide filler material, a positively charged electrode causes shallow welds,
while a negatively charged electrode makes deeper welds.[13] Alternating current
rapidly moves between these two, resulting in medium-penetration welds. One
disadvantage of AC, the fact that the arc must be re-ignited after every zero crossing,
has been addressed with the invention of special power units that produce a square

wave pattern instead of the normal sine wave, making rapid zero crossings possible
and minimizing the effects of the problem.[14]
Processes

Shielded metal arc welding


One of the most common types of arc welding is shielded metal arc welding
(SMAW), which is also known as manual metal arc welding (MMA) or stick welding.
Electric current is used to strike an arc between the base material and consumable
electrode rod, which is made of steel and is covered with a flux that protects the weld
area from oxidation and contamination by producing CO2 gas during the welding
process. The electrode core itself acts as filler material, making a separate filler
unnecessary.
The process is versatile and can be performed with relatively inexpensive equipment,
making it well suited to shop jobs and field work.[15] An operator can become
reasonably proficient with a modest amount of training and can achieve mastery with
experience. Weld times are rather slow, since the consumable electrodes must be
frequently replaced and because slag, the residue from the flux, must be chipped away
after welding.[16] Furthermore, the process is generally limited to welding ferrous
materials, though speciality electrodes have made possible the welding of cast iron,
nickel, aluminium, copper, and other metals. Inexperienced operators may find it
difficult to make good out-of-position welds with this process.
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), also known as metal inert gas or MIG welding, is a
semi-automatic or automatic process that uses a continuous wire feed as an electrode
and an inert or semi-inert gas mixture to protect the weld from contamination. As with
SMAW, reasonable operator proficiency can be achieved with modest training. Since
the electrode is continuous, welding speeds are greater for GMAW than for SMAW.
Also, the smaller arc size compared to the shielded metal arc welding process makes
it easier to make out-of-position welds (e.g., overhead joints, as would be welded
underneath a structure).
The equipment required to perform the GMAW process is more complex and
expensive than that required for SMAW, and requires a more complex setup
procedure. Therefore, GMAW is less portable and versatile, and due to the use of a
separate shielding gas, is not particularly suitable for outdoor work. However, owing
to the higher average rate at which welds can be completed, GMAW is well suited to
production welding. The process can be applied to a wide variety of metals, both
ferrous and non-ferrous.[17]
A related process, flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), uses similar equipment but uses
wire consisting of a steel electrode surrounding a powder fill material. This cored wire

is more expensive than the standard solid wire and can generate fumes and/or slag,
but it permits even higher welding speed and greater metal penetration.[18]

Gas tungsten arc welding


Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), or tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding (also
sometimes erroneously referred to as heliarc welding), is a manual welding process
that uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode, an inert or semi-inert gas mixture, and
a separate filler material. Especially useful for welding thin materials, this method is
characterized by a stable arc and high quality welds, but it requires significant
operator skill and can only be accomplished at relatively low speeds.
GTAW can be used on nearly all weldable metals, though it is most often applied to
stainless steel and light metals. It is often used when quality welds are extremely
important, such as in bicycle, aircraft and naval applications.[19] A related process,
plasma arc welding, also uses a tungsten electrode but uses plasma gas to make the
arc. The arc is more concentrated than the GTAW arc, making transverse control
more critical and thus generally restricting the technique to a mechanized process.
Because of its stable current, the method can be used on a wider range of material
thicknesses than can the GTAW process, and furthermore, it is much faster. It can be
applied to all of the same materials as GTAW except magnesium, and automated
welding of stainless steel is one important application of the process. A variation of
the process is plasma cutting, an efficient steel cutting process.[20]
Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a high-productivity welding method in which the
arc is struck beneath a covering layer of flux. This increases arc quality, since
contaminants in the atmosphere are blocked by the flux. The slag that forms on the
weld generally comes off by itself, and combined with the use of a continuous wire
feed, the weld deposition rate is high. Working conditions are much improved over
other arc welding processes, since the flux hides the arc and almost no smoke is
produced. The process is commonly used in industry, especially for large products
and in the manufacture of welded pressure vessels.[21] Other arc welding processes
include atomic hydrogen welding, carbon arc welding, electroslag welding, electrogas
welding, and stud arc welding.

Gas welding a steel armature using the oxy-acetylene process.

Gas welding
The most common gas welding process is oxyfuel welding, also known as
oxyacetylene welding. It is one of the oldest and most versatile welding processes, but
in recent years it has become less popular in industrial applications. It is still widely
used for welding pipes and tubes, as well as repair work. The equipment is relatively
inexpensive and simple, generally employing the combustion of acetylene in oxygen
to produce a welding flame temperature of about 3100C. The flame, since it is less
concentrated than an electric arc, causes slower weld cooling, which can lead to
greater residual stresses and weld distortion, though it eases the welding of high alloy
steels. A similar process, generally called oxyfuel cutting, is used to cut metals.[22]
Other gas welding methods, such as air acetylene welding, oxygen hydrogen welding,
and pressure gas welding are quite similar, generally differing only in the type of
gases used. A water torch is sometimes used for precision welding of items such as
jewelry. Gas welding is also used in plastic welding, though the heated substance is
air, and the temperatures are much lower.

Resistance welding
Resistance welding involves the generation of heat by passing current through the
resistance caused by the contact between two or more metal surfaces. Small pools of
molten metal are formed at the weld area as high current (1000100,000 A) is passed
through the metal. In general, resistance welding methods are efficient and cause little
pollution, but their applications are somewhat limited and the equipment cost can be
high.

Spot welder
Spot welding is a popular resistance welding method used to join overlapping metal
sheets of up to 3 mm thick. Two electrodes are simultaneously used to clamp the
metal sheets together and to pass current through the sheets. The advantages of the
method include efficient energy use, limited workpiece deformation, high production
rates, easy automation, and no required filler materials. Weld strength is significantly
lower than with other welding methods, making the process suitable for only certain
applications. It is used extensively in the automotive industryordinary cars can have
several thousand spot welds made by industrial robots. A specialized process, called
shot welding, can be used to spot weld stainless steel.
Like spot welding, seam welding relies on two electrodes to apply pressure and
current to join metal sheets. However, instead of pointed electrodes, wheel-shaped
electrodes roll along and often feed the workpiece, making it possible to make long
continuous welds. In the past, this process was used in the manufacture of beverage
cans, but now its uses are more limited. Other resistance welding methods include
flash welding, projection welding, and upset welding.[23]

Energy beam welding


Energy beam welding methods, namely laser beam welding and electron beam
welding, are relatively new processes that have become quite popular in high
production applications. The two processes are quite similar, differing most notably in
their source of power. Laser beam welding employs a highly focused laser beam,
while electron beam welding is done in a vacuum and uses an electron beam. Both
have a very high energy density, making deep weld penetration possible and
minimizing the size of the weld area. Both processes are extremely fast, and are easily
automated, making them highly productive. The primary disadvantages are their very
high equipment costs (though these are decreasing) and a susceptibility to thermal
cracking. Developments in this area include laser-hybrid welding, which uses
principles from both laser beam welding and arc welding for even better weld
properties.[24]

Solid-state welding
Like the first welding process, forge welding, some modern welding methods do not
involve the melting of the materials being joined. One of the most popular, ultrasonic
welding, is used to connect thin sheets or wires made of metal or thermoplastic by

vibrating them at high frequency and under high pressure. The equipment and
methods involved are similar to that of resistance welding, but instead of electric
current, vibration provides energy input. Welding metals with this process does not
involve melting the materials; instead, the weld is formed by introducing mechanical
vibrations horizontally under pressure. When welding plastics, the materials should
have similar melting temperatures, and the vibrations are introduced vertically.
Ultrasonic welding is commonly used for making electrical connections out of
aluminum or copper, and it is also a very common polymer welding process.
Another common process, explosion welding, involves the joining of materials by
pushing them together under extremely high pressure. The energy from the impact
plasticizes the materials, forming a weld, even though only a limited amount of heat is
generated. The process is commonly used for welding dissimilar materials, such as the
welding of aluminum with steel in ship hulls or compound plates. Other solid-state
welding processes include co-extrusion welding, cold welding, diffusion welding,
friction welding (including friction stir welding), high frequency welding, hot
pressure welding, induction welding, and roll welding.[25]

Geometry

Common welding joint types (1) Square butt joint, (2) Single-V preparation joint,
(3) Lap joint, (4) T-joint.
Welds can be geometrically prepared in many different ways. The five basic types of
weld joints are the butt joint, lap joint, corner joint, edge joint, and T-joint. Other
variations exist as wellfor example, double-V preparation joints are characterized
by the two pieces of material each tapering to a single center point at one-half their
height. Single-U and double-U preparation joints are also fairly commoninstead of
having straight edges like the single-V and double-V preparation joints, they are
curved, forming the shape of a U. Lap joints are also commonly more than two pieces
thickdepending on the process used and the thickness of the material, many pieces
can be welded together in a lap joint geometry.[26]
Often, particular joint designs are used exclusively or almost exclusively by certain
welding processes. For example, resistance spot welding, laser beam welding, and
electron beam welding are most frequently performed on lap joints. However, some
welding methods, like shielded metal arc welding, are extremely versatile and can
weld virtually any type of joint. Additionally, some processes can be used to make
multipass welds, in which one weld is allowed to cool, and then another weld is
performed on top of it. This allows for the welding of thick sections arranged in a
single-V preparation joint, for example.[27]

The cross-section of a welded butt joint, with the darkest gray representing the weld
or fusion zone, the medium gray the heat-affected zone, and the lightest gray the base
material.
After welding, a number of distinct regions can be identified in the weld area. The
weld itself is called the fusion zonemore specifically, it is where the filler metal
was laid during the welding process. The properties of the fusion zone depend
primarily on the filler metal used, and its compatibility with the base materials. It is
surrounded by the heat-affected zone, the area that had its microstructure and
properties altered by the weld. These properties depend on the base material's
behavior when subjected to heat. The metal in this area is often weaker than both the
base material and the fusion zone, and is also where residual stresses are found.[28]

Quality
Most often, the major metric used for judging the quality of a weld is its strength and
the strength of the material around it. Many distinct factors influence this, including
the welding method, the amount and concentration of heat input, the base material, the
filler material, the flux material, the design of the joint, and the interactions between
all these factors. To test the quality of a weld, either destructive or nondestructive
testing methods are commonly used to verify that welds are defect-free, have
acceptable levels of residual stresses and distortion, and have acceptable heat-affected
zone (HAZ) properties. Welding codes and specifications exist to guide welders in
proper welding technique and in how to judge the quality of welds.

Heat-affected zone

The HAZ of a pipe weld, with the blue area being the metal most affected by the heat.
The effects of welding on the material surrounding the weld can be detrimental
depending on the materials used and the heat input of the welding process used, the
HAZ can be of varying size and strength. The thermal diffusivity of the base material
plays a large roleif the diffusivity is high, the material cooling rate is high and the
HAZ is relatively small. Conversely, a low diffusivity leads to slower cooling and a
larger HAZ. The amount of heat injected by the welding process plays an important
role as well, as processes like oxyacetylene welding have an unconcentrated heat
input and increase the size of the HAZ. Processes like laser beam welding give a
highly concentrated, limited amount of heat, resulting in a small HAZ. Arc welding

falls between these two extremes, with the individual processes varying somewhat in
heat input.[29][30] To calculate the heat input for arc welding procedures, the following
formula can be used:

where Q = heat input (kJ/mm), V = voltage (V), I = current (A), and S = welding
speed (mm/min). The efficiency is dependent on the welding process used, with
shielded metal arc welding having a value of 0.75, gas metal arc welding and
submerged arc welding, 0.9, and gas tungsten arc welding, 0.8.[31]

Distortion and cracking


Welding methods that involve the melting of metal at the site of the joint necessarily
are prone to shrinkage as the heated metal cools. Shrinkage, in turn, can introduce
residual stresses and both longitudinal and rotational distortion. Distortion can pose a
major problem, since the final product is not the desired shape. To alleviate rotational
distortion, the workpieces can be offset, so that the welding results in a correctly
shaped piece.[32] Other methods of limiting distortion, such as clamping the
workpieces in place, cause the buildup of residual stress in the heat-affected zone of
the base material. These stresses can reduce the strength of the base material, and can
lead to catastrophic failure through cold cracking, as in the case of several of the
Liberty ships. Cold cracking is limited to steels, and is associated with the formation
of martensite as the weld cools. The cracking occurs in the heat-affected zone of the
base material. To reduce the amount of distortion and residual stresses, the amount of
heat input should be limited, and the welding sequence used should not be from one
end directly to the other, but rather in segments. The other type of cracking, hot
cracking or solidification cracking, can occur in all metals, and happens in the fusion
zone of a weld. To diminish the probability of this type of cracking, excess material
restraint should be avoided, and a proper filler material should be utilized.[33]

Weldability
The quality of a weld is also dependent on the combination of materials used for the
base material and the filler material. Not all metals are suitable for welding, and not
all filler metals work well with acceptable base materials.
Steels
The weldability of steels is inversely proportional to a property known as the
hardenability of the steel, which measures the ease of forming martensite during heat
treatment. The hardenability of steel depends on its chemical composition, with
greater quantities of carbon and other alloying elements resulting in a higher
hardenability and thus a lower weldability. In order to be able to judge alloys made up
of many distinct materials, a measure known as the equivalent carbon content is used
to compare the relative weldabilities of different alloys by comparing their properties
to a plain carbon steel. The effect on weldability of elements like chromium and
vanadium, while not as great as carbon, is more significant than that of copper and

nickel, for example. As the equivalent carbon content rises, the weldability of the
alloy decreases.[34] The disadvantage to using plain carbon and low-alloy steels is
their lower strengththere is a trade-off between material strength and weldability.
High strength, low-alloy steels were developed especially for welding applications
during the 1970s, and these generally easy to weld materials have good strength,
making them ideal for many welding applications.[35]
Stainless steels, because of their high chromium content, tend to behave differently
with respect to weldability than other steels. Austenitic grades of stainless steels tend
to be the most weldable, but they are especially susceptible to distortion due to their
high coefficient of thermal expansion. Some alloys of this type are prone to cracking
and reduced corrosion resistance as well. Hot cracking is possible if the amount of
ferrite in the weld is not controlledto alleviate the problem, an electrode is used that
deposits a weld metal containing a small amount of ferrite. Other types of stainless
steels, such as ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, are not as easily welded, and
must often be preheated and welded with special electrodes.[36]
Aluminum
The weldability of aluminum alloys varies significantly, depending on the chemical
composition of the alloy used. Aluminum alloys are susceptible to hot cracking, and
to combat the problem, welders increase the welding speed to lower the heat input.
Preheating reduces the temperature gradient across the weld zone and thus helps
reduce hot cracking, but it can reduce the mechanical properties of the base material
and should not be used when the base material is restrained. The design of the joint
can be changed as well, and a more compatible filler alloy can be selected to decrease
the likelihood of hot cracking. Aluminum alloys should also be cleaned prior to
welding, with the goal of removing all oxides, oils, and loose particles from the
surface to be welded. This is especially important because of an aluminum weld's
susceptibility to porosity due to hydrogen and dross due to oxygen.[37]

Unusual conditions

Underwater welding

While many welding applications are done in controlled environments such as


factories and repair shops, some welding processes are commonly used in a wide
variety of conditions, such as open air, underwater, and vacuums (such as space). In
open-air applications, such as construction and outdoors repair, shielded metal arc
welding is the most common process. Processes that employ inert gases to protect the
weld cannot be readily used in such situations, because unpredictable atmospheric
movements can result in a faulty weld. Shielded metal arc welding is also often used
in underwater welding in the construction and repair of ships, offshore platforms, and
pipelines, but others, such as flux cored arc welding and gas tungsten arc welding, are
also common. Welding in space is also possibleit was first attempted in 1969 by
Russian cosmonauts, when they performed experiments to test shielded metal arc
welding, plasma arc welding, and electron beam welding in a depressurized
environment. Further testing of these methods was done in the following decades, and
today researchers continue to develop methods for using other welding processes in
space, such as laser beam welding, resistance welding, and friction welding.
Advances in these areas could prove indispensable for projects like the construction of
the International Space Station, which will likely rely heavily on welding for joining
in space the parts that were manufactured on Earth.[38]

Safety issues
Welding, without the proper precautions, can be a dangerous and unhealthy practice.
However, with the use of new technology and proper protection, the risks of injury
and death associated with welding can be greatly reduced. Because many common
welding procedures involve an open electric arc or flame, the risk of burns is
significant. To prevent them, welders wear personal protective equipment in the form
of heavy leather gloves and protective long sleeve jackets to avoid exposure to
extreme heat and flames. Additionally, the brightness of the weld area leads to a
condition called arc eye in which ultraviolet light causes the inflammation of the
cornea and can burn the retinas of the eyes. Goggles and welding helmets with dark
face plates are worn to prevent this exposure, and in recent years, new helmet models
have been produced that feature a face plate that self-darkens upon exposure to high
amounts of UV light. To protect bystanders, translucent welding curtains often
surround the welding area. These curtains, made of a polyvinyl chloride plastic film,
shield nearby workers from exposure to the UV light from the electric arc, but should
not be used to replace the filter glass used in helmets.[39]
Welders are also often exposed to dangerous gases and particulate matter. Processes
like flux-cored arc welding and shielded metal arc welding produce smoke containing
particles of various types of oxides, which in some cases can lead to medical
conditions like metal fume fever. The size of the particles in question tends to
influence the toxicity of the fumes, with smaller particles presenting a greater danger.
Additionally, many processes produce fumes and various gases, most commonly
carbon dioxide, ozone and heavy metals, that can prove dangerous without proper
ventilation and training. Furthermore, because the use of compressed gases and
flames in many welding processes pose an explosion and fire risk, some common
precautions include limiting the amount of oxygen in the air and keeping combustible
materials away from the workplace.[40]

Costs and trends


As an industrial process, the cost of welding plays a crucial role in manufacturing
decisions. Many different variables affect the total cost, including equipment cost,
labor cost, material cost, and energy cost. Depending on the process, equipment cost
can vary, from inexpensive for methods like shielded metal arc welding and oxyfuel
welding, to extremely expensive for methods like laser beam welding and electron
beam welding. Because of their high cost, they are only used in high production
operations. Similarly, because automation and robots increase equipment costs, they
are only implemented when high production is necessary. Labor cost depends on the
deposition rate (the rate of welding), the hourly wage, and the total operation time,
including both time welding and handling the part. The cost of materials includes the
cost of the base and filler material, and the cost of shielding gases. Finally, energy
cost depends on arc time and welding power demand.
For manual welding methods, labor costs generally make up the vast majority of the
total cost. As a result, many cost-savings measures are focused on minimizing the
operation time. To do this, welding procedures with high deposition rates can be
selected, and weld parameters can be fine-tuned to increase welding speed.
Mechanization and automatization are often implemented to reduce labor costs, but
this frequently increases the cost of equipment and creates additional setup time.
Material costs tend to increase when special properties are necessary, and energy
costs normally do not amount to more than several percent of the total welding
cost.[41]
In recent years, in order to minimize labor costs in high production manufacturing,
industrial welding has become increasingly more automated, most notably with the
use of robots in resistance spot welding (especially in the automotive industry) and in
arc welding. In robot welding, mechanized devices both hold the material and perform
the weld,[42] and at first, spot welding was its most common application. But robotic
arc welding has been increasing in popularity as technology has advanced. Other key
areas of research and development include the welding of dissimilar materials (such
as steel and aluminum, for example) and new welding processes, such as friction stir,
magnetic pulse, conductive heat seam, and laser-hybrid welding. Furthermore,
progress is desired in making more specialized methods like laser beam welding
practical for more applications, such as in the aerospace and automotive industries.
Researchers also hope to better understand the often unpredictable properties of
welds, especially microstructure, residual stresses, and a weld's tendency to crack or
deform

Four-stroke cycle
Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction
machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. The four
strokes refer to intake, compression, combustion and exhaust strokes that occur during
two crankshaft rotations per working cycle of Otto Cycle and Diesel engines.

The Otto cycle


The Otto cycle engine was first was patented by Eugenio Barsanti and Felice
Matteucci in 1854 followed by a first prototype in 1860. It was also conceptualized by
French engineer, Alphonse Beau de Rochas in 1862 and independently, by the
German engineer Nicolaus Otto in 1876[citation needed]. Its power cycle consists of
adiabatic compression, heat addition at constant volume, adiabatic expansion and
rejection of heat at constant volume and characterized by four strokes, or
reciprocating movements of a piston in a cylinder:
1.
2.
3.
4.

intake/induction stroke
compression stroke
power stroke
exhaust stroke

P-V Diagram
The cycle begins at top dead center (TDC), when the piston is furthest away from the
crankshaft. On the first stroke (intake/induction) of the piston, as the piston descends
it reduces the pressure in the cylinder, a mixture of fuel and air is forced, by at least
atmospheric pressure, into the cylinder through the intake (inlet) port. The intake
(inlet) valve (or valves) then close(s) and the following stroke (compression)
compresses the fuel-air mixture.

Four-stroke cycle (or Otto cycle)


The air-fuel mixture is then ignited, usually by a spark plug for a gasoline or Otto
cycle engine or by the heat and pressure of compression for a Diesel cycle or
compression ignition engine, at approximately the top of the compression stroke. The
resulting expansion of burning gases pushes the piston downward for the third stroke

(power) and in the fourth stroke (exhaust) the piston pushes the products of
combustion from the cylinder through an exhaust valve or valves.

Valve train
The valves are typically operated by a camshaft, with a series of cams along its
length, each designed to open a valve appropriately for the execution of intake or
exhaust strokes while rotating at half crankshaft speed. A tappet between valve and
cam furnishes a contact surface on which the cam slides to open the valve. The
location of the camshaft varies, as does the quantity. Most engines use overhead cams,
or even dual overhead cams, as in the illustration, in which cams directly actuate
valves through a flat tappet. This design is typically capable of higher engine speeds
because it gives the most direct and shortest inelastic path between cam and valve. In
other engine designs, the cam shaft is placed in the crankcase and its motion
transmitted by a push rod, rocker arms, and valve stems.

Starting position, intake stroke, and compression stroke.

Ignition of fuel, power stroke, and exhaust stroke.

Valve clearance adjustment


Valve clearance refers to the small gap between valve lifter and valve stem (or rocker
arm and valve stem) that insures that the valve completely closes, an expansion joint
in the valve train. Most engines have the valve clearance set by grinding the end of
the valve stem during engine assembly, overhead cams not needing subsequent
adjustment. In earlier engines, mostly with push rods and rocker arms used adjustable
tappets or hydraulic tappets to adjust for valve and cam wear. Lack of valve clearance
will prevent valve closure causing leakage and valve damage.

Valve clearance measurement


Valve clearance is measured with the valve closed, typically at Top Dead Centre of
the compression stroke. The tappet will be resting on the heel of the cam lobe.
A feeler gauge must pass through the clearance space.
If the feeler gauge will not fit in, then the clearance is too small.
If the blade of the feeler gauge fits in too loose then the clearance is too big.
The feeler gauge should fit in and out with a slight drag.
Valve clearance too wide
A too wide valve clearance will cause excessive wear to the camshaft and valve lifter
contact areas, the pushrods can also bend and the engine will be noisy. Should the
clearance become wide enough, valve timings will change resulting in poor
performance.
Valve clearance too narrow
A narrow valve clearance will not allow for heat expansion and will result in the
failure of the valve to close on its seat. The combustion chamber will not seal
properly, producing poor compression and power. It is also possible that the valve can
become hot enough to melt!

Adjusting valve clearance


Valve clearance adjustment must be performed to manufacturer's specifications. It is
normal that the exhaust valve will have a larger clearance.
Adjustment is performed by either adjusting the rocker arm or by placing shims
between cam follower and valve stem.
Most modern engines have hydraulic valve lifters and require no adjustment.

Port flow
The power input of the motor is dependent on the ability of the engine to allow a
volume flow of both air-fuel mixture and exhaust gas through the respective valve
ports, typically located in the cylinder head. Therefore time is spent designing this
part of an engine. Factory flow specifications are generally lower than what the
engine is capable of, but due to the time and expensive nature of smoothing the entire
intake and exhaust track, compromises in flow for reductions in costs is often made.
In order to gain power, irregularities such as casting flaws are removed and with the
aid of a flow bench, the radii of valve port turns and valve seat configuration can be
modified to promote high flow. This process is called porting, and can be done by
hand, or via CNC machine.
There are many common design and porting strategies to increase flow. Increasing the
diameter of the valves to take up as much the cylinder diameter as possible to increase
the flow through the intake and exhaust ports is one method. However, increased
valve size can decrease valve shrouding (the impedance of flow created by the
cylinder floor.) To counter this, valves are commonly designed to open into the
middle of the cylinder (such as the Chrysler Hemi or the Ford Cleveland engines with
canted valves). Also, increasing valve lift, or the distance valves are opened into the
cylinder or using multiple smaller valves can increase flow. With the advent of
computer technology, in modern engines valves events can be controlled directly by
the engine's computer, minimizing engine operation at any speed or load.

Output limit
The amount of power generated by a four-stroke engine is ultimately limited by piston
speed, due to material strength. Since pistons and connecting rods are accelerated and
decelerated very quickly, the materials used must be strong enough to withstand these
forces. Both physical breakage and piston ring flutter can occur, resulting in power
loss or even engine destruction. Piston ring flutter occurs when the piston rings
change direction so quickly that they are forced from their seat on the ring land and
the cylinder walls, resulting in a loss of cylinder sealing and power as well as possible
breakage of the ring.
One important factor in engine design is the rod/stroke ratio. Rod/stroke ratio is the
ratio of the length of the connecting rod to the length of the crankshaft's stroke. An
increase in the rod/stroke ratio (a longer rod, shorter stroke, or both,) results in a
decrease in piston speed. However, again due to strength and size concerns, there is a
limit to how long a rod can be in relation to the stroke. A longer rod (and
consequently, higher rod/stroke ratio,) can potentially create more power, due to the

fact that with a longer connecting rod, more force from the piston is delivered
tangentially to the crankshafts rotation, delivering more torque. A shorter rod/stroke
ratio creates higher piston speeds, but this can be beneficial depending on other
engine characteristics. Increased piston speeds can create tumble or swirl within the
cylinder and reduce detonation. Increased piston speeds can also draw fuel/air mix
into the cylinder more quickly through a larger intake runner, promoting good
cylinder filling.
An engine where the bore dimension is larger than the stroke is commonly known as
an oversquare engine, and such engines have the ability to attain higher RPM.
Conversely, an engine with a bore that is smaller than its stroke is an undersquare
engine. Respectively, it cannot attain as many RPM, but is liable to make more torque
at lower RPM. In addition, an engine with a bore and stroke that are the same is
referred to as a square engine.

Two-stroke cycle
The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more
common four-stroke cycle by completing the same four processes (intake,
compression, power, exhaust) in only two strokes of the piston rather than four. This
is accomplished by using the space below the piston for air intake and compression,
thus allowing the chamber above the piston to be used for just the power and exhaust
strokes. This causes there to be a power stroke for every revolution of the crank,
instead of every second revolution as in a four-stroke engine. For this reason, twostroke engines provide high specific power, so they are valued for use in portable,
lightweight applications. On the other hand large two stroke diesels have been in use
in industry (i.e. locomotive engines) since the early twentieth century.
The two-stroke spark-ignition engine's invention is generally credited to Joseph Day
(and Frederick Cock for the transfer-port), whereas the two-stroke valved
compression-ignition engine is attributed to Dugald Clark.

Applications
The smallest gasoline engines are usually two-strokes. They are popular due to their
simple design (and therefore, low cost) and very high power-to-weight ratios. The
biggest disadvantage is that the engine lubricant is almost always mixed in with the
fuel, thus significantly increasing the emission of pollutants. For this reason, twostroke engines are being replaced with four-stroke engines in as many applications as
possible.
Two-stroke engines are still commonly used in high-power, handheld applications
where light weight is essential, primarily string trimmers and chainsaws. To a lesser

extent, these engines may still be used for certain small, portable, or specialized
machine applications. These include outboard motors, high-performance, smallcapacity motorcycles, mopeds, underbones, scooters, snowmobiles, karts, model
airplanes (and other model vehicles) and lawnmowers. In the past, two-stroke cycles
were experimented with for use in diesel engines, most notably with opposed piston
designs, low-speed units such as large marine engines, and V8 engines for trucks and
heavy machinery.

The two-stroke cycle


Two-stroke cycle engines operate in two strokes, instead of the four strokes of the
more common Otto cycle.
1. Power/exhaust: This stroke occurs immediately after the ignition of the
charge. The piston is forced down. After a certain point, the top of the piston
passes the exhaust port, and most of the pressurized exhaust gases escape. As
the piston continues down, it compresses the air/fuel/oil mixture in the
crankcase. Once the top of the piston passes the transfer port, the compressed
charge enters the cylinder from the crankcase and any remaining exhaust is
forced out.
2. Compression/intake: The air/fuel/oil mixture has entered the cylinder, and the
piston begins to move up. This compresses the charge in the cylinder and
draws a vacuum in the crankcase, pulling in more air, fuel, and oil from the
carburetor. The compressed charge is ignited by the spark plug, and the cycle
begins again.
In engines like the one described above, where some of the exhaust and intake charge
are in the cylinder simultaneously the gasses are kept separate by careful aiming of
the transfer ports such that the fresh gas has minimal contact with the exiting exhaust
which it is pushing ahead of itself.

Different two-stroke design types


In order to understand the operation of the two-stroke engine it is necessary to know
which type of design is in question because different design types operate in different
ways.
The design types of the two-stroke cycle engine vary according to the method of
intake of fresh air/fuel mixture from the outside, the method of scavenging the
cylinder (exchanging burnt exhaust for fresh mixture) and the method of exhausting
the cylinder.
These are the main variations. They can be found alone or in various combinations.

Piston port
Piston port is the simplest of the designs. All functions are controlled solely by the
piston covering and uncovering the ports (which are holes in the side of the cylinder)

as it moves up and down in the cylinder. A fundamental difference from typical fourstroke engines is that the crankcase is sealed and forms part of the induction process.

Reed valve
The reed valve is similar to and almost as simple as the piston port but with a check
valve in the intake tract. Reed valve engines deliver power over a wider RPM range
than the piston port types, making them more useful in many applications, such as dirt
bikes, ATVs, and marine outboard engines.

Disk rotary valve


The intake tract is opened and closed by a thin disk attached to the crankshaft and
spins at crankshaft speed. The fuel/air path through the intake tract is arranged so that
it passes through the disk. This disk has a section cut from it and when this cut passes
the intake pipe it opens, otherwise it is closed.
The advantage of a disk rotary valve is that it enables the two-stroke engine's intake
timing to be asymmetrical which is not possible with two-stroke piston port type
engines. The two-stroke piston port type engine's intake timing opens and closes
before and after top dead center at the same crank angle making it symmetrical
whereas the disk rotary valve allows the opening to begin earlier and close earlier.
Disk rotary valve engines can be tailored to deliver power over a wider RPM range or
higher horse power over a narrower RPM range than either piston port or reed valve
engine though they are more mechanically complicated than either one of them.

Exhaust valve in head


Instead of the exhaust exiting from a hole in the side of the cylinder, valves are
provided in the cylinder head. The valves function the same way as four-stroke
exhaust valves do but at twice the speed. This arrangement is common in two-stroke
Diesel locomotive engines.

Loop-scavenged
This method of scavenging uses carefully aimed transfer ports to loop fresh mixture
up one side of the cylinder and down the other pushing the burnt exhaust ahead of it
and out the exhaust port. It features a flat or slightly domed piston crown for efficient
combustion. "Schnurle" or Loop scavenging is by far the most used system of
scavenging, named after its inventor.

Cross flow-scavenged
In a cross flow engine the transfer ports and exhaust ports are on opposite sides of the
cylinder and a baffle shaped piston dome directs the fresh mixture up and over the
dome pushing the exhaust down the other side of the baffle and out the exhaust port.
Before loop scavenging was invented almost all two-strokes were made this way. The
heavy piston with its very high heat absorption along with its poor scavenging and

combustion characteristics make it an unsuitable design for most applications. Cross


flow scavenging is still often used in small engines because it is less expensive to
manufacture and allows a more compact design for multiple cylinder
configurations.[1] With smaller size and lower piston speed the deficiencies of the
cross flow design become less apparent.

Power valve systems


Many modern two-stroke engines employ a power valve system. The valves are
normally in or around the exhaust ports. They work in one of two ways, either they
alter the exhaust port by closing off the top part of the port which alters port timing
such as Ski-doo R.A.V.E Yamaha YPVS, Suzuki AETC system or by altering the
volume of the exhaust which changes the resonant frequency of the expansion
chamber, such as Honda V-TACS system. The result is an engine with better low end
power without losing high rpm power

Two-stroke diesel engines


Unlike a gasoline engine, which requires a spark plug to ignite the fuel/air charge in
the cylinder, a diesel engine relies solely on the heat of compression for ignition. Fuel
is injected at high pressure into the superheated compressed air and instantly ignites.
Therefore, scavenging is performed with air alone.
In order to allow the usage of a conventional oil-filled crankcase and pressure
lubricated main and connecting rod bearings, a two-stroke diesel is scavenged by a
mechanically driven blower (often a Roots positive displacement blower) or a hybrid
turbo-supercharger, rather than by crankcase pumping. Generally speaking, the
blower capacity is carefully matched to the engine displacement so that a slight
positive pressure is present in each cylinder during the scavenging phase (that is,
before the exhaust valves are closed). This feature assures full expulsion of exhaust
gases from the previous power stroke, and also prevents exhaust gases from
backfeeding into the blower and possibly causing damage due to contamination by
particulates.
It should be noted that the scavenging blower is not a supercharger, as its purpose is
to supply airflow to the cylinders in proportion to their displacement and engine
speed. A two-stroke diesel supplied with air from a blower alone is considered to be
naturally aspirated. In some cases, turbocharging may be added to increase mass air
flow at full throttlewith a corresponding increase in power outputby directing the
output of the turbocharger into the intake of the scavenging blower, an arrangement
that was found on some Detroit Diesel two-stroke engines.
A conventional, exhaust-driven turbocharger cannot be used by itself to produce
scavenging airflow, as it is incapable of operating unless the engine is already
running. Hence it would be impossible to start the engine. The common solution to
this problem is to drive the turbocharger's impeller through a gear train and
overrunning clutch. In this arrangement, the impeller turns at sufficient speed during
engine cranking to produce the required airflow, thus acting as a mechanical blower.
At lower engine speeds, the turbocharger will continue to act as a mechanical blower.

However, at higher power settings the exhaust gas pressure and volume will increase
to a point where the turbine side of the turbocharger will drive the impeller and the
overrunning clutch will disengage, resulting in true turbocharging.

Lubrication
Two-stroke engines often have a simple lubrication system in which oil is mixed with
the fuel, (then known as 'petroil' from "petrol" + "oil") and therefore reaches all
moving parts of the engine. For this reason, for handheld devices, they have the
advantage of working in any orientation, as there is no oil reservoir dependent upon
gravity. See 'Design Issues' below.
The engine uses cylinder port valves which are incompatible with piston ring seals.
This causes lubricant from the crank to work its way into the combustion chamber
where it burns. Research has been conducted on designs that attempt to reduce the
combustion of lubricant. This research could potentially produce an engine having
very valuable properties of both high specific-power and low pollution. There is also
oil injection which is common in most of today's two cycle engines.

Reversibility
With proper design, a two-stroke engine can be arranged to start and run in either
direction, and many engines have been built to do this. Engines not designed to run in
reverse are still capable of doing it; however running one in reverse for long periods
might cause internal damage. This is due to piston throw and piston pin offset, a
design feature of all modern piston engines that reduces piston slap. Ignition timing
will also be severely retarded in reverse and oil pumps will not function backwards.

A two-stroke engine with an expansion pipe illustrating the effect of the reflected
pressure wave on the fuel charge.

Engine
An engine is something that produces an effect from a given input. The origin of
engineering was the working of engines. There is an overlap in English between two
meanings of the word "engineer": "those who operate engines" and "those who design
and construct new items."

Usage of the term


In original usage, an engine was any sort of mechanical device. The term "gin" in
cotton gin is a short form of this usage. Practically every device from the industrial
revolution was referred to as an engine, and this is where the steam engine gained its
name. This form of the term has come into use again in computer science, where
terms like "search engine", "3-D graphics game engine", "rendering engine" and "textto-speech engine" are common. The earliest mechanical computing device was called
the difference engine; Military devices such as catapults are referred to as siege
engines.
In more recent usage, the term is used to describe devices that perform mechanical
work, follow-ons to the original steam engine. In most cases the work is supplied by
exerting a torque, which is used to operate other machinery, generate electricity,
pump water or compress gas.
In the context of propulsion systems, an air breathing engine is one that uses
atmospheric air to oxidise the fuel carried, rather than carrying an oxidiser, as in a
rocket. Theoretically, this should result in a better specific impulse than for rocket
engines.

Antiquity
Engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and even steam
power date back to antiquity.
Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass
or treadmill, and with ropes, pulleys, and block and tackle arrangements, this power
was transmitted and multiplied. These were used in cranes and aboard ships during
Ancient Greece, and in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. Early
oared warships used human power augmented by the simple engine of the lever -- the
oar itself. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius, Frontinus and Pliny the
Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be far more
ancient.
By the 1st century AD, various breeds of cattle and horses were used in mills, using
machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times.
According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia in the kingdom of
Mithridates in the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread through
Europe over the next few centuries. Some were quite complex, with aqueducts, dams,
and sluices to maintain and channel the water, and systems of gears, or toothedwheels made of wood with metal, used to regulate the speed of rotation. In a poem by
Ausonius in the 4th century, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water.
Hero of Alexandria demonstrated both wind and steam powered machines in the 1st
century, although it is not known if these were put to any practical use.

Modern

Four Stroke Engine


English inventor Sir Samuel Morland allegedly used gunpowder to drive water pumps
in the 17th century. For more conventional, reciprocating internal combustion engines
the fundamental theory for two-stroke engines was established by Sadi Carnot,
France, 1824, whilst the American Samuel Morey received a patent on April 1, 1826.
Automotive production has used a range of energy-conversion systems. These include
electric, steam, solar, turbine, rotary, and piston-type internal combustion engines.
The gasoline internal combustion engine, operating on a four-stroke Otto cycle, has
been the most successful for automobiles, while diesel engines are used for trucks and
buses. The patent on the design by Otto had been declared void.
Karl Benz led in the development of new engines. In 1878 he began to work on new
patents. He concentrated his efforts on creating a reliable gas two-stroke engine, based
on Nikolaus Otto's design of the four-stroke engine. Karl Benz showed his real
genius, however, through his successive inventions registered while designing what
would become the production standard for his two-stroke engine. Benz finished his
engine on New Year's Eve and was granted a patent for it in 1879.
In 1896, Karl Benz was granted a patent for his design of the first boxer engine with
horizontally-opposed pistons. His design created an engine in which the
corresponding pistons reach top dead centre simultaneously, thus balancing each other
with respect to momentum. Flat engines with four or fewer cylinders are most
commonly boxer engines and are also known as, horizontally-opposed engines. This
continues to be the design principle for high performance, automobile racing engines
such as Porsches.
Continuance of the use of the internal combustion engine for automobiles is partially
due to the improvement of engine control systems (computers) and forced induction

(turbos and superchargers), giving modern diesel engines the same power
characteristics as gasoline engines. This is especially evident with the popularity of
diesel engines in Europe. These diesel engines are still often used in trucks and heavy
machinery. They don't burn as clean as gasoline engines, however they're far more
powerful.
The internal combustion engine was originally selected for the automobile due to its
flexibility over a wide range of speeds. Also, the power developed for a given weight
engine was reasonable; it could be produced by economical mass-production
methods; and it used a readily available, moderately priced fuel--gasoline.

Mercedes V6 engine in 1996

School model of engine

School model of engine


In todays world, there has been a growing emphasis on the pollution producing
features of automotive power systems. This has created new interest in alternate
power sources and internal-combustion engine refinements that were not
economically feasible in prior years. Although a few limited-production batterypowered electric vehicles have appeared, they have not proved to be competitive
owing to costs and operating characteristics. In the twenty-first century the diesel
engine has been increasing in popularity with automobile owners. However, the

gasoline engine, with its new emission-control devices to improve emission


performance, has not yet been challenged significantly.
The first half of the twentieth century saw a trend to increase engine power,
particularly in the American models. Design changes incorporated all known methods
of raising engine capacity, including increasing the pressure in the cylinders to
improve efficiency, increasing the size of the engine, and increasing the speed at
which power is generated. The higher forces and pressures created by these changes
created engine vibration and size problems that led to stiffer, more compact engines
with V and opposed cylinder layouts replacing longer straight-line arrangements. In
passenger cars, V-8 layouts were adopted for all piston displacements greater than
250 cubic inches (4 litres).
Smaller cars brought about a return a to smaller engines, the four- and six-cylinder
designs rated as low as 80 horsepower (60 kW), compared with the standard-size V-8
of large cylinder bore and relatively short piston stroke with power ratings in the
range from 250 to 350 hp (190 to 260 kW).
The automobile motor had a bigger range, varying from 1-9 cylinders with
corresponding differences in overall size, weight, piston displacement, and cylinder
bores. Four cylinders and power ratings from 19 to 120 hp (14 to 90 kW) were
followed in a majority of the models. Several three-cylinder, two-stroke-cycle models
were built while most engines had straight or in-line cylinders. There were several Vtype models and horizontally opposed two- and four-cylinder makes too. Overhead
camshafts were frequently employed. The smaller engines were commonly air-cooled
and located at the rear of the vehicle; compression ratios were relatively low. The
1970s and '80s saw an increased interest in improved fuel economy which brought in
a return to smaller V-6 and four-cylinder layouts, with as many as five valves per
cylinder to improve efficiency.
The largest internal combustion engine ever built is the Wrtsil-Sulzer RTA96-C - a
14 cylinder, 2 stroke, turbocharged diesel engine that was designed to power the
Emma Maersk, the largest container ship in the world. It weighs 2300 tonnes, and
when running at 102rpm produces 109,000bhp, consuming some 13.7 tonnes of fuel
each hour.

Turbine

A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened.


A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow. Claude Burdin
coined the term from the Latin turbinis, or vortex during an 1828 engineering

competition. The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a
shaft with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades, or the blades react to the
flow, so that they rotate and impart energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are
windmills and water wheels.
Gas, steam, and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that focuses
and controls the fluid. The casing and blades may have variable geometry that allows
efficient operation for a range of fluid-flow conditions.
A device similar to a turbine but operating in reverse is a compressor or pump. The
axial compressor in many gas turbine engines is a common example.

Theory of operation

A working fluid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic energy (velocity
head). The fluid may be compressible or incompressible. Several physical principles
are employed by turbines to collect this energy:
Impulse turbines
These turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid jet. The
resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished
kinetic energy. There is no pressure change of the fluid in the turbine rotor
blades. Before reaching the turbine the fluid's Pressure head is changed to

velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle. Pelton wheels and de
Laval turbines use this process exclusively. Impulse turbines do not require a
pressure casement around the runner since the fluid jet is prepared by a nozzle
prior to reaching turbine. Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy
for impulse turbines.
Reaction turbines
These turbines develop torque by reacting to the fluid's pressure or weight.
The pressure of the fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades.
A pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the
turbine stage(s) or the turbine must be fully immersed in the fluid flow (wind
turbines). The casing contains and directs the working fluid and, for water
turbines, maintains the suction imparted by the draft tube. Francis turbines and
most steam turbines use this concept. For compressible working fluids,
multiple turbine stages may be used to harness the expanding gas efficiently.
Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines.
Turbine designs will use both these concepts to varying degrees whenever possible.
Wind turbines use an airfoil to generate lift from the moving fluid and impart it to the
rotor (this is a form of reaction). Wind turbines also gain some energy from the
impulse of the wind, by deflecting it at an angle. Crossflow turbines are designed as
an impulse machine, with a nozzle, but in low head applications maintain some
efficiency through reaction, like a traditional water wheel. Turbines with multiple
stages may utilize either reaction or impulse blading at high pressure. Steam Turbines
are usually more impulse while Gas Turbines more reaction type designs. At low
pressure the operating fluid medium expands in volume for small changes in pressure.
Under these conditions (termed Low Pressure Turbines) blading becomes strictly a
reaction type design with the base of the blade solely impulse. The reason is due to
the effect of the rotation speed for each blade. As the volume increases, the blade
height increases, and the base of the blade spins at a slower speed relative to the tip.
This change in speed forces a designer to change from impulse at the base, to a high
reaction style tip.
Classical turbine design methods were developed in the mid 19th century. Vector
analysis related the fluid flow with turbine shape and rotation. Graphical calculation
methods were used at first. Formulas for the basic dimensions of turbine parts are well
documented and a highly efficient machine can be reliably designed for any fluid flow
condition. Some of the calculations are empirical or 'rule of thumb' formulae, and
others are based on classical mechanics. As with most engineering calculations,
simplifying assumptions were made.
Velocity triangles can be used to calculate the basic performance of a turbine stage.
Gas exits the stationary turbine nozzle guide vanes at absolute velocity Va1. The rotor
rotates at velocity U. Relative to the rotor, the velocity of the gas as it impinges on the
rotor entrance is Vr1. The gas is turned by the rotor and exits, relative to the rotor, at
velocity Vr2. However, in absolute terms the rotor exit velocity is Va2. The velocity
triangles are constructed using these various velocity vectors. Velocity triangles can
be constructed at any section through the blading (for example: hub , tip, midsection
and so on) but are usually shown at the mean stage radius. Mean performance for the
stage can be calculated from the velocity triangles, at this radius, using the Euler
equation:

Typical velocity triangles for a single turbine stage

Whence:

where:
acceleration of gravity
enthalpy drop across stage
turbine entry total (or stagnation) temperature
turbine rotor peripheral velocity
delta whirl velocity

The turbine pressure ratio is a function of

and the turbine efficiency.

Modern turbine design carries the calculations further. Computational fluid dynamics
dispenses with many of the simplifying assumptions used to derive classical formulas
and computer software facilitates optimization. These tools have led to steady
improvements in turbine design over the last forty years.

The primary numerical classification of a turbine is its specific speed. This number
describes the speed of the turbine at its maximum efficiency with respect to the power
and flow rate. The specific speed is derived to be independent of turbine size. Given
the fluid flow conditions and the desired shaft output speed, the specific speed can be
calculated and an appropriate turbine design selected.
The specific speed, along with some fundamental formulas can be used to reliably
scale an existing design of known performance to a new size with corresponding
performance.
Off-design performance is normally displayed as a turbine map or characteristic.

Types of turbines

Steam turbines are used for the generation of electricity in thermal power
plants, such as plants using coal or fuel oil or nuclear power. They were once
used to directly drive mechanical devices such as ship's propellors (eg the
Turbinia), but most such applications now use reduction gears or an
intermediate electrical step, where the turbine is used to generate electricity,
which then powers an electric motor connected to the mechanical load.
Gas turbine engines are sometimes referred to as turbine engines. Such
engines usually feature an inlet, fan, compressor, combustor and nozzle
(possibly other assemblies) in addition to one or more turbines.
Transonic turbine. The gasflow in most turbines employed in gas turbine
engines remains subsonic throughout the expansion process. In a transonic
turbine the gasflow becomes supersonic as it exits the nozzle guide vanes,
although the downstream velocities normally become subsonic. Transonic
turbines operate at a higher pressure ratio than normal but are usually less
efficient and uncommon. This turbine works well in creating power from
water.
Contra-rotating turbines. Some efficiency advantage can be obtained if a
downstream turbine rotates in the opposite direction to an upstream unit.
However, the complication may be counter-productive.
Statorless turbine Multi-stage turbines have a set of static (meaning stationary)
inlet guide vanes that direct the gasflow onto the rotating rotor blades. In a
statorless turbine the gasflow exiting an upstream rotor impinges onto a
downstream rotor without an intermediate set of stator vanes (that rearrange
the pressure/velocity energy levels of the flow) being encountered.
Ceramic turbine. The most poorly designed turbine blades (and vanes) are
made from nickel-steel alloys and often require intricate air-cooling passages
to prevent the metal from melting. In recent years, experimental ceramic
blades have been manufactured and tested in gas turbines, with a view to
increasing Rotor Inlet Temperatures and/or, possibly, eliminating aircooling.
Shrouded turbine. Many turbine rotor blades have a shroud at the top, which
interlocks with that of adjacent blades, to increase damping and thereby reduce
blade flutter.
Shroudless turbine. Modern practise is, where possible, to eliminate the rotor
shroud, thus reducing the centrifugal load on the blade and the cooling
requirements.

Bladeless turbine uses the boundary layer effect and not a fluid impinging
upon the blades as in a conventional turbine.
Water turbine
Wind turbine. These normally operate as a single stage without nozzle and
interstage guide vanes.
Water and wind turbines have a thermodynamic cycle that is part of weather.

Francis Turbine. Widely used water turbine.


Kaplan Turbine. Variation of the Francis Turbine.

Uses of turbines
Almost all electrical power on Earth is produced with a turbine of some type. Very
high thermal efficiencies (Power Production Efficiency = [Electrical energy
Output/Thermal Energy Input]) are achievable in gas turbine power generation
facilities (60% or greater when using combined cycles).
Most jet engines (excluding rocket rocket ramjet and scramjet engines) rely on
turbines to supply mechanical work from their working fluid and fuel as do all nuclear
ships and power plants.
Turbines are often part of a larger machine. A Gas turbine, for example, may refer to
an internal combustion machine that contains a turbine, ducts, compressor, combustor,
heat-exchanger, fan and (in the case of one designed to produce electricity) an
alternator.
Reciprocating piston engines such as aircraft engines can use a turbine powered by
their exhaust to drive an intake-air compressor, a configuration known as a
turbocharger (turbine supercharger) or, colloquially, a "turbo".
Turbines can have incredible power density (with respect to volume and weight). This
is because of their ability to operate at very high speeds. The Space Shuttle's main
engines use turbopumps (machines consisting of a pump driven by a turbine engine)
to feed the propellants (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) into the engine's
combustion chamber. The liquid hydrogen turbopump is slightly larger than an
automobile engine (weighing approximately 700 lb) and produces nearly 70,000 hp
(52.2 MW).
Turboexpanders are widely used as sources of refrigeration in industrial processes.

Gas turbine

This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator,


and foil bearings.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine that extracts
energy from a flow of hot gasproduced by combustion of gas or fuel oil in a stream of
compressed air. It has an upstream air compressor axial or radial flow mechanically
coupled to a downstream turbine and a combustion chamber in between. Gas turbine
may also refer to just the turbine element.
Energy is released when [compressed air]] is mixed with fuel and ignited in the
combustor. The resulting gases are directed over the turbine's blades, spinning the
turbine, and, mechanically, powering the compressor. Finally, the gases are passed
through a nozzle, generating additional thrust by accelerating the hot exhaust gases by
expansion back to atmospheric pressure.
Energy is extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air and thrust, in any
combination, and used to power aircraft, trains, ships, electrical generators, and even
tanks.

History
1500: The "Chimney Jack" was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci which was turning a
roasting spit. Hot air from a fire rose through a series of fans which connect and turn
the roasting spit.
1629: Jets of steam rotated a turbine that then rotated driven machinery allowed a
stamping mill to be developed by Giovanni Branca.
1678: Ferdinand Verbeist built a model carriage relying on a steam jet for power.
1791: A basic turbine engine was patented with all the same elements as today's
modern gas turbines. The turbine was designed to power a horseless carriage.
1872: The first true gas turbine engine was designed by Dr F. Stolze, but the engine
never ran under its own power.
1897: A steam turbine for propelling a ship was patented by Sir Charles Parsons. This
principle of propulsion is still of some use.
1903: A Norwegian, gidius Elling, was able to build the first gas turbine that was

able to produce more power than needed to run its own components, which was
considered an achievement in a time when knowledge about aerodynamics was
limited. Using rotary compressors and turbines it produced 11 hp (massive for those
days). His work was later used by Sir Frank Whittle.
1914: The first application for a gas turbine engine was filed by Charles Curtis.
1918: One of the leading gas turbine manufacturers of today, General Electric, started
their gas turbine division.
1920. The then current gas flow through passages was developed by Dr A. A. Griffith
to a turbine theory with gas flow past airfoils.
1930. Sir Frank Whittle patented the design for a gas turbine for jet propulsion. His
work on gas propulsion relied on the work from all those who had previously worked
in the same field and he has himself stated that his invention would be hard to achieve
without the works of gidius Elling. The first successful use of his engine was in
April 1937.
1934. Ral Pateras de Pescara patented the free-piston engine as a gas generator for
gas turbines.
1936. Hans von Ohain and Max Hahn in Germany developed their own patented
engine design at the same time that Sir Frank Whittle was developing his design in
England.

Theory of operation
Gas turbines are described thermodynamically by the Brayton cycle, in which air is
compressed isentropically, combustion occurs at constant pressure, and expansion
over the turbine occurs isentropically back to the starting pressure.
In practice, friction, and turbulence cause:
a) non-isentropic compression - for a given overall pressure ratio, the
compressor delivery temperature is higher than ideal.
b) non-isentropic expansion - although the turbine temperature drop necessary
to drive the compressor is unaffected, the associated pressure ratio is greater,
which decreases the expansion available to provide useful work.
c) pressure losses in the air intake, combustor and exhaust - reduces the
expansion available to provide useful work.

As with all cyclic heat engines, higher combustion temperature means greater
efficiency. The limiting factor is the ability of the steel, nickel, ceramic, or other
materials that make up the engine to withstand heat and pressure. Considerable
engineering goes into keeping the turbine parts cool. Most turbines also try to recover
exhaust heat, which otherwise is wasted energy. Recuperators are heat exchangers
that pass exhaust heat to the compressed air, prior to combustion. Combined cycle
designs pass waste heat to steam turbine systems. And combined heat and power (cogeneration) uses waste heat for hot water production.
Mechanically, gas turbines can be considerably less complex than internal combustion
piston engines. Simple turbines might have one moving part: the
shaft/compressor/turbine/alternator-rotor assembly (see image above), not counting
the fuel system.
More sophisticated turbines (such as those found in modern jet engines) may have
multiple shafts (spools), hundreds of turbine blades, movable stator blades, and a vast
system of complex piping, combustors and heat exchangers.
As a general rule, the smaller the engine the higher the rotation rate of the shaft(s)
needs to be to maintain tip speed. Turbine blade tip speed determines the maximum
pressure that can be gained, independent of the size of the engine. Jet engines operate
around 10,000 rpm and micro turbines around 100,000 rpm.
Thrust bearings and journal bearings are a critical part of design. Traditionally, they
have been hydrodynamic oil bearings, or oil-cooled ball bearings. This is giving way
to foil bearings, which have been successfully used in micro turbines and auxiliary
power units.

Jet engines
Jet engines are gas turbines optimized to produce thrust from the exhaust gases, or
from ducted fans connected to the gas turbines. Jet engines that produce thrust
primarily from the direct impulse of exhaust gases are often called turbojets, whereas
those that generate most of their thrust from the action of a ducted fan are often called
turbofans or (rarely) fanjets.

Auxiliary power units


Auxiliary power units (APUs) are small gas turbines designed for auxiliary power of
larger machines, such as those inside an aircraft. They supply compressed air for
aircraft ventilation (with an appropriate compressor design), start-up power for larger
jet engines, and electrical and hydraulic power. These are not to be confused with the
auxiliary propulsion units, also abbreviated APUs, aboard the gas-turbine-powered
Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided-missile frigates. The Perrys' APUs are large electric
motors that provide maneuvering help in close waters, or emergency backup if the gas
turbines are not working.

Gas turbines for electrical power production

GE H series power generation gas turbine. This 480-megawatt unit has a rated thermal
efficiency of 60% in combined cycle configurations.
Industrial gas turbines range in size from truck-mounted mobile plants to enormous,
complex systems. They can be particularly efficient up to 60% when waste heat
from the gas turbine is recovered by a heat recovery steam generator to power a
conventional steam turbine in a combined cycle configuration. They can also be run in
a cogeneration configuration: the exhaust is used for space or water heating, or drives
an absorption chiller for cooling or refrigeration. A cogeneration configuration can be
over 90% efficient. The power turbines in the largest industrial gas turbines operate at
3,000 or 3,600 rpm to match the AC power grid frequency and to avoid the need for a
reduction gearbox. Such engines require a dedicated enclosure.
Simple cycle gas turbines in the power industry require smaller capital investment
than coal, nuclear or even combined cycle natural gas plants and can be designed to
generate small or large amounts of power. Also, the actual construction process can
take as little as several weeks to a few months, compared to years for base load power
plants. Their other main advantage is the ability to be turned on and off within
minutes, supplying power during peak demand. Since they are less efficient than
combined cycle plants, they are usually used as peaking power plants, which operate
anywhere from several hours per day to a couple dozen hours per year, depending on
the electricity demand and the generating capacity of the region. In areas with a
shortage of base load and load following power plant capacity, a gas turbine power
plant may regularly operate during most hours of the day and even into the evening. A
typical large simple cycle gas turbine may produce 100 to 300 megawatts of power
and have 35 to 40% thermal efficiency. The most efficient turbines have reached 46%
efficiency. [1]

Turboshaft engines
Turboshaft engines are often used to drive compression trains (for example in gas
pumping stations or natural gas liquefaction plants)and are used to power almost all
modern helicopters. The first shaft bears the compressor and the high speed turbine

(often referred to as Gas Generator or "N1"), while the second shaft bears the low
speed turbine (or Power Turbine or "N2"). This arrangement is used to increase
speed and power output flexibility.

Scale jet engines


Also known as:

Miniature Gas Turbines


Micro-jets

Many model engineers relish the challenge of re-creating the grand engineering feats
of today as tiny working models. Naturally, the idea of re-creating a powerful engine
such as the jet, fascinated hobbyists since the very first full size engines were powered
up by Hans von Ohain and Frank Whittle back in the 1930s.
Recreating machines such as engines to a different scale is not easy. Because of the
square-cube law, the behaviour of many machines does not always scale up or down
at the same rate as the machine's size (and often not even in a linear way), usually at
best causing a dramatic loss of power or efficiency, and at worst causing them not to
work at all. An automobile engine, for example, will not work if reproduced in the
same shape at the size of a human hand.
With this in mind the pioneer of modern Micro-Jets, Kurt Schreckling, produced one
of the world's first Micro-Turbines, the FD3/67. This engine can produce up to 22
newtons of thrust, and can be built by most mechanically minded people with basic
engineering tools, such as a metal lathe. Its radial compressor, which is cold, is small
and the hot axial turbine is large experiencing more centrifugal forces, meaning that
this design is limited by Mach number. Guiding vanes are used to hold the starter,
after the compressor and before the turbine, but not after that. No bypass within the
engine is used.

Microturbines

A micro turbine designed for DARPA by M-Dot


Also known as:

Turbo alternators
Gensets
MicroTurbine (registered trademark of Capstone Turbine Corporation)
Turbogenerator (registered tradename of Honeywell Power Systems, Inc.)

Microturbines are becoming wide spread for distributed power and combined heat
and power applications. They range from handheld units producing less than a
kilowatt to commercial sized systems that produce tens or hundreds of kilowatts.
Part of their success is due to advances in electronics, which allows unattended
operation and interfacing with the commercial power grid. Electronic power
switching technology eliminates the need for the generator to be synchronized with
the power grid. This allows the generator to be integrated with the turbine shaft, and
to double as the starter motor.
Microturbine systems have many advantages over reciprocating engine generators,
such as higher power density (with respect to footprint and weight), extremely low
emissions and few, or just one, moving part. Those designed with foil bearings and
air-cooling operate without oil, coolants or other hazardous materials. Microturbines
also have the advantage of having the majority of their waste heat contained in their
relatively high temperature exhaust, whereas the waste heat of recriprocating engines
is split between its exhaust and cooling system. [2] However, reciprocating engine
generators are quicker to respond to changes in output power requirement and are
usually slightly more efficient, although the efficiency of microturbines is increasing.
Microturbines also lose more efficiency at low power levels than reciprocating
engines.
They accept most commercial fuels, such as natural gas, propane, diesel and kerosene.
They are also able to produce renewable energy when fueled with biogas from
landfills and sewage treatment plants.
Microturbine designs usually consist of a single stage radial compressor, a single
stage radial turbine and a recuperator. Recuperators are difficult to design and
manufacture because they operate under high pressure and temperature differentials.
Exhaust heat can be used for water heating, drying processes or absorption chillers,
which create cold for air conditioning from heat energy instead of electric energy.
Typical microturbine efficiencies are 25 to 35%. When in a combined heat and power
cogeneration system, efficiencies of greater than 80% are commonly achieved.
MIT started its millimeter size turbine engine project in the middle of the 1990's when
Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Alan H. Epstein considered the possibility
of creating a personal turbine which will be able to meet all the demands of a modern
person's electrical needs, just like a large turbine can meet the electricity demands of a
small city. According to Professor Epstein current commercial Li-ion rechargeable
batteries deliver about 120-150 w-hr/kg. MIT's millimeter size turbine will deliver
500-700 whr/kg in the near term, rising to 1200-1500 whr/kg in the longer term[3].

Gas turbines in vehicles

Rover JET1
Gas turbines are used on ships, locomotives, helicopters, and in tanks. A number of
experiments have been conducted with gas turbine powered automobiles.
In 1950, designer F.R. Bell and Chief Engineer Maurice Wilks from British car
manufacturers Rover unveiled the first car powered with a gas turbine engine. The
two-seater JET1 had the engine positioned behind the seats, air intake grilles on either
side of the car, and exhaust outlets on the top of the tail. During tests, the car reached
top speeds of 140 km/h, at a turbine speed of 50,000 rpm. The car ran on petrol,
paraffin or diesel oil, but fuel consumption problems proved insurmountable for a
production car. It is currently on display at the London Science Museum. Rover and
the BRM Formula One team joined forces to produce a gas turbine powered coupe,
which entered the 1963 24 hours of Le Mans, driven by Graham Hill and Richie
Ginther. It averaged 107.8 mph (173 km/h) and had a top speed of 142 mph
(229 km/h). In 1971 Lotus principal Colin Chapman introduced the Lotus 56B F1 car,
powered by a Pratt & Whitney gas turbine. Colin Chapman had a reputation of
building radical championship-winning cars, but had to abandon the project because
there were too many problems with turbo lag. The fictional Batmobile is often said to
be powered by a gas turbine or a jet engine.
American car manufacturer Chrysler demonstrated several prototype gas turbinepowered cars from the early 1950s through the early 1980s. Chrysler built fifty
Chrysler Turbine Cars in 1963 and conducted the only consumer trial of gas turbinepowered cars.
In 1993 General Motors introduced the first commercial gas turbine powered hybrid
vehicleas a limited production run of the EV-1. A Williams International 40 kW
turbine drove an alternator which powered the battery-electric powertrain. The turbine
design included a recuperator.
Gas turbines offer a high-powered engine in a very small and light package. However,
they are not as responsive and efficient as small piston engines over the wide range of
RPMs and powers needed in vehicle applications. Also, turbines have historically
been more expensive to produce than piston engines, though this is partly because
piston engines have been mass-produced in huge quantities for decades, while small
turbines are rarities. It is also worth noting that a key advantage of jets and turboprops
for aeroplane propulsion - their superior performance at high altitude compared to
piston engines, particularly naturally-aspirated ones - is irrelevant in automobile
applications. Their power-to-weight advantage is far less important. Their use in

hybrids reduces the responsiveness problem, and the emergence of the continuously
variable transmission may also help alleviate this problem. Another, recent, idea is the
'Multi-Pressure' turbine proposed by Robin Mackay of Agile Turbines. This concept
is expected to provide three different power levels - each of them exhibiting high
efficiency and low emission levels.
The MTT Turbine SUPERBIKE appeared in 2000 (hence the designation of Y2K
Superbike by MTT) and is the first production motorcycle powered by a jet engine specifically, a Rolls-Royce Allison model 250 turboshaft engine, producing about
283kW (380bhp). Speed-tested to 365km/h or 227mph (according to some stories, the
testing team ran out of road during the test), it holds the Guinness World Records for
most powerful production motorcycle and most expensive production motorcycle,
with a price tag of US$185,000.
Use of gas turbines in military tanks has been more successful. In the 1950s, a
Conqueror heavy tank was experimentally fitted with a Parsons 650-hp gas turbine,
and they have been used as auxiliary power units in several other production models.
The first production turbine tank was the Swedish Strv 103A. Today, the
Soviet/Russian T-80 and U.S. M1 Abrams tanks use gas turbine engines. See tank for
more details.
Several locomotive classes have been powered by gas turbines, the most recent
incarnation being Bombardier's JetTrain. See Gas turbine-electric locomotive for
more information.

Naval use
Gas turbines are used in many naval vessels, where they are valued for their high
power-to-weight ratio and their ships' resulting acceleration and ability to get
underway quickly. The first gas-turbine-powered naval vessel was the Royal Navy's
Motor Gun Boat MGB 2009 (formerly MGB 509) converted in 1947. The first large,
gas-turbine powered ships, were the Royal Navy's Type 81 (Tribal class) frigates, the
first of which (HMS Ashanti) was commissioned in 1961.
The Swedish Navy produced 6 Spica class torpedoboats between 1966 and 1967
powered by 3 Bristol Siddeley Proteus 1282, each delivering 4300 hp. They were later
joined by 6 upgraded Norrkping class ships, still with the same engines. With their
aft torpedo tubes replaced by antishipping missiles they served as missile boats until
the last was retired in 1986.
The Finnish Navy issued two Turunmaa class corvettes, Turunmaa and Karjala, in
1968. They were equipped with one 16 000 shp Rolls-Royce Olympus TMB3 gas
turbine and two Wrtsil marine diesels for slower speeds. Before the waterjetpropulsion Helsinki class missile boats, they were the fastest vessels in the Finnish
Navy; they regularly achieved 37 knot speeds, but they are known to have achieved
45 knots when the restriction mechanism of the turbine was geared off. The
Turunmaas were paid off in 2002. Karjala is today a museum ship in Turku, and
Turunmaa serves as a flotating machine shop and training ship for Satakunta
Polytechnical College.

The next series of major naval vessels were the four Canadian Iroquois class
helicopter carrying destroyers first commissioned in 1972. They used 2 FT-4 main
propulsion engines, 2 FT-12 cruise engines and 3 Solar Saturn 750 KW generators.
The first U.S. gas-turbine powered ships were the U.S. Coast Guard's Hamilton-class
High Endurance Cutters the first of which (USCGC Hamilton) commissioned in 1967.
Since then, they have powered the U.S. Navy's Perry-class frigates, Spruance-class
and Arleigh Burke-class destroyers, and Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruisers.
USS Makin Island, a modified Wasp-class amphibious assault ship, is to be the Navy's
first amphib powered by gas turbines.

Commercial Use
Three Rolls-Royce gas turbines power the 118 WallyPower, a 118 foot super-yacht.
These engines combine for a total of 16,800HP allowing this 118 foot boat to
maintain speeds of 60 knots or 70mph.
Another example of commercial usage of gas turbines in a ship, are the HSS class
fastcraft ferry fleet. HSS 1500-class Stena Explorer, Stena Voyager and Stena
Discovery vessels use combined gas and gas (COGAG) setups of twin GE LM2500
plus GE LM1600 power for a total of 68,000kW. The slightly smaller HSS 900-class
Stena Carisma, uses twin ABBSTAL GT35 turbines rated at 34,000kW gross.

Amateur gas turbines


A popular hobby is to construct a gas turbine from an automotive turbocharger. A
combustion chamber is fabricated and plumbed between the compressor and turbine.
Like many technology based hobbies, they tend to give rise to manufacturing
businesses over time. Several small companies manufacture small turbines and parts
for the amateur. See external links for resources.

Advances in technology
Gas turbine technology has steadily advanced since its inception and continues to
evolve; research is active in producing ever smaller gas turbines. Computer design,
specifically CFD and finite element analysis along with material advances, has
allowed higher compression ratios and temperatures, more efficient combustion,
better cooling of engine parts and reduced emissions. On the emissions side, the
challenge in technology is actually getting a catalytic combustor running properly in
order to achieve single digit NOx emissions to cope with the latest regulations.
Additionally, compliant foil bearings were commercially introduced to gas turbines in
the 1990s. They can withstand over a hundred thousand start/stop cycles and
eliminated the need for an oil system.
On another front, microelectronics and power switching technology have enabled
commercially viable micro turbines for distributed and vehicle power.

Steam turbine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant


A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized
steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work.
It has almost completely replaced the reciprocating piston steam engine (invented by
Thomas Newcomen and greatly improved by James Watt and Sir Charles Parsons)
primarily because of its greater thermal efficiency and higher power-to-weight ratio.
Also, because the turbine generates rotary motion, rather than requiring a linkage
mechanism to convert reciprocating to rotary motion, it is particularly suited for use
driving an electrical generator about 86% of all electric generation in the world is
by use of steam turbines. The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much
of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the
expansion of the steam (as opposed to the one stage in the Watt engine), which results
in a closer approach to the ideal reversible process.

History
The first steam engine was little more than a toy, the classic Aeolipile made by Heron
of Alexandria. Another steam turbine device was created by Italian Giovanni Branca
in year 1629. The modern steam turbine was invented in 1884 by English engineer,
Charles A. Parsons, whose first model was connected to a dynamo that generated 7.5

kW of electricity. His patent was licensed and the turbine scaled up shortly after by an
American, George Westinghouse. A number of other variations of turbines have been
developed that work effectively with steam. The de Laval turbine (invented by Gustaf
de Laval) accelerated the steam to full speed before running it against a turbine blade.
This was good, because the turbine is simpler, less expensive and does not need to be
pressure-proof. It can operate with any pressure of steam. The Parsons turbine also
turned out to be relatively easy to scale up. Within Parsons' lifetime the generating
capacity of a unit was scaled up by about 10,000 times.

Parsons turbine from the Polish destroyer ORP Wicher in Hel, Poland.

Types
Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0.75 kW) units
(rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps, compressors and other shaft driven
equipment, to 2,000,000 hp (1,500,000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity.
There are several classifications for modern steam turbines.

Steam Supply and Exhaust Conditions


These types include condensing, noncondensing, reheat, extraction and induction.
Noncondensing or backpressure turbines are most widely used for process steam
applications. The exhaust pressure is controlled by a regulating valve to suit the needs
of the process steam pressure. These are commonly found at refineries, district
heating units, pulp and paper plants, and desalination facilities where large amounts of
low pressure process steam are available.
Condensing turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants. These
turbines exhaust steam in a partially condensed state, typically of a quality near 90%,
at a pressure well below atmospheric to a condenser.
Reheat turbines are also used almost exclusively in electrical power plants. In a reheat
turbine, steam flow exits from a high pressure section of the turbine and is returned to
the boiler where additional superheat is added. The steam then goes back into an
intermediate pressure section of the turbine and continues its expansion.
Extracting type turbines are common in all applications. In an extracting type turbine,
steam is released from various stages of the turbine, and used for industrial process
needs or sent to boiler feed water heaters to improve overall cycle efficiency.

Extraction flows may be controlled with a valve, or left uncontrolled. Induction


turbines introduce low pressure steam at an intermediate stage to produce additional
power.

Principle of Operation and Design


An ideal steam turbine is considered to be an isentropic process, or constant entropy
process, in which the entropy of the steam entering the turbine is equal to the entropy
of the steam leaving the turbine. No steam turbine is truly isentropic, however, with
typical isentropic efficiencies ranging from 20%-90% based on the application of the
turbine. The interior of a turbine is comprised of several sets of blades, or buckets
as they are more commonly referred to. One set of stationary blades is connected to
the casing and one set of rotating blades is connected to the shaft. The sets intermesh
with certain minimum clearances, with the size and configuration of sets varying to
efficiently exploit the expansion of steam at each stage.

Turbine Efficiency

Schematic diagram outlining the difference between an impulse and a reaction turbine
To maximize turbine efficiency, the steam is expanded, generating work, in a number
of stages. These stages are characterized by how the energy is extracted from them
and are known as impulse or reaction turbines. Most modern steam turbines are a
combination of the reaction and impulse design. Typically, higher pressure sections
are impulse type and lower pressure stages are reaction type.
Impulse Turbines
An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high speed jets.
These jets contain significant kinetic energy, which the rotor blades, shaped like
buckets, convert into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction. A pressure drop

occurs in the nozzle. The pressure is the same when the steam enters the blade as it
leaves the blade.
As the steam flows through the nozzle its pressure falls from steam chest pressure to
condenser pressure (or atmosphere pressure). Due to this relatively higher ratio of
expansion of steam in the nozzle, the steam leaves the nozzle with a very high
velocity. At a specific temperature and pressure steam has certain physical properties.
The certain amount of heat or thermal energy contained within the steam with an
increase of temperature or pressure the contained energy also increases or vice versa.
The flow of steam through a channel such as a nozzle reduces its thermal energy,
however this decrease in thermal energy is equivalent to gain of kinetic energy. The
thermal energy is converted from thermal to kinetic causing the steam to flow from
high pressure, i.e. the steam chest, nozzle block, etc.. to an area of low pressure, i.e.
the turbine casing. The steam leaving the moving blades is a large portion of the
maximum velocity of the steam when leaving the nozzle. The loss of energy due to
this higher exit velocity is commonly called the "carry over velocity" or "leaving
loss." In impulse turbines, steam expansion only happens at nozzles.
Reaction Turbines
In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent
nozzles. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam
accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. Steam is directed onto the rotor
by the fixed vanes of the stator. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire
circumference of the rotor. The steam then changes direction and increases its speed
relative to the speed of the blades. A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and
the rotor, with steam accelerating through the stator and decelerating through the
rotor, with no net change in steam velocity across the stage but with a decrease in
both pressure and temperature, reflecting the work performed in the driving of the
rotor. These types of turbines create large amounts of axial thrust, therefore, antifriction thrust bearings are utilized.

Casing or Shaft Arrangements


These arrangements include single casing, tandem compound and cross compound
turbines. Single casing units are the most basic style where a single casing and shaft
are coupled to a generator. Tandem compound are used where two or more casings
are directly coupled together to drive a single generator. A cross compound turbine
arrangement features two or more shafts not in line driving two or more generators
that often operate at different speeds. A cross compound turbine is typically used for
many large applications.

Operation and Maintenance


When warming up a steam turbine for use, the main steam stop valves (after the
boiler) have a bypass line to allow superheated steam to slowly bypass the valve and
proceed to heat up the lines in the system along with the steam turbine. Also a turning
gear is engaged when there is no steam to the turbine to slowly rotate the turbine to
ensure even heating to prevent uneven expansion. After first rotating the turbine by
the turning gear, allowing time for the rotor to assume a straight plane (no bowing),

then the turning gear is disengaged and steam is admitted to the turbine. For most
utility and industrial steam turbines, a starting and loading chart is included in the unit
instruction manual. The starting and loading chart is used to guide turbine operators in
loading their units in such a way as to minimize rotor and shell thermal stresses, but
also minimize the chances of the rotor heating faster than the shell (creating a rotor
long condition).

When starting a shipboard steam turbine(marine unit), steam is normally admited to


the astern blades located in the LP turbine, and then to the ahead blades slowly
rotating the turbine at 10 to 15 RPM to slowly warm the turbine.
Problems with turbines are now rare and maintenance requirements are relatively
small. Any imbalance of the rotor can lead to vibration, which in extreme cases can
lead to a blade letting go and punching straight through the casing. It is, however,
essential that the turbine be turned with dry steam. If water gets into the steam and is
blasted onto the blades (moisture carryover) rapid impingement and erosion of the
blades can occur, possibly leading to imbalance and catastrophic failure. Also, water
entering the blades will likely result in the destruction of the thrust bearing for the
turbine shaft. To prevent this, along with controls and baffles in the boilers to ensure
high quality steam, condensate drains are installed in the steam piping leading to the
turbine.

Speed regulation
The control of a turbine with a governor is essential, as turbines need to be run up
slowly, to prevent damage while some applications (such as the generation of
alternating current electricity) require precise speed control. Uncontrolled acceleration
of the turbine rotor can lead to an overspeed trip, which causes the nozzle valves that
control the flow of steam to the turbine to close. If this fails then the turbine may
continue accelerating until it breaks apart, often spectacularly. Turbines are expensive
to make, requiring precision manufacture and special quality materials.

Direct drive
Electrical power stations use large steam turbines driving electric generators to
produce most ( about 86%) of the world's electricity. These centralised stations are of
two types: fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants. The turbines used for
electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their generators. As the
generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of
the electric power system, the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz
systems, and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems. Most large nuclear sets rotate at half
those speeds, and have a 4-pole generator rather than the more common 2-pole one.

Speed reduction

The Turbinia - the first steam turbine-powered ship


Another use of steam turbines is in ships; their small size, low maintenance, light
weight, and low vibration are compelling advantages. (Steam turbine locomotives
were also tested, but with limited success.) A steam turbine is efficient only when
operating in the thousands of RPM range while application of the power in propulsion
applications may be only in the hundreds of RPM and so requiring that expensive and
precise reduction gears must be used, although several ships, such as Turbinia, had
direct drive from the steam turbine to the propeller shafts. This purchase cost is offset
by much lower fuel and maintenance requirements and the small size of a turbine
when compared to a reciprocating engine having an equivalent power.
Most modern vessels now use either gas turbines or diesel engines, however, nuclear
powered vessels such as some aircraft carriers and nuclear submarines still use steam
turbines as part of their propulsion systems.

TURBINE TECHNICS
TURBINE POWERED HELICOPTERS
The Ultimate Two-Stage Turbine System

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TURBINE
TURBINE - Main Power Unit

MECHANICS

GALLERY

The TT Turbine System is based on a reliable and tested unit. We now build our own
Turbine System with in-house machining work, and carefully selected subcontract
suppliers. We test the unit ready for linking to the Second-Stage Power Turbine and
Helicopter Gearbox. The whole mechanical system is tested and prepared as a unit ready
for the Customer to install into their Helicopter.
We have been manufacturing our own turbine parts since October 2004... incorporated
in Customer and Development engines that have over 100 hours of flying... and with
ongoing test and development the TT-Phoenix Turbine was launched in August 2005.
With further developments, that have now completed production tests, we will launch a
new VFS version developed for our commercial customer applications.
The external appearance of the new FOD and Starter Casing is not only designed to add
style to the appearance of the TT-PHOENIX System... but we have also taken into
account ways to maximise airflow into the compressor duct (with some wind tunnel
work) whilst providing a sturdy and robust casing, which supports the FOD mesh
screening and electric starter.

The design of the New Combustion Chamber is primarily aimed at improving the
characteristics of the Twin-Stage turbine system... which also incorporates our own
second-stage casings. These have allowed us to make the overall installation more
compact, but still retaining our original exhaust system, which is manufactured in-house.
Stated by most people who have seen the TT helis in operation as 'The Quietest Turbine
Heli System Operating'.

SECOND-STAGE (Power Turbine & Exhaust)

We build the Second-Stage Power Turbine and Gearbox assemblies, complete


with our own designed and manufactured exhaust. The Power Turbine wheels are
purchased as cast wheels. We then machine, balance and test the PT Wheels. The
main reason for this is that we have two types of Turbine Gearbox System which
require different sized holes bored in the PT Wheel. We also produce our own
Gearbox Input Shaft Tunnels, and Fittings, which are also of two different lengths
depending on gearbox and helicopter application. We have our own installation
parts and lubrication system to match our assemblies. Our New second-stage
system is more refined and is 4mm shorter in overall length... to provide a more
compact installation which has allowed a better balance for the helicopter
installation.

ECU (AutoStart Unit)


The ECU is a microprocessor controlled, digital, turbine management system as
well as a safety device to help prevent serious damage to your engine. It
calculates the fuel supply to the engine depending on the throttle setting, the
exhaust gas temperature and the rpm. The automatic start-up sequence helps
you in this critical phase of the engine operation, controlling the fuel flow and the
exhaust temperature. FADEC is 'Full Authority Digital Engine Control'... a concept
seen in the latest full-size engine controllers

Images for revised system here soon

ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT
There is not much required in the way of 'additional equipment' as almost
everything that you require, including pipes and fittings are supplied. You only
need to supply the ECU battery pack, Start Gas filler can, Turbine Fuel and Oil
Mix, and after the final stages of assembly you are ready to 'Start the Turbine' ...
and we supply a Detailed Operator Manual for the operation of the Turbine and
ECU, and also with Gearbox details and general running and service
requirements.
WARRANTY: TT Systems come with a full Warranty, and the Turbine should not
need a 'Service Check' until 70 hours of use. (Strip and Replace Ceramic
bearings)

RETAIL PRICES (ex-factory)


Our Turbine and Gearbox systems are built and tested to ensure that our
production build tolerances are adhered to. With all systems run and setup we
expect that our customers will get full service operating time from their
helicopter.
We can supply the full Turbine System with everything ready to go, including
gearbox. OR Second-Stage with exhaust & Gearbox, with heat lagging and all
fittings and pipes... or even just Turbine (built & tested) with ECU AutoStart
complete, and ready to go.
Turbine (tested) & ECU 1,645 (1,400.00 +VAT)
TT Full System+'90' Box 2,749 (2,339.58 +VAT)
2nd Stage+Exh+'90' Box 1,195 (1,017.03 +VAT)
Service and Operation - CLICK Turbine menu button
Development History - CLICK Turbine menu button

TURBINE

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MECHANICS

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Reciprocating engine

Internal combustion piston engine


Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, internal combustion piston engine. (E)
Exhaust camshaft, (I) Intake camshaft, (S) Spark plug, (V) Valves, (P) Piston, (R)
Connecting rod, (C) Crankshaft, (W) Water jacket for coolant flow.
A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is an engine that uses
one or more pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion.
The reciprocating engine was first developed as the now largely obsolete steam
engine during the eighteenth century, followed by the stirling engine and internal
combustion engine in the nineteenth. Today the most common form of reciprocating
engine is the internal combustion engine running on the combustion of petrol, diesel
or natural gas and used to power motor vehicles.
There may be one or more pistons. Each piston is inside a cylinder, into which a gas is
introduced, either already hot and under pressure (steam engine), or heated inside the
cylinder either by ignition of a fuel air mixture (internal combustion engine) or by
contact with a hot heat exchanger in the cylinder (stirling engine). The hot gases
expand, pushing the piston to the bottom of the cylinder. The piston is returned to the
cylinder top (Top dead centre) either by a flywheel or the power from other pistons
connected to the same shaft. In most types the expanded or "exhausted" gases are
removed from the cylinder by this stroke. The exception is the Stirling engine, which
repeatedly heats and cools the same sealed quantity of gas.
In some designs the piston may be powered in both directions in the cylinder in which
case it is said to be double acting.

Steam engine
A labeled schematic diagram of a typical single cylinder, simple expansion, doubleacting high pressure steam engine. Power takeoff from the engine is by way of a belt.
1 - Piston
2 - Piston rod
3 - Crosshead bearing
4 - Connecting rod
5 - Crank
6 - Eccentric valve motion
7 - Flywheel
8 - Sliding valve
9 - Centrifugal governor.
The linear movement of the piston is converted to a rotating movement via a
connecting rod and a crankshaft or by a swashplate. A flywheel is often used to ensure
smooth rotation. The more cylinders a piston engine has, the more vibration-free
(smoothly) it can run. The higher the combined piston displacement volume it has the
more power it is capable of producing.
It is common for such engines to be classified by the number and alignment of
cylinders and the total volume of displacement of gas by the pistons moving in the
cylinders. Single- and two-cylinder engines are common in smaller vehicles such as
motorcycles. Automobiles typically have between four and eight, while locomotives,
and ships may have a dozen cylinders or more.
Cylinders may be aligned in line, in a V configuration, horizontally opposite each
other , or radially around the crankshaft. Opposed piston engines put 2 pistons
working at opposite ends of the same cylinder and this has been extended into
triangular arrangements such as the Napier Deltic. Some designs have set the
cylinders in motion around the shaft, see the Rotary engine.
Reciprocating engines that are powered by compressed air, steam or other hot gasses
are still used in some applications such as to drive many modern torpedoes. In most
cases the gas, like that produced by high test peroxide or Otto fuel II, is pressurised
without the need of combustion and therefore oxygen. This allows propulsion under

water for considerable periods of time and over significant distances. e.g. see Mark 46
torpedo.
In most applications of steam power today, the piston engine has been replaced by the
more efficient turbine.

Jet engine

A Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle and the F-16 Falcon is
tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles
noise and allows exhaust to escape. The mesh cover at the front of the engine (left of
photo) prevents foreign objects (including people) from being pulled into the engine
by the huge volume of air rushing into the inlet.
A jet engine is an engine that discharges a fast moving jet of fluid to generate thrust
in accordance with Newton's third law of motion. This broad definition of jet engines
includes turbojets, turbofans, rockets, ramjets and water jets, but in common usage,
the term generally refers to a gas turbine Brayton cycle engine used to produce a jet of
high speed exhaust gases for special propulsive purposes. Jet engines are so familiar
to the modern world that gas turbines are sometimes mistakenly referred to as a
particular application of a jet engine, rather than the other way around.

History
Jet engines can be dated back to the first century AD, when Hero of Alexandria
invented the aeolipile. This used steam power directed through two jet nozzles so as
to cause a sphere to spin rapidly on its axis. So far as is known, it was little used for
supplying mechanical power, and the potential practical applications of Hero's
invention of the jet engine were not recognized. It was simply considered a curiosity.
Jet propulsion only literally and figuratively took off with the invention of the rocket
by the Chinese in the 11th century. Rocket exhaust was initially used in a modest way
for fireworks but gradually progressed to propel formidable weaponry; and there the
technology stalled for hundreds of years.
The problem was that rockets are simply too inefficient to be useful for general
aviation. Instead, by the 1930s, the piston engine in its many different forms (rotary
and static radial, aircooled and liquid-cooled inline) was the only type of powerplant
available to aircraft designers. This was acceptable as long as only low performance
aircraft were required, and indeed all that were available.

However, engineers were beginning to realize conceptually that the piston engine was
self-limiting in terms of the maximum performance which could be attained; the limit
was essentially one of propeller efficiency.[1] This seemed to peak as blade tips
approached the speed of sound. If engine, and thus aircraft, performance were ever to
increase beyond such a barrier, a way would have to be found to radically improve the
design of the piston engine, or a wholly new type of powerplant would have to be
developed. This was the motivation behind the development of the gas turbine engine,
commonly called a "jet" engine, which would become almost as revolutionary to
aviation as the Wright brothers' first flight.
The earliest attempts at jet engines were hybrid designs in which an external power
source supplied the compression. In this system (called a thermojet by Secondo
Campini) the air is first compressed by a fan driven by a conventional piston engine,
then it is mixed with fuel and burned for jet thrust. The examples of this type of
design were the Henri Coand's Coand-1910 aircraft, and the much later Campini
Caproni CC.2, and the Japanese Tsu-11 engine intended to power Ohka kamikaze
planes towards the end of World War II. None were entirely successful and the CC.2
ended up being slower than the same design with a traditional engine and propeller
combination.

Jet engine airflow simulation


The key to a practical jet engine was the gas turbine, used to extract energy from the
engine itself to drive the compressor. The gas turbine was not an idea developed in the
1930s: the patent for a stationary turbine was granted to John Barber in England in
1791. The first gas turbine to successfully run self-sustaining was built in 1903 by
Norwegian engineer gidius Elling. The first patents for jet propulsion were issued
in 1917. Limitations in design and practical engineering and metallurgy prevented
such engines reaching manufacture. The main problems were safety, reliability,
weight and, especially, sustained operation.

The W2/700 engine flew in the Gloster E.28/39, the first British aircraft to fly with a
turbojet engine, and the Gloster Meteor.

In 1929, Aircraft apprentice Frank Whittle formally submitted his ideas for a turbo-jet
to his superiors. On 16 January 1930 in England, Whittle submitted his first patent
(granted in 1932). The patent showed a two-stage axial compressor feeding a singlesided centrifugal compressor. Whittle would later concentrate on the simpler
centrifugal compressor only, for a variety of practical reasons.
In 1935 Hans von Ohain started work on a similar design in Germany, seemingly
unaware of Whittle's work.
Whittle had his first engine running in April 1937. It was liquid-fuelled, and included
a self-contained fuel pump. Von Ohain's engine, as well as being 5 months behind
Whittle's, relied on gas supplied under external pressure, so was not self-contained.
Whittle's team experienced near-panic when the engine would not stop, even after the
fuel was switched off. It turned out that fuel had leaked into the engine and
accumulated in pools. So the engine would not stop until all the leaked fuel had
burned off. Whittle unfortunately failed to secure proper backing for his project, and
so fell behind Von Ohain in the race to get a jet engine into the air.
Ohain approached Ernst Heinkel, one of the larger aircraft industrialists of the day,
who immediately saw the promise of the design. Heinkel had recently purchased the
Hirth engine company, and Ohain and his master machinist Max Hahn were set up
there as a new division of the Hirth company. They had their first HeS 1 engine
running by September 1937. Unlike Whittle's design, Ohain used hydrogen as fuel,
supplied under external pressure. Their subsequent designs culminated in the
gasoline-fuelled HeS 3 of 1,100 lbf (5 kN), which was fitted to Heinkel's simple and
compact He 178 airframe and flown by Erich Warsitz in the early morning of August
27, 1939, from Marienehe aerodrome, an impressively short time for development.
The He 178 was the world's first jet plane.
Meanwhile, Whittle's engine was starting to look useful, and his Power Jets Ltd.
started receiving Air Ministry money. In 1941 a flyable version of the engine called
the W.1, capable of 1000 lbf (4 kN) of thrust, was fitted to the Gloster E28/39
airframe specially built for it, and first flew on May 15, 1941 at RAF Cranwell.

A picture of an early centrifugal engine (the DH Goblin II) sectioned to show its
internal components
One problem with both of these early designs, which are called centrifugal-flow
engines, was that the compressor worked by "throwing" (accelerating) air outward
from the central intake to the outer periphery of the engine, where the air was then
compressed by a divergent duct setup, converting its velocity into pressure. An
advantage of this design was that it was already well understood, having been
implemented in centrifugal superchargers. However, given the early technological

limitations on the shaft speed of the engine, the compressor needed to have a very
large diameter to produce the power required. A further disadvantage was that the air
flow had to be "bent" to flow rearwards through the combustion section and to the
turbine and tailpipe.
Austrian Anselm Franz of Junkers' engine division (Junkers Motoren or Jumo)
addressed these problems with the introduction of the axial-flow compressor.
Essentially, this is a turbine in reverse. Air coming in the front of the engine is blown
towards the rear of the engine by a fan stage (convergent ducts), where it is crushed
against a set of non-rotating blades called stators (divergent ducts). The process is
nowhere near as powerful as the centrifugal compressor, so a number of these pairs of
fans and stators are placed in series to get the needed compression. Even with all the
added complexity, the resulting engine is much smaller in diameter and thus, more
aerodynamic. Jumo was assigned the next engine number, 4, and the result was the
Jumo 004 engine. After many lesser technical difficulties were solved, mass
production of this engine started in 1944 as a powerplant for the world's first jetfighter aircraft, the Messerschmitt Me 262 (and later the worlds first jet-bomber
aircraft, the Arado Ar 234). Because Hitler insisted the Me 262 be designated a
bomber, this delay caused the fighter version to arrive too late to decisively impact
Germany's position in World War II. Nonetheless, it will be remembered as the first
use of jet engines in service. Following the end of the war the German jet aircraft and
jet engines were extensively studied by the victorious allies and contributed to work
on early Soviet and US jet fighters. The legacy of the axial-flow engine is seen in the
fact that practically all jet engines on fixed wing aircraft have had some inspiration
from this design.

A cutaway of the Junkers Jumo 004 engine.


Centrifugal-flow engines have improved since their introduction. With improvements
in bearing technology, the shaft speed of the engine was increased, greatly reducing
the diameter of the centrifugal compressor. The short engine length remains an
advantage of this design, particularly for use in helicopters. Also, its engine
components are robust; axial-flow compressors are more liable to foreign object
damage.
British engines also were licensed widely in the US (see Tizard Mission). Their most
famous design, the Nene would also power the USSR's jet aircraft after a technology
exchange. American designs would not come fully into their own until the 1960s.

Types
There are a large number of different types of jet engines, all of which achieve
propulsion from a high speed exhaust jet.
Type
Water jet

Thermojet

Turbojet

Turbofan

Rocket

Description
Squirts water out
the back of a
boat
Most primitive
airbreathing jet
engine.
Essentially a
supercharged
piston engine
with a jet
exhaust.

Advantages
Disadvantages
Can run in shallow
Can be less efficient
water, powerful, less than a propeller, more
harmful to wildlife
vulnerable to debris
Higher exhaust
velocity than a
propeller, offering
better thrust at high
speed

Heavy, inefficient and


underpowered

Basic design, misses


Generic term for Simplicity of design, many improvements in
simple turbine
efficient at supersonic efficiency and power
engine
speeds (~M2)
for subsonic flight,
relatively noisy.
Most common
form of jet
engine in use
Greater complexity
today. Used in
(additional ducting,
airliners like the
Quieter due to greater
usually multiple shafts),
Boeing 747 and
mass flow and lower
large diameter engine,
military jets,
total exhaust speed,
need to contain heavy
where an
more efficient for a
blades. More subject to
afterburner is
useful range of
FOD and ice damage.
often added for
subsonic airspeeds for
Top speed is limited
supersonic flight.
same reason, cooler
due to the potential for
First stage
exhaust temperature
shockwaves to damage
compressor
engine.
greatly enlarged
to provide bypass
airflow around
engine core.
Very few moving
Needs lots of
parts, Mach 0 to Mach propellant- very low
25+, efficient at very specific impulse
Carries all
high speed (> Mach typically 100-450
propellants
10.0 or so),
seconds. Extreme
onboard, emits
thrust/weight ratio
thermal stresses of
jet for propulsion
over 100, no complex combustion chamber
air inlet, high
can make reuse harder.
compression ratio,
Typically requires

very high speed


carrying oxidiser
(hypersonic) exhaust, onboard which
good cost/thrust ratio, increases risks.
Extraordinarily noisy.
fairly easy to test,
works in a vacuumindeed works best
exoatmospheric which
is kinder on vehicle
structure at high
speed.
Must have a high initial
speed to function,
inefficient at slow
Very few moving
speeds due to poor
parts, Mach 0.8 to
Intake air is
compression ratio,
Mach 5+, efficient at
compressed
difficult to arrange shaft
high speed (> Mach
entirely by speed
power for accessories,
2.0 or so), lightest of
Ramjet
of oncoming air
usually limited to a
all airbreathing jets
and duct shape
small range of speeds,
(thrust/weight ratio up
(divergent)
intake flow must be
to 30 at optimum
slowed to subsonic
speed)
speeds, noisy, fairly
difficult to test, finicky
to keep lit.
Strictly not a jet
at all a gas
turbine engine is High efficiency at
Limited top speed
lower subsonic
used as
Turboprop
(aeroplanes), somewhat
airspeeds (300 knots
powerplant to
(Turboshaft
noisy, complex
drive propeller plus), high shaft
similar)
transmission
shaft (or Rotor in power to weight
the case of a
Helicopter)
Higher fuel
Turboprop
efficiency, potentially Development of
engine drives one
propfan engines has
less noisy than
or more
turbofans, could lead been very limited,
Propfan/Unducted
propellers.
typically more noisy
to higher-speed
Fan
Similar to a
commercial aircraft, than turbofans,
turbofan without
popular in the 1980s complexity
the fan cowling.
during fuel shortages
Air is
Noisy, inefficient (low
compressed and
compression ratio),
combusted
Very simple design,
works poorly on a large
intermittently
commonly used on
Pulsejet
scale, valves on valved
instead of
model aircraft
designs wear out
continuously.
quickly
Some designs
use valves.

Similar to a
pulsejet, but
combustion
occurs as a
Maximum theoretical
Pulse detonation
detonation
engine efficiency
engine
instead of a
deflagration, may
or may not need
valves

Air-augmented
rocket

Scramjet

Turborocket

Precooled jets /
LACE

Extremely noisy, parts


subject to extreme
mechanical fatigue,
hard to start detonation,
not practical for current
use

Similar efficiency to
rockets at low speed or
Essentially a
exoatmospheric, inlet
ramjet where
Mach 0 to Mach 4.5+
difficulties, a relatively
intake air is
(can also run
undeveloped and
compressed and exoatmospheric),
unexplored type,
burnt with the
good efficiency at
cooling difficulties,
exhaust from a Mach 2 to 4
very noisy,
rocket
thrust/weight ratio is
similar to ramjets.
Still in development
stages, must have a
Similar to a
very high initial speed
ramjet without a Few mechanical parts, to function (Mach >6),
diffuser; airflow can operate at very
cooling difficulties,
through the
high Mach numbers very poor thrust/weight
(Mach 8 to 15) with ratio (~2), extreme
entire engine
good efficiencies[2]
remains
aerodynamic
supersonic
complexity, airframe
difficulties, testing
difficulties/expense
A turbojet where
Airspeed limited to
an additional
Very close to existing same range as turbojet
oxidizer such as
designs, operates in engine, carrying
oxygen is added
very high altitude,
oxidizer like LOX can
to the airstream
wide range of altitude be dangerous. Much
to increase
heavier than simple
and airspeed
maximum
rockets.
altitude
Easily tested on
Intake air is
ground. Very high
chilled to very
thrust/weight ratios
low temperatures
Exists only at the lab
are possible (~14)
at inlet before
prototyping stage.
together with good
passing through a
fuel efficiency over a Examples include
ramjet or turbojet
RB545, SABRE,
wide range of
engine. Can be
ATREX
airspeeds, mach 0combined with a
5.5+; this combination
rocket engine for
of efficiencies may
orbital insertion.
permit launching to

orbit, single stage, or


very rapid
intercontinental travel.

Type comparison

Comparative suitability for (left to right) turboshaft, low bypass and turbojet to fly at
10 km attitude in various speeds. Horizontal axis - speed, m/s. Vertical axis carries
only logical meaning.

Efficiency as a function of speed of different Jet types. Although efficiency plummets


with speed, greater distances are covered, it turns out that efficiency per unit distance
(per km or mile) is roughly independent of speed for Jet engines as a group; however
airframes become inefficient at supersonic speeds

Dependence of the energy efficiency () from the exhaust speed/airplane speed ratio
(c/v)

The motion impulse of the engine is equal to the air mass multiplied by the speed at
which the engine emits this mass:
I=mc

where m is the air mass per second and c is the exhaust speed. In other words, the
plane will fly faster if the engine emits the air mass with a higher speed or if it emits
more air per second with the same speed. However, when the plane flies with certain
velocity v, the air moves towards it, creating the opposing ram drag at the air intake:
mv
Most types of jet engine have an air intake, which provides the bulk of the gas exiting
the exhaust. Conventional rocket motors, however, do not have an air intake, the
oxidizer and fuel both being carried within the airframe. Therefore, rocket motors do
not have ram drag; the gross thrust of the nozzle is the net thrust of the engine.
Consequently, the thrust characteristics of a rocket motor are completely different
from that of an air breathing jet engine.
The air breathing engine is only useful if the velocity of the gas from the engine, c, is
greater than the airplane velocity, v. The net engine thrust is the same as if the gas
were emitted with the velocity c-v. So the pushing moment is actually equal to
S = m (c-v)
The turboprop has a wide rotating fan that takes and accelerates the large mass of air
but only till the limited speed of any propeller driven airplane. When the plane speed
exceeds this limit, propellers no longer provide any thrust (c-v < 0).
The turbojets and other similar engines accelerate much smaller mass of the air and
burned fuel, but they emit it at the much higher speeds possible with a de Laval
nozzle. This is why they are suitable for supersonic and higher speeds.
From the other side, the propulsive efficiency (essentially energy efficiency) is highest
when the engine emits an exhaust jet at a speed that is the same as the airplane
velocity. The exact formula, given in the literature,[3] is

The low bypass turbofans have the mixed exhaust of the two air flows, running at
different speeds (c1 and c2). The pushing moment of such engine is
S = m1 (c1 - v) + m2 (c2 - v)
where m1 and m2 are the air masses, being blown from the both exhausts. Such
engines are effective at lower speeds, than the pure jets, but at higher speeds than the
turboshafts and propellers in general. For instance, at the 10 km attitude, turboshafts
are most effective at about 0.4 mach, low bypass turbofans become more effective at
about 0.75 mach and true jets become more effective as mixed exaust engines when
the speed approaches 1 mach - the speed of sound.
Rocket engines are best suited for high speeds and altitudes. At any given throttle, the
thrust and efficiency of a rocket motor improves slightly with increasing altitude

(because the back-pressure falls thus increasing net thrust at the nozzle exit plane),
whereas with a turbojet (or turbofan) the falling density of the air entering the intake
(and the hot gases leaving the nozzle) causes the net thrust to decrease with increasing
altitude. Rocket engines are more efficient than even scramjets above roughly Mach
15.[4]

Turbojet engines

A turbojet engine, in its simplest form is simply a gas turbine with a nozzle attached
Main article: Turbojet
A turbojet engine is a type of internal combustion engine often used to propel aircraft.
Air is drawn into the rotating compressor via the intake and is compressed, through
successive stages, to a higher pressure before entering the combustion chamber. Fuel
is mixed with the compressed air and ignited by flame in the eddy of a flame holder.
This combustion process significantly raises the temperature of the gas. Hot
combustion products leaving the combustor expand through the turbine, where power
is extracted to drive the compressor. Although this expansion process reduces both the
gas temperature and pressure at exit from the turbine, both parameters are usually still
well above ambient conditions. The gas stream exiting the turbine expands to ambient
pressure via the propelling nozzle, producing a high velocity jet in the exhaust plume.
If the jet velocity exceeds the aircraft flight velocity, there is a net forward thrust upon
the airframe.
Under normal circumstances, the pumping action of the compressor prevents any
backflow, thus facilitating the continuous-flow process of the engine. Indeed, the
entire process is similar to a four-stroke cycle, but with induction, compression,
ignition, expansion and exhaust taking place simultaneously, but in different sections
of the engine. The efficiency of a jet engine is strongly dependent upon the overall
pressure ratio (combustor entry pressure/intake delivery pressure) and the turbine inlet
temperature of the cycle.
It is also perhaps instructive to compare turbojet engines with propeller engines.
Turbojet engines take a relatively small mass of air and accelerate it by a large
amount, whereas a propeller takes a large mass of air and accelerates it by a small
amount. The high-speed exhaust of a turbojet engine makes it efficient at high speeds
(especially supersonic speeds) and high altitudes. On slower aircraft and those
required to fly short stages, a gas turbine-powered propeller engine, commonly known
as a turboprop, is more common and much more efficient. Very small aircraft
generally use conventional piston engines to drive a propeller but small turboprops are
getting smaller as engineering technology improves.

The turbojet described above is a single-spool design, in which a single shaft connects
the turbine to the compressor. Higher overall pressure ratio designs often have two
concentric shafts, to improve compressor stability during engine throttle movements.
The outer high pressure (HP) shaft connects the HP compressor to the HP turbine.
This HP Spool, with the combustor, forms the core or gas generator of the engine. The
inner shaft connects the low pressure (LP) compressor to the LP Turbine to create the
LP Spool. Both spools are free to operate at their optimum shaft speed. (Concorde
used this type).

Turbofan engines
Most modern jet engines are actually turbofans, where the low pressure compressor
acts as a fan, supplying supercharged air to not only the engine core, but to a bypass
duct. The bypass airflow either passes to a separate 'cold nozzle' or mixes with low
pressure turbine exhaust gases, before expanding through a 'mixed flow nozzle'.
Forty years ago there was little difference between civil and military jet engines, apart
from the use of afterburning in some (supersonic) applications.
Civil turbofans today have a low specific thrust (net thrust divided by airflow) to keep
jet noise to a minimum and to improve fuel efficiency. Consequently the bypass ratio
(bypass flow divided by core flow) is relatively high (ratios from 4:1 up to 8:1 are
common). Only a single fan stage is required, because a low specific thrust implies a
low fan pressure ratio.
Today's military turbofans, however, have a relatively high specific thrust, to
maximize the thrust for a given frontal area, jet noise being of less concern in military
uses relative to civil uses. Multistage fans are normally needed to reach the relatively
high fan pressure ratio needed for high specific thrust. Although high turbine inlet
temperatures are often employed, the bypass ratio tends to be low, usually
significantly less than 2.0.
An approximate equation for calculating the net thrust of a jet engine, be it a turbojet
or a mixed turbofan, is:

where:
intake mass flow rate
fully expanded jet velocity (in the exhaust plume)
aircraft flight velocity

While the
term represents the gross thrust of the nozzle, the
represents the ram drag of the intake.

term

Major components

Basic components of a jet engine (Axial flow design)


The major components of a jet engine are similar across the major different types of
engines, although not all engine types have all components. The major parts include:

Cold Section:
o Air intake (Inlet) The standard reference frame for a jet engine is
the aircraft itself. For subsonic aircraft, the air intake to a jet engine
presents no special difficulties, and consists essentially of an opening
which is designed to minimise drag, as with any other aircraft
component. However, the air reaching the compressor of a normal jet
engine must be travelling below the speed of sound, even for
supersonic aircraft, to sustain the flow mechanics of the compressor
and turbine blades. At supersonic flight speeds, shockwaves form in
the intake system and reduce the recovered pressure at inlet to the
compressor. So some supersonic intakes use devices, such as a cone or
ramp, to increase pressure recovery, by making more efficient use of
the shock wave system.
o Compressor or Fan The compressor is made up of stages. Each
stage consists of vanes which rotate, and stators which remain
stationary. As air is drawn deeper through the compressor, its heat and
pressure increases. Energy is derived from the turbine (see below),
passed along the shaft.
Common:
o Shaft The shaft connects the turbine to the compressor, and runs
most of the length of the engine. There may be as many as three
concentric shafts, rotating at independent speeds, with as many sets of
turbines and compressors. Other services, like a bleed of cool air, may
also run down the shaft.
Hot section:
o Combustor or Can or Flameholders or Combustion Chamber
This is a chamber where fuel is continuously burned in the compressed
air.
o Turbine The turbine acts like a windmill, gaining energy from the
hot gases leaving the combustor. This energy is used to drive the
compressor (or props, or bypass fans) via the shaft, or even (for a gas
turbine-powered helicopter) converted entirely to rotational energy for

use elsewhere. Relatively cool air, bled from the compressor, may be
used to cool the turbine blades and vanes, to prevent them from
melting.
Afterburner or reheat (chiefly UK) (mainly military) Produces
extra thrust by burning extra fuel, usually inefficiently, to significantly
raise Nozzle Entry Temperature at the exhaust. Owing to a larger
volume flow (i.e. lower density) at exit from the afterburner, an
increased nozzle flow area is required, to maintain satisfactory engine
matching, when the afterburner is alight.
Exhaust or Nozzle Hot gases leaving the engine exhaust to
atmospheric pressure via a nozzle, the objective being to produce a
high velocity jet. In most cases, the nozzle is convergent and of fixed
flow area.
Supersonic nozzle If the Nozzle Pressure Ratio (Nozzle Entry
Pressure/Ambient Pressure) is very high, to maximize thrust it may be
worthwhile, despite the additional weight, to fit a convergent-divergent
(de Laval) nozzle. As the name suggests, initially this type of nozzle is
convergent, but beyond the throat (smallest flow area), the flow area
starts to increase to form the divergent portion. The expansion to
atmospheric pressure and supersonic gas velocity continues
downstream of the throat, whereas in a convergent nozzle the
expansion beyond sonic velocity occurs externally, in the exhaust
plume. The former process is more efficient than the latter.

The various components named above have constraints on how they are put together
to generate the most efficiency or performance. The performance and efficiency of an
engine can never be taken in isolation; for example fuel/distance efficiency of a
supersonic jet engine maximises at about mach 2, whereas the drag for the vehicle
carrying it is increasing as a square law and has much extra drag in the transonic
region. The highest fuel efficiency for the overall vehicle is thus typically at Mach
~0.85.
For the engine optimisation for its intended use, important here is air intake design,
overall size, number of compressor stages (sets of blades), fuel type, number of
exhaust stages, metallurgy of components, amount of bypass air used, where the
bypass air is introduced, and many other factors. For instance, let us consider design
of the air intake.

Air intakes
Subsonic inlets

Pitot intake operating modes


Pitot intakes are the dominant type for subsonic applications. A subsonic pitot inlet is
little more than a tube with an aerodynamic fairing around it.
At zero airspeed (i.e., rest), air approaches the intake from a multitude of directions:
from directly ahead, radially, or even from behind the plane of the intake lip.
At low airspeeds, the streamtube approaching the lip is larger in cross-section than the
lip flow area, whereas at the intake design flight Mach number the two flow areas are
equal. At high flight speeds the streamtube is smaller, with excess air spilling over the
lip.
Beginning around 0.85 Mach, shock waves can occur as the air accelerates through
the intake throat.
Careful radiusing of the lip region is required to optimize intake pressure recovery
(and distortion) throughout the flight envelope.
Supersonic inlets
Supersonic intakes exploit shock waves to decelerate the airflow to a subsonic
condition at compressor entry.
There are basically two forms of shock waves:
1) Normal shock waves lie perpendicular to the direction of the flow. These form
sharp fronts and shock the flow to subsonic speeds. Microscopically the air molecules
smash into the subsonic crowd of molecules like alpha rays. Normal shock waves tend
to cause a large drop in stagnation pressure. Basically, the higher the supersonic entry
Mach number to a normal shock wave, the lower the subsonic exit Mach number and
the stronger the shock (i.e. the greater the loss in stagnation pressure across the shock
wave).
2) Conical (3-dimensional) and oblique shock waves (2D) are angled rearwards, like
the bow wave on a ship or boat, and radiate from a flow disturbance such as a cone or
a ramp. For a given inlet Mach number, they are weaker than the equivalent normal
shock wave and, although the flow slows down, it remains supersonic throughout.

Conical and oblique shock waves turn the flow, which continues in the new direction,
until another flow disturbance is encountered downstream.
Note: Comments made regarding 3 dimensional conical shock waves, generally also
apply to 2D oblique shock waves.
A sharp-lipped version of the pitot intake, described above for subsonic applications,
performs quite well at moderate supersonic flight speeds. A detached normal shock
wave forms just ahead of the intake lip and 'shocks' the flow down to a subsonic
velocity. However, as flight speed increases, the shock wave becomes stronger,
causing a larger percentage decrease in stagnation pressure (i.e. poorer pressure
recovery). An early US supersonic fighter, the F-100 Super Sabre, used such an
intake.

An unswept lip generate a shock wave, which is reflected multiple times in the inlet.
The more reflections before the flow gets subsonic, the better pressure recovery
More advanced supersonic intakes, excluding pitots:
a) exploit a combination of conical shock wave/s and a normal shock wave to improve
pressure recovery at high supersonic flight speeds. Conical shock wave/s are used to
reduce the supersonic Mach number at entry to the normal shock wave, thereby
reducing the resultant overall shock losses.
b) have a design shock-on-lip flight Mach number, where the conical/oblique shock
wave/s intercept the cowl lip, thus enabling the streamtube capture area to equal the
intake lip area. However, below the shock-on-lip flight Mach number, the shock wave
angle/s are less oblique, causing the streamline approaching the lip to be deflected by
the presence of the cone/ramp. Consequently, the intake capture area is less than the
intake lip area, which reduces the intake airflow. Depending on the airflow
characteristics of the engine, it may be desirable to lower the ramp angle or move the
cone rearwards to refocus the shockwaves onto the cowl lip to maximise intake
airflow.
c) are designed to have a normal shock in the ducting downstream of intake lip, so
that the flow at compressor/fan entry is always subsonic. However, if the engine is
throttled back, there is a reduction in the corrected airflow of the LP compressor/fan,
but (at supersonic conditions) the corrected airflow at the intake lip remains constant,
because it is determined by the flight Mach number and intake incidence/yaw. This
discontinuity is overcome by the normal shock moving to a lower cross-sectional area
in the ducting, to decrease the Mach number at entry to the shockwave. This weakens
the shockwave, improving the overall intake pressure recovery. So, the absolute
airflow stays constant, whilst the corrected airflow at compressor entry falls (because

of a higher entry pressure). Excess intake airflow may also be dumped overboard or
into the exhaust system, to prevent the conical/oblique shock waves being disturbed
by the normal shock being forced too far forward by engine throttling.
Many second generation supersonic fighter aircraft featured an inlet cone, which was
used to form the conical shock wave. This type of inlet cone is clearly seen at the very
front of the English Electric Lightning and MiG-21 aircraft, for example.
The same approach can be used for air intakes mounted at the side of the fuselage,
where a half cone serves the same purpose with a semicircular air intake, as seen on
the F-104 Starfighter and BAC TSR-2.
Some intakes are biconic; that is they feature two conical surfaces: the first cone is
supplemented by a second, less oblique, conical surface, which generates an extra
conical shockwave, radiating from the junction between the two cones. A biconic
intake is usually more efficient than the equivalent conical intake, because the entry
Mach number to the normal shock is reduced by the presence of the second conical
shock wave.
A very sophisticated conical intake was featured on the SR-71's Pratt & Whitney J58s
that could move a conical spike fore and aft within the engine nacelle, preventing the
shockwave formed on the spike from entering the engine and stalling the engine,
while keeping it close enough to give good compression. Movable cones are
uncommon.
A more sophisticated design than cones is to angle the intake so that one of its edges
forms a ramp. An oblique shockwave will form at the start of the ramp. The Century
Series of US jets featured several variants of this approach, usually with the ramp at
the outer vertical edge of the intake, which was then angled back inward towards the
fuselage. Typical examples include the Republic F-105 Thunderchief and F-4
Phantom.

Concorde intake operating modes


Later this evolved so that the ramp was at the top horizontal edge rather than the outer
vertical edge, with a pronounced angle downwards and rearwards. This design
simplified the construction of intakes and allowed use of variable ramps to control
airflow into the engine. Most designs since the early 1960s now feature this style of
intake, for example the F-14 Tomcat, Panavia Tornado and Concorde.
From another point of view, like in a supersonic nozzle the corrected (or nondimensional) flow has to be the same at the intake lip, at the intake throat and at the
turbine. One of this three can be fixed. For inlets the throat is made variable and some
air is bypassed around the turbine and directly fed into the afterburner. Unlike in a

nozzle the inlet is either unstable or inefficient, because a normal shock wave in the
throat will suddenly move to the lip, thereby increasing the pressure at the lip, leading
to drag and reducing the pressure recovery, leading to turbine surge and the loss of
one SR-71.

Compressors

Compressor stage GE J79


Axial compressors rely on spinning blades that have aerofoil sections, similar to
aeroplane wings. As with aeroplane wings in some conditions the blades can stall. If
this happens, the airflow around the stalled compressor can reverse direction
violently. Each design of a compressor has an associated operating map of airflow
versus rotational speed for characteristics peculiar to that type (see compressor map).
At a given throttle condition, the compressor operates somewhere along the steady
state running line. Unfortunately, this operating line is displaced during transients.
Many compressors are fitted with anti-stall systems in the form of bleed bands or
variable geometry stators to decrease the likelihood of surge. Another method is to
split the compressor into two or more units, operating on separate concentric shafts.
Another design consideration is the average stage loading. This can be kept at a
sensible level either by increasing the number of compression stages (more
weight/cost) or the mean blade speed (more blade/disc stress).
Although large flow compressors are usually all-axial, the rear stages on smaller units
are too small to be robust. Consequently, these stages are often replaced by a single
centrifugal unit. Very small flow compressors often employ two centrifugal
compressors, connected in series. Although in isolation centrifugal compressors are
capable of running at quite high pressure ratios (e.g. 10:1), impeller stress
considerations (i.e. T3, NH implications) limit the pressure ratio that can be employed
in high overall pressure ratio engine cycles.
Increasing overall pressure ratio implies raising the high pressure compressor exit
temperature (i.e. T3). This implies a higher high pressure shaft speed, to maintain the
datum blade tip Mach number on the rear compressor stage. Stress considerations,
however, may limit the shaft speed increase, causing the original compressor to
throttle-back aerodynamically to a lower pressure ratio than datum.

Combustion chamber GE J79

Combustors
Great care must be taken to keep the flame burning in a moderately fast moving
airstream, at all throttle conditions, as efficiently as possible. Since the turbine cannot
withstand stoichiometric temperatures, resulting from the optimum combustion
process, some of the compressor air is used to quench the exit temperature of the
combustor to an acceptable level. Air used for combustion is considered to be primary
airflow, while excess air used for cooling is called secondary airflow. Combustor
configurations include can, annular, and can-annular.

Turbines

Turbine Stage GE J79


Because a turbine expands from high to low pressure, there is no such thing as turbine
surge or stall. The turbine needs fewer stages than the compressor, mainly because the
higher inlet temperature reduces the deltaT/T (and thereby the pressure ratio) of the
expansion process. The blades have more curvature and the gas stream velocities are
higher.
Designers must, however, prevent the turbine blades and vanes from melting in a very
high temperature and stress environment. Consequently bleed air extracted from the
compression system is often used to cool the turbine blades/vanes internally. Other
solutions are improved materials and/or special insulating coatings. The discs must be
specially shaped to withstand the huge stresses imposed by the rotating blades. They

take the form of impulse, reaction, or combination impulse-reaction shapes. Improved


materials help to keep disc weight down.

Turbopumps
Turbopumps are centrifugal pumps which are spun by gas turbines and are used to
raise the propellant pressure above the pressure in the combustion chamber so that it
can be injected and burnt. Turbopumps are very commonly used with rockets, but
ramjets and turbojets also have been known to use them.

Nozzles

Afterburner GE J79
The primary object of a nozzle is to expand the exhaust stream to atmospheric
pressure, thereby producing a high velocity jet, relative to the vehicle. If the fully
expanded jet velocity exceeds the flight velocity, there will be a forward thrust on the
airframe.
Simple convergent nozzles are used on many jet engines. If the nozzle pressure ratio
is above the critical value (about 1.8:1) a convergent nozzle will choke, resulting in
some of the expansion to atmospheric pressure taking place downstream of the throat
(i.e. smallest flow area), in the jet wake. Although much of the gross thrust produced
will still be from the jet momentum, additional (pressure) thrust will come from the
imbalance between the throat static pressure and atmospheric pressure.
Many military combat engines incorporate an afterburner (or reheat) in the engine
exhaust system. When the system is lit, the nozzle throat area must be increased, to
accommodate the extra exhaust volume flow, so that the turbomachinery is unaware
that the afterburner is lit. A variable throat area is achieved by moving a series of
overlapping petals, which approximate the circular nozzle cross-section.
At high nozzle pressure ratios, much of the expansion will take place downstream of a
convergent nozzle, which is somewhat inefficient. Consequently, some jet engines
incorporate a convergent-divergent nozzle, to allow most of the expansion to take
place within the nozzle to maximise thrust. However, unlike the con-di nozzle used on
a conventional rocket motor, when such a device is used on a jet engine it has to be a
complex variable geometry device, to cope with the wide variation in nozzle pressure

ratio encountered in flight and engine throttling. This further increases the weight and
cost of such an installation.

Variable Exhaust Nozzle, on the GE F404-400 low-bypass turbofan installed on a


Boeing F-18
The simpler of the two is the ejector nozzle, which creates an effective nozzle
through a secondary airflow and spring-loaded petals. At subsonic speeds, the airflow
constricts the exhaust to a convergent shape. As the aircraft speeds up, the two
nozzles dilate, which allows the exhaust to form a convergent-divergent shape,
speeding the exhaust gasses past Mach 1. More complex engines can actually use a
tertiary airflow to reduce exit area at very low speeds. Advantages of the ejector
nozzle are relative simplicity and reliability. Disadvantages are average performance
(compared to the other nozzle type) and relatively high drag due to the secondary
airflow. Notable aircraft to have utilized this type of nozzle include the SR-71,
Concorde, F-111, and Saab Viggen
For higher performance, it is necessary to use an iris nozzle. This type uses
overlapping, hydraulically adjustable "petals". Although more complex than the
ejector nozzle, it has significantly higher performance and smoother airflow. As such,
it is employed primarily on high-performance fighters such as the F-14, F-15, F-16,
though is also used in high-speed bombers such as the B-1B. Some modern iris nozzle
additionally have the ability to change the angle of the thrust (see thrust vectoring).

Iris vectored thrust nozzle


Rocket motors also employ convergent-divergent nozzles, but these are usually of
fixed geometry, to minimize weight. Because of the much higher nozzle pressure
ratios experienced, rocket motor con-di nozzles have a much greater area ratio
(exit/throat) than those fitted to jet engines.
At the other extreme, some high bypass ratio civil turbofans use an extremely low
area ratio (less than 1.01 area ratio), convergent-divergent, nozzle on the bypass (or
mixed exhaust) stream, to control the fan working line. The nozzle acts as if it has
variable geometry. At low flight speeds the nozzle is unchoked (less than a Mach

number of unity), so the exhaust gas speeds up as it approaches the throat and then
slows down slightly as it reaches the divergent section. Consequently, the nozzle exit
area controls the fan match and, being larger than the throat, pulls the fan working
line slightly away from surge. At higher flight speeds, the ram rise in the intake
increases nozzle pressure ratio to the point where the throat becomes choked (M=1.0).
Under these circumstances, the throat area dictates the fan match and being smaller
than the exit pushes the fan working line slightly towards surge. This is not a problem,
since fan surge margin is much better at high flight speeds.

Cooling systems
All jet engines require high temperature gas for good efficiency, typically achieved by
combusting hydrocarbon or hydrogen fuel. Combustion temperatures can be as high
as 3500K (5000F), above the melting point of most materials.
Cooling systems are employed to keep the temperature of the solid parts below the
failure temperature.
Air systems
A complex air system is built into most turbine based jet engines, primarily to cool the
turbine blades, vanes and discs.
Air, bled from the compressor exit, passes around combustor and is injected into the
rim of the rotating turbine disc. The cooling air then passes through complex passages
within the turbine blades. After removing heat from the blade material, the air (now
fairly hot) is vented, via cooling holes, into the main gas stream. Cooling air for the
turbine vanes undergoes a similar process.
Cooling the leading edge of the blade can be difficult, because the pressure of the
cooling air just inside the cooling hole may not be much different from that of the
oncoming gas stream. One solution is to incorporate a cover plate on the disc. This
acts as a centrifugal compressor to pressurize the cooling air before it enters the blade.
Another solution is to use an ultra-efficient turbine rim seal to pressurize the area
where the cooling air passes across to the rotating disc.
Seals are used to prevent oil leakage, control air for cooling and prevent stray air
flows into turbine cavities.
A series of (e.g. labyrinth) seals allow a small flow of bleed air to wash the turbine
disc to extract heat and, at the same time, pressurize the turbine rim seal, to prevent
hot gases entering the inner part of the engine. Other types of seals are hydraulic,
brush, carbon etc.
Small quantities of compressor bleed air are also used to cool the shaft, turbine
shrouds, etc. Some air is also used to keep the temperature of the combustion chamber
walls below critical. This is done using primary and secondary airholes which allow a
thin layer of air to cover the inner walls of the chamber preventing excessive heating.

Exit temperature is dependent on the turbine upper temperature limit depending on the
material. Reducing the temperature will also prevent thermal fatigue and hence
failure. Accessories may also need their own cooling systems using air from the
compressor or outside air.
Air from compressor stages is also used for heating of the fan, airframe anti-icing and
for cabin heat. Which stage is bled from depends on the atmospheric conditions at that
altitude.
Rocket engines
Rocket engines have extreme cooling requirements, due to the simultaneous
combination of both high pressures (typically 20-200 bar) and high temperatures
(typically ~3500 K) found in the combustion chamber.
Rocket engines often use liquid coolant, typically the propellant is passed around the
hot parts of the engine (regenerative cooling); but other techniques such as radiative
cooling or dump cooling can be used.
In addition, the chamber is normally designed so that the injectors provide for cooler
gas at the circumference (curtain cooling) or cool liquid: film cooling however these
techniques reduce performance somewhat due to incompletely burnt propellant being
ejected, but are nevertherless used by many engines.

Fuel system
Apart from providing fuel to the engine, the fuel system is also used to control
propeller speeds, compressor airflow and cool lubrication oil. Fuel is usually
introduced by an atomized spray, the amount of which is controlled automatically
depending on the rate of airflow.
So the sequence of events for increasing thrust is, the throttle opens and fuel spray
pressure is increased, increasing the amount of fuel being burned. This means that
exhaust gases are hotter and so are ejected at higher acceleration, which means they
exert higher forces and therefore increase the engine thrust directly. It also increases
the energy extracted by the turbine which drives the compressor even faster and so
there is an increase in air flowing into the engine as well.
Obviously, it is the rate of the mass of the airflow that matters since it is the change in
momentum (mass x velocity) that produces the force. However, density varies with
altitude and hence inflow of mass will also vary with altitude, temperature etc. which
means that throttle values will vary according to all these parameters without
changing them manually.
This is why fuel flow is controlled automatically. Usually there are 2 systems, one to
control the pressure and the other to control the flow. The inputs are usually from
pressure and temperature probes from the intake and at various points through the
engine. Also throttle inputs, engine speed etc. are required. These affect the high
pressure fuel pump.

Fuel control unit (FCU)


This element is something like a mechanical computer. It determines the output of the
fuel pump by a system of valves which can change the pressure used to cause the
pump stroke, thereby varying the amount of flow.
Take the possibility of increased altitude where there will be reduced air intake
pressure. In this case, the chamber within the FCU will expand which causes the spill
valve to bleed more fuel. This causes the pump to deliver less fuel until the opposing
chamber pressure is equivalent to the air pressure and the spill valve goes back to its
position.
When the throttle is opened, it releases i.e. lessens the pressure which lets the throttle
valve fall. The pressure is transmitted (because of a back-pressure valve i.e. no air
gaps in fuel flow) which closes the FCU spill valves (as they are commonly called)
which then increases the pressure and causes a higher flow rate.
The engine speed governor is used to prevent the engine from over-speeding. It has
the capability of disregarding the FCU control. It does this by use of a diaphragm
which senses the engine speed in terms of the centrifugal pressure caused by the
rotating rotor of the pump. At a critical value, this diaphragm causes another spill
valve to open and bleed away the fuel flow.
There are other ways of controlling fuel flow for example with the dash-pot throttle
lever. The throttle has a gear which meshes with the control valve (like a rack and
pinion) causing it to slide along a cylinder which has ports at various positions.
Moving the throttle and hence sliding the valve along the cylinder, opens and closes
these ports as designed. There are actually 2 valves viz. the throttle and the control
valve. The control valve is used to control pressure on one side of the throttle valve
such that it gives the right opposition to the throttle control pressure. It does this by
controlling the fuel outlet from within the cylinder.
So for example, if the throttle valve is moved up to let more fuel in, it will mean that
the throttle valve has moved into a position which allows more fuel to flow through
and on the other side, the required pressure ports are opened to keep the pressure
balance so that the throttle lever stays where it is.
At initial acceleration, more fuel is required and the unit is adapted to allow more fuel
to flow by opening other ports at a particular throttle position. Changes in pressure of
outside air i.e. altitude, speed of aircraft etc are sensed by an air capsule.

Fuel pump
Fuel pumps are used to raise the fuel pressure above the pressure in the combustion
chamber so that the fuel can be injected. Fuel pumps are usually driven by the main
shaft, via gearing.
Turbopumps are very commonly used with liquid-fuelled rockets and rely on the
expansion of an onboard gas through a turbine.

Ramjet turbopumps use ram air expanding through a turbine.

Engine starting system


The fuel system as explained above, is one of the 2 systems required for starting the
engine. The other is the actual ignition of the air/fuel mixture in the chamber. Usually,
an auxiliary power unit is used to start the engines. It has a starter motor which has a
high torque transmitted to the compressor unit. When the optimum speed is reached,
i.e. the flow of gas through the turbine is sufficient, the turbines take over. There are a
number of different starting methods such as electric, hydraulic, pneumatic etc.
The electric starter works with gears and clutch plate linking the motor and the
engine. The clutch is used to disengage when optimum speed is achieved. This is
usually done automatically. The electric supply is used to start the motor as well as for
ignition. The voltage is usually built up slowly as starter gains speed.
Some military aircraft need to be started quicker than the electric method permits and
hence they use other methods such as a turbine starter. This is an impulse turbine
impacted by burning gases from a cartridge. It is geared to rotate the engine and also
connected to an automatic disconnect system. The cartridge is set alight electrically
and used to turn the turbine.
Another turbine starter system is almost exactly like a little engine. Again the turbine
is connected to the engine via gears. However, the turbine is turned by burning gases usually the fuel is iso-propyl-nitrate stored in a tank and sprayed into a combustion
chamber. Again, it is ignited with a spark plug. Everything is electrically controlled,
such as speed etc.
Most Commercial aircraft and large Military Transport airplanes usually use what is
called an auxiliary power unit or APU. It is normally a small gas turbine. Thus, one
could say that using such an APU is using a small jet engine to start a larger one. High
pressure air from the compressor section of the APU is bled off through a system of
pipes to the engines where it is directed into the starting system. This "bleed air" is
directed into a mechanism to start the engine turning and begin pulling in air. When
the rotating speed of the engine is sufficient to pull in enough air to support
combustion, fuel is introduced and ignited. Once the engine ignites and reaches idle
speed, the bleed air is shut off.
The APUs on aircraft such as the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 can be seen at the
extreme rear of the aircraft. This is the typical location for an APU on most
commercial airliners although some may be within the wing root (Boeing 727) or the
aft fuselage (DC-9/MD80) as examples and some military transports carry their
APU's in one of the main landing gear pods (C-141).
The APUs also provide enough power to keep the cabin lights, pressure and other
systems on while the engines are off. The valves used to control the airflow are
usually electrically controlled. They automatically close at a pre-determined speed. As
part of the starting sequence on some engines fuel is combined with the supplied air
and burned instead of using just air. This usually produces more power per unit
weight.

Usually an APU is started by its own electric starter motor which is switched off at
the proper speed automatically. When the main engine starts up and reaches the right
conditions, this auxiliary unit is then switched off and disengages slowly.
Hydraulic pumps can also be used to start some engines through gears. The pumps are
electrically controlled on the ground.
A variation of this is the APU installed in a Boeing F-18; it is started by a hydraulic
motor, which itself receives energy stored in an accumulator. This accumulator is
recharged after the right engine is started and develops hydraulic pressure, or by a
hand pump in the right hand main landing gear well.

Ignition
Usually there are 2 igniter plugs in different positions in the combustion system. A
high voltage spark is used to ignite the gases. The voltage is stored up from a low
voltage supply provided by the starter system. It builds up to the right value and is
then released as a high energy spark. Depending on various conditions, the igniter
continues to provide sparks to prevent combustion from failing if the flame inside
goes out. Of course, in the event that the flame does go out, there must be provision to
relight. There is a limit of altitude and air speed at which an engine can obtain a
satisfactory relight.
For example, the General Electric F404-400 uses one ignitor for the combustor and
one for the afterburner; the ignition system for the A/B incorporates an ultraviolet
flame sensor to activate the ignitor.
It should be noted that most modern ignition systems provide enough energy to be a
lethal hazard should a person be in contact with the electrical lead when the system is
activated, so team communication is vital when working on these systems.

Lubrication system
A lubrication system serves to ensure lubrication of the bearings and to maintain
sufficiently cool temperatures, mostly by eliminating friction.
The lubrication system as a whole should be able to prevent foreign material from
entering the plane, and reaching the bearings, gears, and other moving parts. The
lubricant must be able to flow easily at relatively low temperatures and not
disintegrate or break down at very high temperatures.
Usually the lubrication system has subsystems that deal individually with the pressure
of an engine, scavenging, and a breather.
The pressure system components are an oil tank and de-aerator, main oil pump, main
oil filter/filter bypass valve, pressure regulating valve (PRV), oil cooler/by pass valve
and tubing/jets.
Usually the flow is from the tank to the pump inlet and PRV, pumped to main oil
filter or its bypass valve and oil cooler, then through some more filters to jets in the
bearings.

Using the PRV method of control, means that the pressure of the feed oil must be
below a critical value (usually controlled by other valves which can leak out excess
oil back to tank if it exceeds the critical value). The valve opens at a certain pressure
and oil is kept moving at a constant rate into the bearing chamber.
If the engine speed increases, the pressure within the bearing chamber also increases,
which means the pressure difference between the lubricant feed and the chamber
reduces which could reduce slow rate of oil when it is needed even more. As a result,
some PRVs can adjust their spring force values using this pressure change in the
bearing chamber proportionally to keep the lubricant flow constant.

Advanced designs
J-58 combined ramjet/turbojet
The SR-71's Pratt & Whitney J58 engines were rather unusual. They could convert in
flight from being largely a turbojet to being largely a compressor-assisted ramjet. At
high speeds (above Mach 2.4), the engine used variable geometry vanes to direct
excess air through 6 bypass pipes from downstream of the fourth compressor stage
into the afterburner.[5] 80% of the SR-71's thrust at high speed was generated in this
way, giving much higher thrust, improving specific impulse by 10-15%, and
permitting continuous operation at Mach 3.2. The name coined for this configuration
is turbo-ramjet.

Pre-cooled turbojets
An idea originated by Robert P. Carmichael in 1955 [6] is that hydrogen fuelled
engines could theoretically have much higher performance than hydrocarbon fuelled
engines if a heat exchanger is used to cool the incoming air. The low temperature
allows lighter materials to be used, a higher mass-flow through the engines, and
provides lower temperatures which permits combustors to inject more fuel without
overheating the engine.
This idea leads to plausible designs like SABRE, that might permit single-stage-toorbit,[7] and ATREX, that might permit jet engines to be used up to hypersonic speeds
and high altitudes for boosters for launch vehicles.

Nuclear-powered ramjet
Project Pluto was a nuclear-powered ramjet, intended for use in a cruise missile.
Rather than combusting fuel as in regular jet engines, air was heated using a hightemperature, unshielded nuclear reactor. This raised the specific impulse of the engine
by stupendous amounts, and the ramjet was predicted to be able to fly for months at
supersonic speeds (Mach 3 at tree-top height). However, there was no obvious way to
stop it once it had taken off, which is a great disadvantage. Unfortunately, because the
reactor was unshielded, it was dangerous to be in or around the flight path of the
vehicle (although the exhaust itself wasn't radioactive).

Scramjets
Scramjets are an evolution of the ramjet that are able to operate at much higher speeds
than ramjets (or any other kind of airbreathing engine) are capable of reaching. They
share a similar structure with ramjets, being a specially-shaped tube that compresses
air with no moving parts through ram-air compression. Scramjets, however, operate
with supersonic airflow through the entire engine. Thus, scramjets do not have the
diffuser required by ramjets to slow the incoming airflow to subsonic speeds.
Scramjets start working at speeds of at least Mach 4, and have a maximum useful
speed of approximately Mach 17[8]. Due to aerodynamic heating at these high speeds,
cooling poses a challenge to engineers.

Wankel engine

Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany


The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by
German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons.
This design delivers smooth high-rpm power from a compact, lightweight engine.

Naming
Thermodynamic cycles
Cycles without IC:
Gas cycles without
Phasechange:
Brayton/Joule cycle
Carnot cycle

Since its introduction in the NSU Motorenwerke AG


(NSU) and Mazda cars of the 1960s, the engine has
been commonly referred to as the rotary engine, a
name which has also been applied to several
completely different engine designs.

How it works

Ericsson cycle
Pseudo Stirling cycle
(=adiabatic Stirling
cycle) [1] [2]
Ported constant
volume cycle [3]
Stirling cycle
Gas cycles
with Phasechange:
Kalina cycle
Rankine cycle
Regenerative cycle
Two phased
Stirling cycle [4]

Cycles with IC:

The Wankel cycle. The "A" marks one of the three


apexes of the rotor. The "B" marks the eccentric shaft
and the white portion is the lobe of the eccentric shaft.
The shaft turns three times for each rotation of the
rotor around the lobe and once for each orbital
revolution around the eccentric shaft.

Atkinson cycle
Bourke cycle
Diesel cycle
Otto cycle
Lenoir cycle
Miller cycle
One-stroke cycle
Scuderi cycle
Two-stroke cycle
Wankel cycle

Cycle mixing:
In the Wankel engine, the four strokes of a typical
Otto cycle occur in the space between a rotor, which
Combined cycle
is roughly triangular, and the inside of a housing. In
Crower cycle
the basic single-rotor Wankel engine, the oval-like
Mixed/Dual Cycle
epitrochoid-shaped housing surrounds a three-sided
rotor (similar to a Reuleaux triangle, a three-pointed
curve of constant width, but with the middle of each
Not classified:
side a bit more flattened). The central drive shaft, also
called an eccentric shaft or E-shaft, passes through the
Hirn cycle
center of the rotor and is supported by bearings. The
Linde-Hampson cycle
rotor both rotates around an offset lobe (crank) on the
edit
E-shaft and makes orbital revolutions around the
central shaft. Seals at the corners of the rotor seal against the periphery of the housing,
dividing it into three moving combustion chambers. Fixed gears mounted on each side
of the housing engage with ring gears attached to the rotor to ensure the proper
orientation as the rotor moves.
As the rotor rotates and orbitally revolves, each side of the rotor gets closer and
farther from the wall of the housing, compressing and expanding the combustion

chamber similarly to the strokes of a piston in a reciprocating engine. The power


vector of the combustion stage goes through the center of the offset lobe.
While a four-stroke piston engine makes one combustion stroke per cylinder for every
two rotations of the crankshaft (that is, one half power stroke per crankshaft rotation
per cylinder), each combustion chamber in the Wankel generates one combustion
stroke per each driveshaft rotation, i.e. one power stroke per rotor orbital revolution
and three power strokes per rotor rotation. Thus, power output of a Wankel engine is
generally higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar engine
displacement in a similar state of tune and higher than that of a four-stroke piston
engine of similar physical dimensions and weight. Wankel engines also generally
have a much higher redline than a reciprocating engine of similar size since the
strokes are completed with a rotary motion as opposed to a reciprocating engine
which must use connecting rods and a crankshaft to convert reciprocating motion into
rotary motion.
National agencies that tax automobiles according to displacement and regulatory
bodies in automobile racing variously consider the Wankel engine to be equivalent to
a four-stroke engine of 1.5 to 2 times the displacement; some racing regulatory
agencies view it as offering such a pronounced advantage that they ban it
altogether.[citation needed] After Mazda won the 24 hours of Le Mans in 1991 with their
787B car powered by a 4-rotor Wankel engine, the FIA (Federation Internationale de
l'Automobile) decided to ban rotary-engine cars from racing in that league.[citation needed]

Advantages
Wankel engines have several major advantages over reciprocating piston designs, in
addition to having higher output for similar displacement and physical size. Wankel
engines are considerably simpler and contain far fewer moving parts. For instance,
because valving is accomplished by simple ports cut into the walls of the rotor
housing, they have no valves or complex valve trains; in addition, since the rotor is
geared directly to the output shaft, there is no need for connecting rods, a
conventional crankshaft, crankshaft balance weights, etc. The elimination of these
parts not only makes a Wankel engine much lighter (typically half that of a
conventional engine with equivalent power), but it also completely eliminates the
reciprocating mass of a piston engine with its internal strain and inherent vibration
due to repeated acceleration and deceleration, producing not only a smoother flow of
power but also the ability to produce more power by running at higher rpm.
In addition to the enhanced reliability due to the elimination of this reciprocating
strain on internal parts, the engine is constructed with an iron rotor within a housing
made of aluminum, which has greater thermal expansion. This ensures that even a
severely overheated Wankel engine cannot seize, as would likely occur in an
overheated piston engine. This is a substantial safety benefit in aircraft use. No valves
can burnout.

A further advantage of the Wankel engine for use in aircraft is the fact that a Wankel
engine can have a smaller frontal area than a piston engine of equivalent power.
The simplicity of design and smaller size of the Wankel engine also allows for
savings in construction costs, compared to piston engines of comparable power
output.
50% longer stroke duration as a four stroke engine, therefore more time to complete
the combustion. Therefore better for direct injection suitably.
No empty stroke.
Needs no enrichment for full load (wot; wide open throttle).
As another advantage, the shape of the Wankel combustion chamber and the
turbulence induced by the moving rotor prevent localized hot spots from forming,
thereby allowing the use of fuel of very low octane number or very low ignition
power requirement without preignition or detonation, a particular advantage for
hydrogen cars. Mazda has recently placed a hydrogen-burning rotary engine in one
version of its RX-8 sports car and Mazda 5.

Disadvantages
Compared to piston engines, the time available for fuel to be injected into a Wankel
engine is significantly shorter, due to the way the three chambers rotate. Mixture
cannot be pre-stored (no intake valve). This means that to get good performance out
of a Wankel engine fuel injection technologies are more complicated than for regular
four-stroke engines. This difference in intake times also causes Wankel engines to be
more susceptible to pressure loss at low rpm compared to regular piston engines.
In terms of fuel economy, Wankel engines are generally less efficient than four stroke
piston engines of a similar power output, and although there is some evidence that the
NSU Wankel Spider disproves this, most experts would agree that the low (27 mpg)
rating of that car was due largely to its incredibly light weight. Problems also occur
with exhaust gases at a peripheral port exhaust, where the prevalence of hydrocarbon
can be higher than from the exhausts of regular piston engines.

Engineering

Apex Seals, left NSU Ro80 Serie and Research and right Mazda 12A and 13B

Felix Wankel managed to overcome most of the problems that made previous rotary
Otto cycle engines fail by developing a configuration with vane seals that could be
made of more durable materials than piston ring metal that led to the failure of
previous rotary designs.

left Mazda old L10A Camber axial cooling, middle Audi NSU EA871 axial water
cooling only hot bow, right Diamond Engines Wankel radial cooling only in the hot
bow.
Rotary engines have a thermodynamic problem not found in reciprocating four stroke
engines in that their "cylinder block" operates at steady state, with intake,
compression, combustion, and exhaust occurring at fixed housing locations for all
"cylinders". In contrast, reciprocating engines performs these four strokes in one
chamber so that extremes of freezing intake and flaming exhaust are averaged and
shielded by a boundary layer from overheating working parts. Freezing temperatures
from evaporating fuel prevail at the intake while ignition reaches temperatures of
about 2300 kelvins [5], a range that is wider than lubricants and most engine materials
can withstand. Cooling, the boundary layer and the quench Zone prevent the oil film
in a Wankel rotary engine for overheating. [6], [7] The empty stroke lowers the
efficiency of a reciprocating four stroke engine, therefore the most effective
reciprocating engine is a two stroke Diesel. Four stroke reciprocating engines are less
suitable for hydrogen. The hydrogen can misfire on hot parts like exaust valve and
spark plugs. Another big problem represents the hydrogenate attack on the lubricating
film in reciprocating engines. This problem solved with ceramic apex seal against a
ceramic surface at a wankel engine. No oil film, therfore no hydrogenate attack. Since
a piston ring out ceramic is not possible, this solution method remains locked for the
reciprocating engine. The piston shell must be lubricated and cooled with oil. This
increases the lubricating oil consumption in a four stroke engine substantially.

Materials
Unlike a piston engine, where the cylinder is cooled by the incoming charge after
being heated by combustion, Wankel rotor housings are constantly heated on one side
and cooled at the other, leading to very high local temperatures and unequal thermal
expansion. While this places high demands on the materials used, the simplicity of the
Wankel makes it easier to experiment with alternative materials, e.g. exotic alloys and
ceramics. With water cooling in radial or axial flow direction, with the hot water from
the hot bow heated the cold bow. Therefore the thermal expansion remains
tolerable.[1]
Sealing
Early engine designs had a high incidence of sealing loss, both between the rotor and
the housing and also between the various pieces making up the housing. Also, in
earlier model Wankel engines carbon particles could become trapped between the seal
and the casing, jamming the engine and requiring a partial rebuild. (This can be

prevented in older Mazda engines by always allowing the engine to reach operating
temperature). It was common for very early Mazda engines to require rebuilding after
50,000 miles. Modern Wankel engines have not had these problems for many years.
Fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions
Just as the shape of the Wankel combustion chamber prevents preignition, it also
leads to incomplete combustion of the air-fuel charge, with the remaining unburned
hydrocarbons released into the exhaust. While manufacturers of piston-engine cars
were turning to expensive catalytic converters to completely oxidize the unburned
hydrocarbons, Mazda was able to avoid this cost by enriching the air/fuel mixture and
increasing the amount of unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust to actually support
complete combustion in a 'thermal reactor' (an enlarged open chamber in the exhaust
manifold) without the need for a catalytic converter, thereby producing a clean
exhaust at the cost of some extra fuel consumption.
Unfortunately for Mazda, their choice to use extra fuel to combust excess
hydrocarbons increased fuel consumption just as world gasoline prices rose sharply.
This resulted in drop in sales and another blow to the reputation of Mazda and the
rotary engine.
In Mazda's RX-8 with the Renesis engine, fuel consumption is now within normal
limits while passing California State emissions requirements. The exhaust ports,
which in earlier Mazda rotaries were located in the rotor housings, were moved to the
sides of the combustion chamber. This approach allowed Mazda to eliminate overlap
between intake and exhaust port openings, while simultaneously increasing exhaust
port area. The Renesis engine even meets California's Low Emissions Vehicle or LEV
standards.

History

First Wankel Engine DKM54 (Drehkolbenmotor), at the Deutsches Museum in Bonn,


Germany

Wankel Engine NSU KKM 57P (Kreiskolbenmotor), at Autovision und Forum,


Germany

Rolls Royce R6 two stage Wankel Diesel engine


In 1951, Wankel began development of the engine at NSU (NSU Motorenwerke AG),
where he first conceived his rotary engine in 1954 (DKM 54, Drehkolbenmotor) and
later the KKM 57 (the Wankel rotary engine, Kreiskolbenmotor) in the year 1957.
The first working prototype DKM 54 was running on February 1, 1957 at the NSU
research and development department Versuchsabteilung TX.[2]
Considerable effort went into designing rotary engines in the 1950s and 1960s. They
were of particular interest because they were smooth and very quiet running, and
because of the reliability resulting from their simplicity.
In the United States, in 1959 under license from NSU, Curtiss Wright Corp. pioneered
minor improvements in the basic engine design. Curtis-Wright takes 50% of the
license income made in the USA and limited its development activity to a minimum.
In Britain, in the 1960s, Rolls Royce Motor Car Division at Crewe, Cheshire,
pioneered a two-stage Diesel version of the Wankel engine.[3]
Also in Britain Norton Motorcycles developed a Wankel rotary engine for
motorcycles, which was included in their Commander and F1; Suzuki also produced a
production motorcycle with a Wankel engine, the RE-5. In 1971 and 1972 Arctic Cat
produced snowmobiles powered by 303cc Wankel rotary engines manufactured by
Sachs in Germany. John Deere Inc, in the US, had a major research effort in rotary
engines and designed a version which was capable of using a variety of fuels without
changing the engine. The design was proposed as the power source for several US
Marine combat vehicles in the late 1980s.

NSU Wankel Spider, the first line of cars sold with Wankels
After occasional use in automobiles, for instance by NSU with their Ro 80 model,
Citron with the M35 and GS Birotor using engines produced by Comotor, and
abortive attempts by General Motors and Mercedes-Benz to design Wankel-engine
automobiles, the most extensive automotive use of the Wankel engine has been by the
Japanese company Mazda.
After years of development, Mazda's first Wankel engined car was the 1967 Mazda
Cosmo. The company followed with a number of Wankel ("rotary" in the company's
terminology) vehicles, including a bus and a pickup truck. Customers often cited the
cars' smoothness of operation. However, Mazda chose a method to comply with
hydrocarbon emission standards that while less expensive to produce increased fuel
consumption just before a sharp rise in fuel prices. Mazda later abandoned the Wankel
in most of their automotive designs, but continued using it in their RX-7 sports car
until August of 2002 (RX-7 importation for North America ceased with the 1995
model year). The company normally used two-rotor designs, but received
considerable attention with their 1991 Eunos Cosmo, which used a twin-turbo threerotor engine. In 2003, Mazda introduced the RENESIS engine with the new RX-8.
The RENESIS engine relocated the ports for exhaust and intake from the periphery of
the rotary housing to the sides, allowing for larger overall ports, better airflow, and
further power gains. The RENESIS is capable of delivering 250 hp from its minute
1.3 L displacement at better fuel economy, reliability, and environmental friendliness
than any other Mazda rotary engine in history.

3-Rotor Eunos Cosmo engine


Although VAZ, the Soviet automobile manufacturer, is known to have produced
Wankel-engine automobiles, and Aviadvigatel, the Soviet aircraft engine design
bureau, is known to have produced Wankel engines for aircraft and helicopters, little
specific information has surfaced in the outside world; what has been seen indicates a
general similarity to Wankel designs by NSU, Comotor, and Mazda, therefore it is
likely that many Western patents were infringed[citation needed] upon by these designs, the
probable reason for their being hidden.

The People's Republic of China is also known to have experimented with Wankel
engines, but even less is known in the West about the work done there, other than one
paper, #880628, delivered to the SAE in 1988 by Chen Teluan of the South China
Institute of Technology at Guangzhou.
Although many manufacturers licensed the design, and Mercedes-Benz used it for
their C111 concept car, only Mazda has produced Wankel engines in large numbers.

Automobile racing
In the racing world, Mazda has had substantial success with two-rotor, three-rotor,
and four-rotor cars, and private racers have also had considerable success with stock
and modified Mazda Wankel-engine cars.
The Sigma MC74 powered by a Mazda 12A engine was the first engine and team
from outside Western Europe or the United States to finish the entire 24 hours of the
24 Hours of Le Mans race, in 1974. Mazda is the only team from outside Western
Europe or the United States to have won Le Mans outright and the only non-piston
engine ever to win Le Mans, which the company accomplished in 1991 with their
four-rotor 787B (2622 cc actual displacement, rated by FIA formula at 4708 cc). The
following year, rules were changed at Le Mans which made the Mazda 787 ineligible
to race. Mazda is also the most reliable finisher at Le Mans (with the exception of
Honda, who has entered only three cars in only one year), with 67% of entries
finishing.
The Mazda RX-7 has won more IMSA races in its class than any other model of
automobile, with its one hundredth victory on September 2, 1990. Following that, the
RX-7 won its class in the IMSA 24 Hours of Daytona race ten years in a row, starting
in 1982. The RX7 won the IMSA Grand Touring Under Two Liter (GTU)
championship each year from 1980 through 1987, inclusive.
Formula Mazda Racing features open-wheel race cars with Mazda Wankel engines,
adaptable to both oval tracks and road courses, on several levels of competition. Since
1991, the professionally organized Star Mazda Series has been the most popular
format for sponsors, spectators, and upward bound drivers. The engines are all built
by one engine builder, certified to produce the prescribed power, and sealed to
discourage tampering. They are in a relatively mild state of racing tune, so that they
are extremely reliable and can go years between motor rebuilds.[8]

Powerplant from a Schleicher ASH 26e self-launching motor glider, removed from
the glider and mounted on a test stand for maintenance at the Alexander Schleicher
GmbH & Co in Poppenhausen, Germany. Counter-clockwise from top left: propeller
hub, mast with belt guide, radiator, Diamond Engines Wankel engine, muffler shroud.
The Malibu Grand Prix chain, similar in concept to commercial recreational kart
racing tracks, operates several venues in the United States where a customer can
purchase several laps around a track in a vehicle very similar to open wheel racing
vehicles, but powered by a small Curtiss-Wright rotary engine.
In engines having more than two rotors, or two rotor race engines intended for highrpm use, a multi-piece eccentric shaft may be used, allowing additional bearings
between rotors. While this approach does increase the complexity of the eccentric
shaft design, it has been used successfully in the Mazda's production three-rotor 20BREW engine, as well as many low volume production race engines. (The C-111-2 4
Rotor Mercedes-Benz eccentric shaft for the KE Serie 70, Typ DB M950 KE409 is
made in one piece! Mercedes-Benz used split bearings.)

Aircraft engines

Diamond Katana DA20 with Diamond Engines Wankel

Sikorsky Cypher UAV powerd with a UEL AR801 Wankel engine

The first rotary-engine aircraft was the experimental Lockheed Q-Star civilian version
of the United States Army's reconnaissance QT-2, basically a powered Schweizer
sailplane, in 1968 or 1969. It was powered by a 185 hp (138 kW) Curtiss-Wright
RC2-60 Wankel rotary engine.
Aircraft Wankels have made something of a comeback in recent years. None of their
advantages have been lost in comparison to other engines. They are increasingly
being found in roles where their compact size and quiet operation is important,
notably in drones, or UAVs. Many companies and hobbyists adapt Mazda rotary
engines (taken from automobiles) to aircraft use; others, including Wankel GmbH
itself, manufacture Wankel rotary engines dedicated for the purpose.
Wankel engines are also becoming increasingly popular in homebuilt experimental
aircraft, due to a number of factors. Most are Mazda 12A and 13B automobile
engines, converted to aviation use. This is a very cost-effective alternative to certified
aircraft engines, providing engines ranging from 100 to 300 horsepower at a fraction
of the cost of traditional engines. These conversions first took place in the early
1970s. With a number of these engines mounted on aircraft, as of 10 December 2006
the National Transportation Safety Board has only seven reports of incidents
involving aircraft with Mazda engines, and none of these is of a failure due to design
or manufacturing flaws. During the same period they have issued several thousand
reports of broken crankshafts and connecting rods, failed pistons and incidents caused
by other components which are not found in the Wankel engines. Rotary engine
enthusiasts derisively refer to piston aircraft engines as "reciprosaurs," and point out
that their designs are essentially unchanged since the 1930s, with only minor
differences in manufacturing processes and variation in engine displacement.

Peter Garrison, Contributing Editor for FLYING Magazine, has said that "the most
promising engine for aviation use is the Mazda rotary." Mazdas have indeed worked
well when converted for use in homebuilt aircraft. However, the real challenge in
aviation is producing FAA-certified alternatives to the standard reciprocating engines
that power most small general aviation aircraft. Mistral Engines, based in Switzerland,
is busy certifying its purpose-built rotaries for factory and retro-fit installations on
certified production aircraft. With the G-190 and G-230-TS rotary engines already
flying in the experimental market, Mistral Engines hopes for FAA and JAA
certification in 2007 or early 2008. Mistral claims to have overcome the challenges of
fuel consumption inherent in the rotary, at least to the extent that the engines are
demonstrating specific fuel consumption within a few points of reciprocating engines
of similar displacement. While fuel burn is still marginally higher than traditional
engines, it is outweighed by other beneficial factors.
Mistral points out that the Wankel rotary is an engine that has very few moving parts,
making it more dependable. In addition it has a much better power-to-weight ratio and
is smaller, thus enabling more efficient engine cowl design. Finally, the engine runs
with a smoothness more akin to turbine engines than gas powered "recips", thus
reducing airframe vibration and occupant fatigue.
Since Wankel engines operate at a relatively high rotational speed with relatively low
torque, propeller aircraft must use a Propeller Speed Reduction Unit (PSRU) to keep
conventional propellers within the proper speed range. There are many experimental
aircraft flying with this arrangement.

Other uses

Norton Interpol 2 Wankel prototyp

Van Veen OCR1000


Small Wankel engines are being found increasingly in other roles, such as go-karts,
personal water craft and auxiliary power units for aircraft. The Graupner/O.S. 49-PI is
a 1.27 hp (947 W) 5 cc Wankel engine for model airplane use which has been in

production essentially unchanged since 1970; even with a large muffler, the entire
package weighs only 380 grams (13.4 ounces).
The simplicity of the Wankel makes it ideal for mini, micro, and micro-mini engine
designs. The MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) Rotary Engine Lab at the
University of California, Berkeley has been developing Wankel engines of down to
1 mm in diameter with displacements less than 0.1 cc. Materials include silicon and
motive power includes compressed air. The goal is to eventually develop an internal
combustion engine that will deliver 100 milliwatts of electrical power; the engine
itself will serve as the rotor of the generator, with magnets built into the engine rotor
itself.
The largest Wankel engine was built by Ingersoll-Rand; available in 550 hp (410 kW)
one rotor and 1100 hp (820 kW) two rotor versions, displacing 41 liters per rotor with
a rotor approximately one meter in diameter, it was available between 1975 and 1985.
It was derived from a previous, unsuccessful, Curtiss-Wright design, which failed
because of a well-known problem with all internal combustion engines; the fixed
speed at which the flame front travels limits the distance combustion can travel from
the point of ignition in a given time, and thereby the maximum size of the cylinder or
rotor chamber which can be used. This problem was solved by limiting the engine
speed to only 1200 rpm and use of natural gas as fuel; this was particularly well
chosen, as one of the major uses of the engine was to drive compressors on natural
gas pipelines.
From 1974 to 1977 Hercules produced a limited number of motorcycles powered by
Wankel engines. The tooling was later used by Norton to produce the Norton
Commander model in the early 1980s. The best-known example of a Wankel-powered
motorcycle, however, was the Suzuki RE5, produced in 1975 and 1976. This 500cc
(actual) displacement motorcycle could have been a great touring bike except for the
poor fuel mileage of 32-36 mpg. Examples are still frequently found on online auction
sites.
Aside from being used for internal combustion engines, the basic Wankel design has
also been utilized for air compressors, and superchargers for internal combustion
engines, but in these cases, although the design still offers advantages in reliability,
the basic advantages of the Wankel in size and weight over the four-stroke internal
combustion engine are irrelevant. In a design using a Wankel supercharger on a
Wankel engine, the supercharger is twice the size of the engine.
Perhaps the most exotic use of the Wankel design is in the seat belt pretensioner
system of some Mercedes-Benz cars[4] and the Volkswagen New Beetle. In these cars,
when deceleration sensors sense a potential crash, small explosive cartridges are
triggered electrically and the resulting pressurized gas feeds into tiny Wankel engines
which rotate to take up the slack in the seat belt systems, anchoring the driver and
passengers firmly in the seat before any collision

Quasiturbine
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The two Quasiturbine mechanisms, with and without carriages (chariots)


The Quasiturbine or Qurbine engine is a proposed pistonless rotary engine using a
four-sided rhomboid rotor whose sides are hinged at the vertices.
Patents for the Quasiturbine are held by the Saint-Hilaire family of Quebec. As well
as an internal combustion engine, the Quasiturbine has been proposed as a possible
pump design, and demonstrated as a pneumatic engine using stored compressed air
and as a steam engine.
Three designs have been proposed:

Two-port with carriages, suitable for use as an internal combustion engine.


Four-port without carriages, suitable for use as a pneumatic or hydraulic
engine, steam engine or pump.
Two-port without carriages, a conceptual design which is hoped to combine
some of the advantages of the existing two- and four-port prototypes.

Two-port with carriages

Quasiturbine with carriages


The earliest Quasiturbine design used a three-wheeled carriage (French chariot,
hence avec chariots or AC for with carriages) to support each vertex of the rotor. The
wheels of these four carriages, making twelve wheels in total, ran around the
periphery of the engine chamber.

A prototype of an internal combustion engine to this design was constructed, and


enthusiastically reviewed in European Automotive Design magazine September,
1999. The prototype was turned by an external engine for 40 hours.
However, ignition with fuel was never achieved. If it was attempted no results were
ever released, and development work on this design was suspended.

Advantages
Cylinder ports in place of valves reduce the number of moving parts, in common
with the Wankel engine and some two stroke engines.
The carriages keep the seals almost perpendicular to the cylinder walls, in contrast
to the Wankel engine where the angle varies plus and minus 60.
The rotor can be designed so its centre of gravity remains stationary or nearly so,
minimising vibration.
Sixteen strokes per revolution of the rotor, as opposed to twelve for a single-rotor
Wankel engine and two for a revolution of the crankshaft of a single-cylinder
single-acting piston engine.

Photo-detonation
The two-port design with carriages was proposed to make possible a new and superior
mode of combustion, termed photo-detonation by the Quasiturbine inventors. This
resembles detonation, as used in the Bourke engine, akin to knocking and pinging
undesireable in common internal combustion engines. As of 2005, no research has
been published supporting this claim. A related idea that flame transfer would be
possible through special ports is similarly unsupported.

Four-port without carriages

Quasiturbine configured as a steam engine


The second Quasiturbine design is greatly simplified to eliminate the carriages
(French sans chariots or SC). At the same time, the ports were duplicated on the
opposite side of the housing, thus converting the operation from four strokes per cycle
to two and doubling the number of cycles per rotor revolution. This mechanism has
been demonstrated running as a pneumatic engine using stored compressed air, and
also as a steam engine. This is also the design proposed for use as a pump, and
particularly as a supercharger.
This design uses redesigned blades, longer than those for a similar sized housing of
the first type owing to the absence of the carriages, and lacking the distinctive crown
contour. Only the basic rotor geometry is common with the earlier design.
A pneumatic engine of this design was demonstrated powering a go-kart in November
2004, and another powering a small car in September 2005, both vehicles using stored
compressed air to power the engine. As of 2005 a pneumatic chain saw driven by an
air hose from a conventional external compressor is under development.
With a suitably redesigned housing to allow for thermal expansion, the same rotor
design has been demonstrated as a steam engine.
Another potential variation of this design uses the two sets of ports independently, one
as an engine and the other as a pump, thus potentially integrating the functions of a
pump and its driving motor in one shaftless unit. One restriction of this usage is that
the two fluids must be similar; It would not be possible for example to drive an
integrated air pump with hydraulic fluid, as the rotor design is significantly different.
As of 2005 no prototype of this variation has been demonstrated.

Advantages
Fewer moving parts than most engines (including of course the Quasiturbine
design with carriages).
Absence of valve gear required by many other forms of steam and
pneumatic engines.
Little vibration.
High power-to-weight ratio.
Possibility of integrated turbo-pump and turbo-expander configurations.

Concept of the two-port design without carriages. Intake (aqua), Compression


(fuchsia), Ignition (red), Exhaust (black). A spark plug is located at the top (green)

Two-port without carriages


This third design combines aspects of the first two. As of 2005 this design is
conceptual only. It has not been built, but is used for purposes of illustration. If built it
would not support photo-detonation.
Many other designs are possible within the patented Quasiturbine model, with or
without carriages and with differing numbers of ports. As of 2005, which design will
be used for further work on the internal combustion version has not been announced.

History
The Quasiturbine was conceived by a group of 4 researchers, led by Dr. Gilles SaintHilaire, a thermonuclear physicist, and consisting of members of his immediate
family. The original objective was to make a turbo-shaft turbine engine where the
compressor portion and the power portion would be in the same plane. In order to
achieve this, they had to disconnect the blades from the main shaft, and chain them
around in such a way that a single rotor acts as a compressor for a quarter turn, and as
an engine the following quarter of a turn.

The general concept of the Quasiturbine was first patented in 1996. Small pneumatic
and steam units are available from the patent holders for sale or hire for research,
academic training and industrial demonstration, as is a book (largely in French)
describing the concepts and development of the design. Lacking any forced
lubrication system, these engines function only for short periods, a few hours at most,
before requiring maintenance.
The patent holders have announced that they intend to make similar internal
combustion prototypes available for demonstration.

Turbocharger

Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger cutaway made by Mohawk Innovative


Technology Inc.
A turbocharger is an exhaust-gas driven forced induction device used in internal
combustion engines to improve engine performance by forcing compressed air into
the combustion chambers, allowing more fuel to be burned, resulting in a larger
power output.

Working principle
A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor linked by a shared axis. The
turbine inlet receives exhaust gases from the engine exhaust manifold causing the
turbine wheel to rotate. This rotation drives the compressor, compressing ambient air
and delivering it to the air intake of the engine.
The objective of a turbocharger is to improve upon the size-to-output efficiency of an
engine by solving for one of its cardinal limitations. A naturally aspirated automobile
engine uses only the downward stroke of a piston to create an area of low pressure in

order to draw air into the cylinder. Since the number of air and fuel molecules
determine the potential energy available to force the piston down on the combustion
stroke, and because of the relatively constant pressure of the atmosphere, there
ultimately will be a limit to the amount of air and consequently fuel filling the
combustion chamber. This ability to fill the cylinder with air is its volumetric
efficiency. Since the turbocharger increases the pressure at the point where air is
entering the cylinder, and the amount of air brought into the cylinder is largely a
function of time and pressure, more air will be drawn in as the pressure increases. The
intake pressure, in the absence of the turbocharger determined by the atmosphere, can
be controllably increased with the turbocharger.
The application of a compressor to increase pressure at the point of cylinder air intake
is often referred to as forced induction. Centrifugal superchargers operate in the same
fashion as a turbo; however, the energy to spin the compressor is taken from the
rotating output energy of the engine's crankshaft as opposed to exhaust gas. For this
reason turbochargers are ideally more efficient, since their turbines are actually heat
engines, converting some of the kinetic energy from the exhaust gas that would
otherwise be wasted, into useful work. Superchargers use output energy to achieve a
net gain, which is at the expense of some of the engine's total output.

History
The turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Buchi, who had been
working on steam turbines. His patent for the internal combustion turbocharger was
applied for in 1905. Diesel ships and locomotives with turbochargers began appearing
in the 1920s.
One of the first applications of a turbocharger to a non-Diesel engine came when
General Electric engineer, Sanford Moss attached a turbo to a V12 Liberty aircraft
engine. The engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14,000 feet to demonstrate
that it could eliminate the power losses usually experienced in internal combustion
engines as a result of altitude.
Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines in the 1930s prior to
World War II. The primary purpose behind most aircraft-based applications was to
increase the altitude at which the airplane can fly, by compensating for the lower
atmospheric pressure present at high altitude. Aircraft such as the Lockheed P-38
Lightning, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and B-29 Superfortress all used exhaust
driven "turbo-superchargers" to increase high altitude engine power. It is important to
note that turbosupercharged aircraft engines actually utilized a gear-driven centrifugal
type supercharger in series with a turbocharger.
Turbo-Diesel trucks were produced in Europe and America (notably by Cummins)
after 1949. The turbocharger hit the automobile world in 1952 when Fred Agabashian
qualified for pole position at the Indianapolis 500 and led for 100 miles before tire
shards disabled the blower.

The Corvair's innovative turbocharged flat-6 engine; The turbo, located at top right,
feeds pressurized air into the engine through the chrome T-tube visible spanning the
engine from left to right.
The first production turbocharged automobile engines came from General Motors.
The A-body Oldsmobile Cutlass Jetfire and Chevrolet Corvair Monza Spyder were
both fitted with turbochargers in 1962. The Oldsmobile is often recognized as the
first, since it came out a few months earlier than the Corvair. Its Turbo Jetfire was a
215 in (3.5 L) V8, while the Corvair engine was either a 145 in (2.3 L)(1962-63) or
a 164 in (2.7 L) (1964-66) flat-6. Both of these engines were abandoned within a few
years, and GM's next turbo engine came more than ten years later.
Offenhauser's turbocharged engines returned to Indianapolis in 1966, with victories
coming in 1968. The Offy turbo peaked at over 1,000 hp in 1973, while Porsche
dominated the Can-Am series with a 1100 hp 917/30. Turbocharged cars dominated
the Le Mans between 1976 and 1994.
BMW led the resurgence of the automobile turbo with the 1973 2002 Turbo, with
Porsche following with the 911 Turbo, introduced at the 1974 Paris Motor Show.
Buick was the first GM division to bring back the turbo, in the 1978 Buick Regal,
followed by the Mercedes-Benz 300D and Saab 99 in 1978. The worlds first
production turbodiesel automobile was also introduced in 1978 by Peugeot with the
launch of the Peugeot 604 turbodiesel. Today, nearly all automotive diesels are
turbocharged.
Alfa Romeo introduced first Italian (mass produced) turbocharged car Alfetta GTV
2000 Turbodelta in 1979, Pontiac also introduced a turbo in 1980 and Volvo Cars
followed in 1981. Renault however gave another step and installed a turbocharger to
the smallest and lightest car they had, the R5, making it the first Supermini
automobile with a turbocharger in year 1980. This gave the car about 160bhp in street
form and up to 300+ in race setup, an exorbitant power for a 1400cc motor. When
combined with its incredible lightweight chassis, it could nip at the heels of the
incredibly fast Ferrari 308.
In Formula One, in the so called "Turbo Era" of 1977 until 1989, engines with a
capacity of 1500 cc could achieve anywhere from 1000 to 1500 hp (746 to 1119 kW)
(Renault, Honda, BMW). Renault was the first manufacturer to apply turbo
technology in the F1 field, in 1977. The project's high cost was compensated for by its
performance, and led to other engine manufacturers following suit. The Turbocharged engines took over the F1 field and ended the Ford Cosworth DFV era in the

mid 1980s. However, the FIA decided that turbos were making the sport too
dangerous and expensive, and from 1987 onwards, the maximum boost pressure was
reduced before the technology was banned completely for 1989.
In Rallying, turbocharged engines of up to 2000cc have long been the preferred
motive power for the Group A/World Rally Car (top level) competitors, due to the
exceptional power-to-weight ratios (and enormous torque) attainable. This combines
with the use of vehicles with relatively small bodyshells for manoeuvreability and
handling. As turbo outputs rose to similar levels as the F1 category (see above), the
FIA, rather than banning the technology, enforced a restricted turbo inlet diameter
(currently 34mm), effectively "starving" the turbo of compressible air and making
high boost pressures unfeasible. The success of small, turbocharged, four-wheel-drive
vehicles in rally competition, beginning with the Audi Quattro, has led to exceptional
road cars in the modern era such as the Lancia Delta Integrale, Toyota Celica GTFour, Subaru Impreza WRX and the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution.
Although late to use turbocharging, Chrysler Corporation turned to turbochargers in
1984 and quickly churned out more turbocharged engines than any other
manufacturer, using turbocharged, fuel-injected 2.2 and 2.5 liter four-cylinder engines
in minivans, sedans, convertibles, and coupes. Their 2.2 liter turbocharged engines
ranged from 142 hp to 225 hp, a substantial gain over the normally aspirated ratings
of 86 to 93 horsepower; the 2.5 liter engines had about 150 horsepower and had no
intercooler. Though the company stopped using turbochargers in 1993, they returned
to turbocharged engines in 2002 with their 2.4 liter engines, boosting output by 70
horsepower. [1]

Design details
Components

On the left, the brass oil drain connection. On the right are the braided oil supply line
and water coolant line connections.

Compressor impeller side with the cover removed

Turbine side housing removed.

A wastegate installed next to the turbocharger.

The turbocharger has four main components. The turbine and impeller wheels are
each contained within their own folded conical housing on opposite sides of the third
component, the center hub rotating assembly (CHRA).
The housings fitted around the compressor impeller and turbine collect and direct the
gas flow through the wheels as they spin. The size and shape can dictate some
performance characteristics of the overall turbocharger. The area of the cone to radius
from center hub is expressed as a ratio (AR, A/R, or A:R). Often the same basic
turbocharger assembly will be available from the manufacturer with multiple AR
choices for the turbine housing and sometimes the compressor cover as well. This
allows the designer of the engine system to tailor the compromises between
performance, response, and efficiency to application or preference. Both housings
resemble snail shells, and thus turbochargers are sometimes referred to in slang as
angry snails.
The turbine and impeller wheel sizes also dictate the amount of air or exhaust that can
be flowed through the system, and the relative efficiency at which they operate.
Generally, the larger the turbine wheel and compressor wheel, the larger the flow
capacity. Measurements and shapes can vary, as well as curvature and number of
blades on the wheels.
The center hub rotating assembly houses the shaft which connects the compressor
impeller and turbine. It also must contain a bearing system to suspend the shaft,
allowing it to rotate at very high speed with minimal friction. For instance, in
automotive applications the CHRA typically uses a thrust bearing or ball bearing
lubricated by a constant supply of pressurized engine oil. The CHRA may also be
considered "water cooled" by having an entry and exit point for engine coolant to be
cycled. Water cooled models allow engine coolant to be used to keep the the
lubricating oil cooler, avoiding possible oil coking from the extreme heat found in the
turbine.

Boost
Boost refers to the increase in manifold pressure that is generated by the turbocharger
in the intake path or specifically intake manifold that exceeds normal atmospheric
pressure. This is also the level of boost as shown on a pressure gauge, usually in bar,
psi or possibly kPa This is representative of the extra air pressure that is achieved over
what would be achieved without the forced induction. Manifold pressure should not
be confused with the amount, or "weight" of air that a turbo can flow.
Boost pressure is limited to keep the entire engine system including the turbo inside
its design operating range by controlling the wastegate which shunts the exhaust gases
away from the exhaust side turbine. In some cars the maximum boost depends on the
fuel's octane rating and is electronically regulated using a knock sensor, see
Automatic Performance Control (APC).
Many diesel engines do not have any wastegate because the amount of exhaust energy
is controlled directly by the amount of fuel injected into the engine and slight
variations in boost pressure do not make a difference for the engine.

Waste gate
By spinning at a relatively high speed the compressor turbine draws in a large volume
of air and forces it into the engine. As the turbocharger's output flow volume exceeds
the engine's volumetric flow, air pressure in the intake system begins to build, often
called boost. The speed at which the assembly spins is proportional to the pressure of
the compressed air and total mass of air flow being moved. Since a turbo can spin to
RPMs far beyond what is needed, or of what it is safely capable of, the speed must be
controlled. A wastegate is the most common mechanical speed control system, and is
often further augmented by an electronic boost controller. The main function of a
wastegate is to allow some of the exhaust to bypass the turbine when the set intake
pressure is achieved.

Fuel efficiency
Since a turbocharger increases the specific horsepower output of an engine, the engine
will also produce increased amounts of waste heat. This can sometimes be a problem
when fitting a turbocharger to a car that was not designed to cope with high heat
loads. This extra waste heat combined with the lower compression ratio (more
specifically, expansion ratio) of turbocharged engines contributes to slightly lower
thermal efficiency, which has a small but direct impact on overall fuel efficiency.
It is another form of cooling that has the largest impact on fuel efficiency: charge
cooling. Even with the benefits of intercooling, the total compression in the
combustion chamber is greater than that in a naturally-aspirated engine. To avoid
knock while still extracting maximum power from the engine, it is common practice
to introduce extra fuel into the charge for the sole purpose of cooling. While this
seems counterintuitive, this fuel is not burned. Instead, it absorbs and carries away
heat when it changes phase from liquid mist to gas vapor. Also, because it is more
dense than the other inert substance in the combustion chamber, nitrogen, it has a
higher specific heat and more heat capacitance. It "holds" this heat until it is released

in the exhaust stream, preventing destructive knock. This thermodynamic property


allows manufacturers to achieve good power output with common pump fuel at the
expense of fuel economy and emissions. The optimum Air-to-Fuel ratio (A/F) for
complete combustion of gasoline is 14.7:1. A common A/F in a turbocharged engine
while under full design boost is approximately 12:1. Richer mixtures are sometimes
run when the design of the system has flaws in it such as a catalytic converter which
has limited endurance of high exhaust temperatures or the engine has a compression
ratio that is too high for efficient operation with the fuel given.
Lastly, the efficiency of the turbocharger itself can have an impact on fuel efficiency.
Using a small turbocharger will give quick response and low lag at low to mid RPMs,
but can choke the engine on the exhaust side and generate huge amounts of pumpingrelated heat on the intake side as RPMs rise. A large turbocharger will be very
efficient at high RPMs, but is not a realistic application for a street driven automobile.
Variable vane and ball bearing technologies can make a turbo more efficient across a
wider operating range, however, other problems have prevented this technology from
appearing in more road cars (see Variable geometry turbocharger). Currently, the
Porsche 911 (997) Turbo is the only gasoline car in production with this kind of
turbocharger. One way to take advantage of the different operating regimes of the two
types of supercharger is sequential turbocharging, which uses a small turbocharger at
low RPMs and a larger one at high RPMs.
The engine management systems of most modern vehicles can control boost and fuel
delivery according to charge temperature, fuel quality, and altitude, among other
factors. Some systems are more sophisticated and aim to deliver fuel even more
precisely based on combustion quality. For example, the Trionic-7 system from Saab
Automobile provides immediate feedback on the combustion while it is occurring
using an electrical charge.
The new 2.0L FSI turbo engine from Volkswagen/Audi incorporates lean burn and
direct injection technology to conserve fuel under low load conditions. It is a very
complex system that involves many moving parts and sensors in order to manage
airflow characteristics inside the chamber itself, allowing it to use a stratified charge
with excellent atomization. The direct injection also has a tremendous charge cooling
effect enabling engines to use higher compression ratios and boost pressures than a
typical port-injection turbo engine.

Automotive design details


The ideal gas law states that when all other variables are held constant, if pressure is
increased in a system so will temperature. Here exists one of the negative
consequences of turbocharging, the increase in the temperature of air entering the
engine due to compression.
A turbo spins very fast; most peak between 80,000 and 200,000 RPM (using low
inertia turbos, 150,000-250,000 RPM) depending on size, weight of the rotating parts,
boost pressure developed and compressor design. Such high rotation speeds would
cause problems for standard ball bearings leading to failure so most turbo-chargers
use fluid bearings. These feature a flowing layer of oil that suspends and cools the
moving parts. The oil is usually taken from the engine-oil circuit. Some turbochargers

use incredibly precise ball bearings that offer less friction than a fluid bearing but
these are also suspended in fluid-dampened cavities. Lower friction means the turbo
shaft can be made of lighter materials, reducing so-called turbo lag or boost lag.
Some car makers use water cooled turbochargers for added bearing life. This can also
account for why many tuners upgrade their standard journal bearing turbos (such as a
T25) which use a 270 degree thrust bearing and a brass journal bearing which only
has 3 oil passages, to a 360 degree bearing which has a beefier thrust bearing and
washer having 6 oil passages to enable better flow, response and cooling efficiency.
Turbochargers with foil bearings are in development which eliminates the need for
bearing cooling or oil delivery systems, thereby eliminating the most common cause
of failure, while also significantly reducing turbo lag.
To manage the upper-deck air pressure, the turbocharger's exhaust gas flow is
regulated with a wastegate that bypasses excess exhaust gas entering the
turbocharger's turbine. This regulates the rotational speed of the turbine and the output
of the compressor. The wastegate is opened and closed by the compressed air from
turbo (the upper-deck pressure) and can be raised by using a solenoid to regulate the
pressure fed to the wastegate membrane. This solenoid can be controlled by
Automatic Performance Control, the engine's electronic control unit or an after market
boost control computer. Another method of raising the boost pressure is through the
use of check and bleed valves to keep the pressure at the membrane lower than the
pressure within the system.
Some turbochargers (normally called variable geometry turbochargers) utilise a set of
vanes in the exhaust housing to maintain a constant gas velocity across the turbine,
the same kind of control as used on power plant turbines. These turbochargers have
minimal amount of lag, have a low boost threshold (with full boost as low as 1,500
rpm), and are efficient at higher engine speeds; they are also used in diesel engines. [2]
In many setups these turbos don't even need a wastegate. The vanes are controlled by
a membrane identical to the one on a wastegate but the level of control required is a
bit different.
The first production car to use these turbos was the limited-production 1989 Shelby
CSX-VNT, in essence a Dodge Shadow equipped with a 2.2L petrol engine. The
Shelby CSX-VNT utilised a turbo from Garrett, called the VNT-25 because it uses the
same compressor and shaft as the more common Garrett T-25. This type of turbine is
called a Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT). Turbocharger manufacturer Aerocharger
uses the term 'Variable Area Turbine Nozzle' (VATN) to describe this type of turbine
nozzle. Other common terms include Variable Turbine Geometry (VTG), Variable
Geometry Turbo (VGT) and Variable Vane Turbine (VVT). A number of other
Chrysler Corporation vehicles used this turbocharger in 1990, including the Dodge
Daytona and Dodge Shadow. These engines produced 174 horsepower and 225
pound-feet of torque, the same horsepower as the standard intercooled 2.2 liter
engines but with 25 more pound-feet of torque and a faster onset (less turbo lag).
However, the Turbo III engine, without a VATN or VNT, produced 224 horsepower.
The reasons for Chrysler's not continuing to use variable geometry turbochargers are
unknown, but the main reason was probably public desire for V6 engines coupled
with increased availability of Chrysler-engineered V6 engines. [3]

The 2006 Porsche 911 Turbo has a twin turbocharged 3.6-litre flat six, and the turbos
used are BorgWarner's Variable Geometry Turbos (VGTs). This is significant because
although VGTs have been used on advanced diesel engines for a few years and on the
Shelby CSX-VNT, this is the first time the technology has been implemented on a
production petrol car since the 1,250 Dodge engines were produced in 1989-90. Some
have argued this is because in petrol cars exhaust temperatures are much higher (than
in diesel cars), and this can have adverse effects on the delicate, moveable vanes of
the turbocharger; these units are also more expensive than conventional
turbochargers. Porsche engineers claim to have managed this problem with the new
911 Turbo.
There is also a type of turbo called centrifugal (or simply belt-driven), this functions
in some ways similar to a standard turbo and in some ways similar to a supercharger.
Since it's belt driven (no exhaust is used) there is never any lag, however the boost
isn't "free" like with a standard turbo. The "cost" is extra drag on the crank, thus a loss
in efficiency. The benefits are no lag, easier to setup - since no exhaust modifications
are needed, and likely easier maintenance access.

Reliability
Turbochargers can be damaged by dirty or ineffective oil, and most manufacturers
recommend more frequent oil changes for turbocharged engines; many owners and
some companies recommend using synthetic oils, which tend to flow more readily
when cold and do not break down as quickly as conventional oils. Because the
turbocharger can get hot when running, many recommend letting the engine idle for
one to three minutes before shutting the engine if the turbocharger was used shortly
before stopping (most manufacturers specify a 10-second period of idling before
switching off to ensure the turbocharger is running at its idle speed to prevent damage
to the bearings when the oil supply is cut off). This lets the turbo rotating assembly
cool from the lower exhaust gas temperatures, and ensures that oil is supplied to the
turbocharger while the turbine housing and exhaust manifold are still very hot;
otherwise coking of the lubricating oil trapped in the unit may occur when the heat
soaks into the bearings, causing rapid bearing wear and failure when the car is
restarted. Even small particles of burnt oil will accumulate and lead to choking the oil
supply and failure. This problem is less pronounced in diesel engines, due to the lower
exhaust temperatures and generally slower engine speeds.
A turbo timer can keep an engine running for a pre-specified period of time, to
automatically provide this cool-down period. Oil coking is also eliminated by foil
bearings. A more complex and problematic protective barrier against oil coking is the
use of watercooled bearing cartridges. The water boils in the cartridge when the
engine is shut off and forms a natural recirculation to drain away the heat. It is still a
good idea to not shut the engine off while the turbo and manifold are still glowing.
In custom applications utilizing tubular headers rather than cast iron manifolds, the
need for a cooldown period is reduced because the lighter headers store much less
heat than heavy cast iron manifolds.

Lag

A pair of turbochargers mounted to an Inline 6 engine in a dragster.


A lag is sometimes felt by the driver of a turbocharged vehicle as a delay between
pushing on the accelerator pedal and feeling the turbo kick-in. This is symptomatic of
the time taken for the exhaust system driving the turbine to come to high pressure and
for the turbine rotor to overcome its rotational inertia and reach the speed necessary to
supply boost pressure. The directly-driven compressor in a supercharger does not
suffer this problem. (Centrifugal superchargers do not build boost at low RPMs like a
positive displacement supercharger will). Conversely on light loads or at low RPM a
turbocharger supplies less boost and the engine is more efficient than a supercharged
engine.
Lag can be reduced by lowering the rotational inertia of the turbine, for example by
using lighter parts to allow the spool-up to happen more quickly. Ceramic turbines are
a big help in this direction. Unfortunately, their relative fragility limits the maximum
boost they can supply. Another way to reduce lag is to change the aspect ratio of the
turbine by reducing the diameter and increasing the gas-flow path-length. Increasing
the upper-deck air pressure and improving the wastegate response helps but there are
cost increases and reliability disadvantages that car manufacturers are not happy
about. Lag is also reduced by using a foil bearing rather than a conventional oil
bearing. This reduces friction and contributes to faster acceleration of the turbo's
rotating assembly. Variable-nozzle turbochargers (discussed above) also reduce lag.
Another common method of equalizing turbo lag is to have the turbine wheel
"clipped", or to reduce the surface area of the turbine wheel's rotating blades. By
clipping a minute portion off the tip of each blade of the turbine wheel, less restriction
is imposed upon the escaping exhaust gases. This imparts less impedance onto the
flow of exhaust gases at low RPM, allowing the vehicle to retain more of its low-end
torque, but also pushes the effective boost RPM to a slightly higher level. The amount
a turbine wheel is and can be clipped is highly application-specific. Turbine clipping
is measured and specified in degrees.
Other setups, most notably in V-type engines, utilize two identically-sized but smaller
turbos, each fed by a separate set of exhaust streams from the engine. The two smaller
turbos produce the same (or more) aggregate amount of boost as a larger single turbo,
but since they are smaller they reach their optimal RPM, and thus optimal boost
delivery, faster. Such an arrangement of turbos is typically referred to as a parallel
twin-turbo system.

Some car makers combat lag by using two small turbos (such as Kia, Toyota, Subaru,
Maserati, Mazda, and Audi). A typical arrangement for this is to have one turbo active
across the entire rev range of the engine and one coming on-line at higher RPM. Early
designs would have one turbocharger active up to a certain RPM, after which both
turbochargers are active. Below this RPM, both exhaust and air inlet of the secondary
turbo are closed. Being individually smaller they do not suffer from excessive lag and
having the second turbo operating at a higher RPM range allows it to get to full
rotational speed before it is required. Such combinations are referred to as a sequential
twin-turbo. Sequential twin-turbos are usually much more complicated than a single
or parallel twin-turbo systems because they require what amounts to three sets of
pipes-intake and wastegate pipes for the two turbochargers as well as valves to control
the direction of the exhaust gases. An example of this is the current BMW E60 5Series 535d. Another well-known example is the 1993-2002 Mazda RX-7. Many new
diesel engines use this technology to not only eliminate lag but also to reduce fuel
consumption and produce cleaner emissions.
Lag is not to be confused with the boost threshold; however, many publications still
make this basic mistake. The boost threshold of a turbo system describes the
minimum engine RPM at which there is sufficient exhaust flow to the turbo to allow it
to generate significant amounts of boost[citation needed]. Newer turbocharger and engine
developments have caused boost thresholds to steadily decline to where day-to-day
use feels perfectly natural. Putting your foot down at 1200 engine RPM and having no
boost until 2000 engine RPM is an example of boost threshold and not lag.
Electrical boosting ("E-boosting") is a new technology under development; it uses a
high speed electrical motor to drive the turbocharger to speed before exhaust gases are
available, e.g. from a stop-light. The electric motor is about an inch long. [4]
Race cars often utilise an Anti-Lag System to completely eliminate lag at the cost of
reduced turbocharger life.
On modern diesel engines, this problem is virtually eliminated by utilising a variable
geometry turbocharger.

Boost Threshold
Turbocharger starts producing boost only above a certain rpm (around 1200-1500rpm)
due to a lack of exhaust gas volume to overcome the inertia of rest of the turbo
propeller. Power suddenly increases after that particular rpm when turbo propeller
starts spinning. So power Vs rpm curve of a turbocharged engine has a steep increase
in power at boost threshold rpm. There has been many advancements in technology to
reduce boost threshold rpm below idle speed rpm of the engine, so as to virtually
eliminate the boost threshold.

Automotive Applications
Turbocharging is very common on diesel engines in conventional automobiles, in
trucks, locomotives, for marine and heavy machinery applications. In fact, for current
automotive applications, non-turbocharged diesel engines are becoming increasingly
rare. Diesels are particularly suitable for turbocharging for several reasons:

Naturally-aspirated diesels will develop less power than a gasoline engine of


the same size, and will weigh significantly more because diesel engine require
heavier, stronger components. This gives such engines a poor power-to-weight
ratio; turbocharging can dramatically improve this P:W ratio, with large power
gains for a very small (if any) increase in weight.
Diesel engines require more robust construction because they already run at
very high compression ratio and at high temperatures so they generally require
little additional reinforcement to be able to cope with the addition of the
turbocharger. Gasoline engines often require extensive modification for
turbocharging.
Diesel engines have a narrower band of engine speeds at which they operate,
thus making the operating characteristics of the turbocharger over that "rev
range" less of a compromise than on a gasoline-powered engine.
Diesel engines blow nothing but air into the cylinders during cylinder
charging, squirting fuel into the cylinder only after the intake valve has closed
and compression has begun. Gasoline/petrol engines differ from this in that
both fuel and air are introduced during the intake cycle and both are
compressed during the compression cycle. The higher intake charge
temperatures of forced-induction engines reduces the amount of compression
that is possible with a gasoline/petrol engine, whereas diesel engines are far
less sensitive to this.

Today, turbocharging is most commonly used on two types of engines: Gasoline


engines in high-performance automobiles and diesel engines in transportation and
other industrial equipment. Small cars in particular benefit from this technology, as
there is often little room to fit a larger-output (and physically larger) engine. Saab is a
leader in production car turbochargers, starting with the 1978 Saab 99; all current
Saab models are turbocharged with the exception of the 9-7X. The Porsche 944
utilized a turbo unit in the 944 Turbo (Porsche internal model number 951), to great
advantage, bringing its 0-100 km/h (0-60 mph) times very close to its contemporary
non-turbo "big brother", the Porsche 928.
In the 1980s, when turbocharged production cars became common, they gained a
reputation for being difficult to handle. The tuned engines fitted to the cars, and the
often primitive turbocharger technology meant that power delivery was unpredictable
and the engine often suddenly delivered a huge boost in power at certain speeds.
Some drivers said this made cars such as the BMW 2002 and the Porsche 911 exciting
to drive, requiring high levels of skill. Others said the cars were difficult and often
dangerous. As turbocharger technology improved, it became possible to produce
turbocharged engines with a smoother, more predictable but just as effective power
delivery.
Chrysler Corporation was an innovator of turbocharger use in the 1980s. Many of
their production vehicles, for example the Chrysler LeBaron, Dodge Daytona, Dodge
Shadow/Plymouth Sundance twins, and the Dodge Spirit/Plymouth Acclaim twins
were available with turbochargers, and they proved very popular with the public.
They are still considered competitive vehicles today, and the experience Chrysler
obtained in observing turbochargers in real-world conditions has allowed them to
further turbocharger technology with the PT Cruiser Turbo, the Dodge SRT-4 and the
Dodge Caliber SRT-4.

Small car turbos are increasingly being used as the basis for small jet engines used for
flying model aircraftthough the conversion is a highly specialised jobone not
without its dangers. Jet engine enthusiasts have constructed home-built jet engines
from automotive turbochargers, often running on propane and using a home-built
combustion canister plumbed in between the high pressure side of the turbo's
compressor and the intake side of the turbine. An oil supply for the bearings is still
needed, usually provided by an electric pump. Starting such home-built jets is usually
achieved by blowing air through the unit with a compressor or a domestic leaf-blower.
Making these engines is not an easy task- unless the combustion canister design is
correct the engine will either fail to start, fail to stabilise once running or even overrev and destroy itself.
Most modern turbocharged aircraft use an adjustable wastegate. The wastegate is
controlled manually, or by a pneumatic/hydraulic control system, or, as is becoming
more and more common, by a flight computer. In the interests of engine longevity, the
wastegate is usually kept open, or nearly so, at sea-level to keep from overboosting
the engine. As the aircraft climbs, the wastegate is gradually closed, maintaining the
manifold pressure at or above sea-level. In aftermarket applications, aircraft
turbochargers sometimes do not overboost the engine, but rather compress ambient air
to sea-level pressure. For this reason, such aircraft are sometimes referred to as being
turbo-normalised. Most applications produced by the major manufacturers (Beech,
Cessna, Piper and others) increase the maximum engine intake air pressure by as
much as 35%. Special attention to engine cooling and component strength is required
because of the increased combustion heat and power.
Turbo-Alternator is a form of turbocharger that generates electricity instead of
boosting engine's air flow. On September 21, 2005, Foresight Vehicle announced the
first known implementation of such unit for automobiles, under the name TIGERS
(Turbo-generator Integrated Gas Energy Recovery System).

Implementations
The most common implemenations of a turbocharger involve mounting the unit to the
downpipe of a vehicle under the hood towards the firewall of the vehicle.
A rear mount implementation is used when there is insufficient engine bay room; it
may be used in place of the stock muffler. The turbo returns the boosted air (which is
pulled in from a filter mounted somewhere in the rear) to the front of the vehicle and
optionally through an intercooler, and then to the intake of the engine. Wiring and oil
lines must be run to the rear of the vehicle and an auxiliary oil pump must be used to
return oil from the turbo to the engine. According to Horsepower TV (2/3/2007), you
can expect a loss of 1 psi using a rear mount turbo, because of loss due to the long
pipe routings, and also about a 100F drop in intake air temperature. The decrease is
due to the cooler exhaust gases (thus a cooler turbo unit) and the cooler intermediate
pipe between the turbo and the intake. Benefits include easier maintenance, because
the unit is more accessible.

Advantages and Disadvantages


Advantages
More specific power over naturally aspirated engine. More power from same
engine volume. But achievable specific power output is more in a
supercharged engine.
More thermal efficiency over both naturally aspirated and supercharged engine.
More mileage for same power output. Due to fall in temperature of exhaust
gases in a turbocharger, thus energy saved is used to boost the intake.
However, a turbocharger does load the engine by creating back pressure, but
not as much as a supercharger's mechanical drag.
Ease of installation. It can be installed in an engine as an upgrade. Boost is not as
much as a supercharger hence design considerations are less.

Disadvantages

Lack of responsiveness. Turbocharger reduces throttle response as it builds up


boost slowly due to lag of turbo charging cycle. Throttle response is directly
related to driving pleasure, which is missed in a turbocharged engine. Hence
turbochargers are generally avoided in petrol engines.
Boost threshold. Turbocharger starts producing boost only above a certain rpm
(around 1200-1500rpm) due to a lack of exhaust gas volume to overcome
inertia of rest of turbo fan. Sudden lack of power below some rpm is not a
desired characteristic.

Application in aircraft engines


In aircraft engines a turbocharger can be used at higher altitudes to keep the pressure
of the air entering the engine equivalent to a normally aspirated engine at a lower
altitude. In this case it is called a turbonormalizer.

Nozzle

Rocket nozzle.

Water nozzle.

A nozzle is a mechanical device designed to control the characteristics of a fluid flow


as it exits from an enclosed chamber into some medium.
A nozzle is often a pipe or tube of varying cross sectional area, and it can be used to
direct or modify the flow of a fluid (liquid or gas). Nozzles are frequently used to
control the rate of flow, speed, direction, mass, and/or the pressure of the stream that
emerges from them.

Purposes of nozzles
High velocity nozzles
Frequently the goal is to increase the kinetic energy of the flowing medium at the
expense of its pressure energy and/or internal energy.
Nozzles can be described as convergent (narrowing down from a wide diameter to a
smaller diameter in the direction of the flow) or divergent (expanding from a smaller

diameter to a larger one). A de Laval nozzle has a convergent section followed by a


divergent section and is often called a convergent-divergent nozzle.
Convergent nozzles accelerate fluids. If the nozzle pressure ratio is high enough the
flow will reach sonic velocity at the narrowest point (i.e. the nozzle throat). In this
situation, the nozzle is said to be choked.
Increasing the nozzle pressure ratio further will not increase the throat Mach number
beyond unity. Downstream (i.e. external to the nozzle) the flow is free to expand to
supersonic velocities.
Divergent nozzles slow fluids, if the flow is subsonic, but accelerate sonic or
supersonic fluids.
Convergent-divergent nozzles can therefore accelerate fluids that have choked in the
convergent section to supersonic speeds. This CD process is more efficient than
allowing a convergent nozzle to expand supersonically externally.
Since exhaust velocity has to exceed airspeed, supersonic aircraft also very typically
use a con-di nozzle despite the weight and cost penalties. Supersonic jet engines, like
those employed in fighters and SST aircraft (e.g. Concorde), indeed have relatively
high nozzle pressure ratios. Because subsonic jet engines require low exhaust
velocities, they require only subsonic exhaust and thus have modest nozzle pressure
ratios and employ simple convergent nozzles.
Rocket motors use convergent-divergent nozzles, to maximise thrust and exhaust
velocity and thus extremely high nozzle pressure ratios are employed.
Note that the Mach 1 can be a very high speed for a hot gas; since heat significantly
raises the speed of sound. Thus the absolute speed reached at a nozzle throat can be
far higher than the speed of sound at sea level. This fact is used extensively in
rocketry where hypersonic flows are required.

Pipe Nozzles
Pipe nozzles are typically connections to tanks or pumps. They have characteristic
entrance and exit pressure losses for fluid flow and have inherent structural features
with respect to the tank, pump or equipment to which they are attached. Specific
characteristics of entrance and exit losses can be found in the Crane "Flow of Fluids"
Technical Paper No. 410 (often referred to as the Crane 410, see link:
http://www.tp410.com/). Pipe nozzles may be flanged, butt weld end, or threaded
connections. They typically have a load limit (force and stress) which is calculated in
a finite element analysis program such as Caesar II or ANSYS.

Magnetic nozzles
Magnetic nozzles have also been proposed for some types of propulsion, in which the
flow of plasma is directed by magnetic fields instead of walls made of solid matter.

Spray nozzles
Many nozzles atomise liquids. Often this involves Venturi tubes.
These kinds of nozzles are used for spray painting, perfumes, carburettors for internal
combustion engines, spray on deodorants, antiperspirants and many other uses.
Air-Aspirating Nozzle-uses an opening in the cone shaped nozzle to inject air into a
stream of water based foam (CAFS/AFFF/FFFP) to make the concentrate "foam up".
Most commonly found on foam extinguishers and foam handlines.

Shaping nozzles
Some nozzles are shaped to produce a stream that is of a particular shape. For
example Extrusion molding is a way of producing lengths of metals or plastics or
other materials with a particular cross-section. These nozzles are typically referred to
as a die.

Other meanings
In some areas of Scotland, the nozzle can refer to the nose.
It can also be used as an insult meaning something between 'jerk' and 'idiot'. This use
was made popular by the character Al Calavicci on the science-fiction television show
Quantum Leap.

GAS KOMPRESOR

Gas compressor
A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by
reducing (mengurangi) its volume. Compression of a gas naturally increases its
temperature.
Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can
transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also
reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible, so the main action
of a pump is to transport liquids.

Compressor designs
There are many different types of gas compressors. The more important types are
discussed below.

Centrifugal compressors

Figure 1: A single stage centrifugal compressor


Centrifugal compressors use a vaned rotating disk or impeller(pendorong) in a
shaped housing to force the gas to the rim of the impeller, increasing the velocity of
the gas. A diffuser(pembaur) (divergent duct) section converts (mengubah) the
velocity(percepatan) energy to pressure energy. They are primarily used for
continuous, stationary(keperluan) service in industries such as oil
refineries(penyulingan), chemical and petrochemical plants and natural gas processing
plants. Their application can be from 100 hp (75 kW) to thousands of horsepower.
With multiple staging, they can achieve(mencapai) extremely high output pressures
greater than 10,000 psi (69 MPa).
Many large snow-making operations (like ski resorts) use this type of compressor.
They are also used in internal combustion engines as superchargers and turbochargers.
Centrifugal compressors are used in small gas turbine engines or as the final
compression stage of medium sized gas turbines.

Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors


Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors are similar to centrifugal compressors, but
have a radial and axial velocity component at the exit from the rotor. The diffuser is
often used to turn diagonal flow to the axial direction. The diagonal compressor has a
lower diameter diffuser than the equivalent centrifugal compressor.

Axial-flow compressors

An animation of an axial compressor.


Axial-flow compressors use a series of fan-like rotating rotor blades to progressively
compress the gasflow. Stationary stator vanes, located downstream of each rotor,
redirect the flow(Arus) onto the next set of rotor blades (mata pisau). The area of the
gas passage diminishes through the compressor to maintain a roughly constant axial
Mach number. Axial-flow compressors are normally used in high flow applications,
such as medium to large gas turbine engines. They are almost always multi-staged.
Beyond(diluar) about 4:1 design pressure ratio, variable geometry is often used to
improve operation.

Reciprocating compressors

A motor-driven six-cylinder reciprocating compressor that can operate with two, four
or six cylinders.
Reciprocating compressors use pistons driven by a crankshaft. They can be either
stationary or portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by electric
motors or internal combustion engines. Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to

30 horsepower (hp) are commonly seen in automotive applications and are typically
for intermittent duty. Larger reciprocating compressors up to 1000 hp are still
commonly found in large industrial applications, but their numbers are declining as
they are replaced by various other types of compressors. Discharge pressures can
range from low pressure to very high pressure (>5000 psi or 35 MPa).

Rotary screw compressors

Diagram of a rotary screw compressor


Rotary screw compressors use two meshed rotating positive-displacement helical
screws to force the gas into a smaller space. These are usually used for continuous
operation in commercial and industrial applications and may be either stationary or
portable. Their application can be from 5 hp (3.7 kW) to over 500 hp (375 kW) and
from low pressure to very high pressure (>1200 psi or 8.3 MPa). They are commonly
seen with roadside repair crews powering air-tools. This type is also used for many
automobile engine superchargers because it is easily matched to the induction
capacity of a piston engine.

Scroll compressors

Mechanism of a scroll pump

A scroll compressor, also known as scroll pump and scroll vacuum pump, uses
two interleaved spiral-like vanes to pump or compress fluids such as liquids and
gases. The vane geometry may be involute(rumit), archimedean spiral, or hybrid
curves. They operate more smoothly, quietly, and reliably than other types of
compressors.
Often, one of the scrolls is fixed, while the other orbits eccentrically without rotating,
thereby trapping and pumping or compressing pockets of fluid between the scrolls.

Diaphragm compressors

Membrane and piston rod


A diaphragm compressor (also known as a membrane compressor) is a variant of
the conventional reciprocating compressor. The compression of gas occurs by the
movement of a flexible membrane, instead (pengganti) of an intake element. The back
and forth movement of the membrane is driven by a rod and a crankshaft mechanism.
Only the membrane and the compressor box come in touch with the gas being
compressed.
Diaphragm compressors are used for hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) as
well as in a number of other applications.

A three-stage diaphragm compressor


The photograph included in this section depicts a three-stage diaphragm compressor
used to compress hydrogen gas to 6,000 psi (41 MPa) for use in a prototype hydrogen
and compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling station built in downtown Phoenix,
Arizona by the Arizona Public Service company (an electric utilities company).
Reciprocating compressors were used to compress the natural gas.
The prototype alternative fueling station was built in compliance(pemenuhan) with all
of the prevailing(berlaku) safety, environmental and building codes in Phoenix to
demonstrate that such fueling stations could be built in urban areas.

Miscellany
Air compressors sold to and used by the general public are often attached on top of a
tank for holding the pressurized air. Oil-lubricated and oil-free compressors are
available. Oil-free compressors are desirable because without a properly designed
separator, oil can make its way into the air stream. In a given use, for example as a
diving air compressor, even minimal oil may be unacceptable.

Temperature
Charles's law says "when a gas is compressed, temperature is raised". There are three
possible relationships between temperature and pressure in a volume of gas
undergoing compression:

Isothermal - gas remains(sisa) at constant temperature throughout(selama) the


process. In this cycle, internal energy is removed from the system as heat at
the same rate that it is added by the mechanical work of compression.
Isothermal compression or expansion(perluasan) is favored by a large heat

exchanging(pertukaran) surface, a small gas volume, or a long time scale (i.e.,


a small power level). With practical devices, isothermal compression is
usually not attainable(dapat dicapai). For example, even a bicycle tire-pump
gets hot during use.
Adiabatic - In this process there is no heat transfer to or from the system, and
all supplied work is added to the internal energy of the gas, resulting in
increases of temperature and pressure. Theoretical temperature rise is T2 =
T1Rc((k-1)/k)), with T1 and T2 in degrees Rankine or kelvins, and k = ratio of
specific heats (approximately 1.4 for air). The rise in air and temperature ratio
means compression does not follow a simple pressure to volume ratio. This is
less efficient, but quick. Adiabatic compression or expansion is favored by
good insulation, a large gas volume, or a short time scale (i.e., a high power
level). In practice there will always be a certain amount of heat flow, as to
make a perfect adiabatic system would require perfect heat insulation of all
parts of a machine.
Polytropic - This assumes that heat may enter or leave the system, and that
input shaft work can appear as both increased pressure (usually useful work)
and increased temperature above adiabatic (usually losses due to cycle
efficiency). Cycle efficiency is then the ratio of temperature rise at theoretical
100 percent (adiabatic) vs. actual (polytropic).

Staged compression
Since compression generates heat, the compressed gas is to be cooled between stages
making the compression less adiabatic and more isothermal. The inter-stage coolers
cause condensation meaning water separators with drain valves are present. The
compressor flywheel may drive a cooling fan.
For instance in a typical diving compressor, the air is compressed in three stages. If
each stage has a compression ratio of 7 to 1, the compressor can output 343 times
atmospheric pressure (7 x 7 x 7 = 343 Atmospheres).

Prime movers
There are many options for the "prime mover" or motor which powers the
compressor:

gas turbines power the axial and centrifugal flow compressors that are part of
jet engines
steam turbines or water turbines are possible for large compressors
electric motors are cheap and quiet for static compressors. Small motors
suitable for domestic electrical supplies use single phase alternating current.
Larger motors can only be used where an industrial electrical three phase
alternating current supply is available.
diesel engines or petrol engines are suitable for portable compressors and
support compressors used as superchargers from their own crankshaft power.
They use exhaust gas energy to power turbochargers

Applications
Gas compressors are used in various applications where either higher pressures or
lower volumes of gas are needed:

in pipeline transport of purified natural gas to move the gas from the
production site to the consumer.
in petroleum refineries, natural gas processing plants, petrochemical and
chemical plants, and similar large industrial plants for compressing
intermediate and end product gases.
in refrigeration and air conditioner equipment to move heat from one place to
another in refrigerant cycles: see Vapor-compression refrigeration.
in gas turbine systems to compress the intake combustion air
in storing purified or manufactured gases in a small volume, high pressure
cylinders for medical, welding and other uses.
in many various industrial, manufacturing and building processes to power all
types of pneumatic tools.
as a medium for transferring energy, such as to power pneumatic equipment.
in pressurised aircraft to provide a breathable atmosphere of higher than
ambient pressure.
in some types of jet engines (such as turbojets and turbofans) to provide the air
required for combustion of the engine fuel. The power to drive the combustion
air compressor comes from the jet's own turbines.
in SCUBA diving, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and other life support devices to
store breathing gas in a small volume such as in diving cylinders .
in submarines to store air for later use as buoyancy.
in turbochargers and superchargers to increase the performance of internal
combustion engines by concentrating oxygen.
in rail and heavy road transport to provide compressed air for operation of rail
vehicle brakes or road vehicle brakes and various other systems (doors,
windscreen wipers, engine/gearbox control, etc).
in miscellaneous uses such as providing compressed air for filling pneumatic
tires.

Napier Deltic

Napier Deltic powered British Rail Class 55 Alycidon, at the National Railway
Museum, York, UK

The term Deltic (meaning in the form of the Greek letter Delta) is used to refer to both
the opposed-piston high-speed diesel engine designed and produced by D Napier &
Son, and the locomotives produced by English Electric using these engines, including
their demonstrator locomotive named DELTIC and the production version for British
Railways, who designated these as Class 55.

History

An animated schematic of a Deltic engine. The inlet is coloured green and the outlet
purple. Notice the bottom shaft contra-rotating with respect to the other two; the lag
between the exhaust and inlet ports opening; and that ignition occurs when the pistons
are not at equal positions in the cylinder.

The Deltic story began in 1944 when the British Admiralty commissioned Napier to
design a diesel engine for their Motor Torpedo Boats and other lightweight, high
speed craft. Hitherto in the Royal Navy, such boats had been driven by gasoline
engines but this fuel is highly flammable, making them vulnerable to fire, and at a
disadvantage compared to the German diesel powered E-boats.
Until this time diesel engines had poor power-to-weight ratio and slow speed. Before
the war Napier had been working on aviation diesel designs (licensed versions of the
Junkers Jumo 204) and the Admiralty felt these would be a reasonable starting point
for the larger design they required.
The original Napier Culverin was an opposed piston design. Instead of each cylinder
having a single piston and being closed at one end with a cylinder head, the elongated
cylinder contained two pistons moving in opposite directions toward the center. This
led to a rather "flat" engine, intended to be buried in the wings of large aircraft. The
Admiralty required a much more powerful engine, so for the added power Napier took
three of their original Culverins and "bolted them together".

The result was an inverted triangle, the cylinder banks forming the sides, and tipped
by three crankshafts, one at each corner of the triangle. The crankshafts were
connected with phasing gears to drive one output shaft. Various models of Deltic
engine could be produced with varying numbers of such three cylinder banks, though
nine and eighteen cylinders were the most common, having three and six banks
respectively.
One of the interesting features of this engine was the clever way the crankshaft
phasing was arranged to allow for exhaust port lead and inlet port lag. These engines
are called 'uniflow' designs because the flow of gas into and out of the cylinder is one
way, assisted by mild supercharging to improve cylinder exhaust scavenge.

Napier Deltic engine at the National Railway Museum, York, UK


Earlier attempts at designing such an engine failed because of the difficulty in
arranging the pistons to move in the correct manner, for all three cylinders in one
delta. Napier solved this problem by gearing the crankshafts so that one of them
rotated in the opposite direction to the other two.
In an opposed piston design with no inlet or exhaust valves, and no ability to vary the
port positions, the deltic design arranged each crankshaft to connect two adjacent
pistons operating in different cylinders in the same plane, using forked connecting
rods, one an 'inlet' piston used to open and close the inlet port, and the other an
'exhaust' piston in the adjacent cylinder to open and close the exhaust port.
Crankshaft connecting rod journals were arranged so that the exhaust piston 'led' the
inlet piston by 20 degrees of crankshaft rotation. This meant that in any one cylinder,
the exhaust piston reached its top-dead-centre position before the inlet piston in the
same cylinder, and that the exhaust piston was on its way down the cylinder before
the inlet piston reached its top-dead-centre position.
This arrangement allowed the exhaust port to be opened well before the inlet port, and
allowed the inlet port to be closed after the exhaust port, which led both to good
scavenging of exhaust gas, and good volumetric efficiency for the fresh air charge.
The arrangement suffered from the disadvantage that the two pistons contributed
unequally to power output.
The first Deltic unit was produced in 1950, and by January 1952 six engines were
available, enough for full development and endurance trials. An ex-German E-Boat,
powered by three Mercedes-Benz diesel engines, was selected for these trials, since its
power units were of approximately equal power to the new 18 cylinder Deltic engines.
Two of the three Mercedes-Benz engines were replaced with Napier Deltics, the

compactness of the Deltic being graphically illustrated: they were half the size of the
original engines.
Proving successful, the Deltic diesel engine became a common powerplant in small
fast naval craft. The Royal Navy used them first in the Dark Class Fast Attack Craft,
and subsequently in a number of other smaller attack and minesweeper classes.
Napier Deltic engines are still in service in Hunt Class Mine Countermeasure Vessels.
Deltic diesels served in MTBs and PT Boats built for other navies. Particularly
notable being the Norwegian built Tjeld (Nasty) class, which were also sold to
Germany, Greece, and the United States Navy. PTF Nasty class boats served in the
Vietnam War, largely for covert operations.
While the Deltic engine was successful and powerful for its size and weight, it was a
high strung unit, requiring much maintenance. This led to a policy of maintenance by
unit replacement rather than repair in place. Deltic engines were easily removed upon
break down, generally being sent back to the manufacturer for repair.

Junkers Jumo 205

Junkers Jumo 205a. Note the supercharger driven from the lower crankshaft, and the
complex gearing used to connect the two shafts and still lie within the flat profile.
The Junkers Jumo 205 aircraft engine was the most famous of a series of diesel
engines that were the first, and for more than half a century, the only successful diesel
aircraft engines. The Jumo 204 first entered service in 1932. Later engines in the
series were styled Jumo 206, Jumo 207 and Jumo 208, and differed in stroke and
bore and supercharging arrangements. In all more than 900 of these engines were
produced.[citation needed]
These engines all used a two-stroke cycle with six cylinders and twelve pistons, in an
opposed piston configuration with two crankshafts, one at the bottom of the cylinder
block and the other at the top, geared together. The pistons moved towards each other
during the operating cycle. Intake and exhaust manifolds were duplicated on both

sides of the block. There were two cam-operated injection pumps per cylinder, each
feeding two nozzles, for 4 nozzles per cylinder in all.[citation needed]
As is typical of two-stroke designs, the Jumos used fixed intake and exhaust "ports"
instead of valves, which were uncovered when the pistons reached a certain point in
their stroke. Normally such designs have poor volumetric efficiency because both
ports open and close at the same time and are generally located across from each other
in the cylinder. This leads to poor scavaging of the burnt charge, which is why valveless two-strokes generally run smoky and are inefficient.[citation needed]
The Jumo designs solved this problem to a very large degree through clever
arrangement of the ports. The intake port was located under the "lower" piston, while
the exhaust port was under the "upper". The lower crankshaft ran eleven degrees
behind the upper, meaning that the exhaust ports opened first, allowing proper
scavaging. This system made the two-stroke Jumos run as cleanly and almost as
efficiently as four-stroke engines using valves, but with considerably less
complexity.[citation needed]

Jumo 205 cutaway


There is some downside to this system as well. For one, since the pistons were not
firing at the same time, but ran "ahead" of one another, the engine could not run as
smoothly as a true opposed style engine. Additionally the power from the two
opposing crankshafts has to be geared back together, adding weight and complexity, a
problem the design shared with the H block engines.[citation needed]
In the Jumo these problems were avoided to some degree by taking power primarily
from the "upper" shaft. All of the accessories, such as fuel pumps, injectors and the
supercharger, were run from the lower shaft, meaning that over half of its power was
already used up. What was left over was then geared to the upper shaft, which ran the
propellers. In all, about three-quarters of the power flowing to the propellers came
from the upper crankshaft.[citation needed]
In theory the flat layout of the engine could have allowed it to be installed inside thick
wings of larger aircraft, such as airliners and bombers. Details of the oil scavaging
system suggest that this was not possible and that the engine had to be run
"vertically", as it was on all designs that used it.[citation needed]
The Jumo 205 powered the early versions of the Junkers Ju 86 bomber, but was found
too unresponsive for combat and liable to failure when used at maximum power as is
common for combat aircraft. Later versions of the design also used the engine for
extreme high-altitude use. It was far more successful as a power unit for airships, for
which its characteristics were ideal, and for non-combat applications such as the
Blohm & Voss Ha 139 airliner.[citation needed]

A twelve cylinder version, the Jumo 218, was designed but never built, while a single
example of the 24-cylinder 4-crankshaft Junkers Jumo 223 was built and tested.[citation
needed]

The Jumo 203 and 204 were licensed to Napier & Son, who built a small number as
the Napier Culverin just prior to the war. Late in the war they mounted three
Culverins in a triangle layout to produce the Napier Deltic, which was for some time
one of the most powerful and compact Diesel engines in the world.[citation needed]
It is also highly likely that the Fairbanks Morse 5-1/4" (piston diameter) Diesel
generator was derived directly from the Jumo 205.[citation needed] It was the back-up
energy source for the U.S. Navy's nuclear-powered Sturgeon class submarine
(produced 1966-74).[citation needed] The Fairbanks-Morse engine differed in that it had 10
cylinders and 20 pistons, and the cylinders were separate pieces from the upper and
lower crankcases. The major benefit of the design in this application was the entire
engine could be disassembled, and the pieces could be passed through a round 33"
diameter hatch, rather than cutting a hole in the hull, and then re-welding it. The
powerplant proved itself to be rugged, simple, and utterly reliable. As a Diesel, it
needs no sparking system, as a two-stroke, it has no intake or troublesome exhaust
valves. It used an air-start system from an accumulator that could be filled by the
ship's air-compressors, or a hand-pump.[citation needed]

Specifications (Jumo 205)


General characteristics

Type: 6-cylinder 12-piston liquid-cooled opposed piston inline diesel engine


Bore: 105 mm (4.1 in)
Stroke: 160 mm (6.3 in)
Displacement: 16.6 L (1,013 in)
Dry weight: 595 kg (1,312 lb)

Components

Valvetrain: One intake and one exhaust port per cylinder


Fuel type: Diesel
Cooling system: Liquid-cooled

Performance

Power output: 647 kW (867 hp) at 2,800 rpm


Specific power: 39.0 kW/L (0.86 hp/in)
Power-to-weight ratio: 1.09 kW/kg (0.66 hp/lb)

Specifications (Jumo 204)


configuration
6 cylinder, opposed-piston two-stroke diesel, 120mm bore 2*210 mm
stroke, 28.6l, 17:1 compression

power
750 PS @ 1800 rpm, 600 PS @ 1600 rpm continuous
specific fuel consumption
155 g/PS/h
dimensions
1260mm length, 1510mm height, 510mm width, 750kg
reference
inter-action association, 1987

Wrtsil-Sulzer RTA96-C
The Wrtsil RTA96-C turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine is currently
considered the largest reciprocating engine in the world, designed for large container
ships, running on cheap, heavy fuel oil. It is five stories high (13.5m), 27m long, and
weighs over 2300 tonnes in its largest 14 cylinders version producing more than
80MW (109,000hp). It was put into service in September 2006 aboard the Emma
Mrsk.[1]

Crosshead bearings
The engine has crosshead bearings. One of the reasons that the large two stroke
diesels use this design is so that the lubrication in the combustion area is separated
from the crank case oil, which stays clean from combustion products. The upper
portion is lubricated by continuous injection of consumable lubricant which is
formulated to stand up to high temperatures and high sulfur.
Another reason is that the always vertical piston rod allows a tight seal under the
piston. The descending piston is used to compress incoming combustion air for the
adjacent cylinders which also serves to cushion the piston as it approaches bottom
dead center (BDC) to remove some load from the bearings.

Technical data
Configuration
turbocharged two-stroke diesel straight engine, 6 to 14 cylinders
Cylinder bore
960 mm
Piston stroke
2500 mm
Speed
92102 rpm
Mean effective pressure
1.86 MPa @ full load, 1.30 MPa @ maximum efficiency (85% load)
Mean piston speed
8.5 m/s

Specific fuel consumption


171 g/(kWh) (126 g/(bhph)) @ full load : 163 g/(kWh) (120 g/(bhph)) @
maximum efficiency
Power
5720 kW per cylinder, 34,320 to 80,080 kW (46,680 to 108,920 bhp)
Power density
29.6 to 34.8 kW per tonne, 2301 tons for the 14 cylinder version
Amount of fuel injected in a single cycle of single piston
~160 g @ full load

Efficiency
The Specific fuel consumption efficiency of the RTA96 is the best among piston
engines. The minimum 163 g/kWh translates to 3.6 MJ/kWh / 0.163 kg/kWh = 22.1
MJ/kg of work from chemical energy. With a 42.7 MJ/kg fuel, the efficiency is 22.1
MJ/kg / 42.7 MJ/kg = 51.7%. But this is not the best overall percentage, this title
belongs to General Electric's GE Energy H-System with 60% efficiency in combined
cycle, a combination of gas turbines and steam turbines. This system is in the 400
500 MW class, though, and comparable powered combined cycle turbines have
comparable efficiencies.

Vapor-compression refrigeration
Vapor-compression refrigeration[1][2] is one of the many refrigeration methods
available for use. It has been and is the most widely used method for air-conditioning
of large public buildings, private residences, hotels, hospitals, theaters, restaurants and
automobiles. It is also used in domestic and commercial refrigerators, large-scale
warehouses for storage of foods and meats, refrigerated trucks and railroad cars, and a
host of other commercial and industrial services.
Refrigeration may be defined as lowering the temperature of an enclosed space by
removing heat from that space and transferring it elsewhere. A device that performs
this function may also be called a heat pump.

Description of the vapor-compression refrigeration


system

Figure 1: Vapor compression refrigeration


The vapor-compression refrigeration system uses a circulating liquid refrigerant as the
medium which absorbs and removes heat from the space to be cooled and
subsequently rejects that heat elsewhere. Figure 1 depicts a typical, single-stage
vapor-compression system. All such systems have four components: a compressor, a
condenser, an expansion valve (also called a throttle valve), and an evaporator.
Circulating refrigerant enters the compressor in the thermodynamic state known as a
saturated vapor and is compressed to a higher pressure, resulting in a higher
temperature as well. The hot, compressed vapor is then in the thermodynamic state
known as a superheated vapor and it is at temperature and pressure at which it can be
condensed with typically available cooling water or cooling air. That hot vapor is
routed through a condenser where it is cooled and condensed into a liquid by flowing
through a coil or tubes with cool water or cool air flowing across the coil or tubes.
This is where the circulating refrigerant rejects heat from the system and the rejected
heat is carried away by either the water or the air (whichever may be the case).
The condensed liquid refrigerant, in the thermodynamic state known as a saturated
liquid, is next routed through an expansion valve where it undergoes an abrupt
reduction in pressure. That pressure reduction results in the adiabatic flash
evaporation of a part of the liquid refrigerant. The auto-refrigeration effect of the
adiabatic flash evaporation lowers the temperature of the liquid and vapor refrigerant
mixture to where it is colder than the temperature of the enclosed space to be
refrigerated.
The cold mixture is then routed through the coil or tubes in the evaporator. A fan
circulates the warm air in the enclosed space across the coil or tubes carrying the cold
refrigerant liquid and vapor mixture. That warm air evaporates the liquid part of the
cold refrigerant mixture. At the same time, the circulating air is cooled and thus
lowers the temperature of the enclosed space to the desired temperature. The
evaporator is where the circulating refrigerant absorbs and removes heat which is

subsequently rejected in the condenser and transferred elsewhere by the water or air
used in the condenser.
To complete the refrigeration cycle, the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator is again
a saturated vapor and is routed back into the compressor.
Note: Saturated vapors and saturated liquids are vapors and liquids at their saturation
temperature and saturation pressure. A superheated vapor is at a temperature higher
than the saturation temperature corresponding to its pressure.

Thermodynamic analysis of the system

Figure 2: TemperatureEntropy diagram


The thermodynamics of the vapor compression cycle can be analyzed on a
temperature versus entropy diagram as depicted in Figure 2. At point 1 in the diagram,
the circulating refrigerant enters the compressor as a saturated vapor. From point 1 to
point 2, the vapor is isentropically compressed (i.e., compressed at constant entropy)
and exits the compressor as a superheated vapor.
From point 2 to point 3, the superheated vapor travels through part of the condenser
which removes the superheat by cooling the vapor. Between point 3 and point 4, the
vapor travels through the remainder of the condenser and is condensed into a
saturated liquid. The condensation process occurs at essentially constant pressure.
Between points 4 and 5, the saturated liquid refrigerant passes through the expansion
valve and undergoes an abrupt decrease of pressure. That process results in the
adiabatic flash evaporation and auto-refrigeration of a portion of the liquid (typically,
less than half of the liquid flashes). The adiabatic flash evaporation process is
isenthalpic (i.e., occurs at constant enthalpy).
Between points 5 and 1, the cold and partially vaporized refrigerant travels through
the coil or tubes in the evaporator where it is totally vaporized by the warm air (from

the space being refrigerated) that a fan circulates across the coil or tubes in the
evaporator. The evaporator operates at essentially constant pressure. The resulting
saturated refrigerant vapor returns to the compressor inlet at point 1 to complete the
thermodynamic cycle.
It should be noted that the above discussion is based on the ideal vapor-compression
refrigeration cycle which does not take into account real world items like frictional
pressure drop in the system, slight internal irreversiblity during the compression of the
refrigerant vapor, or non-ideal gas behavior (if any).

Types (mechanism) of gas compressors


The most common compressors used in chillers are reciprocating, rotary screw,
centrifugal, and scroll compressors. Each application prefers one or another due to
size, noise, efficiency and pressure issues.

Reciprocating compressors
Reciprocating compressors are piston-style, positive displacement compressors.

Rotary screw compressors


Rotary screw compressors are also positive displacement compressors. Two meshing
screw-rotors rotate in opposite directions, trapping refrigerant vapor, and reducing the
volume of the refrigerant along the rotors to the discharge point.

Centrifugal compressors
Centrifugal compressors are dynamic compressors. These compressors raise the
pressure of the refrigerant by imparting velocity or dynamic energy, using a rotating
impeller, and converting it to pressure energy.

Scroll compressors
Scroll compressors are also positive displacement compressors. The refrigerant is
compressed when one spiral orbits around a second stationary spiral, creating smaller
and smaller pockets and higher pressures. By the time the refrigerant is discharged, it
is fully pressurized.

Others
Rotary vane compressors, oil flooded compressors, axial-flow compressors and
diagonal or mixed flow compressors.

Other features and facts of interest


The schematic diagram of a single-stage refrigeration system shown in Figure 1 does
not include other equipment items that would be provided in a large commercial or
industrial vapor compression refrigeration system, such as:

A horizontal or vertical pressure vessel, equipped internally with a demister,


between the evaporator and the compressor inlet to capture and remove any
residual, entrained liquid in the refrigerant vapor because liquid may damage
the compressor. Such pressure vessels are most often referred to as "suction
line accumulators". (In other industrial processes they are called "compressor
suction drums" or "knockout drums".)

Large commercial or industrial refrigeration systems may have multiple


expansion valves and multiple evaporators in order to refrigerate multiple
enclosed spaces or rooms. In such systems, the condensed liquid refrigerant
may be routed into a pressure vessel, called a receiver, from which liquid
refrigerant is withdrawn and routed through multiple pipelines to the multiple
expansion valves and evaporators.

Some refrigeration units may have multiple stages which requires the use of
multiple compressors in various arrangements.[3]

More details about the design and performance of vapor-compression refrigeration


system are available in the classic "Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook".[4]
The cooling capacity of refrigeration systems is often defined in units called "tons of
refrigeration". The most common definition of that unit is: 1 ton of refrigeration is the
rate of heat removal required to freeze a short ton (i.e., 2000 pounds) of water at 32 F
in 24 hours. Based on the heat of fusion for water being 144 Btu per pound, 1 ton of
refrigeration = 12,000 Btu/h = 12,660 kJ/h = 3.517 kW. Most residential air
conditioning units range in capacity from about 1 to 5 tons of refrigeration.
A much less common definition is: 1 tonne of refrigeration is the rate of heat removal
required to freeze a metric ton (i.e., 1000 kg) of water at 0 C in 24 hours. Based on
the heat of fusion being 334.9 kJ/kg, 1 tonne of refrigeration = 13,954 kJ/h = 3.876
kW. As can be seen, 1 tonne of refrigeration is 10 percent larger than 1 ton of
refrigeration.
An interesting history of the evolution of refrigeration technology is available on the
Internet.[5]

Applications
Refrigeration
application
Domestic
refrigeration
Commercial
refrigeration

Short descriptions

Appliances used for keeping food in dwelling


units
Holding and displaying frozen and fresh food
in retail outlets
Equipment to preserve, process and store food
Food processing
from its source to the wholesale distribution
and cold storage
point
Large equipment, typically 25 kW to 30 MW,
Industrial
used for chemical processing, cold storage,
refrigeration
food processing and district heating and
cooling
Equipment to preserve and store goods,
Transport
primarily foodstuffs, during transport by road,
refrigeration
rail, air and sea
Low-temperature cooling of CMOS circuitry
Electronic cooling and other components in large computers and
servers[6]
Medical
refrigeration
Cryogenic
refrigeration

Typical
refrigerants used
R-600a, R-134a
R-134a, R-404A,
R-507
R-134a, R-407C,
R-410A, R-507
R-134a, R-404A,
R-507, R-717
R-134a, R-407C,
R-410A
R-134a, R-404A,
R-507
R-134a, R-404A,
R-507
Ethylene, Helium

Economic analysis
Advantages

Very mature technology.


Relatively inexpensive.
Can be driven directly using mechanical energy (water, car/truck motor) or
with electrical energy.
Efficient up to 60% of Carnot's theoretical limit (as evaluated in ASHRAE
testing conditions: evaporation temperature of -23.3 C, condensing
temperature of 54.4C, and ambient temperature of 32C) based on some of
the best compressors produced by Danfoss, Matsushita, Copeland, Embraco,
Bristol and Tecumseh compressor manufacturers. However, many
refrigeration systems use compressors having lower efficiencies of between
40-55%, since the 60% efficient ones cost almost twice as much as the lower
efficiency ones.

Disadvantages
Some still use HFCs which contribute to depletion of the Earth's ozone layer. Despite
that, HFCs are still considered by some to be the most environmentally friendly
technology available. There are tendencies of moving to other refrigerants as already
has been done with hydrocarbons (HC's) and now CO2. Coca-Cola's vending
machines, at the World Cup 2006 in Germany, used refrigeration utilizing CO2.[7].

Turbojet
Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. Two
different engineers, Frank Whittle in the United Kingdom and Hans von Ohain in
Germany, developed the concept independently during the late 1930s.
On 27 August 1939 the Heinkel He 178 became the world's first aircraft to fly under
turbojet power, thus becoming the first practical jet plane. The first turbojet fighter
aircraft, the Messerschmitt Me 262 and the Gloster Meteor entered service towards
the end of World War II in 1944.
A turbojet engine is used primarily to propel aircraft. Air is drawn into the rotating
compressor via the intake and is compressed to a higher pressure before entering the
combustion chamber. Fuel is mixed with the compressed air and ignited by flame in
the eddy of a flame holder. This combustion process significantly raises the
temperature of the gas. Hot combustion products leaving the combustor expand
through the turbine, where power is extracted to drive the compressor. Although this
expansion process reduces the turbine exit gas temperature and pressure, both
parameters are usually still well above ambient conditions. The gas stream exiting the
turbine expands to ambient pressure via the propelling nozzle, producing a high
velocity jet in the exhaust plume. If the momentum of the exhaust stream exceeds the
momentum of the intake stream, the impulse is positive, thus, there is a net forward
thrust upon the airframe.
Early generation jet engines were pure turbojets with either an axial or centrifugal
compressor. Modern jet engines are mainly turbofans, where a proportion of the air
entering the intake bypasses the combustor; this proportion depends on the engine's
bypass ratio.
Although ramjet engines are simpler in design, as they have virtually no moving parts,
they are incapable of operating at low flight speeds.

Air intake

Schematic diagram showing the operation of a centrifugal flow turbojet engine. The
compressor is driven via the turbine stage and throws the air outwards, requiring it to
be redirected parallel to the axis of thrust.

Schematic diagram showing the operation of an axial flow turbojet engine. Here, the
compressor is again driven by the turbine, but the air flow remains parallel to the axis
of thrust.
Preceding the compressor is the air intake (or inlet), which is designed to recover, as
efficiently as possible, the ram pressure of the streamtube approaching the intake.
Downstream of the intake, air enters the compressor.

Compressor
The compressor, which rotates at very high speed, adds energy to the airflow, at the
same time squeezing it into a smaller space, thereby increasing its pressure and
temperature.
In most turbojet-powered aircraft, bleed air is extracted from the compressor section
at various stages to perform a variety of jobs including air conditioning/pressurization,
engine inlet anti-icing and turbine cooling.
Several types of compressor are used in turbojets and gas turbines in general: axial,
centrifugal, axial-centrifugal, double-centrifugal, etc.
Early turbojet compressors had overall pressure ratios as low as 5:1 (as do a lot of
simple auxiliary power units and small propulsion turbojets today). Aerodynamic
improvements, plus splitting the compression system into two separate units and/or
incorporating variable compressor geometry, enabled later turbojets to have overall

pressure ratios of 15:1 or more. In comparison, modern civil turbofan engines have
overall pressure ratios as high as 44:1 or more.
After leaving the compressor section, the compressed air enters the combustion
chamber.

Combustion chamber
The burning process in the combustor is significantly different from that in a piston
engine. In a piston engine the burning gases are confined to a small volume and, as
the fuel burns, the pressure increases dramatically. In a turbojet the air and fuel
mixture passes, unconfined, through the combustion chamber. As the mixture burns
its temperature increases dramatically, the pressure actually decreasing a few percent.
In detail, the fuel-air mixture must be brought almost to a stop so that a stable flame
can be maintained; this occurs just after the start of the combustion chamber. The aft
part of this flame front is allowed to progress rearward in the engine. This ensures that
the rest of the fuel is burned as the flame becomes hotter when it leans out, and
because of the shape of the combustion chamber the flow is accelerated rearwards.
Some pressure drop is unavoidable, as it is the reason why the expanding gases travel
out the rear of the engine rather than out the front. Less than 25% of the air is
involved in combustion, in some engines as little as 12%, the rest acting as a reservoir
to absorb the heating effects of the fuel burning.
Another difference between piston engines and jet engines is that the peak flame
temperature in a piston engine is experienced only momentarily, and for a small
portion of the full cycle. The combustor in a jet engine is exposed to the peak flame
temperature continuously and operates at a pressure high enough that a stoichiometric
fuel-air ratio would melt the can and everything downstream. Instead, jet engines run
a very lean mixture, so lean that it would not normally support combustion. A central
core of the flow (primary airflow) is mixed with enough fuel to burn readily. The cans
are carefully shaped to maintain a layer of fresh unburned air between the metal
surfaces and the central core. This unburned air (secondary airflow) mixes into the
burned gases to bring the temperature down to something a turbine can tolerate.

Turbine
Hot gases leaving the combustor are allowed to expand through the turbine. In the
first stage the turbine is largely an impulse turbine (similar to a pelton wheel) and
rotates because of the impact of the hot gas stream. Later stages are convergent ducts
that accelerate the gas rearward and gain energy from that process. Pressure drops,
and energy is transferred into the shaft. The turbine's rotational energy is used
primarily to drive the compressor. Some shaft power is extracted to drive accessories,
like fuel, oil, and hydraulic pumps. Because of its significantly higher entry
temperature, the turbine pressure ratio is much lower than that of the compressor. In a
turbojet almost two thirds of all the power generated by burning fuel is used by the
compressor to compress the air for the engine.

Nozzle
After the turbine, the gases are allowed to expand through the exhaust nozzle to
atmospheric pressure, producing a high velocity jet in the exhaust plume. In a
convergent nozzle, the ducting narrows progressively to a throat. The nozzle pressure
ratio on a turbojet is usually high enough for the expanding gases to reach Mach 1.0
and choke the throat. Normally, the flow will go supersonic in the exhaust plume
outside the engine.
If, however, a convergent-divergent "de Laval" nozzle is fitted, the divergent
(increasing flow area) section allows the gases to reach supersonic velocity within the
nozzle itself. This is slightly more efficient on thrust than using a convergent nozzle.
There is, however, the added weight and complexity, since the con-di nozzle must be
fully variable to cope basically with engine throttling.

Net thrust
Below is an approximate equation for calculating the net thrust of a turbojet:

where:
intake mass flow rate
fully expanded jet velocity (in the exhaust plume)

Whilst the
term represents the nozzle gross thrust, the
term represents
the ram drag of the intake. Obviously, the jet velocity must exceed that of the flight
velocity if there is to be a net forward thrust on the airframe.

Thrust to power ratio


A simple turbojet engine will produce thrust of approximately: 2.5 pounds force per
horsepower (15 mN/W).

Afterburner
An afterburner or "reheat jetpipe" is a device added to the rear of the jet engine. It
provides a means of spraying fuel directly into the hot exhaust, where it ignites and
boosts available thrust significantly; a drawback is its very high fuel consumption
rate. Afterburners are used mostly on military aircraft, but two supersonic civilian
transports, the Concorde and the TU-144, also utilized afterburners.

Thrust Reverser
A Thrust reverser is, essentially, a pair of clamshell doors mounted at the rear of the
engine which, when deployed, divert thrust forward to help slow an aircraft upon
landing. They are often used in conjunction with spoilers. The accidental deployment
of a thrust reverser during flight is a dangerous event that can lead to loss of control
and destruction of the aircraft. Thrust reversers are more convenient than drogue
parachutes; the latter are not used in civil aviation.

Cycle improvements
Thermodynamics of a Jet Engine is modelled approximately by a Brayton Cycle.
Increasing the overall pressure ratio of the compression system raises the combustor
entry temperature. Therefore, at a fixed fuel flow and airflow, there is an increase in
turbine inlet temperature. Although the higher temperature rise across the
compression system, implies a larger temperature drop over the turbine system, the
nozzle temperature is unaffected, because the same amount of heat is being added to
the system. There is, however, a rise in nozzle pressure, because overall pressure ratio
increases faster than the turbine expansion ratio. Consequently, net thrust increases,
whilst specific fuel consumption (fuel flow/net thrust) decreases.
Thus turbojets can be made more fuel efficient by raising overall pressure ratio and
turbine inlet temperature in unison. However, better turbine materials and/or
improved vane/blade cooling are required to cope with increases in both turbine inlet
temperature and compressor delivery temperature. Increasing the latter requires better
compressor materials.

Early designs
Early German engines had serious problems controlling the turbine inlet temperature.
While their axial compressor was more efficient and aerodynamic than the British
centrifugal approach, a lack of suitable alloys due to war shortages meant the axial
turbine fans would sometimes disintegrate on first operation and never lasted long.
Their early engines averaged 10-25 hours of operation before failingoften with
chunks of metal flying out the back of the engine when the turbine overheated. British
engines tended to fare better, running for 150 hours between overhauls. Some of the
original fighters still exist with their original engines.
The Americans had the best materials because of their reliance on turbosupercharging
in high altitude bombers of World War II. For a time some US jet engines included
the ability to inject water into the engine to cool the compressed flow before
combustion, usually during takeoff. The water would tend to prevent complete
combustion and as a result the engine ran cooler again, but the planes would takeoff
leaving a huge plume of smoke.
Today these problems are much better handled, but temperature still limits turbojet
airspeeds in supersonic flight. At the very highest speeds, the compression of the

intake air raises the temperatures throughout the engine to the point that the turbine
blades would melt, forcing a reduction in fuel flow to lower temperatures, but giving a
reduced thrust and thus limiting the top speed. Ramjets and Scramjets don't have
turbine blades, therefore they are able to fly faster.
At lower speeds, better materials have increased the critical temperature, and
automatic fuel management controls have made it nearly impossible to overheat the
engine.

Turbofan

Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine

CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view.

Boeing 747 jet engine up close


A turbofan is a type of airplane engine, similar to a turbojet. It essentially consists of
a ducted fan with a smaller diameter turbojet engine mounted behind it that powers
the fan. Part of the airstream from the ducted fan passes through the turbojet where it

is burnt to power the fan, but the majority of the flow bypasses it, and produces most
of the thrust.
A few designs work slightly differently and have the fan blades as a radial extension
of an aft mounted low pressure turbine unit.
All of the jet-engines that power currently-manufactured commercial jet aircraft are
turbofans. They are mainly used commercially because they are highly efficient and
relatively quiet in operation.
Turbofans are also used in many military jet aircraft, but rarely in other vehicles (e.g.
jet-powered cars) where very high speeds and lower weight are needed, while noise
and efficiency are less important.

Introduction
In a turbojet, air enters an intake before being compressed to a higher pressure by a
rotating (fan-like) compressor. The compressed air passes on to a combustor where it
is mixed with a fuel (e.g. kerosene) and ignited. The hot combustion gases then enter
a windmill-like turbine, where power is extracted to drive the compressor. Although
the expansion process in the turbine reduces the gas pressure (and temperature), there
is normally sufficient energy remaining to provide a high velocity jet, as the exhaust
gases expand to atmospheric pressure through the propelling nozzle. This process
normally produces a net thrust opposite in direction to that of the jet. Unlike a
reciprocating engine, a turbojet undertakes a continuous flow process.
The description given above is, strictly speaking, for a single spool (shaft) turbojet.
After World War II, 2-spool (shaft) turbojets were developed to make it easier to
throttle-back compression systems with a high design overall pressure ratio (i.e.
combustor inlet pressure/intake delivery pressure). Adopting the 2-spool arrangement
enables the compression system to be split into two, with a Low Pressure (LP)
Compressor supercharging a High Pressure (HP) Compressor. Each compressor is
mounted on a separate (co-axial) shaft, driven by its own turbine (i.e HP Turbine and
LP Turbine). Otherwise a 2-spool turbojet is much like a single spool engine.
Modern turbofans evolved from the 2-spool axial-flow turbojet engine, essentially by
increasing the relative size of the Low Pressure (LP) Compressor to the point where
some (if not most) of the air exiting the unit actually bypasses the core (or gas
generator) stream, passing through the main combustor. This bypass air either
expands through a separate propelling nozzle, or is mixed with the hot gases leaving
the Low Pressure (LP) Turbine, before expanding through a Mixed Stream Propelling
Nozzle. Owing to a lower jet velocity, a modern civil turbofan is quieter than the
equivalent turbojet. Turbofans also have a better thermal efficiency, which is
explained later in the article. In a turbofan, the LP Compressor is often called a fan.
Civil turbofans usually have a single fan stage, whereas most military turbofans have
multi-stage fans.
Turboprop engines are gas turbine engines that deliver almost all of their power to a
shaft to drive a propeller. Turboprops remain popular on very small or slow aircraft

such as small commuter airliners and combat transports such as the C-130 Hercules
and P-3 Orion.
If the turboprop is better at moderate flight speeds and the turbojet is better at very
high speeds, it might be imagined that at some speed range in the middle a mixture of
the two is best. Such an engine is the turbofan (originally termed bypass turbojet by
the inventors at Rolls Royce). Another name sometimes used is ducted fan, though
that term is also used for propellers and fans used in vertical flight applications.
The difference between a turbofan and a propeller besides direct thrust, is that the
intake duct of the former slows the air before it arrives at the fan face. As both
propeller and fan blades must operate at subsonic inlet velocities to be efficient,
ducted fans allow efficient operation at higher vehicle speeds.

duct work on an A-7 Corsair the increasing diameter of the inlet duct slows
incoming air to sub-sonic speeds.
Depending on specific thrust (i.e. net thrust/intake airflow), ducted fans operate best
from about 400 to 2000 km/h (250 to 1300 mph), which is why turbofans are the most
common type of engine for aviation use today in airliners, as well as
subsonic/supersonic military fighter and trainer aircraft. It should be noted, however,
that turbofans use extensive ducting to force incoming air to subsonic velocities (thus
reducing shockwaves throughout the engine).
Bypass ratio (bypassed airflow to combustor airflow) is a parameter often used for
classifying turbofans, although specific thrust is a better parameter.
The noise of any type of jet engine is strongly related to the velocity of the exhaust
gases. High bypass ratio (i.e. low specific thrust) turbofans are relatively quiet
compared to turbojets and low bypass ratio (i.e. high specific thrust) turbofans. A low
specific thrust engine has a low jet velocity by definition, as the following
approximate equation for net thrust implies:

where:
intake mass flow
fully expanded jet velocity (in the exhaust plume)
aircraft flight velocity
Rearranging the above equation, specific thrust is given by:

So for zero flight velocity, specific thrust is directly proportional to jet velocity.
Relatively speaking, low specific thrust engines are large in diameter to accommodate
the high airflow required for a given thrust.
Jet aircraft are often considered loud, but a conventional piston engine or a turboprop
engine delivering the same power would be much louder.

Early turbofans
Early turbojet engines were very fuel-inefficient, as their overall pressure ratio and
turbine inlet temperature were severely limited by the technology available at the
time. The very first running turbofan was the Daimler-Benz DB 670 (aka 109-007)
which was operated on its testbed on April 1, 1943. The engine was abandoned later
while the war went on and problems could not be solved. Improved materials, and the
introduction of twin compressors such as in the Pratt & Whitney JT3C engine,
increased the overall pressure ratio and thus the thermodynamic efficiency of engines,
but led to a poor propulsive efficiency, as pure turbojets have a high specific
thrust/high velocity exhaust.
The original low-bypass turbofan engines were designed to improve propulsive
efficiency by reducing the exhaust velocity to a value closer to that of the aircraft. The
Rolls-Royce Conway, the first production turbofan, had a bypass ratio of 0.3, similar
to the modern General Electric F404 fighter engine. Civil turbofan engines of the
1960s, such as the Pratt & Whitney JT8D and the Rolls-Royce Spey had bypass ratios
closer to 1, but were not disimilar to their military equivalents.
The unusual General Electric CF700 turbofan engine was developed as an aft-fan
engine with a 2.0 bypass ratio. This was derived from the T-38 Talon and the Learjet
General Electric J85/CJ610 turbojet (2,850 lbf or 12,650 N) to power the larger
Rockwell Sabreliner 75/80 model aircraft, as well as the Dassault Falcon 20 with
about a 50% increase in thrust (4,200 lbf or 18,700 N). The CF700 was the first small
turbofan in the world to be certificated by the Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA). There are now over 400 CF700 aircraft in operation around the world, with an
experience base of over 10 million service hours. The CF700 turbofan engine was
also used to train Moon-bound astronauts in Project Apollo as the powerplant for the
Lunar Landing Research Vehicle.

Low bypass turbofans

Schematic diagram illustrating a 2-spool, low-bypass turbofan engine with a mixed


exhaust, showing the low-pressure (green) and high-pressure (purple) spools. The fan
(and booster stages) are driven by the low-pressure turbine, whereas the high-pressure
compressor is powered by the high-pressure turbine
A high specific thrust/low bypass ratio turbofan normally has a multi-stage fan,
developing a relatively high pressure ratio and, thus, yielding a high (mixed or cold)
exhaust velocity. The core airflow needs to be large enough to give sufficient core
power to drive the fan. A smaller core flow/higher bypass ratio cycle can be achieved
by raising the (HP) turbine rotor inlet temperature.
Imagine a retrofit situation where a new low bypass ratio, mixed exhaust, turbofan is
replacing an old turbojet, in a particular military application. Say the new engine is to
have the same airflow and net thrust (i.e. same specific thrust) as the one it is
replacing. A bypass flow can only be introduced if the turbine inlet temperature is
allowed to increase, to compensate for a correspondingly smaller core flow.
Improvements in turbine cooling/material technology would facilitate the use of a
higher turbine inlet temperature, despite increases in cooling air temperature, resulting
from a probable increase in overall pressure ratio.
Efficiently done, the resulting turbofan would probably operate at a higher nozzle
pressure ratio than the turbojet, but with a lower exhaust temperature to retain net
thrust. Since the temperature rise across the whole engine (intake to nozzle) would be
lower, the (dry power) fuel flow would also be reduced, resulting in a better specific
fuel consumption (SFC).
A few low-bypass ratio military turbofans (e.g. F404) have Variable Inlet Guide
Vanes, with piano-style hinges, to direct air onto the first rotor stage. This improves
the fan surge margin (see compressor map) in the mid-flow range. The swing wing F111 achieved a very high range / payload capability by pioneering the use of this
engine, and it was also the heart of the famous F-14 Tomcat air superiority fighter
which used the same engines in a smaller, more agile airframe to achieve efficient
cruise and Mach 2 speed.

Afterburning turbofans
Since the 1970s, most jet fighter engines have been low/medium bypass turbofans
with a mixed exhaust, afterburner and variable area final nozzle the first
afterburning turbofan was the Pratt & Whitney TF30. An afterburner is a combustor
located directly upstream of the nozzle. When lit, prodigious amounts of fuel are
burnt in the afterburner, raising the temperature of exhaust gases by a significant

amount, resulting in a higher exhaust velocity/engine specific thrust. The variable


geometry nozzle must open to a larger throat area to accommodate the extra volume
flow when the afterburner is lit. Afterburning gives a significant thrust boost for take
off, transonic acceleration and combat maneuvers, but is very fuel intensive.
Consequently afterburning can only be selected for relatively short proportion of the
mission.
Unlike the main combustor, where the integrity of the downstream turbine blades
must be preserved, an afterburner can operate at the ideal maximum (stoichiometric)
temperature (i.e. about 2100K(3780R)). Now, at a fixed total applied fuel:air ratio, the
total fuel flow for a given fan airflow will be the same, regardless of the dry specific
thrust of the engine. However, a high specific thrust turbofan will, by definition, have
a higher nozzle pressure ratio, resulting in a higher afterburning net thrust and,
therefore, a lower afterburning specific fuel consumption. However, high specific
thrust engines have a high dry SFC. The situation is reversed for a medium specific
thrust afterburning turbofan: i.e. poor afterburning SFC/good dry SFC. The former
engine is suitable for a combat aircraft which must remain in afterburning combat for
a fairly long period, but only has to fight fairly close to the airfield (i.e cross border
skirmishes) The latter engine is better for an aircraft that has to fly some distance, or
loiter for a long time, before going into combat. However, the pilot can only afford to
stay in afterburning for a short period, before his/her fuel reserves become
dangerously low.
Modern low-bypass military turbofans include the Pratt & Whitney F119, the Eurojet
EJ200 and the General Electric F110, all of which feature a mixed exhaust,
afterburner and variable area propelling nozzle. Non-afterburning engines include the
Rolls-Royce/Turbomeca Adour (afterburning in the SEPECAT Jaguar) and the
unmixed, vectored thrust, Rolls-Royce Pegasus.

High-bypass turbofan engines

Schematic diagram illustrating a 2-spool, high-bypass turbofan engine with an


unmixed exhaust. The low-pressure spool is coloured green and the high-pressure one
purple. Again, the fan (and booster stages) are driven by the low-pressure turbine, but
more stages are required. A mixed exhaust is often employed nowadays
The low specific thrust/high bypass ratio turbofans used in today's civil jetliners (and
some military transport aircraft) evolved from the high specific thrust/low bypass
ratio turbofans used in such aircraft back in the 60's.
Low specific thrust is achieved by replacing the multi-stage fan with a single stage
unit. Unlike some military engines, modern civil turbofans do not have any stationary

inlet guide vanes in front of the fan rotor. The fan is scaled to achieve the desired net
thrust.
The core (or gas generator) of the engine must generate sufficient Core Power to at
least drive the fan at its design flow and pressure ratio. Through improvements in
turbine cooling/material technology, a higher (HP) turbine rotor inlet temperature can
be used, thus facilitating a smaller (and lighter) core and (potentially) improving the
core thermal efficiency. Reducing the core mass flow tends to increase the load on the
LP turbine, so this unit may require additional stages to reduce the average stage
loading and to maintain LP turbine efficiency. Reducing core flow also increases
bypass ratio (5:1, or more, is now common).
Further improvements in core thermal efficiency can be achieved by raising the
overall pressure ratio of the core. Improved blade aerodynamics reduces the number
of extra compressor stages required. With multiple compressors (i.e. LPC, IPC, HPC)
dramatic increases in overall pressure ratio have became possible. Variable geometry
(i.e. stators) enable high pressure ratio compressors to work surge-free at all throttle
settings.

Cutaway diagram of the General Electric CF6-6 engine


The first high-bypass turbofan engine was the General Electric TF39, built to power
the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy military transport aircraft. The civil General Electric CF6
engine used a derived design. Other high-bypass turbofans are the Pratt & Whitney
JT9D, the three-shaft Rolls-Royce RB211 and the CFM International CFM56. More
recent large high-bypass turbofans include the Pratt & Whitney PW4000, the threeshaft Rolls-Royce Trent, the General Electric GE90, and the General Electric GEnx.
The significantly higher thrust provided by high-bypass turbofan engines also made
civil wide-body aircraft practical and economical. In addition to the vastly increased
thrust, these engines are also generally quieter. This is not so much due to the higher
bypass ratio, as to the use of low pressure ratio, single stage, fans, which significantly
reduce specific thrust and, thereby, jet velocity. The combination of a higher overall
pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature improves thermal efficiency. This,
together with a lower specific thrust (better propulsive efficiency), leads to a lower
specific fuel consumption.
For reasons of fuel economy, and also of reduced noise, almost all of today's jet
airliners are powered by high-bypass turbofans. Although modern military aircraft
tend to use low bypass ratio turbofans, military transport aircraft (e.g. C-17 ) mainly
use high bypass ratio turbofans (or turboprops) for fuel efficiency.

The Soviet Union's engine technology was less advanced than the West's and its first
wide-body aircraft, the Ilyushin Il-86, was powered by low-bypass engines. The
Yakovlev Yak-42, a medium-range, rear-engined aircraft seating up to 120 passengers
was the first Soviet aircraft to use high-bypass engines.

Turbofan Configurations
Turbofan engines come in a variety of engine configurations. For a given engine cycle
(i.e. same airflow, bypass ratio, fan pressure ratio, overall pressure ratio and HP
turbine rotor inlet temperature), the choice of turbofan configuration has little impact
upon the design point performance (e.g. net thrust, SFC), as long as overall
component performance is maintained. Off-design performance and stability is,
however, affected by engine configuration.
As the design overall pressure ratio of an engine cycle increases, it becomes more
difficult to throttle the compression system, without encountering an instability
known as compressor surge. This occurs when some of the compressor aerofoils stall
(like the wings of an aircraft) causing a violent change in the direction of the airflow.
However, compressor stall can be avoided, at throttled conditions, by progressively:
1) opening interstage/intercompressor blow-off valves (inefficient)
and/or
2) closing variable stators within the compressor
Most modern American civil turbofans employ a relatively high pressure ratio High
Pressure (HP) Compressor with several rows of variable stators to control surge
margin. However, on the three-spool RB211/Trent the HP Compressor has a modest
pressure ratio and can be throttled-back surge-free, without employing HP
Compressor variable geometry.

Single Shaft Turbofan


Although far from common, the Single Shaft Turbofan is probably the simplest
configuration, comprising a fan and high pressure compressor driven by a single
turbine unit, all on the same shaft. The SNECMA M53, which powers Mirage fighter
aircraft, is an example of a Single Shaft Turbofan. Despite the simplicity of the
turbomachinery configuration, the M53 requires a variable area mixer to facilitate
part-throttle operation.

Aft Fan Turbofan


One of the earliest turbofans was a derivative of the General Electric J79 turbojet,
known as the CJ805, which featured an integrated aft fan/low pressure (LP) turbine
unit located in the turbojet exhaust jetpipe. Hot gas from the turbojet turbine exhaust
expanded through the LP turbine, the fan blades being a radial extension of the
turbine blades. This Aft Fan configuration was later exploited in the General Electric

GE-36 UDF (propfan) Demonstrator of the early 80's. One of the problems with the
Aft Fan configuration is hot gas leakage from the LP turbine to the fan.

Basic Two Spool


Many turbofans have the Basic Two Spool configuration where both the fan and LP
turbine (i.e. LP spool) are mounted on a second (LP) shaft, running concentrically
with the HP spool (i.e. HP compressor driven by HP turbine). The Rolls-Royce
BR710 is typical of this configuration. At the smaller thrust sizes, instead of all-axial
blading, the HP compressor configuration may be axial-centrifugal (e.g. General
Electric CFE738), double-centrifugal or even diagonal/centrifugal (e.g. Pratt &
Whitney Canada PW600).

Boosted Two Spool


Higher overall pressure ratios can be achieved by either raising the HP compressor
pressure ratio or adding an Intermediate Pressure (IP) Compressor between the fan
and HP compressor, to supercharge or boost the latter unit helping to raise the overall
pressure ratio of the engine cycle to the very high levels employed today (i.e. greater
than 40:1, typically). All of the large American turbofans (e.g. General Electric CF6,
GE90 and GEnx plus Pratt & Whitney JT9D and PW4000) feature an IP compressor
mounted on the LP shaft and driven, like the fan, by the LP turbine, the mechanical
speed of which is dictated by the tip speed and diameter of the fan. The high bypass
ratios (i.e. fan duct flow/core flow) used in modern civil turbofans tends to reduce the
relative diameter of the attached IP compressor, causing its mean tip speed to
decrease. Consequently more IPC stages are required to develop the necessary IPC
pressure rise.

Three Spool
Rolls-Royce chose a Three Spool configuration for their large civil turbofans (i.e. the
RB211 and Trent families), where the Intermediate Pressure IP compressor is
mounted on a separate (IP) shaft, running concentrically with the LP and HP shafts,
and is driven by a separate IP Turbine. Consequently, the IP compressor can rotate
faster than the fan, increasing its mean tip speed, thereby reducing the number of IP
stages required for a given IPC pressure rise. However, because the RB211/Trent
designs have a higher IPC pressure rise than the American engines, the HPC pressure
rise is less resulting in a shorter, lighter, more rigid engine. The greater rigidity means
that there is less distortion of the engine casing under 'g' loads during flight, resulting
in less blade tip rubbing and, therefore, a slower in-service deterioration of component
performance and specific fuel consumption.
The Turbo-Union RB199 military turbofan also has a three spool configuration.

Geared Fan
As bypass ratio increases, the mean radius ratio of the fan and LP turbine increases.
Consequently, if the fan is to rotate at its optimum blade speed the LP turbine blading
will run slow, so additional LPT stages will be required, to extract sufficient energy to

drive the fan. Introducing a reduction gearbox, with a suitable gear ratio, between the
LP shaft and the fan, enables both the fan and LP turbine to operate at their optimum
speeds. This is not a popular solution, since high power gearboxes tend to be
unreliable. Typical of this configuration are the long established Honeywell TFE731
and the recent Pratt & Whitney Advanced Technology Fan Integrator (ATFI)
demonstrator engine.

Cycle improvements
Consider a mixed turbofan with a fixed bypass ratio and airflow. Increasing the
overall pressure ratio of the compression system raises the combustor entry
temperature. Therefore, at a fixed fuel flow there is an increase in (HP) turbine rotor
inlet temperature. Although the higher temperature rise across the compression
system implies a larger temperature drop over the turbine system, the mixed nozzle
temperature is unaffected, because the same amount of heat is being added to the
system. There is, however, a rise in nozzle pressure, because overall pressure ratio
increases faster than the turbine expansion ratio, causing an increase in the hot mixer
entry pressure. Consequently, net thrust increases, whilst specific fuel consumption
(fuel flow/net thrust) decreases. A similar trend occurs with unmixed turbofans.
So turbofans can be made more fuel efficient by raising overall pressure ratio and
turbine rotor inlet temperature in unison. However, better turbine materials and/or
improved vane/blade cooling are required to cope with increases in both turbine rotor
inlet temperature and compressor delivery temperature. Increasing the latter may
require better compressor materials.

Thrust growth
Thrust growth is obtained by increasing core power. There are two basic routes
available:
a) hot route: increase HP turbine rotor inlet temperature
b) cold route: increase core mass flow
Both routes require an increase in the combustor fuel flow and, therefore, the heat
energy added to the core stream.
The hot route may require changes in turbine blade/vane materials and/or better
blade/vane cooling. The cold route can be obtained by one of the following:
1. adding T-stages to the LP/IP compression
2. adding a zero-stage to the HP compression
3. improving the compression process, without adding stages (e.g. higher fan hub
pressure ratio)
all of which increase both overall pressure ratio and core airflow.

Alternatively, the core size can be increased, to raise core airflow, without changing
overall pressure ratio. This route is expensive, since a new (upflowed) turbine system
(and possibly a larger IP compressor) is also required.
Changes must also be made to the fan to absorb the extra core power. On a civil
engine, jet noise considerations mean that any significant increase in Take-off thrust
must be accompanied by a corresponding increase in fan mass flow (to maintain a
T/O specific thrust of about 30lbf/lb/s), usually by increasing fan diameter. On
military engines, the fan pressure ratio would probably be increased to improve
specific thrust, jet noise not normally being an important factor.

Technical Discussion
1. Specific Thrust (net thrust/intake airflow) is an important parameter for
turbofans and jet engines in general. Imagine a fan (driven by an appropriately
sized electric motor) operating within a pipe, which is connected to a
propelling nozzle. Fairly obviously, the higher the Fan Pressure Ratio (fan
discharge pressure/fan inlet pressure), the higher the jet velocity and the
corresponding specific thrust. Now imagine we replace this set-up with an
equivalent turbofan - same airflow and same fan pressure ratio. Obviously, the
core of the turbofan must produce sufficient power to drive the fan via the
Low Pressure (LP) Turbine. If we choose a low (HP) Turbine Inlet
Temperature for the gas generator, the core airflow needs to be relatively high
to compensate. The corresponding bypass ratio is therefore relatively low. If
we raise the Turbine Inlet Temperature, the core airflow can be smaller, thus
increasing bypass ratio. Raising turbine inlet temperature tends to increase
thermal efficiency and, therefore, improve fuel efficiency.
2. Naturally, as altitude increases there is a decrease in air density and, therefore,
the net thrust of an engine. There is also a flight speed effect, termed Thrust
Lapse Rate. Consider the approximate equation for net thrust again:

With a high specific thrust (e.g. fighter) engine, the jet velocity is relatively
high, so intuitively one can see that increases in flight velocity have less of an
impact upon net thrust than a medium specific thrust (e.g. trainer) engine,
where the jet velocity is lower. The impact of thrust lapse rate upon a low
specfic thrust (e.g. civil) engine is even more severe. At high flight speeds,
high specific thrust engines can pick-up net thrust through the ram rise in the
intake, but this effect tends to diminish at supersonic speeds because of shock
wave losses.
3. Thrust growth on civil turbofans is usually obtained by increasing fan airflow,
thus preventing the jet noise becoming too high. However, the larger fan
airflow requires more power from the core. This can be achieved by raising
the Overall Pressure Ratio (combustor inlet pressure/intake delivery pressure)
to induce more airflow into the core and by increasing turbine inlet

4.

5.
6.

7.

temperature. Together, these parameters tend to increase core thermal


efficiency and improve fuel efficiency.
Some high bypass ratio civil turbofans use an extremely low area ratio (less
than 1.01), convergent-divergent, nozzle on the bypass (or mixed exhaust)
stream, to control the fan working line. The nozzle acts as if it has variable
geometry. At low flight speeds the nozzle is unchoked (less than a Mach
Number of unity), so the exhaust gas speeds up as it approaches the throat and
then slows down slightly as it reaches the divergent section. Consequently, the
nozzle exit area controls the fan match and, being larger than the throat, pulls
the fan working line slightly away from surge. At higher flight speeds, the ram
rise in the intake increases nozzle pressure ratio to the point where the throat
becomes choked (M=1.0). Under these circumstances, the throat area dictates
the fan match and, being smaller than the exit, pushes the fan working line
slightly towards surge. This is not a problem, since fan surge margin is much
better at high flight speeds.
The off-design behaviour of turbofans is illustrated under compressor map and
turbine map.
Because modern civil turbofans operate at low specific thrust, they only
require a single fan stage to develop the required fan pressure ratio. The
desired overall pressure ratio for the engine cycle is usually achieved by
multiple axial stages on the core compression. Rolls-Royce tend to split the
core compression into two with an intermediate pressure (IP) supercharging
the HP compressor, both units being driven by turbines with a single stage,
mounted on separate shafts. Consequently, the HP compressor need only
develop a modest pressure ratio (e.g.~4.5:1). US civil engines use much higher
HP compressor pressure ratios (e.g. ~23:1 on the General Electric GE90) and
tend to be driven by a two stage HP turbine. Even so, there are usually a few
IP axial stages mounted on the LP shaft, behind the fan, to further supercharge
the core compression system. Civil engines have multi-stage LP turbines, the
number of stages being determined by the bypass ratio, the amount of IP
compression on the LP shaft and the LP turbine blade speed.
Because military engines usually have to be able to fly very fast at Sea Level,
the limit on HP compressor delivery temperature is reached at a fairly modest
design overall pressure ratio, compared with that of a civil engine. Also the
fan pressure ratio is relatively high, to achieve a medium to high specific
thrust. Consequently, modern military turbofans usually only have 5 or 6 HP
compressor stages and only require a single stage HP turbine. Low bypass
ratio military turbofans usually have one LP turbine stage, but higher bypass
ratio engines need two stages. In theory, by adding IP compressor stages, a
modern military turbofan HP compressor could be used in a civil turbofan
derivative, but the core would tend to be too small for high thrust applications.

Recent developments in blade technology


The turbine blades in a turbofan engine are subject to high heat and stress, and require
special fabrication. New material construction methods and material science have
allowed blades, which were originally polycrystalline (regular metal), to be made
from lined up metallic crystals and more recently mono-crystalline (i.e. single crystal)
blades, which can operate at higher temperatures with less distortion.

Nickel-based superalloys are used for HP turbine blades in almost all of the modern
jet engines. The temperature capabilities of turbine blades have increased mainly
through four approaches: the manufacturing (casting) process, cooling path design,
thermal barrier coating (TBC), and alloy development.
Although turbine blade (and vane) materials have improved over the years, much of
the increase in (HP) turbine inlet temperatures is due to improvements in blade/vane
cooling technology. Relatively cool air is bled from the compression system,
bypassing the combustion process, and enters the hollow blade or vane. After picking
up heat from the blade/vane, the cooling air is dumped into the main gas stream. If the
local gas temperatures are low enough, downstream blades/vanes are uncooled and
solid.
Strictly speaking, cycle-wise the HP Turbine Rotor Inlet Temperature (after the
temperature drop across the HPT stator) is more important than the (HP) turbine inlet
temperature. Although some modern military and civil engines have peak RIT's of the
order of 3300R (2840F) or 1833K (1560C), such temperatures are only experienced
for a short time (during take-off) on civil engines.

Turbofan engine manufacturers


The turbofan engine market is dominated by General Electric, Rolls-Royce plc and
Pratt & Whitney, in order of market share. GE and SNECMA of France have a joint
venture, CFM International which, as the 3rd largest manufacturer in terms of market
share, fits between Rolls Royce and Pratt & Whitney. Rolls Royce and Pratt &
Whitney also have a joint venture, International Aero Engines, specializing in engines
for the Airbus A320 family, whilst finally, Pratt & Whitney and General Electric have
a joint venture, Engine Alliance marketing a range of engines for aircraft such as the
Airbus A380.

General Electric
GE Aircraft Engines, part of the General Electric Conglomerate, currently has the
largest share of the turbofan engine market. Some of their engine models include the
CF6 (available on the Boeing 767, Boeing 747, Airbus A330 and more), GE90 (only
the Boeing 777) and GEnx (developed for the Airbus A350 & Boeing 787 currently in
development) engines. On the military side, GE engines power many U.S. military
aircraft, including the F110, powering 80% of the US Air Force's F-16 Vipers and the
F404 and F414 engines, which power the Navy's F/A-18 Hornet and Super Hornets.
Rolls Royce and General Electric are jointly developing the F136 engine to power the
Joint Strike Fighter.

CFM International
CFM International is a joint venture between GE Aircraft Engines and SNECMA of
France.
They have created the very successful CFM56 series, used on Boeing 737 and Airbus
aircraft.

Rolls-Royce
Rolls-Royce plc is the second largest manufacturer of turbofans and is most noted for
their RB211 and Trent series, as well as their joint venture engines for the Airbus
A320 and Boeing MD-90 families (IAE V2500 with Pratt & Whitney and others), the
Panavia Tornado (Turbo-Union RB199) and the Boeing 717 (BR700). Rolls Royce,
as owners of the Allison Engine Company, have their engines powering the C-130
Hercules and several Embraer regional jets. Rolls-Royce Trent 970s were the first
engines to power the new Airbus A380. It was also Rolls-Royce
Olympus[1]/SNECMA jets that powered the now retired Concorde although they were
turbojets rather than turbofans. The famous thrust vectoring Pegasus[1] engine is the
primary powerplant of the Harrier "Jump Jet" and its derivatives.

Pratt & Whitney


Pratt & Whitney is third behind GE and Rolls-Royce in market share. The JT9D has
the distinction of being chosen by Boeing to power the original Boeing 747 "Jumbo
jet". The PW4000 series is the successor to the JT9D, and powers some Airbus A310,
Airbus A300, Boeing 747, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, and MD-11 aircraft. The
PW4000 is certified for 180-minute ETOPS when used in twinjets. The second family
is the 100 inch (2.5 m) fan engine developed specifically for the Airbus A330 twinjet,
and the third family has a diameter of 112 inch designed to power Boeing 777. The
Pratt & Whitney F119 and its derivative, the F135, power the United States Air
Force's F-22 Raptor and the international F-35 Lightning II, respectively. Rolls Royce
are responsible for the lift fan which will provide the F-35B variants with a STOVL
capability.

Extreme bypass jet engines


In the 1970s Rolls-Royce/SNECMA tested a M45SD-02 turbofan fitted with variable
pitch fan blades to improve handling at ultra low fan pressure ratios and to provide
thrust reverse down to zero aircraft speed. The engine was aimed at ultra quiet STOL
aircraft operating from city centre airports.
In a bid for increased efficiency with speed, a development of the turbofan and
turboprop known as a propfan engine, was created that had an unducted fan. The fan
blades are situated outside of the duct, so that it appears like a turboprop with wide
scimitar-like blades. Both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney/Allison demonstrated
propfan engines in the 1980s. Excessive cabin noise and relatively cheap jet fuel
prevented the engines being put into service.

Terminology
Afterburner
extra combustor immediately upstream of final nozzle (also called reheat)
Average stage loading
constant * (delta temperature)/[(blade speed) * (blade speed) * (number of
stages)]
Bypass

airstream that bypasses the combustor


Bypass ratio
bypass airflow /combustor inlet airflow
Core
turbomachinery handling the airstream that passes through the combustor.
Core power
residual shaft power from turbine expansion to ambient pressure after
deducting core compression power
Core thermal efficiency
core power/power equivalent of fuel flow
Dry
afterburner (if fitted) not lit
EPR
Engine Pressure Ratio
Fan
turbofan LP compressor
Fan pressure ratio
fan outlet total pressure/intake delivery total pressure
Gas generator
engine core
HPC
high pressure compressor
HP compressor
high pressure compressor
HPT
high pressure turbine
HP turbine
high pressure turbine
Intake ram drag
penalty associated with jet engines picking up air from the atmosphere
(conventional rocket motors do not have this drag term, because the oxidiser
travels with the vehicle)
IEPR
Integrated Engine Pressure Ratio
IPC
intermediate pressure compressor
IP compressor
intermediate pressure compressor
IPT
intermediate pressure turbine
IP turbine
intermediate pressure turbine
LPC
low pressure compressor
LP compressor
low pressure compressor
LPT
low pressure turbine
LP turbine
low pressure turbine

Net thrust
nozzle total gross thrust - intake ram drag (excluding nacelle drag, etc, this is
the basic thrust acting on the airframe)
Overall pressure ratio
combustor inlet total pressure/intake delivery total pressure
Overall thermal efficiency
thermal efficiency * propulsive efficiency
Propulsive Efficiency
propulsive power/rate of production of propulsive kinetic energy (maximum
propulsive efficiency occurs when jet velocity equals flight velocity, which
implies zero net thrust!)
SFC
Specific fuel consumption
Specific fuel consumption
total fuel flow/net thrust (proportional to flight velocity/overall thermal
efficiency)
Static pressure
normal meaning of pressure. Excludes any kinetic energy effects
Specific thrust
net thrust/intake airflow
Thermal efficiency
rate of production of propulsive kinetic energy/fuel power
Total fuel flow
combustor (plus any afterburner) fuel flow rate (e.g. lb/s or g/s)
Total pressure
static pressure plus kinetic energy term
Turbine rotor inlet temperature
gas absolute mean temperature at principal (e.g. HP) turbine rotor entry

Other meanings
The Unicode standard includes a turbofan character, #274B, in the dingbats range. Its
official name is "HEAVY EIGHT TEARDROP-SPOKED PROPELLER.
ASTERISK. = turbofan"[2]. In appropriately-configured browsers, it should appear in
quotes here: " ";

Gas turbine

This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator,


and foil bearings.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine that extracts
energy from a flow of hot gasproduced by combustion of gas or fuel oil in a stream of
compressed air. It has an upstream air compressor axial or radial flow mechanically
coupled to a downstream turbine and a combustion chamber in between. Gas turbine
may also refer to just the turbine element.
Energy is released when compressed air is mixed with fuel and ignited in the
combustor. The resulting gases are directed over the turbine's blades, spinning the
turbine, and, mechanically, powering the compressor. Finally, the gases are passed
through a nozzle, generating additional thrust by accelerating the hot exhaust gases by
expansion back to atmospheric pressure.
Energy is extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air and thrust, in any
combination, and used to power aircraft, trains, ships, electrical generators, and even
tanks.

History
1500: The "Chimney Jack" was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci which was turning a
roasting spit. Hot air from a fire rose through a series of fans which connect and turn
the roasting spit.
1629: Jets of steam rotated a turbine that then rotated driven machinery allowed a
stamping mill to be developed by Giovanni Branca.
1678: Ferdinand Verbeist built a model carriage relying on a steam jet for power.
1791: A basic turbine engine was patented with all the same elements as today's
modern gas turbines. The turbine was designed to power a horseless carriage.
1872: The first true gas turbine engine was designed by Dr F. Stolze, but the engine
never ran under its own power.
1897: A steam turbine for propelling a ship was patented by Sir Charles Parsons. This
principle of propulsion is still of some use.
1903: A Norwegian, gidius Elling, was able to build the first gas turbine that was

able to produce more power than needed to run its own components, which was
considered an achievement in a time when knowledge about aerodynamics was
limited. Using rotary compressors and turbines it produced 11 hp (massive for those
days). His work was later used by Sir Frank Whittle.
1914: The first application for a gas turbine engine was filed by Charles Curtis.
1918: One of the leading gas turbine manufacturers of today, General Electric, started
their gas turbine division.
1920. The then current gas flow through passages was developed by Dr A. A. Griffith
to a turbine theory with gas flow past airfoils.
1930. Sir Frank Whittle patented the design for a gas turbine for jet propulsion. His
work on gas propulsion relied on the work from all those who had previously worked
in the same field and he has himself stated that his invention would be hard to achieve
without the works of gidius Elling. The first successful use of his engine was in
April 1937.
1934. Ral Pateras de Pescara patented the free-piston engine as a gas generator for
gas turbines.
1936. Hans von Ohain and Max Hahn in Germany developed their own patented
engine design at the same time that Sir Frank Whittle was developing his design in
England.

Theory of operation
Gas turbines are described thermodynamically by the Brayton cycle, in which air is
compressed isentropically, combustion occurs at constant pressure, and expansion
over the turbine occurs isentropically back to the starting pressure.
In practice, friction, and turbulence cause:
a) non-isentropic compression - for a given overall pressure ratio, the
compressor delivery temperature is higher than ideal.
b) non-isentropic expansion - although the turbine temperature drop necessary
to drive the compressor is unaffected, the associated pressure ratio is greater,
which decreases the expansion available to provide useful work.
c) pressure losses in the air intake, combustor and exhaust - reduces the
expansion available to provide useful work.

As with all cyclic heat engines, higher combustion temperature means greater
efficiency. The limiting factor is the ability of the steel, nickel, ceramic, or other
materials that make up the engine to withstand heat and pressure. Considerable
engineering goes into keeping the turbine parts cool. Most turbines also try to recover
exhaust heat, which otherwise is wasted energy. Recuperators are heat exchangers
that pass exhaust heat to the compressed air, prior to combustion. Combined cycle
designs pass waste heat to steam turbine systems. And combined heat and power (cogeneration) uses waste heat for hot water production.
Mechanically, gas turbines can be considerably less complex than internal combustion
piston engines. Simple turbines might have one moving part: the
shaft/compressor/turbine/alternator-rotor assembly (see image above), not counting
the fuel system.
More sophisticated turbines (such as those found in modern jet engines) may have
multiple shafts (spools), hundreds of turbine blades, movable stator blades, and a vast
system of complex piping, combustors and heat exchangers.
As a general rule, the smaller the engine the higher the rotation rate of the shaft(s)
needs to be to maintain tip speed. Turbine blade tip speed determines the maximum
pressure that can be gained, independent of the size of the engine. Jet engines operate
around 10,000 rpm and micro turbines around 100,000 rpm.
Thrust bearings and journal bearings are a critical part of design. Traditionally, they
have been hydrodynamic oil bearings, or oil-cooled ball bearings. This is giving way
to foil bearings, which have been successfully used in micro turbines and auxiliary
power units.

Jet engines
Jet engines are gas turbines optimized to produce thrust from the exhaust gases, or
from ducted fans connected to the gas turbines. Jet engines that produce thrust
primarily from the direct impulse of exhaust gases are often called turbojets, whereas
those that generate most of their thrust from the action of a ducted fan are often called
turbofans or (rarely) fanjets.

Auxiliary power units


Auxiliary power units (APUs) are small gas turbines designed for auxiliary power of
larger machines, such as those inside an aircraft. They supply compressed air for
aircraft ventilation (with an appropriate compressor design), start-up power for larger
jet engines, and electrical and hydraulic power. These are not to be confused with the
auxiliary propulsion units, also abbreviated APUs, aboard the gas-turbine-powered
Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided-missile frigates. The Perrys' APUs are large electric
motors that provide maneuvering help in close waters, or emergency backup if the gas
turbines are not working.

Gas turbines for electrical power production

GE H series power generation gas turbine. This 480-megawatt unit has a rated thermal
efficiency of 60% in combined cycle configurations.
Industrial gas turbines range in size from truck-mounted mobile plants to enormous,
complex systems. They can be particularly efficient up to 60% when waste heat
from the gas turbine is recovered by a heat recovery steam generator to power a
conventional steam turbine in a combined cycle configuration. They can also be run in
a cogeneration configuration: the exhaust is used for space or water heating, or drives
an absorption chiller for cooling or refrigeration. A cogeneration configuration can be
over 90% efficient. The power turbines in the largest industrial gas turbines operate at
3,000 or 3,600 rpm to match the AC power grid frequency and to avoid the need for a
reduction gearbox. Such engines require a dedicated enclosure.
Simple cycle gas turbines in the power industry require smaller capital investment
than coal, nuclear or even combined cycle natural gas plants and can be designed to
generate small or large amounts of power. Also, the actual construction process can
take as little as several weeks to a few months, compared to years for base load power
plants. Their other main advantage is the ability to be turned on and off within
minutes, supplying power during peak demand. Since they are less efficient than
combined cycle plants, they are usually used as peaking power plants, which operate
anywhere from several hours per day to a couple dozen hours per year, depending on
the electricity demand and the generating capacity of the region. In areas with a
shortage of base load and load following power plant capacity, a gas turbine power
plant may regularly operate during most hours of the day and even into the evening. A
typical large simple cycle gas turbine may produce 100 to 300 megawatts of power
and have 35 to 40% thermal efficiency. The most efficient turbines have reached 46%
efficiency. [1]

Turboshaft engines
Turboshaft engines are often used to drive compression trains (for example in gas
pumping stations or natural gas liquefaction plants)and are used to power almost all
modern helicopters. The first shaft bears the compressor and the high speed turbine

(often referred to as Gas Generator or "N1"), while the second shaft bears the low
speed turbine (or Power Turbine or "N2"). This arrangement is used to increase
speed and power output flexibility.

Scale jet engines


Also known as:

Miniature Gas Turbines


Micro-jets

Many model engineers relish the challenge of re-creating the grand engineering feats
of today as tiny working models. Naturally, the idea of re-creating a powerful engine
such as the jet, fascinated hobbyists since the very first full size engines were powered
up by Hans von Ohain and Frank Whittle back in the 1930s.
Recreating machines such as engines to a different scale is not easy. Because of the
square-cube law, the behaviour of many machines does not always scale up or down
at the same rate as the machine's size (and often not even in a linear way), usually at
best causing a dramatic loss of power or efficiency, and at worst causing them not to
work at all. An automobile engine, for example, will not work if reproduced in the
same shape at the size of a human hand.
With this in mind the pioneer of modern Micro-Jets, Kurt Schreckling, produced one
of the world's first Micro-Turbines, the FD3/67. This engine can produce up to 22
newtons of thrust, and can be built by most mechanically minded people with basic
engineering tools, such as a metal lathe. Its radial compressor, which is cold, is small
and the hot axial turbine is large experiencing more centrifugal forces, meaning that
this design is limited by Mach number. Guiding vanes are used to hold the starter,
after the compressor and before the turbine, but not after that. No bypass within the
engine is used.

Microturbines

A micro turbine designed for DARPA by M-Dot


Also known as:

Turbo alternators
Gensets
MicroTurbine (registered trademark of Capstone Turbine Corporation)
Turbogenerator (registered tradename of Honeywell Power Systems, Inc.)

Microturbines are becoming wide spread for distributed power and combined heat
and power applications. They range from handheld units producing less than a
kilowatt to commercial sized systems that produce tens or hundreds of kilowatts.
Part of their success is due to advances in electronics, which allows unattended
operation and interfacing with the commercial power grid. Electronic power
switching technology eliminates the need for the generator to be synchronized with
the power grid. This allows the generator to be integrated with the turbine shaft, and
to double as the starter motor.
Microturbine systems have many advantages over reciprocating engine generators,
such as higher power density (with respect to footprint and weight), extremely low
emissions and few, or just one, moving part. Those designed with foil bearings and
air-cooling operate without oil, coolants or other hazardous materials. Microturbines
also have the advantage of having the majority of their waste heat contained in their
relatively high temperature exhaust, whereas the waste heat of recriprocating engines
is split between its exhaust and cooling system. [2] However, reciprocating engine
generators are quicker to respond to changes in output power requirement and are
usually slightly more efficient, although the efficiency of microturbines is increasing.
Microturbines also lose more efficiency at low power levels than reciprocating
engines.
They accept most commercial fuels, such as natural gas, propane, diesel and kerosene.
They are also able to produce renewable energy when fueled with biogas from
landfills and sewage treatment plants.
Microturbine designs usually consist of a single stage radial compressor, a single
stage radial turbine and a recuperator. Recuperators are difficult to design and
manufacture because they operate under high pressure and temperature differentials.
Exhaust heat can be used for water heating, drying processes or absorption chillers,
which create cold for air conditioning from heat energy instead of electric energy.
Typical microturbine efficiencies are 25 to 35%. When in a combined heat and power
cogeneration system, efficiencies of greater than 80% are commonly achieved.
MIT started its millimeter size turbine engine project in the middle of the 1990's when
Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Alan H. Epstein considered the possibility
of creating a personal turbine which will be able to meet all the demands of a modern
person's electrical needs, just like a large turbine can meet the electricity demands of a
small city. According to Professor Epstein current commercial Li-ion rechargeable
batteries deliver about 120-150 w-hr/kg. MIT's millimeter size turbine will deliver
500-700 whr/kg in the near term, rising to 1200-1500 whr/kg in the longer term[3].

Gas turbines in vehicles

Rover JET1
Gas turbines are used on ships, locomotives, helicopters, and in tanks. A number of
experiments have been conducted with gas turbine powered automobiles.
In 1950, designer F.R. Bell and Chief Engineer Maurice Wilks from British car
manufacturers Rover unveiled the first car powered with a gas turbine engine. The
two-seater JET1 had the engine positioned behind the seats, air intake grilles on either
side of the car, and exhaust outlets on the top of the tail. During tests, the car reached
top speeds of 140 km/h, at a turbine speed of 50,000 rpm. The car ran on petrol,
paraffin or diesel oil, but fuel consumption problems proved insurmountable for a
production car. It is currently on display at the London Science Museum. Rover and
the BRM Formula One team joined forces to produce a gas turbine powered coupe,
which entered the 1963 24 hours of Le Mans, driven by Graham Hill and Richie
Ginther. It averaged 107.8 mph (173 km/h) and had a top speed of 142 mph
(229 km/h). In 1971 Lotus principal Colin Chapman introduced the Lotus 56B F1 car,
powered by a Pratt & Whitney gas turbine. Colin Chapman had a reputation of
building radical championship-winning cars, but had to abandon the project because
there were too many problems with turbo lag. The fictional Batmobile is often said to
be powered by a gas turbine or a jet engine.
American car manufacturer Chrysler demonstrated several prototype gas turbinepowered cars from the early 1950s through the early 1980s. Chrysler built fifty
Chrysler Turbine Cars in 1963 and conducted the only consumer trial of gas turbinepowered cars.
In 1993 General Motors introduced the first commercial gas turbine powered hybrid
vehicleas a limited production run of the EV-1. A Williams International 40 kW
turbine drove an alternator which powered the battery-electric powertrain. The turbine
design included a recuperator.
Gas turbines offer a high-powered engine in a very small and light package. However,
they are not as responsive and efficient as small piston engines over the wide range of
RPMs and powers needed in vehicle applications. Also, turbines have historically
been more expensive to produce than piston engines, though this is partly because
piston engines have been mass-produced in huge quantities for decades, while small
turbines are rarities. It is also worth noting that a key advantage of jets and turboprops
for aeroplane propulsion - their superior performance at high altitude compared to
piston engines, particularly naturally-aspirated ones - is irrelevant in automobile
applications. Their power-to-weight advantage is far less important. Their use in

hybrids reduces the responsiveness problem, and the emergence of the continuously
variable transmission may also help alleviate this problem. Another, recent, idea is the
'Multi-Pressure' turbine proposed by Robin Mackay of Agile Turbines. This concept
is expected to provide three different power levels - each of them exhibiting high
efficiency and low emission levels.
The MTT Turbine SUPERBIKE appeared in 2000 (hence the designation of Y2K
Superbike by MTT) and is the first production motorcycle powered by a jet engine specifically, a Rolls-Royce Allison model 250 turboshaft engine, producing about
283kW (380bhp). Speed-tested to 365km/h or 227mph (according to some stories, the
testing team ran out of road during the test), it holds the Guinness World Records for
most powerful production motorcycle and most expensive production motorcycle,
with a price tag of US$185,000.
Use of gas turbines in military tanks has been more successful. In the 1950s, a
Conqueror heavy tank was experimentally fitted with a Parsons 650-hp gas turbine,
and they have been used as auxiliary power units in several other production models.
The first production turbine tank was the Swedish Strv 103A. Today, the
Soviet/Russian T-80 and U.S. M1 Abrams tanks use gas turbine engines. See tank for
more details.
Several locomotive classes have been powered by gas turbines, the most recent
incarnation being Bombardier's JetTrain. See Gas turbine-electric locomotive for
more information.

Naval use
Gas turbines are used in many naval vessels, where they are valued for their high
power-to-weight ratio and their ships' resulting acceleration and ability to get
underway quickly. The first gas-turbine-powered naval vessel was the Royal Navy's
Motor Gun Boat MGB 2009 (formerly MGB 509) converted in 1947. The first large,
gas-turbine powered ships, were the Royal Navy's Type 81 (Tribal class) frigates, the
first of which (HMS Ashanti) was commissioned in 1961.
The Swedish Navy produced 6 Spica class torpedoboats between 1966 and 1967
powered by 3 Bristol Siddeley Proteus 1282, each delivering 4300 hp. They were later
joined by 6 upgraded Norrkping class ships, still with the same engines. With their
aft torpedo tubes replaced by antishipping missiles they served as missile boats until
the last was retired in 1986.
The Finnish Navy issued two Turunmaa class corvettes, Turunmaa and Karjala, in
1968. They were equipped with one 16 000 shp Rolls-Royce Olympus TMB3 gas
turbine and two Wrtsil marine diesels for slower speeds. Before the waterjetpropulsion Helsinki class missile boats, they were the fastest vessels in the Finnish
Navy; they regularly achieved 37 knot speeds, but they are known to have achieved
45 knots when the restriction mechanism of the turbine was geared off. The
Turunmaas were paid off in 2002. Karjala is today a museum ship in Turku, and
Turunmaa serves as a flotating machine shop and training ship for Satakunta
Polytechnical College.

The next series of major naval vessels were the four Canadian Iroquois class
helicopter carrying destroyers first commissioned in 1972. They used 2 FT-4 main
propulsion engines, 2 FT-12 cruise engines and 3 Solar Saturn 750 KW generators.
The first U.S. gas-turbine powered ships were the U.S. Coast Guard's Hamilton-class
High Endurance Cutters the first of which (USCGC Hamilton) commissioned in 1967.
Since then, they have powered the U.S. Navy's Perry-class frigates, Spruance-class
and Arleigh Burke-class destroyers, and Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruisers.
USS Makin Island, a modified Wasp-class amphibious assault ship, is to be the Navy's
first amphib powered by gas turbines.

Commercial Use
Three Rolls-Royce gas turbines power the 118 WallyPower, a 118 foot super-yacht.
These engines combine for a total of 16,800HP allowing this 118 foot boat to
maintain speeds of 60 knots or 70mph.
Another example of commercial usage of gas turbines in a ship, are the HSS class
fastcraft ferry fleet. HSS 1500-class Stena Explorer, Stena Voyager and Stena
Discovery vessels use combined gas and gas (COGAG) setups of twin GE LM2500
plus GE LM1600 power for a total of 68,000kW. The slightly smaller HSS 900-class
Stena Carisma, uses twin ABBSTAL GT35 turbines rated at 34,000kW gross.

Amateur gas turbines


A popular hobby is to construct a gas turbine from an automotive turbocharger. A
combustion chamber is fabricated and plumbed between the compressor and turbine.
Like many technology based hobbies, they tend to give rise to manufacturing
businesses over time. Several small companies manufacture small turbines and parts
for the amateur. See external links for resources.

Advances in technology
Gas turbine technology has steadily advanced since its inception and continues to
evolve; research is active in producing ever smaller gas turbines. Computer design,
specifically CFD and finite element analysis along with material advances, has
allowed higher compression ratios and temperatures, more efficient combustion,
better cooling of engine parts and reduced emissions. On the emissions side, the
challenge in technology is actually getting a catalytic combustor running properly in
order to achieve single digit NOx emissions to cope with the latest regulations.
Additionally, compliant foil bearings were commercially introduced to gas turbines in
the 1990s. They can withstand over a hundred thousand start/stop cycles and
eliminated the need for an oil system.
On another front, microelectronics and power switching technology have enabled
commercially viable micro turbines for distributed and vehicle power.

Crankshaft

Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black)

Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942

Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. (E) Exhaust
camshaft, (I) Intake camshaft, (S) Spark plug, (V) Valves, (P) Piston, (R) Connecting
rod, (C) Crankshaft, (W) Water jacket for coolant flow.
The crankshaft, sometimes casually abbreviated to crank, is the part of an engine
which translates reciprocating linear piston motion into rotation. It typically connects
to a flywheel, to reduce the pulsation characteristic of the four-stroke cycle, and
sometimes a torsional or vibrational damper at the opposite end, to reduce the torsion
vibrations often caused along the length of the crankshaft by the cylinders farthest
from the output end acting on the torsional elasticity of the metal. The crankshaft was
invented by the inventor Al-Jazari in the 12th century.

Design
Large engines are usually multicylinder to reduce pulsations from individual firing
strokes, with more than one piston attached to a more complex crankshaft; but many
small engines, such as those found in mopeds or garden machinery, are single
cylinder and use only a single piston, simplifying crankshaft design. The crankshaft
has a linear axis about which it rotates, typically with several bearing journals riding
on replaceable bearings held in the engine block, the main bearings. As the crankshaft
undergoes a great deal of sideways load from each cylinder in a multicylinder engine,
it must be supported by several such bearings, not just one at each end; this was also a
factor in the rise of V8 engines with their shorter crankshafts in preference to straight8 engines, whose long crankshafts suffered from an unacceptable amount of flex
when engine designs began using a higher compression ratio and improved-breathing
over head valves allowed higher RPM's. High performance engines will often have
more main bearings than their lower performance cousins, for this reason. In addition,
to convert the reciprocating motion into rotation, the crankshaft has "crank throws" or
"crank pins", additional bearing surfaces whose axis is offset from that of the crank, to
which the "big ends" of the connecting rods from each cylinder attach. The distance
of the axis of the crank throws from the axis of the crankshaft determines the piston
stroke measurement, and thus engine displacement; a common way to increase the
low-RPM torque of an engine is to increase the stroke. This also increases the
reciprocating vibration, however, limiting the high RPM capability of the engine; in
compensation, it improves the low speed operation of the engine, as the longer intake
stroke through smaller valve(s) results in greater turbulence and mixing of the intake
charge. For this reason, even such high speed production engines as current Honda

engines are classified as long-stroke, in that the stroke is larger than the diameter of
the cylinder bore. In production V or flat engines, neighboring connecting rods attach
side by side to the same crank throw, simplifying crank design.
The configuration and number of pistons in relation to each other and the crank leads
to straight, V or flat engines. The same basic engine block can be used with different
crankshafts, however, to alter the firing order; for instance, the 90 degree V6 engine
configuration, usually derived by using six cylinders of a V8 engine with what is
basically a shortened version of the V8 crankshaft, produces an engine with an
inherent pulsation in the power flow due to the "missing" two cylinders, often reduced
by use of balance shafts. The same engine, however, can be made to provide evenly
spaced power pulses by using a crankshaft with an individual crank throw for each
cylinder, spaced so that the pistons are actually phased 60 degrees apart, as in the GM
3800 engine. Similarly, while production V8 engines use 4 crank throws spaced 90
degrees apart, racing engines often use a "flat" crankshaft with throws spaced 180
degrees apart, accounting for the higher pitched, smoother sound of IRL engines
compared to NASCAR engines, for example. In engines other than the flat
configuration, it is necessary to provide counterweights for the reciprocating mass of
each piston and connecting rod; these are typically cast as part of the crankshaft, but
occasionally are bolt-on pieces. This adds considerably to the weight of the
crankshaft; crankshafts from Volkswagen, Porsche, and Corvair flat engines, lacking
counterweights, are easily carried around by hand, compared to crankshafts for inline
or V engines, which need to be handled and transported as heavy chunks of metal.
Many early aircraft engines (and a few in other applications) had the crankshaft fixed
to the airframe and instead the cylinders rotated, known as a radial engine design.
In the Wankel engine, also called a rotary engine, the rotors drive the eccentric shaft,
which can be considered the equivalent of the crankshaft in a piston engine.

Construction
Crankshafts can be forged or cast from iron. They can be machined out of a single
billet of forged steel. A disadvantage to billet crankshafts is that the grain structure is
uni-directional. The only real advantage to billet crankshafts is its capability to
produce very low amounts of custom designed crankshafts. Untreated mild steel is
only used for engines in models or other such applications, where the engine runs but
does not supply high power. Cast crankshafts are usually found in low cost production
engines, where as now more and more automotive manufacturers are using forged
crankshafts in need of its durability for todays high powered engines (not just high
performance cars, but mid-ranged vehicles). The rough casting or forging is machined
to size and shape, the holes are drilled, the main and connecting rod bearing journals
are precision ground and case hardened, and the appropriate holes are threaded.
Germany's ThyssenKrupp and India's Bharat Forge Ltd are the largest manufacturers
of crankshafts. They use forging to make crankshafts, axle beams, steering knuckles
and other automobile components.

Stress analysis of crankshaft


The crankshaft is subjected to various forces but it needs to be checked in two
positions. First, failure may occur at the position of maximum bending. In such a
condition the failure is due to bending and the pressure in the cylinder is maximal.
Second, the crank may fail due to twisting, so the crankpin needs to be checked for
shear at the position of maximal twisting. The pressure at this position is not the
maximal pressure, but a fraction of maximal pressure.

Fuel injection
Fuel injection is a means of metering fuel into an internal combustion engine. In
modern automotive applications, fuel metering is one of several functions performed
by an "engine management system".
For gasoline engines, carburetors were the predominant method to meter fuel before
the widespread use of fuel injection. However, a wide variety of injection systems
have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine.
The primary functional difference between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel
injection atomizes the fuel by forcibly pumping it through a small nozzle under high
pressure, while a carburetor relies on the vacuum created by intake air rushing
through it to add the fuel to the airstream.
The fuel injector is only a nozzle and a valve: the power to inject the fuel comes from
further back in the fuel supply, from a pump or a pressure container.

Objectives
The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the central
task of supplying fuel to the combustion process, but it is a design decision how a
particular system will be optimized. There are several competing objectives such as:

power output
fuel efficiency
emissions performance
ability to accommodate alternative fuels
durability
reliability
driveability and smooth operation
initial cost
maintenance cost
diagnostic capability
range of environmental operation

Certain combinations of these goals are conflicting, and it is impractical for a single
engine control system to fully optimize all criteria simultaneously. In practice,
automotive engineers strive to best satisfy a customer's needs competitively. The
modern digital electronic fuel injection system is far more capable at optimizing these
competing objectives than a carburetor.

Benefits
Engine operation
Operational benefits to the driver of a fuel-injected car include smoother and more
dependable engine response during quick throttle transitions, easier and more
dependable engine starting, better operation at extremely high or low ambient
temperatures, reduced maintenance intervals, and increased fuel efficiency.
An engine's air/fuel ratio must be accurately controlled under all operating conditions
to achieve the desired engine performance, emissions, driveability, and fuel economy.
Modern electronic fuel injection systems meter fuel very accurately and precisely, and
closed loop fuel control based on feedback from an Oxygen sensor (or "O2 sensor")
lets fuel-injected engines run considerably cleaner than comparable carbureted
engines. Properly-designed fuel injection systems can react faster and more precisely
to rapidly changing inputs such as rapid throttle movements, and can tailor fuel
distribution to closely match the engine's needs across a wider range of operating
conditions such as load, ambient temperature, operating temperature, fuel quality, and
altitude (i.e., barometric pressure).

Emissions, efficiency, and power


Fuel injection generally delivers a more accurate and equal mass of fuel to each
cylinder of the engine than can a carburetor, thus improving the cylinder-to-cylinder
distribution. Exhaust Emissions are cleaner, not only because the more precise and
accurate fuel metering reduces the concentration of toxic chemicals leaving the
engine, but because exhaust cleanup devices such as the catalytic converter can be
optimized to operate much more efficiently given exhaust of precise and predictable
composition.
Fuel injection generally increases engine efficiency. With the improved cylinder-tocylinder fuel distribution provided by fuel injection, less fuel is needed for the same
power output. When cylinder-to-cylinder distribution is less than ideal, as is always
the case to some degree, some cylinders receive excess fuel as a side effect of
ensuring that all cylinders receive sufficient fuel. Power output is asymmetrical with
respect to air/fuel ratio; burning extra fuel in the rich cylinders does not reduce power
nearly as quickly as burning too little fuel in the lean cylinders. However, richrunning cylinders are undesirable from the standpoint of exhaust emissions, fuel
efficiency, engine wear, and engine oil contamination. Deviations from perfect
air/fuel distribution, however subtle, affect the emissions, by not letting the
combustion events be at the chemically ideal (stoichiometric) air/fuel ratio. Grosser
distribution problems eventually begin to reduce efficiency, and the grossest
distribution issues finally affect power. Increasingly poorer air/fuel distribution affects

emissions, efficiency, and power, in that order. By optimizing the homogeneity of


cylinder-to-cylinder mixture distribution, all the cylinders approach their maximum
power potential and the engine's overall power output improves.
A fuel-injected engine often produces more power than an equivalent carbureted
engine. Fuel injection alone does not necessarily increase an engine's maximum
potential output, for increased airflow is needed to burn more fuel to generate more
heat to generate more output. The combustion process converts the fuel's chemical
energy into heat energy, whether the fuel is supplied by fuel injectors or a carburetor.
However, airflow is often improved with fuel injection, the components of which
allow more design freedom to improve the air's path into the engine. In contrast, a
carburetor's mounting options are limited because it is larger, it must be carefully
oriented with respect to gravity, and it must be equidistant from each of the engine's
cylinders to the maximum practicable degree. These design constraints generally
compromise airflow into the engine. Furthermore, a carburetor relies on a draginducing venturi to create a local air pressure difference, which forces the fuel into the
air stream. The flow loss caused by the venturi, however, is small compared to other
flow losses in the induction system. In a well-designed carburetor induction system,
the venturi is not a significant airflow restriction. Aside from airflow considerations,
fuel injection offers a more homogeneous air/fuel mixture due to better atomization of
the fuel entering the cylinders.

Supersession of carburetors
Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, various federal, state and local governments
conducted studies into the numerous sources of air pollution. These studies ultimately
attributed a significant portion of air pollution to the automobile, and concluded air
pollution is not bounded by local political boundaries. At that time, such minimal
emission control regulations as existed were promulgated at the municipal or,
occasionally, the state level. The ineffective local regulations were gradually
supplanted by more comprehensive state and federal regulations. By 1967 the state of
California (Governor Reagan), created the California Air Resources Board, and in
1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was formed. Both agencies now
create and enforce emission regulations for automobiles, as well as for many other
sources. Similar agencies and regulations were contemporaneously developed and
implemented in Europe, Australia, and Japan.
There are three primary types of toxic emissions from an internal combustion engine:
Carbon Monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbons (HC), and oxides of Nitrogen (NOx).
CO and HC result from incomplete combustion of fuel due to insufficient Oxygen in
the combustion chamber. NOx, in contrast, results from excessive Oxygen in the
combustion chamber. The opposite causes of these pollutants makes it difficult to
control all three simultaneously.
The unburned portion of fuel associated with high CO and HC emissions was
traditionally considered trivial to fuel economy, and therefore commercially
irrelevant. However, auto manufacturers were eventually motivated to address this
issue by emission regulations and increasing demand for fuel economy.

The ultimate combustion goal is to match each molecule of fuel with a corresponding
molecule of oxygen so that neither has any molecules remaining after combustion in
the engine and catalytic converter. Such a balanced condition is known as
stoichiometry. Extensive carburetor modifications and complexities were needed to
approach stoichiometric engine operation in order to comply with increasingly-strict
US exhaust emission regulations of the 1970s and 1980s. This increase in complexity
gradually eroded and then reversed the simplicity, cost, and packaging advantages
carburetors had traditionally offered. Fuel injection appeared first on American-made
cars in the late 1950s, such as the 1958 Chrysler products equipped with Bendix'
ElectroJector, and 1957-1965 Rochester fuel injected Chevrolet Corvettes. About a
decade later, more practical fuel injection systems were introduced in European-made
cars. Fuel injection was phased in through the latter '70s and '80s at an accelerating
rate, with the US and German markets leading and the UK and Commonwealth
markets lagging somewhat, and since the early 1990s, almost all gasoline passenger
cars sold in first world markets like the United States, Europe, Japan, and Australia
have come equipped with electronic fuel injection (EFI). Many motorcycles still
utilize carbureted engines, though all current high-performance designs have switched
to EFI.
Fuel injection systems have evolved significantly since the mid 1980s. Current
systems provide an accurate, reliable and cost-effective method of metering fuel and
providing maximum engine efficiency with clean exhaust emissions, which is why
EFI systems have replaced carburetors in the marketplace. EFI is becoming more
reliable and less expensive through widespread usage. At the same time, carburetors
are becoming less available, and more expensive. Even marine applications are
adopting EFI as reliability improves. Virtually all internal combustion engines,
including motorcycles, off-road vehicles, and outdoor power equipment, may
eventually use some form of fuel injection.
It should be noted that carburetion remains a less costly alternative where strict
emission regulations and advanced vehicle diagnostic and repair infrastructure do not
exist, as in developing countries. Fuel injection is gradually replacing carburetors in
these nations too as they adopt emission regulations conceptually similar to those in
force in Europe, Japan, Australia and North America.

Basic function
The process of determining the amount of fuel, and its delivery into the engine, are
known as fuel metering. Early injection systems used mechanical methods to meter
fuel (non electronic, or mechanical fuel injection). Modern systems are nearly all
electronic, and use an electronic solenoid (the injector) to inject the fuel. An
electronic engine control unit calculates the mass of fuel to inject.
The fuel injector acts as the fuel-dispensing nozzle. It injects liquid fuel directly into
the engine's air stream. In almost all cases this requires an external pump. The pump
and injector are only two of several components in a complete fuel injection system.
In contrast to an EFI system, a carburetor directs the induction air through a venturi,
which generates a minute difference in air pressure. The minute air pressure

differences both emulsify (premix fuel with air) the fuel, and then acts as the force to
push the mixture from the carburetor nozzle into the induction air stream. As more air
enters the engine, a greater pressure difference is generated, and more fuel is metered
into the engine. A carburetor is a self-contained fuel metering system, and is cost
competitive when compared to a complete EFI system.
An EFI system requires several peripheral components in addition to the injector(s),
in order to duplicate all the functions of a carburetor. A point worth noting during
times of fuel metering repair is that EFI systems are prone to diagnostic ambiguity. A
single carburetor replacement can accomplish what might require numerous repair
attempts to identify which one of the several EFI system components is
malfunctioning. On the other hand, EFI systems require little regular maintenance; a
carburetor typically requires seasonal and/or altitude adjustments.

Type of fuel
A fuel injection system is designed and calibrated specifically for the type(s) of fuel it
will handle: Autogas (LPG, also known as propane), gasoline (petrol), ethanol,
methanol, methane (natural gas), hydrogen or diesel. The majority of fuel injection
systems are for gasoline or diesel applications. With the advent of electronic fuel
injection, the diesel and gasoline hardware has become quite similar. EFI's
programmable firmware has permitted common hardware to be used with multiple
different fuels.

Diesel Fuel
o At one time, nearly all diesel engines used high-pressure, purely
mechanical injection, without electronic control. Present diesels are
rapidly adopting EFI, which is based on an electronic fuel injector
similar in basic construction to a modern gasoline injector, although
using considerably higher injection pressures.
Gasoline Fuel
o Prior to 1969, it was rare for a gasoline engine to be equipped with fuel
injection, and those few extant systems were generally low-pressure
mechanical designs incorporating rather primitive technology. These
early systems were generally used on exotic performance vehicles,
such as the early V8 powered Corvettes, or for racing.
o Robert Bosch GmbH, and Bendix introduced the first electronic
injection systems starting in the 1950s, and they formed the conceptual
basis of today's EFI control strategies. (#Evolution)
Alternative Fuels (autogas (LPG), ethanol, methanol, natural gas, hydrogen)
o The basic components of a gasoline EFI system can also be used with
some alternative fuels, with appropriate modification. Unique fuel
metering values (the calibration contained within the software
instructions) are required to accommodate each type of fuel. Virtually
all flexible-fuel vehicles use electronic fuel injection. With gaseous
fuels, some system components are of completely different design but
are similar in operating principle.

Detailed function
Note: These examples specifically apply to a modern EFI gasoline engine. Parallels
to fuels other than gasoline can be made, but only conceptually.

Typical EFI components

Cut through diagram of a typical fuel injector.

Injectors
Fuel Pump
Fuel Pressure Regulator
ECM - Engine Control Module; includes a digital computer and circuitry to
communicate with sensors and control outputs.
Wiring Harness
Various Sensors (Some of the sensors required are listed here.)

Crank/Cam Position: Hall effect sensor


Airflow: MAF sensor, sometimes this is inferred with a MAP sensor
Exhaust Gas Oxygen: O2 Sensor, Oxygen sensor, EGO sensor, UEGO
sensor

Functional description
Central to an EFI system is a computer called the Engine Control Unit (ECU), which
monitors engine operating parameters via various sensors. The ECU interprets these
parameters in order to calculate the appropriate amount of fuel to be injected, among
other tasks, and controls engine operation by manipulating fuel and/or air flow as well
as other variables. The optimum amount of injected fuel depends on conditions such
as engine and ambient temperatures, engine speed and workload, and exhaust gas
composition.
The electronic fuel injector is normally closed, and opens to inject pressurised fuel as
long as electricity is applied to the injector's solenoid coil. The duration of this
operation, called pulse width, is proportional to the amount of fuel desired. The
electric pulse may applied in closely-controlled sequence with the valve events on

each individual cylinder (in a sequential fuel injection system), or in groups of less
than the total number of injectors (in a batch fire system).
Since the nature of fuel injection dispenses fuel in discrete amounts, and since the
nature of the 4-stroke-cycle engine has discrete induction (air-intake) events, the ECU
calculates fuel in discrete amounts. In a sequential system, the injected fuel mass is
tailored for each individual induction event. Every induction event, of every cylinder,
of the entire engine, is a separate fuel mass calculation, and each injector receives a
unique pulse width based on that cylinder's fuel requirements.
It is necessary to know the mass of air the engine "breathes" during each induction
event. This is proportional to the intake manifold's air pressure/temperature, which is
proportional to throttle position. The amount of air inducted in each intake event is
known as "air-charge", and this can be determined using several methods. (See MAF
sensor, and MAP sensor.)
The three elemental ingredients for combustion are fuel, air and ignition. However,
complete combustion can only occur if the air and fuel is present in the exact
stoichiometric ratio, which allows all the carbon and hydrogen from the fuel to
combine with all the oxygen in the air, with no undesirable polluting leftovers.
Oxygen sensors monitor the amount of oxygen in the exhaust, and the ECU uses this
information to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio in real-time.
To achieve stoichiometry, the air mass flow into the engine is measured and
multiplied by the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio 14.64:1 (by weight) for gasoline. The
required fuel mass that must be injected into the engine is then translated to the
required pulse width for the fuel injector. The stoichiometric ratio changes as a
function of the fuel; diesel, gasoline, ethanol, methanol, propane, methane (natural
gas), or hydrogen.
Deviations from stoichiometry are required during non-standard operating conditions
such as heavy load, or cold operation, in which case, the mixture ratio can range from
10:1 to 18:1 (for gasoline).
Pulse width is inversely related to pressure difference across the injector inlet and
outlet. For example, if the fuel line pressure increases (injector inlet), or the manifold
pressure decreases (injector outlet), a smaller pulse width will admit the same fuel.
Fuel injectors are available in various sizes and spray characteristics as well.
Compensation for these and many other factors are programmed into the ECU's
software.

Sample pulsewidth calculations

Calculate injector pulsewidth from airflow


First the CPU determines the air mass flow rate from the sensors - lbair/min. (The various methods to determine airflow are beyond the scope of
this topic. See MAF sensor, or MAP sensor.)

(lb-air/min) (min/rev) (rev/4-intake-stroke) = (lb-air/intake-stroke)


= (air-charge)

- min/rev is the reciprocal of engine speed (RPM) minutes cancel.


- rev/4-intake-stroke for an 8 cylinder 4-stroke-cycle engine.

(lb-air/intake-stroke) (fuel/air) = (lb-fuel/intake-stroke)

- fuel/air is the desired mixture ratio, usually stoichiometric, but often


different depending on operating conditions.

(lb-fuel/intake-stroke) (1/injector-size) = (pulsewidth/intake-stroke)

- injector-size is the flow capacity of the injector, which in this example is 24lbs/hour if the fuel pressure across the injector is 40 psi.
Combining the above three terms . . .

(lbs-air/min) (min/rev) (rev/4-intake-stroke) (fuel/air)


(1/injector-size) = (pulsewidth/intake-stroke)

Substituting real variables for the 5.0L engine at idle.

(0.55 lb-air/min) (min/700 rev) (rev/4-intake-stroke) (1/14.64)


(h/24-lb) (3,600,000 ms/h) = (2.0 ms/intake-stroke)

Substituting real variables for the 5.0 L engine at maximum power.

(28 lb-air/min) (min/5500 rev) (rev/4-intake-stroke) (1/11.00)


(h/24-lb) (3,600,000 ms/h) = (17.3 ms/intake-stroke)

Injector pulsewidth typically ranges from 2 ms/engine-cycle at idle, to 20


ms/engine-cycle at wide-open throttle. The pulsewidth accuracy is
approximately 0.01 ms; injectors are very precise devices.

Calculate fuel-flow rate from pulsewidth

(Fuel flow rate) (pulsewidth) (engine speed) (number of fuel


injectors)

Looking at it another way:

(Fuel flow rate) (throttle position) (rpm) (cylinders)

Looking at it another way:

(Fuel flow rate) (air-charge) (fuel/air) (rpm) (cylinders)

Substituting real variables for the 5.0 L engine at idle.

(Fuel flow rate) = (2.0 ms/intake-stroke) (hour/3,600,000 ms) (24


lb-fuel/hour) (4-intake-stroke/rev) (700 rev/min) (60 min/h) =
(2.24 lb/h)

Substituting real variables for the 5.0L engine at maximum power.

(Fuel flow rate) = (17.3 ms/intake-stroke) (hour/3,600,000-ms) (24


lb/h fuel) (4-intake-stroke/rev) (5500-rev/min) (60-min/hour) =
(152 lb/h)

The fuel consumption rate is 68 times greater at maximum engine output than
at idle. This dynamic range of fuel flow is typical of a naturally aspirated
passenger car engine. The dynamic range is greater on a supercharged or
turbocharged engine. It is interesting to note that 15 gallons of gasoline will
be consumed in 37 minutes if maximum output is sustained. On the other hand,
this engine could continuously idle for almost 42 hours on the same 15
gallons.

Various injection schemes

GM Throttle Body Injection unit

Throttle body injection


Throttle-body injection (called TBI by General Motors and CFI by Ford) was
introduced in the mid 1980s as a transition technology toward individual port
injection. The TBI system injects fuel at the throttle body (the same location where a
carburetor introduced fuel). The induction mixture passes through the intake runners
like a carburetor system. The justification for the TBI/CFI phase was low cost. Many
of the carburetor's supporting components could be reused such as the air cleaner,
intake manifold and fuel line routing. This postponed the redesign and tooling costs of
these components. Most of these components were later redesigned for the next phase
of fuel injection's evolution, which is individual port injection, commonly known as
EFI. TBI was used briefly on passenger cars during the mid '80s, and by GM on
heavy duty trucks all the way through OBD-I (ending in 1995).

Continuous injection
Bosch's K-Jetronic (K stands for kontinuierlich, or continuous) was introduced in
1974. In this system, fuel sprays constantly from the injectors, rather than being
pulsed in time with the engine's intake strokes. Gasoline is pumped from the fuel tank
to a large control valve called a fuel distributor, which separates the single fuel supply
pipe from the tank into smaller pipes, one for each injector. The fuel distributor is
mounted atop a control vane through which all intake air must pass, and the system
works by varying fuel volume supplied to the injectors based on the angle of the air
vane, which in turn is determined by the volume flowrate of air past the vane. The
injectors are simple spring-loaded check valves with nozzles; once fuel system
pressure becomes high enough to overcome the counterspring, the injectors begin
spraying. K-Jetronic was used for many years between 1974 and the mid 1990s by
Lamborghini, Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen, Ford, Porsche, Audi, Saab, and
Volvo. There was also a variant of the system called KE-Jetronic with electronic trim,
able to use a catalytic converter.

Central port injection (CPI)


General Motors developed an "in-between" technique called "central port injection"
(CPI) or "central port fuel injection" (CPFI). It uses tubes with poppet valves from a
central injector to spray fuel at each intake port rather than the central throttle-body.
However, fuel is continuously injected to all ports simultaneously, which is less than
optimal.

Multi-point fuel injection


Multi-point fuel injection injects fuel into the intake port just upstream of the
cylinder's intake valve, rather than at a central point within an intake manifold. MPFI
systems can be sequential, in which injection is timed to coincide with each
cylinder's intake stroke, batched, in which fuel is injected to the cylinders in groups,
without precise synchronisation to any particular cylinder's intake stroke, or
Simultaneous, in which fuel is injected at the same time to all the cylinders.
All modern EFI systems utilize sequential MPFI. Some Toyotas and other Japanese
cars from the 1970s to the early 1990s used an application of Bosch's multipoint LJetronic system manufactured under license by DENSO.

Direct injection
Many diesel engines feature direct injection (DI). The injection nozzle is placed
inside the combustion chamber and the piston incorporates a depression (often
toroidal) where initial combustion takes place. Direct injection diesel engines are
generally more efficient and cleaner than indirect injection engines. See also Highpressure Direct Injection (HDi) .
Some recent petrol engines utilize direct injection as well. Volkswagen and Audi
(FSI), Mitsubishi(GDI), Mazda(DISI), Ford(DISI), BMW, Saab, Saturn, Lexus and
GM. This is the next step in evolution from multi port fuel injection and offers

another magnitude of emission control by eliminating the "wet" portion of the


induction system. See also: Gasoline Direct Injection

Evolution
Pre-emission era
Frederick William Lanchester joined the Forward Gas Engine Company Birmingham,
England in 1889. He carried out what were possibly the earliest experiments with fuel
injection.
Fuel injection has been used commercially in diesel engines since the mid 1920s. The
concept was adapted for use in petrol-powered aircraft during World War II, and
direct injection was employed in some notable designs like the Daimler-Benz DB 603
and later versions of the Wright R-3350 used in the B-29 Superfortress.
One of the first commercial gasoline injection systems was a mechanical system
developed by Bosch and introduced in 1955 on the Mercedes-Benz 300SL.
In 1957, Chevrolet introduced a mechanical fuel injection option, made by General
Motors' Rochester division, for its 283 V8 engine. This system directed the inducted
engine air across a "spoon shaped" plunger, which moved in proportion to the air
volume. The plunger connected to the fuel metering system which mechanically
dispensed fuel to the cylinders via distribution tubes. This engine produced 283 hp
(211 kW) from 283 in (4.6 L), making it one of the first production engines in history
to exceed 1 hp/in (45.5 kW/L), after Chrysler's Hemi engine and a number of others.
In another approach, Mercedes' used six individual plungers to feed fuel to each of the
six cylinders.
During the 1960s, other mechanical injection systems such as Hilborn were
occasionally used on modified American V8 engines in various racing applications
such as drag racing, oval racing, and road racing. These racing-derived systems were
not suitable for everyday street use.
One of the first electronic fuel injection system was Electrojector, developed by the
Bendix Corporation. In 1957, AMC was to offer a special edition Rambler Rebel with
a 288 horsepower 327 in (5.4 L) engine optionally equipped with Electrojector.[citation
needed]
This was to have been the first production EFI engine, but Electrojector's
teething problems meant only a few cars were so equipped, and all are thought to have
been retrofitted with 4-barrel carburetors before they were first sold.[specify] Chrysler
offered Electrojector on the 1958 DeSoto Adventurer, arguably the first seriesproduction car equipped with a throttle body EFI system, but the early electronic
components weren't equal to the rigors of underhood service, and were too slow to
keep up with the demands of "on the fly" engine control. Most vehicles originally so
equipped were field-retrofitted with 4-barrel carburetors. The Electrojector patents
were subsequently sold to Bosch.
Bosch developed an electronic fuel injection system, called D-Jetronic (D for Druck,
the German word for pressure), which was first used on the VW 1600TL in 1967.

This was a speed/density system, using engine speed and intake manifold air density
to calculate "air mass" flow rate and thus fuel requirements. The system used all
analog, discrete electronics, and an electro-mechanical pressure sensor. The sensor
was susceptible to vibration and dirt. This system was adopted by VW, MercedesBenz, Porsche, Citron, Saab and Volvo. Lucas licensed the system for production
with Jaguar.
Bosch superseded the D-Jetronic system with the K-Jetronic and L-Jetronic systems
for 1974, though some cars (such as the Volvo 164) continued using D-Jetronic for
the following several years, and General Motors installed a very close copy of DJetronic on Cadillacs starting in 1977. L-Jetronic first appeared on the 1974 Porsche
914, and uses a mechanical airflow meter (L for Luft, German for air) which produces
a signal that is proportional to "air volume". This approach required additional sensors
to measure the barometer and temperature, to ultimately calculate "air mass". LJetronic was widely adopted on European cars of that period, and a few Japanese
models a short time later.

Post emission era


In 1975, California's emissions regulations (the most stringent in the world) required
manufacturers to dramatically reduce tailpipe emissions. The only feasible technology
of that era that enabled auto manufacturers to meet the new regulations was the
catalytic converter. GM had only recently invented the automotive exhaust catalyst,
and automakers rushed the new technology into production. A catalyst promotes a
reaction without itself becoming consumed in the reaction. In this case, an oxidation
catalyst was designed into the vehicle's exhaust system to promote reactions of the
exhaust constituents in the presence of heat. When hot products of combustion, such
as unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, are exposed to the catalyst material
(platinum and/or palladium), the exhaust compounds are nearly all oxidized into water
and carbon dioxide.
Stricter legislation to further limit a family of compounds called oxides of nitrogen
occurred in 1980. This required a reduction catalyst (rhodium) to reduce the various
nitrogen oxides into free nitrogen and oxygen. The addition of a "reducing" catalyst,
along with the oxidation catalyst, is an approach called a "3-way" catalyst system.
The "3" comes from the ability to dramatically reduce all three families of regulated
compounds addressed in the EPA "Clean Air Act."
The reduction catalyst is placed upstream of the oxidation catalyst, usually in the
same housing. The reduction process liberates oxygen from the NOx compounds, and
this oxygen is then used in the downstream catalyst to oxidize unburned hydrocarbons
and carbon monoxide.
In order to take maximum advantage of a 3-way catalyst, excellent air/fuel ratio
control is essential. EFI systems improved fuel control in two major stages.

Open loop EFI systems improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution,


but generally had poorer air/fuel ratio control than a carburetor due to
manufacturing tolerance issues.

Closed loop EFI systems improved the air/fuel ratio control with an
Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor (EGO sensor). The EGO sensor is
mounted in the exhaust system upstream of the catalyst. It detects
excess oxygen in the exhaust stream. Oxygen, or the lack of it,
indicates whether the air/fuel is lean or rich of the stoichiometric ratio.
The EGO sensor is also known as a Lambda-Sond sensor or O2 sensor.

Combining all three features,

cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution


closed loop air/fuel ratio control
3-way catalytic converter

current exhaust emissions are now less than 0.1% of their pre-regulated level.
In 1982, Bosch introduced a sensor that directly measures the air mass flow into the
engine, on their L-Jetronic system. Bosch called this LH-Jetronic (L for Luftmasse,
or air, and H for Hitzdraht, or hot-wire). The mass air sensor utilizes a heated
platinum wire placed in the incoming air flow. The rate of the wire's cooling is
proportional to the "air mass" flowing across the wire. Since the "hot wire" sensor
directly measures air mass, the need for additional temperature and pressure sensors is
eliminated.
The LH-Jetronic system was also the first "all digital" EFI system, which is now the
standard approach. The advent of the digital microprocessor permitted the integration
of all powertrain sub-systems into a single control module. Full exploitation of the
digital revolution has further improved EFI air/fuel ratio control, as well as many
other automotive control systems unrelated to the engine.

Fuel pump
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been tagged since October 2006.

A fuel pump is an essential component on a car or other internal combustion engined


device. Fuel has to be pumped from the fuel tank to the engine and delivered under
low pressure to the carburetor or under high pressure to the fuel injection system.
Some fuel injected engines have two fuel pumps for this purpose: one low
pressure/high volume supply pump in the tank and one high pressure/low volume
pump on or near the engine.

Mechanical fuel pump, fitted to cylinder head

Mechanical pump
In many earlier cars (typically those built before the late 1970s), the pump is
mechanically driven by a lobe on the engine's camshaft. In order to do this, the pump
is bolted to the engine block or head. In this system, the engine's camshaft has an
extra eccentric lobe that operates a lever on the pump, either directly or via a pushrod.
The pump contains a flexible diaphram that encloses a variable volume chamber of
fuel on one side. Check valves are fitted to the input and output of that chamber, with
one on in its input and the other on its output. The fuel in that chamber is expelled
through the output check valve by the lever operated by the camshaft moving the
diaphram to reduce the volume. A return spring inside that chamber expands the
volume to draw fuel in through the input check valve.
In normal operation, the movement of the diaphram is limited by the inlet valve in the
fuel bowl of the carburetor. The diaphram only moves part of the way through its
stroke before the valve shuts off the flow due to the fuel bowl being filled up. Where a
shutoff solenoid such as that installed in the line as part of a dual-fuel autogas
conversion prevents fuel from leaving the pump, the diaphram will remain in the fully
retracted position and the lever will simply idle back and forth without damaging the
pump.
Because one side of the pump diaphram contains fuel under pressure and the other
side is connected to the crankcase of the engine, if the diaphram splits (a common
failure), it will leak fuel into the crankcase.
The pump creates negative pressure to draw the fuel through the lines. However, the
low pressure between the pump and the fuel tank, in combination with heat from the
engine and/or hot weather, can cause the fuel to vaporize in the supply line. This
results in fuel starvation as the fuel pump, designed to pump liquid, not vapor, is
unable to suck more fuel to the engine, causing the engine to stall. This condition is
different from vapor lock, where high engine heat on the pressured side of the pump
(between the pump and the carburetor) boils the fuel in the lines, also starving the

engine of enough fuel to run. Mechanical automotive fuel pumps generally do not
generate much more than 10-15 psi, which is more than enough for most carburetors.

Decline of mechanical pumps


As engines moved away from carburetors and towards fuel injection, mechanical fuel
pumps were replaced with electric fuel pumps, because fuel injection systems operate
more efficiently at higher fuel pressures (40-60psi) than mechanical pumps can
generate. Electric fuel pumps are generally located in the fuel tank, in order to use the
fuel in the tank to cool the pump and to ensure a steady supply of fuel.
Another benefit of a tank-mounted fuel pump is that a suction pump at the engine
could suck in air through (difficult to diagnose) faulty hose connections, while a
leaking connection in a pressure line will show itself immediately. A potential hazard
of a tank-mounted fuel pump is that all of the fuel lines are under high pressure, from
the tank to the engine. Any leak will be easily detected, but is also hazardous.
Electric fuel pumps will also run whenever they are switched on, which can lead to
extremely dangerous situations if there is a leak due to mechanical fault or an
accident. Mechanical fuel pumps are much safer, due to their lower operating
pressures and because they 'turn off' when the engine stops running.

Electric fuel pump

piston metering pump f.e. gasoline- or additiv metering pump

Electric pump
Nowadays, the fuel pump is located inside of the fuel tank and is usually electric. The
pump creates positive pressure in the fuel lines, pushing the gasoline to the engine.
The higher gasoline pressure raises the boiling point. Placing the pump in the tank
puts the component least likely to handle gasoline vapor well (the pump itself)
farthest from the engine, submersed in cool liquid. Another benefit to placing the
pump inside the tank is that it is less likely to start a fire. Though electrical
components (such as a fuel pump) can spark and ignite fuel vapors, liquid fuel will
not explode (see explosive limit) and therefore submerging the pump in the tank is
one of the safest places to put it. In most cars, the fuel pump delivers a constant flow
of gasoline to the engine; fuel not used is returned to the tank. This further reduces the
chance of the fuel boiling, since it is never kept close to the hot engine for too long.
The electric fuel pump is generally on whenever the car's ignition switch is in the "on"
position. The metering of the fuel into the engine is performed by the fuel-injection or
carburetor systems.
The ignition switch does not carry the power to the fuel pump, instead it activates a
relay which will handle the higher current load. It is common for the fuel pump relay
to become oxidized and cease functioning; this is much more common than the actual
fuel pump failing. Modern engines utilize solid-state control which allows the fuel
pressure to be controlled via pulse-width modulation of the pump voltage.[1] This
increases the life of the pump, allows a smaller and lighter device to be used, and
reduces electrical load and thereby fuel consumption.
Some cars with an electronic control unit have safety logic that will shut the electric
fuel pump off even if the ignition is "on" if there is no oil pressure, either due to
engine bearing damage or a non stalled engine, e.g. in a car accident. In case of an
accident this will also prevent fuel leaking from any ruptured fuel line. Other cars
have an additional roll over valve, that will shut off the fuel pump in case the car rolls
over.
The fuel sending unit assembly is the combination of the electric fuel pump, filter, and
the electronic device used to measure the amount of fuel in the tank via a float
attached to a sensor with sends data to the dash mounted fuel gauge.

Animation

Flash animation metering pump -> push the start button!

MAIN ENGINE

CLUTCH

Rear side of a Ford V6 engine,


looking at the clutch housing on the flywheel

Single, dry, clutch friction disc. The splined hub is


attached to the disc with springs to damp chatter

Exploded view of a disc clutch

A clutch is a mechanism for transmitting rotation, which can be engaged and


disengaged. Clutches are useful in devices that have two rotating shafts. In these
devices, one of the shafts is typically driven by a motor or pulley, and the other shaft
drives another device. In a drill, for instance, one shaft is driven by a motor and the
other drives a drill chuck. The clutch connects the two shafts so that they can either be
locked together and spin at the same speed, or be decoupled and spin at different
speeds.

Vehicle clutches
There are many different vehicle clutch designs but most are based on one or more
friction discs, pressed tightly together or against a flywheel using springs. The friction
material is very similar to the material used in brake shoes and pads and contained
asbestos in the past. Also, clutches found in heavy duty applications such as trucks
and competition cars use ceramic clutches that have a greatly increased friction
coefficient, however these have a "grabby" action and are unsuitable for road cars.
The spring pressure is released when the clutch pedal is depressed thus either pushing
or pulling the diaphragm of the pressure plate, depending on type, and the friction
plate is released and allowed to rotate freely.
While engaging the clutch, the engine speed may need to be increased from idle,
using the manual throttle, so that the engine does not stall (although in most cars,
especially diesels, there is enough power at idling speed that the car can move
although fine movements with the clutch are needed). However, raising the engine
speed too high will cause excessive clutch plate wear and cause a harsh, jerky start.
This kind of start is desired in drag racing and other competitions, however.

Wet and dry clutches


A 'wet clutch' is immersed in a cooling lubricating fluid, which also keeps the surfaces
clean and gives smoother performance and longer life. Wet clutches, however, tend to
lose some energy to the liquid. A 'dry clutch', as the name implies, is not bathed in
fluid. Since the surfaces of a wet clutch can be slippery (as with a motorcycle clutch
bathed in engine oil), stacking multiple clutch disks can compensate for slippage.
Most Moto Guzzi, Ducati, and BMW motorcycles typically use a dry clutch much
like a car.

Clutch operation in automobiles

In a car it is operated by the left-most pedal using hydraulics or a cable connection


from the pedal to the clutch mechanism. Even though the clutch may physically be
located very close to the pedal, such remote means of actuation are necessary to
eliminate the effect of slight engine movement, engine mountings being flexible by
design. With a rigid mechanical linkage, smooth engagement would be nearimpossible, because engine movement inevitably occurs as the drive is "taken up". No
pressure on the pedal means that the clutch plates are engaged (driving), while
depressing the pedal will disengage the clutch plates, allowing the driver to shift
gears.
A manual transmission contains cogs for selecting gears. These cogs have matching
teeth, called dog teeth, which means that the rotation speeds of the two parts have to
match for engagement. This speed matching is achieved by a secondary clutch called
a synchronizer, a device that uses frictional contact to bring the two parts to the same
speed, and a locking mechanism called a blocker ring to prevent engagement of the
teeth (full movement of the shift lever into gear) until the speeds are synchronized.
Non-powertrain clutches in automobiles
There are other clutches found in a car. For example, the radiator fan may have a
clutch that is heat-activated. The driving and driven elements are separated by a
silicone-based fluid. When the temperature is low, the fluid is thin and so the clutch
slips. When the temperature is high, the fluid thickens, causing the fan to spin. There
are also electronically engaged clutches (such as for an Air conditioning compressor)
that use magnetic force to lock the pulley and compressor together.

Clutch operation in motorcycles


On most motorcycles, the clutch is operated by the clutch lever, located on the left
handlebar. No pressure on the lever means that the clutch plates are engaged
(driving), while pulling the lever back towards the rider will disengage the clutch
plates, allowing the rider to shift gears. Some cars and mopeds have a centrifugal
clutch, using centrifugal forces to engage the clutch above certain rpm, see Saxomat.
Racing motorcycles often use slipper clutches to eliminate the effects of engine
braking.
A centrifugal clutch is a clutch that operates automatically via rotational motion
rather than lateral. In an automobile clutch with a manual transmission, the clutch is
deactivated with a foot pedal which in turns pushes on a fulcrum, which retracts the
pressure plate, causing the engine and transmission to separate from power, and the
driver able to change gears.
A centrifugal clutch works through centrifugal force. The input of the clutch is
connected to the engine crankshaft while the output may drive a shaft, chain, or belt.
As engine RPM increases, weighted arms in the clutch swing outward and force the
clutch to engage. The most common types have friction pads or shoes radially
mounted that engage the inside of the rim of a housing. On the center shaft there are
an assorted amount of extension springs, which connect to a clutch shoe. When the
center shaft spins fast enough, the springs extend causing the clutch shoes to engage
the friction face. It can be compared to a drum brake in reverse. This type can be

found on most home built karts, lawn and garden equipment, and low power
chainsaws. Another type used in racing karts has friction and clutch disks stacked
together like a motorcycle clutch. The weighted arms force these disks together and
engage the clutch.
When the engine reaches a certain RPM, the clutch activates, working almost like a
continuously variable transmission. As the load increases the rpm drops, disengaging
the clutch, letting the rpm rise again and reengaging the clutch. If tuned properly, the
clutch will tend to keep the engine at or near the torque peak of the engine. These
results in a fair bit of waste heat, but over a broad range of speeds it is much more
useful then a direct drive in many applications.
Centrifugal clutches are often used in mopeds, underbones, lawnmowers, battlebots,
go-karts, chainsaws and mini bikes to:

keep the internal combustion engine from stalling when the blade or weapon is
stopped abruptly
provide low load during starting
allow engine to idle

Thomas Fogarty, who also invented the balloon catheter, is most often credited with
first inventing the centrifugal clutch in the 1940's, although automobiles were being
manufactured with centrifugal clutches as early as 1936 [1] (Dr Fogarty was born in
1934).

Fluid coupling
A fluid coupling is a hydrodynamic device used to transmit rotating mechanical
power. It has been used in automobile transmissions as an alternative to a mechanical
clutch. It also has widespread application in marine and industrial machine drives,
where variable speed operation and/or controlled start-up without shock loading of the
power transmission system is essential.

Overview
A fluid coupling is a sealed chamber containing two toroid shaped impellers
immersed in fluid (usually oil). The driving impeller, often referred to as the pump or
driving torus (the latter a General Motors automotive term), is rotated by the prime
mover, which is typically an internal combustion engine or electric motor. The motion
of the pump's radial chambers imparts a relatively complex centripetal motion to the
fluid. The moving fluid reaches the center of the driven impeller, referred to as the
turbine or driven torus (the latter also a General Motors term), where Coriolis force
reaction transfers the angular fluid momentum outward, applying torque to the

turbine, thus causing it to rotate in the same direction as the pump. The fluid leaving
the outer edges of the turbine returns to the pump, where the cycle repeats.

Automotive applications
In automotive applications, the pump is connected to the flywheel of the engine (in
fact, the coupling's enclosure may be part of the flywheel proper, and in this case is
often referred to as a fluid flywheel), and thus is turned by the engine's crankshaft.
The turbine is connected to the input shaft of the transmission. As engine speed
increases while the transmission is in gear, torque is transferred from the engine to the
input shaft by the motion of the fluid, propelling the vehicle. In this regard, the
behavior of the fluid coupling strongly resembles that of a mechanical clutch driving a
manual transmission.

Stall speed
An important characteristic of a fluid coupling is its stall speed. The stall speed is
defined as the highest speed at which the pump can turn when the turbine is locked
and maximum input power is applied, a condition which could occur in an automobile
if the driver were to fully open the throttle while applying the brakes with a force
sufficient to keeping the vehicle from moving. Under stall conditions, all of the
engine's power would be dissipated in the fluid coupling as heat, possibly leading to
damage.

Slip
A fluid coupling cannot achieve 100 percent power transmission efficiency, as some
of the energy transferred to the fluid by the pump will be lost to friction (transformed
to heat). As a result, the turbine will always spin slower than the pump, this difference
increasing with an increase in load on the coupling and/or a decrease in prime mover
speed. This speed difference is called slip or slippage.

Turbulence
Also affecting the fluid coupling's efficiency is the fact that the fluid returning from
the turbine to the pump is moving in the opposite direction of the pump's rotation,
resulting in some braking effect and a good deal of turbulence. This effect

substantially increases as the difference between pump and turbine speed increases,
causing efficiency to rapidly deteriorate with increasing load.

Calculations
Generally speaking, the power transmitting capability of a given fluid coupling is
exponentially related to pump speed, a characteristic that generally works well with
applications where the applied load doesn't fluctuate to a great degree. The torque
transmitting capacity of any hydrodynamic coupling can be described by the
expression r(N^2)(D^5), where r is the mass density of the fluid, N is the impeller
speed, and D is the impeller diameter. In the case of automotive applications, where
loading can vary to considerable extremes, r(N^2)(D^5) is only an approximation.
Stop-and-go driving will tend to operate the coupling in its least efficient range,
causing an adverse effect on fuel economy.

Usage
Fluid couplings were used in a variety of early semi-automatic transmissions and
automatic transmissions, the largest such application being in the General Motors
single, dual range and Jetaway Hydramatic models. Since the late 1940s, the more
versatile hydrodynamic torque converter has replaced the fluid coupling in automotive
applications. Fluid couplings are still widely used in industrial applications, especially
in machine drives that involve high inertia starts or constant cyclic loading.

Electromagnetic clutch
An Electromagnetic clutch is a clutch (a mechanism for transmitting rotation) which
can be engaged and disengaged by an electromagnet.

General Description
These clutches use a single plate friction surface to engage the input and output
members of the clutch. The electromagnetic clutch is best suited where remote
operation is desired since no linkages are required to control its engagement. These
clutches have fast, smooth operation. A major limitation of this type is heat capacity

since the clutch operating temperature is limited by the temperature rating of the
insulation of the magnetic coil. Another disadvantage is higher initial cost.

How It Works

Elecromagnetic clutch

Engagement
Electromechanical clutches operate via an electric actuation, but transmit torque
mechanically. When the clutch is required to actuate, voltage/current is applied to the
clutch coil. The coil becomes an electromagnet and produces magnetic lines of flux.
This flux is then transferred through the small air gap between the field and the rotor.
The rotor portion of the clutch becomes magnetized and sets up a magnetic loop that
attracts the armature. The armature is pulled against the rotor and a frictional force is
applied at contact. Within a relatively short time the load is accelerated to match the
speed of the rotor, thereby engaging the armature and the output hub of the clutch. In
most instances, the rotor is constantly rotating with the input all the time.

Disengagement
When current/voltage is removed from the clutch, the armature is free to turn with the
shaft. In most designs, springs hold the armature away from the rotor surface when
power is released, creating a small air gap.

Cycling
Cycling is achieved by turning the voltage/current to the coil on and off. Slippage
should occur only during acceleration. When the clutch is fully engaged, there is no
relative slip (if the clutch is sized properly). Torque transfer is 100% efficient.

Applications

Machinery
This style of clutch is used in applications ranging from copy machines to conveyor
drives. Other applications could include packaging machinery, printing machinery,
food processing machinery and factory automation.

Automobiles
When the electromagnetic clutch is used in automobiles, there can be a clutch release
lever in the gear lever. The driver operates the switch when he holds the gear lever to
change the gear, cutting off current to the winding and thus causing clutch
disengagement, thus obviating the need to depress the clutch pedal. Alternatively, the
switch may be replaced by a touch sensor or proximity sensor which senses the
presence of the hand near the lever and cuts off the current. The advantages of using
this type of clutch for automobile are that complicated linkages are not required to
actuate the clutch, and the driver needs to apply a considerably reduced force to
operate the clutch. This is a type of semi-automatic transmission.

Locomotives
Electromagnetic clutches have been used on diesel locomotives, e.g. by Hohenzollern
Locomotive Works.

Electrical generator
This article is about machines that produce electricity. For other uses, see Generator.
Dynamo redirects here. For other uses, see Dynamo (disambiguation).

Early 20th century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating
hall of a hydroelectric station
In electricity generation, an electrical generator is a device that converts kinetic
energy to electrical energy, generally using electromagnetic induction. The task of
converting the electrical energy into mechanical energy is accomplished by using a
motor. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam
engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine,
a wind turbine, a hand crank, or any other source of mechanical energy.

Historic developments
Electrostatic generators are used for scientific experiments requiring high voltages.
Because of the difficulty of insulating machines producing very high voltages,
electrostatic generators are made only with low power ratings and are never used for
generation of commercially-significant quantities of electric power. Before the
connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, generators used
electrostatic principles. The Wimshurst machine used electrostatic induction or
"influence". Some electrostatic machines (such as the more modern Van de Graaff
generator) uses either of two mechanisms:

Charge transferred from a high-voltage electrode


Charge created by the triboelectric effect using the separation of two insulators
(the belt leaving the lower pulley)

Faraday

Portable generator side view showing gasoline engine.


In 1831-1832 Michael Faraday discovered that a potential difference is generated
between the ends of an electrical conductor that moves perpendicular to a magnetic
field. He also built the first electromagnetic generator called the 'Faraday disc', a type
of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe
magnet. It produced a small DC voltage, and large amounts of current.

Dynamo

The Dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for
industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic principles to convert mechanical rotation
into an alternating electric current. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary
structure which generates a strong magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings
which turn within that field. On small machines the magnetic field may be provided
by a permanent magnet; larger machines have the magnetic field created by
electromagnets.
The first dynamo based on Faraday's principles was built in 1832 by Hippolyte Pixii,
a French instrument maker. It used a permanent magnet which was rotated by a crank.
The spinning magnet was positioned so that its north and south poles passed by a
piece of iron wrapped with wire. Pixii found that the spinning magnet produced a
pulse of current in the wire each time a pole passed the coil. Furthermore, the north
and south poles of the magnet induced currents in opposite directions. By adding a
commutator, Pixii was able to convert the alternating current to direct current.
Unlike the Faraday disc, many turns of wire connected in series can be used in the
moving windings of a dynamo. This allows the terminal voltage of the machine to be
higher than a disc can produce, so that electrical energy can be delivered at a
convenient voltage.
The relationship between mechanical rotation and electric current in a dynamo is
reversible; the principles of the electric motor were discovered when it was found that
one dynamo could cause a second interconnected dynamo to rotate if current was fed
through it.

Jedlik's dynamo

nyos Jedlik's single pole electric starter (dynamo) (1861)


In 1827, Hungarian Anyos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic rotating
devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors. In the prototype of the singlepole electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the stationary and the
revolving parts were electromagnetic. He formulated the concept of the dynamo at
least 6 years before Siemens and Wheatstone. In essence the concept is that instead of
permanent magnets, two electromagnets opposite to each other induce the magnetic
field around the rotor.

Gramme dynamo
Both of these designs suffered from a similar problem: they induced "spikes" of
current followed by none at all. Antonio Pacinotti, an Italian scientist, fixed this by

replacing the spinning coil with a toroidal one, which he created by wrapping an iron
ring. This meant that some part of the coil was continually passing by the magnets,
smoothing out the current. Znobe Gramme reinvented this design a few years later
when designing the first commercial power plants, which operated in Paris in the
1870s. His design is now known as the Gramme dynamo. Various versions and
improvements have been made since then, but the basic concept of a spinning endless
loop of wire remains at the heart of all modern dynamos.

MHD generator
Magnetohydrodynamic generators were originally developed because the output of a
plasma MHD generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a steam power
plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in 1965. The U.S.
government performed substantial development, culminating in a 25Mw
demonstration plant in 1987. MHD generators operated as a topping cycle are
currently (2007) less efficient than combined-cycle gas turbines.

Concepts
The generator moves an electric current, but does not create electric charge, which is
already present in the conductive wire of its windings. It is somewhat analogous to a
water pump, which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. Other
types of electrical generators exist, based on other electrical phenomena such as
piezoelectricity, and magnetohydrodynamics. The construction of a dynamo is similar
to that of an electric motor, and all common types of dynamos could work as motors.

Terminology
The parts of a dynamo or related equipment can be expressed in either mechanical
terms or electrical terms. Although distinctly separate, these two sets of terminology
are frequently used interchangeably or in combinations that include one mechanical
term and one electrical term. This causes great confusion when working with
compound machines such as a brushless alternator or when conversing with people
who are used to working on a machine that is configured differently than the
machines that the speaker is used to.
Mechanical

Rotor: The rotating part of an alternator, generator, dynamo or motor.


Stator: The stationary part of an alternator, generator, dynamo or motor.

Electrical

Armature: The power-producing component of an alternator, generator,


dynamo or motor. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator.
Field: The magnetic field component of an alternator, generator, dynamo or
motor. The field can be on either the rotor or the stator and can be either an
electromagnet or a permanent magnet.

Equivalent circuit

Equivalent circuit of generator and load.


G = generator
VG=generator open-circuit voltage
RG=generator internal resistance
VL=generator on-load voltage
RL=load resistance
The equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the diagram to the right. To
determine the generator's VG and RG parameters, follow this procedure:

Before starting the generator, measure the resistance across its terminals using
an ohmmeter. This is its DC internal resistance RGDC.
Start the generator. Before connecting the load RL, measure the voltage across
the generator's terminals. This is the open-circuit voltage VG.
Connect the load as shown in the diagram, and measure the voltage across it
with the generator running. This is the on-load voltage VL.
Measure the load resistance RL, if you don't already know it.
Calculate the generator's AC internal resistance RGAC from the following
formula:

Note 1: The AC internal resistance of the generator when running is generally slightly
higher than its DC resistance when idle. The above procedure allows you to measure
both values. For rough calculations, you can omit the measurement of RGAC and
assume that RGAC and RGDC are equal.
Note 2: If the generator is an AC type (distinctly not a dynamo), use an AC voltmeter
for the voltage measurements.

Maximum power
The maximum power theorem applies to generators as it does to any source of
electrical energy. This theorem states that the maximum power can be obtained from
the generator by making the resistance of the load equal to that of the generator.
However, under this condition the power transfer efficiency is only 50%, which
means that half the power generated is wasted as heat and Lorentz force or back emf
inside the generator. For this reason, practical generators are not usually designed to
operate at maximum power output, but at a lower power output where efficiency is
greater.

Vehicle-mounted generators
Early motor vehicles tended to use DC generators with electromechanical regulators.
These were not particularly reliable or efficient and have now been replaced by
alternators with built-in rectifier circuits. These power the electrical systems on the
vehicle and recharge the battery after starting. Rated output will typically be in the
range 50-100 A at 12 V, depending on the designed electrical load within the vehicle some cars now have electrically-powered steering assistance and air conditioning,
which places a high load on the electrical system. Commercial vehicles are more
likely to use 24 V to give sufficient power at the starter motor to turn over a large
diesel engine without the requirement for unreasonably thick cabling. Vehicle
alternators usually do not use permanent magnets; they can achieve efficiencies of up
to 90% over a wide speed range by control of the field voltage. Motorcycle alternators
often use permanent magnet stators made with rare earth magnets, since they can be
made smaller and lighter than other types. See also hybrid vehicle.
Some of the smallest generators commonly found are used to power bicycle lights.
These tend to be 0.5 A permanent-magnet alternators, supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12
V. Being powered by the rider, efficiency is at a premium, so these may incorporate
rare-earth magnets and are designed and manufactured with great precision.
Nevertheless, the maximum efficiency is only around 60% for the best of these
generators - 40% is more typical - due to the use of permanent magnets. A battery
would be required in order to use a controllable electromagnetic field instead, and this
is unacceptable due to its weight and bulk.
Sailing yachts may use a water or wind powered generator to trickle-charge the
batteries. A small propeller, wind turbine or impeller is connected to a low-power
alternator and rectifier to supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds.

Engine-generator

Engine - generator of the radio station (Dubendorf museum of the military aviation).
The generator worked only when sending the radio signal (the receiver could operate
on the battery power)

Hand-driven electric generator of the radio station (Dubendorf museum of the military
aviation)
An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine
mounted together to form a single piece of equipment. This combination is also called
an engine-generator set or a gen-set. In many contexts, the engine is taken for granted
and the combined unit is simply called a generator.
In addition to the engine and generator, engine-generators generally include a fuel
tank, an engine speed regulator and a generator voltage regulator. Many units are
equipped with a battery and electric starter. Standby power generating units often
include an automatic starting system and a transfer switch to disconnect the load from
the utility power source and connect it to the generator.
Engine-generators are often used to supply electrical power in places where utility
power is not available and in situations where power is needed only temporarily.
Small generators are sometimes used to supply power tools at construction sites.
Trailer-mounted generators supply power for lighting, amusement rides etc. for
traveling carnivals.
Standby power generators are permanently installed and kept ready to supply power
to critical loads during temporary interruptions of the utility power supply. Hospitals,
communications service installations, sewage pumping stations and many other
important facilities are equipped with standby power generators.
Small and medium generators are especially popular in third world countries to
supplement grid power, which is often unreliable. Trailer-mounted generators can be
towed to disaster areas where grid power has been temporarily disrupted.

The generator can also be driven by the human muscle power (for instance, in the
field radio station equipment).
The generator voltage (volts), frequency (Hz) and power (watts) ratings are selected
to suit the load that will be connected.
Engine-generators are available in a wide range of power ratings. These include small,
hand-portable units that can supply several hundred watts of power, hand-cart
mounted units, as pictured above, that can supply several thousand watts and
stationary or trailer-mounted units that can supply over a million watts. The smaller
units tend to use gasoline (petrol) as a fuel, and the larger ones have various fuel
types, including diesel, natural gas and propane (liquid or gas).
There are only a few portable three-phase generator models available in the US. Most
of the portable units available are single phase power only and most of the three-phase
generators manufactured are large industrial type generators.
Portable engine-generators may require an external power conditioner to safely
operate some types of electronic equipment.

Hand portable emergency generators


Hand-held direct current generators are used to supply energy to discharged car
batteries. They are called emergency vehicle generators and includes batteries, to
store energy.
There are other emergency generators, used to produce light at any fire, rescue or
accident.
They offer 1000 watts & 2000 watts max. and 900 watts & 1600 watts cont.
Good hand-held generators are the type that have an inverter. They are the smallest,
quietest, and most fuel-efficent generators around. Small portable generators have
regular A.C. alternator and they have to run at a faster R.P.M. to generate power.
While inverter models do not, they can run at slower RPM to generate the power that
is necessary, thus reducing the noise of the engine and making it more fuel-efficent.
Inverter generators are great to power sensitive electronic devices such as computers,
and lights that use a ballast. The power output of an inverter is more stable and is
equal to or better than household electrical power. Regular generators that do not have
AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulation) can damage electronics due to the varying
voltage from 105V to 130V to 140V- enough to blow out electronics that are not
designed to handle high voltage. Inverter generators can run up to 8 hours on a 1
gallon tank of gas, making them ideal for recreational power.

Mid-size stationary engine-generator

Side view of a large Perkins diesel generator, manufactured by F&G Wilson


Engineering Ltd. This is a 100 kVA set.
The mid-size stationary engine-generator pictured here is a 100 kVA set which
produces 415 V at around 110 A per phase. It's powered by a 6.7 litre turbocharged
Perkins Phaser 1000 Series engine, and consumes approximately 27 litres of fuel an
hour, on a 400 litre tank. Stationary generators used in the US are used in size up to
2800 kW. These diesel engines are run in the UK on red diesel and rotate at 1500
rpm. This produces power at 50 Hz, which is the frequency used in the UK. In areas
where the power frequency is 60 Hz (United States), generators rotate at 1800 rpm or
another even multiple of 60. Diesel engine-generator sets operated at their best
efficiency point can produce between 3 and 4 kilowatthours of electrical energy for
each litre of diesel fuel consumed, with lower efficiency at part load.

Motor-generator

Radio station motor-generator, converting from low to the high voltage power supply.
This device is also called umformer. Dbendorf Museum of Military Aviation
A motor-generator (an M-G set or a dynamotor for dynamo-motor) is a device for
converting electrical power to another form. In some contexts, the other form is
mechanical energy; in other contexts, it is a different form of electricity. The two
senses refer to different types of equipment.
The Motor Generator Set is used to convert frequency, voltage, and phase of power.
They may also be used to provide complete line isolation in addition to the various
types of power conversion and control. Large motor-generators were widely used to
convert industrial amounts of power while smaller motor-generators (such as the one
shown in the picture) were used to convert battery power to higher DC voltages.
By comparison, simple, low-powered consumer electronics devices like vacuum tube
car radios did not use motor-generators. Instead, they would typically use an inverter
circuit consisting of a vibrator (a self-exciting relay) and a transformer to produce the
B+ voltages required for the vacuum tubes.
A motor-generator is physically different from a normal electric motor attached to a
separate generator, in that both rotor coils of the motor and the generator are wound
around a single rotor, and both coils share the same outer field coils or magnets.
Typically the motor coils are driven from a commutator on one end of the shaft, when
the generator coils output to another commutator on the other end of the shaft. The
entire rotor and shaft assembly is only slightly larger in size than in a normal electric
motor, and may not have any exposed drive shafts.

Conversion to/from mechanical energy


In the context of hybrid vehicles and other lightweight power systems, a motorgenerator is used to describe a single power transducer that can be used as either an
electric motor or a generator, converting between electrical power and mechanical
power. In principle, any electrical generator can also serve as an electric motor, or
vice versa. A device that is specifically designed for use in either mode may be called
a "motor-generator"; the literature distributed by Toyota to describe the Hybrid
Synergy Drive is an example of this newer usage.

Electrical power handling


In the context of electric power generation and large fixed electrical power systems, a
motor-generator consists of an electric motor mechanically coupled to an electric
generator (or alternator). The motor runs on the electrical input current while the
generator creates the electrical output current, with power flowing between the two
machines as a mechanical torque; this provides electrical isolation and some buffering

of the power between the two electrical systems. One use of this type of motorgenerator is to eliminate spikes and variations in "dirty power" or to provide phase
matching between different electrical system; another is to buffer extreme loads on
the power system. For example, tokamak fusion devices impose very large peak
loads, but relatively low average loads, on the electrical grid. The DIII-D and
Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamaks used a large flywheel on multiple motorgenerator rigs to level the load imposed on the electrical system: the motor side
slowly accelerated a large flywheel to store energy, which was consumed rapidly
during a fusion experiment as the generator side acted as a brake on the flywheel.

Conversions
Motor-generators may be used for various conversions including:

Alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC)


DC to AC
DC at one voltage to DC at another voltage
AC at one frequency to AC at another harmonically-related frequency

Motor-generators used to increase Ride-Through


Motor-generators have even been used where the input and output currents are
essentially the same. In this case, the mechanical inertia of the M-G set is used to
filter out transients in the input power. The resulting output power can be
(electrically) very clean (noise free) and will be able to ride-through brief blackouts
and switching transients on the input power. This may enable, for example, the
flawless cut-over from mains power to AC power provided by a diesel generator set.
The motor-generator set may contain a large flywheel to improve its ride-through;
however, consideration must be taken in this application as the motor-generator will
require a large amount of current on re-closure, if prior to the pull-out torque is
achieved, resulting in a shut down. The in-rush current during re-closure will depend
on many factors, however. As an example, a 250 kVA motor generator operating at
300 ampere of full load current will require 1550 ampere of in-rush current during a
re-closure after 5 seconds. This example used a fixed mounted flywheel sized to result
in a 1/2 hz per second slew rate. The motor-generator was a vertical type 2 bearing
machine with oil bath bearings.

The motor-generator today


Motor-generators have been replaced by semiconductor devices for some purposes. In
industrial settings where harmonic cancellation, frequency conversion, or line
isolation is needed, MG sets remain a popular solution.
A useful feature of the motor-generator is that they can handle large short-term
overloads better than semiconductor devices of the same average load rating.
Consider that the thermally current-limited components of a large semiconductor
inverter are solid-state switches massing a few grams with a thermal time constant to
their heat sinks of likely more than 100 ms, whereas the thermally current limited
components of a MG are copper windings massing some hundreds of kilos which are
intrinsically attached to their own large thermal mass. They also have inherently
excellent resistance to electrostatic discharge (ESD).

Diesel generator
A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electrical generator
(often called an alternator) to generate electric energy.
Diesel generators are used in places without connection to the power grid or as
emergency power-supply if the grid fails. Small portable diesel generators range from
about 1kVA to 10kVA, while the larger industrial generators can range from 8kVA 30kVA for homes, small shops & offices up to 2000kVA used for large office
complexes, factories and power stations. These generators are widely used not only
for emergency power, but also many have a secondary function for providing back up
power to utility grids.
Ships often also employ diesel generators, sometimes not only to provide energy for
electric systems, but also for propulsion. The use of diesel generators for propulsion is
actually becoming more common due to the fact that in this arrangement the
generators do not need to be close to the propeller and instead they can be placed in
better positions, usually allowing more cargo to be carried. Such a diesel-electric
arrangement is also used in some very large land vehicles.
Power generators are selected based on the load they are intended to supply power
for, and that load's "mission critical" needs (e.g. a hospital needs to have 100%
redundancy and up-time, a backyard standby unit to keep a hot tub warm isn't nearly
as critical)

Protecting diesel generators


Diesel generators should have protection against mechanical as well as electrical
failures.
The mechanical protection should, as a minimum, include surveillance of engine oil
pressure, cooling water temperature and revolutions (overspeed). Protection against
overspeed is especially important, as overspeed can make the diesel engine come
apart. Protection against overspeed is especially important on larger generators, which
has a lot of physical mass turning with high levels of inertia. Protection for very large
industrial diesel generators might also include surveillance of crank case pressure,
bearing temperature and oil mist detection.
Mechanical protection systems are typically based on sensor readings (e.g. for
temperature and pressure). Speed readings are typically done using a magnetic or
inductive pick-up mounted near to the engine flywheel. The pick-up will produce an
electrice pulse signal.
On the electrical side, the diesel generator should have protection against shortcircuit, excess current (overload) and reverse power (motoring). The short-circuit and
over current protection might be combined. Modern electrical protection systems are
incorporated into the circuit breaker, the generator control panel or the main electrical
switchboard of the power plant. Mechanical or electrical failure should cause the
engine to shut-down, provided that the failure could lead to personal injury or loss of
essential services.

Generator based power plants


Diesel generators can be operated together (in parallel). The use of parallel running
generators provides the advantages of more capacity, efficiency and redundancy. A
power plant driven by diesel generators will typically include between three and six
machines.
Generators can be connected together through the process of synchronization.
Synchronization involves matching voltage, frequency and phase before connecting
the generator to a live busbar. Failure to synchronize before connection could cause a
high current short-circuit or wear and tear on the generator and/or its switch gear. The
synchronization process can be done automatically by an auto-synchronizer module.
The auto-synchronizer will read the voltage, frequency and phase parameters form the
generator and busbar voltages, while regulating the speed through the engine governor
or ECU (Engine Control Module).
Load can be shared among parallel running generators through load sharing. Like
auto-synchronization, load sharing can be automated by using a load sharing module.
The load sharing module will measure the load and frequency at the generator, while
it constantly adjusts the engine speed to shift load to and from the remaning power

sources. A generator will take active load if its speed is increased, while load is
released if speed is decreased.

Using generators for supporting main utility grids


Emergency standby diesel generators in for example hospitals, water plant etc, are
widely used in the US and the UK to support the respective national grids at peak
times. In the UK for example, some 2 GWe of diesels are routinely used to support
the National Grid, whose peak load is about 60 GW. These are sets in the size range
200kW to 2 MW. Control of the National Grid (UK)
This is extremely beneficial for both parties - the diesels have already been paid for
for other reasons, but to be reliable need to be full load tested. Grid paralleling is a
convenient way of doing this.
In this way the UK National Grid can call on about 2 GW of plant which is up and
running in parallel in as short a time as 2 minutes in some cases. This is far quicker
than a base load power station which can take 12 hours from cold. Whilst diesels are
very expensive in fuel terms, they are only used a few hundreds of hours per year, and
their availability can prevent the need for base load station running inefficiently at
part load continuously. The diesel fuel used is fuel that would have been used in
testing anyway.

Testing Diesels off Load Damages them


Diesels must be run regularly at least once a month and preferably once a week to
ensure they will work when called on unexpectedly in an emergency power failure,
which is their prime function. Failure to regularly run diesel generators means they
are very unlikely to start in an emergency usually due to a variety of simple failures
most commonly flat batteries, contaminated fuel, or corroded contacts. Even if they
do start they are likely to stop after a short while usually overheating due to failures
of the cooling systems.
(A recent survey by another water company indicated that whereas its Load
Management generators had near to 100% reliability for emergency use, out of 30 non
LM sets, 11 would not be able to operate in an emergency)
There is a general tendency to assume that it is preferable to run diesels off load, it
somehow being assumed that this is less harmful than wearing them out by running
them at full load. However this ignores the fact that diesel generators are designed to
run at their stated rating (see later).
In fact testing diesels off load is extremely harmful and can very quickly ruin an
engine in as little as only 50 hours of accumulated running. This is because underloading causes a series of interlocking damaging sequence of events.

Engine Damage Due To Under Load Running


Initially it means low cylinder pressures and consequent poor piston ring sealing
these rely on the gas pressure to force them against the oil film on the bores to form
the seal. Low initial pressure causes poor combustion and resultant low combustion
pressures and temperatures.
This poor combustion leads to soot formation and unburnt fuel residues which clogs
and gums piston rings. This causes a further drop in sealing efficiency and
exacerbates the initial low pressure.
Hard carbon also forms from poor combustion and this is highly abrasive and scrapes
the honing marks on the bores leading to bore polishing, which then leads to increased
oil consumption (blue smoking) and yet further loss of pressure, since the oil film
trapped in the honing marks maintains the piston seal and pressures.
Un-burnt fuel leaks past the piston rings and contaminates the lubricating oil. At the
same time the injectors are being clogged with soot, causing further deterioration in
combustion and black smoking.
This cycle of degradation means that the engine soon becomes irreversibly damaged
and may not start at all and will no longer be able to reach full power when required.
Under loaded running inevitably causes not only white smoke from unburnt fuel due
to the engines failure to heat up rapidly, but over time as the engine is destroyed it is
joined by the blue smoke of burnt lubricating oil leaking past the damaged piston
rings, and the black smoke caused by the damaged injectors. This pollution is
unacceptable to the authorities and any neighbours.
In fact at the diesels at Weymouths Radipole pumping station, before Wessex Water
took them over and before they were converted to load management, on more than
one occasion the fire brigade were erroneously called out to a supposed fire as they
suffered just such an eventuality. The thick white smoke was routinely reported as a
traffic hazard. Now, however, whilst housing estates have subsequently been built
close up to the station there are no complaints. With a fully loaded diesel there is only
a very short puff of white smoke which rapidly disappears once the diesels warm up
in a matter of seconds.
In the 1987 storms, 50% of Thames Water generators failed to start or stay running
due to the failure to undertake these regular full load runs. (Harry Maurer personal
communication ex Thames Energy Manager)

Diesel generator Ratings

There are internationally agreed definitions of the rating levels for diesel engines.

Standby - short term use only for 10s of hours per year ie an emergency
generator at a maximum but not continuous 100% of the standby rating.
Prime Power - where the generator is meeting the sole power for an off grid
site such as a mining camp or construction site and continuously varying.
Continuous output which can be maintained 8760 hours per year.

If the standby rating were 1000 kW, then a Prime Power rating might be 850 kW, and
the continuous rating 800kW.
Wessex Water sets are sized initially on the standby rating for emergency use, but are
run on Load Management at the Continuous rating level which is about 80% of the
standby rating.

Testing diesels good practice - and how paralleling


with the utility can help
A diesel engine can be tested on full load by connecting it to a load bank but this
usually means hiring in a load bank and the specialist to physically connect it which is
an expensive operation.
Alternatively a dedicated load bank is sometimes provided but this itself has a cost
and obviously is merely a fuel waster.
The generator could of course be used to run the emergency load to which it is
connected, but this usually means an undesirable break in supply unless short term
paralleling devices are fitted. Generally the load connected to a generator is found to
be only about 1/3 of its maximum standby rating so this can lead to long term
problems as well, though not nearly as bad as no load running.
It is often found that major defects are pre-emptively identified by Load Management
runs for example, in a recent case at the Weymouth head works site, the generator
caught fire due to a failed turbo oil seal this would have occurred sooner or later but
it was greatly to Wessex Waters advantage that the failure occurred during a Load
Management run and not during an emergency run, and was therefore able to be
repaired before the next real power failure.
So Load Management by paralleling with the utility is the ideal way to prove diesels
without destroying them because it gives a readily available full load test against and
which earns income rather than merely wasting fuel.

Typical operating costs, and costs for converting an existing diesel


generator for grid parallel operation

Approx. 3k to fit the PLC to the set


Paralleling and synchronising gear and G59 equipment (this allows grid
connection) Approx 5k
Tidying up set (noise, larger fuel tank) Approx another 5k

So for a 1MW set13/kW


50 kWmaybe 260/kW
Running costs - fuel 10p/kWh
maintenance about 0.5p/kWh

This is very cheap capacity considering power stations are about 350/KW) for a
CCGT A diesel set itself is about 150/kW fully installed and connected.

How Many Diesels Are There in the UK?


Wessex Water has 550 generators of capacity 110MW in the range 50 kWe to 1.2
MWe. Presently, it only uses 32 generators of the larger sets (greater than 250 kW)
with 18MW total capacity for Load Management / Triads / Reserve Service. Many of
the other smaller sets have started to be converted also.
According to EA Technology nationally there are up to 20 GW of emergency diesels.
With the right financial incentives and explanations of the benefits large numbers of
these could be brought into the Reserve Service type of scheme. Over 20 years this
practice and associated technology will probably become standard

Turbine
This article is about the engine type. For the video game developer, see Turbine, Inc..

A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened.


A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow. Claude Burdin
coined the term from the Latin turbinis, or vortex during an 1828 engineering
competition. The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a
shaft with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades, or the blades react to the
flow, so that they rotate and impart energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are
windmills and water wheels.
Gas, steam, and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that focuses
and controls the fluid. The casing and blades may have variable geometry that allows
efficient operation for a range of fluid-flow conditions.
A device similar to a turbine but operating in reverse is a compressor or pump. The
axial compressor in many gas turbine engines is a common example.

Theory of operation

A working fluid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic energy (velocity
head). The fluid may be compressible or incompressible. Several physical principles
are employed by turbines to collect this energy:
Impulse turbines
These turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid jet. The
resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished
kinetic energy. There is no pressure change of the fluid in the turbine rotor
blades. Before reaching the turbine the fluid's Pressure head is changed to
velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle. Pelton wheels and de
Laval turbines use this process exclusively. Impulse turbines do not require a
pressure casement around the runner since the fluid jet is prepared by a nozzle
prior to reaching turbine. Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy
for impulse turbines.
Reaction turbines
These turbines develop torque by reacting to the fluid's pressure or weight.
The pressure of the fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades.
A pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the
turbine stage(s) or the turbine must be fully immersed in the fluid flow (wind
turbines). The casing contains and directs the working fluid and, for water
turbines, maintains the suction imparted by the draft tube. Francis turbines and
most steam turbines use this concept. For compressible working fluids,
multiple turbine stages may be used to harness the expanding gas efficiently.
Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines.
Turbine designs will use both these concepts to varying degrees whenever possible.
Wind turbines use an airfoil to generate lift from the moving fluid and impart it to the
rotor (this is a form of reaction). Wind turbines also gain some energy from the
impulse of the wind, by deflecting it at an angle. Crossflow turbines are designed as
an impulse machine, with a nozzle, but in low head applications maintain some
efficiency through reaction, like a traditional water wheel. Turbines with multiple
stages may utilize either reaction or impulse blading at high pressure. Steam Turbines
are usually more impulse while Gas Turbines more reaction type designs. At low
pressure the operating fluid medium expands in volume for small changes in pressure.
Under these conditions (termed Low Pressure Turbines) blading becomes strictly a
reaction type design with the base of the blade solely impulse. The reason is due to
the effect of the rotation speed for each blade. As the volume increases, the blade
height increases, and the base of the blade spins at a slower speed relative to the tip.
This change in speed forces a designer to change from impulse at the base, to a high
reaction style tip.
Classical turbine design methods were developed in the mid 19th century. Vector
analysis related the fluid flow with turbine shape and rotation. Graphical calculation
methods were used at first. Formulas for the basic dimensions of turbine parts are well
documented and a highly efficient machine can be reliably designed for any fluid flow
condition. Some of the calculations are empirical or 'rule of thumb' formulae, and
others are based on classical mechanics. As with most engineering calculations,
simplifying assumptions were made.

Velocity triangles can be used to calculate the basic performance of a turbine stage.
Gas exits the stationary turbine nozzle guide vanes at absolute velocity Va1. The rotor
rotates at velocity U. Relative to the rotor, the velocity of the gas as it impinges on the
rotor entrance is Vr1. The gas is turned by the rotor and exits, relative to the rotor, at
velocity Vr2. However, in absolute terms the rotor exit velocity is Va2. The velocity
triangles are constructed using these various velocity vectors. Velocity triangles can
be constructed at any section through the blading (for example: hub , tip, midsection
and so on) but are usually shown at the mean stage radius. Mean performance for the
stage can be calculated from the velocity triangles, at this radius, using the Euler
equation:

Typical velocity triangles for a single turbine stage

Whence:

where:
acceleration of gravity
enthalpy drop across stage
turbine entry total (or stagnation) temperature

turbine rotor peripheral velocity


delta whirl velocity

The turbine pressure ratio is a function of

and the turbine efficiency.

Modern turbine design carries the calculations further. Computational fluid dynamics
dispenses with many of the simplifying assumptions used to derive classical formulas
and computer software facilitates optimization. These tools have led to steady
improvements in turbine design over the last forty years.
The primary numerical classification of a turbine is its specific speed. This number
describes the speed of the turbine at its maximum efficiency with respect to the power
and flow rate. The specific speed is derived to be independent of turbine size. Given
the fluid flow conditions and the desired shaft output speed, the specific speed can be
calculated and an appropriate turbine design selected.
The specific speed, along with some fundamental formulas can be used to reliably
scale an existing design of known performance to a new size with corresponding
performance.
Off-design performance is normally displayed as a turbine map or characteristic.

Types of turbines

Steam turbines are used for the generation of electricity in thermal power
plants, such as plants using coal or fuel oil or nuclear power. They were once
used to directly drive mechanical devices such as ship's propellors (eg the
Turbinia), but most such applications now use reduction gears or an
intermediate electrical step, where the turbine is used to generate electricity,
which then powers an electric motor connected to the mechanical load.
Gas turbine engines are sometimes referred to as turbine engines. Such
engines usually feature an inlet, fan, compressor, combustor and nozzle
(possibly other assemblies) in addition to one or more turbines.
Transonic turbine. The gasflow in most turbines employed in gas turbine
engines remains subsonic throughout the expansion process. In a transonic
turbine the gasflow becomes supersonic as it exits the nozzle guide vanes,
although the downstream velocities normally become subsonic. Transonic
turbines operate at a higher pressure ratio than normal but are usually less
efficient and uncommon. This turbine works well in creating power from
water.
Contra-rotating turbines. Some efficiency advantage can be obtained if a
downstream turbine rotates in the opposite direction to an upstream unit.
However, the complication may be counter-productive.
Statorless turbine Multi-stage turbines have a set of static (meaning stationary)
inlet guide vanes that direct the gasflow onto the rotating rotor blades. In a

statorless turbine the gasflow exiting an upstream rotor impinges onto a


downstream rotor without an intermediate set of stator vanes (that rearrange
the pressure/velocity energy levels of the flow) being encountered.
Ceramic turbine. Conventional high-pressure turbine blades (and vanes) are
made from nickel-steel alloys and often utilise intricate internal air-cooling
passages to prevent the metal from melting. In recent years, experimental
ceramic blades have been manufactured and tested in gas turbines, with a view
to increasing Rotor Inlet Temperatures and/or, possibly, eliminating
aircooling. Ceramic blades are more brittle than their metallic counterparts,
and carry a greater risk of catastrophic blade failure.
Shrouded turbine. Many turbine rotor blades have a shroud at the top, which
interlocks with that of adjacent blades, to increase damping and thereby reduce
blade flutter.
Shroudless turbine. Modern practise is, where possible, to eliminate the rotor
shroud, thus reducing the centrifugal load on the blade and the cooling
requirements.
Bladeless turbine uses the boundary layer effect and not a fluid impinging
upon the blades as in a conventional turbine.
Water turbine
Wind turbine. These normally operate as a single stage without nozzle and
interstage guide vanes.
Water and wind turbines have a thermodynamic cycle that is part of weather.

Francis Turbine. Widely used water turbine.


Kaplan Turbine. Variation of the Francis Turbine.
Musser Turbine. A machine using four rotors to convert the static pressure of
the working fluid into mechanical energy at a single output shaft. The intent of
the design is to create a positive displacement turbine with relatively high flow
handling characteristics.

Uses of turbines
Almost all electrical power on Earth is produced with a turbine of some type. Very
high efficiency turbines harness about 40% of the thermal energy, with the rest
exhausted as waste heat.
Most jet engines rely on turbines to supply mechanical work from their working fluid
and fuel as do all nuclear ships and power plants.
Turbines are often part of a larger machine. A Gas turbine, for example, may refer to
an internal combustion machine that contains a turbine, ducts, compressor, combustor,
heat-exchanger, fan and (in the case of one designed to produce electricity) an
alternator. However, it must be noted that the collective machine referred to as the
turbine in these cases is designed to transfer energy from a fuel to the fluid passing
through such an internal combustion device as a means of propulsion, and not to

transfer energy from the fluid passing through the turbine to the turbine as is the case
in turbines used for electricity provision etc.
Reciprocating piston engines such as aircraft engines can use a turbine powered by
their exhaust to drive an intake-air compressor, a configuration known as a
turbocharger (turbine supercharger) or, colloquially, a "turbo".
Turbines can have incredible power density (with respect to volume and weight). This
is because of their ability to operate at very high speeds. The Space Shuttle's main
engines use turbopumps (machines consisting of a pump driven by a turbine engine)
to feed the propellants (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) into the engine's
combustion chamber. The liquid hydrogen turbopump is slightly larger than an
automobile engine (weighing approximately 700 lb) and produces nearly 70,000 hp
(52.2 MW).
Turboexpanders are widely used as sources of refrigeration in industrial processes.

Gas turbine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator,


and foil bearings.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine that extracts
energy from a flow of hot gas produced by combustion of gas or fuel oil in a stream of
compressed air. It has an upstream air compressor (radial or axial flow) mechanically
coupled to a downstream turbine and a combustion chamber in between. Gas turbine
may also refer to just the turbine element.
Energy is released when compressed air is mixed with fuel and ignited in the
combustor. The resulting gases are directed over the turbine's blades, spinning the
turbine, and, mechanically, powering the compressor. Finally, the gases are passed

through a nozzle, generating additional thrust by accelerating the hot exhaust gases by
expansion back to atmospheric pressure.
Energy is extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air and thrust, in any
combination, and used to power aircraft, trains, ships, electrical generators, and even
tanks.

History

60: Hero's Engine (aeolipile) - apparently Hero's steam engine was taken to be
no more than a toy, and thus its full potential not realized for centuries.
1500: The "Chimney Jack" was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci which was
turning a roasting spit. Hot air from a fire rose through a series of fans which
connect and turn the roasting spit.
1629: Jets of steam rotated a turbine that then rotated driven machinery
allowed a stamping mill to be developed by Giovanni Branca.
1678: Ferdinand Verbeist built a model carriage relying on a steam jet for
power.
1791: A patent was given to John Barber, an Englishman, for the first true gas
turbine. His invention had most of the elements present in the modern day gas
turbines. The turbine was designed to power a horseless carriage.
1872: The first true gas turbine engine was designed by Dr F. Stolze, but the
engine never ran under its own power.
1897: A steam turbine for propelling a ship was patented by Sir Charles
Parsons. This principle of propulsion is still of some use.
1903: A Norwegian, gidius Elling, was able to build the first gas turbine that
was able to produce more power than needed to run its own components,
which was considered an achievement in a time when knowledge about
aerodynamics was limited. Using rotary compressors and turbines it produced
11 hp (massive for those days). His work was later used by Sir Frank Whittle.
1914: The first application for a gas turbine engine was filed by Charles
Curtis.
1918: One of the leading gas turbine manufacturers of today, General Electric,
started their gas turbine division.
1920. The then current gas flow through passages was developed by Dr A. A.
Griffith to a turbine theory with gas flow past airfoils.
1930. Sir Frank Whittle patented the design for a gas turbine for jet
propulsion. His work on gas propulsion relied on the work from all those who
had previously worked in the same field and he has himself stated that his
invention would be hard to achieve without the works of gidius Elling. The
first successful use of his engine was in April 1937.
1934. Ral Pateras de Pescara patented the free-piston engine as a gas
generator for gas turbines.
1936. Hans von Ohain and Max Hahn in Germany developed their own
patented engine design at the same time that Sir Frank Whittle was developing
his design in England.

Theory of operation

Gas turbines are described thermodynamically by the Brayton cycle, in which air is
compressed isentropically, combustion occurs at constant pressure, and expansion
over the turbine occurs isentropically back to the starting pressure.
In practice, friction, and turbulence cause:
a) non-isentropic compression: for a given overall pressure ratio, the
compressor delivery temperature is higher than ideal.
b) non-isentropic expansion: although the turbine temperature drop necessary
to drive the compressor is unaffected, the associated pressure ratio is greater,
which decreases the expansion available to provide useful work.
c) pressure losses in the air intake, combustor and exhaust: reduces the
expansion available to provide useful work.

As with all cyclic heat engines, higher combustion temperature means greater
efficiency. The limiting factor is the ability of the steel, nickel, ceramic, or other
materials that make up the engine to withstand heat and pressure. Considerable
engineering goes into keeping the turbine parts cool. Most turbines also try to recover
exhaust heat, which otherwise is wasted energy. Recuperators are heat exchangers
that pass exhaust heat to the compressed air, prior to combustion. Combined cycle
designs pass waste heat to steam turbine systems. And combined heat and power (cogeneration) uses waste heat for hot water production.
Mechanically, gas turbines can be considerably less complex than internal combustion
piston engines. Simple turbines might have one moving part: the
shaft/compressor/turbine/alternative-rotor assembly (see image above), not counting
the fuel system.
More sophisticated turbines (such as those found in modern jet engines) may have
multiple shafts (spools), hundreds of turbine blades, movable stator blades, and a vast
system of complex piping, combustors and heat exchangers.
As a general rule, the smaller the engine the higher the rotation rate of the shaft(s)
needs to be to maintain tip speed. Turbine blade tip speed determines the maximum
pressure that can be gained, independent of the size of the engine. Jet engines operate
around 10,000 rpm and micro turbines around 100,000 rpm.

Thrust bearings and journal bearings are a critical part of design. Traditionally, they
have been hydrodynamic oil bearings, or oil-cooled ball bearings. This is giving way
to foil bearings, which have been successfully used in micro turbines and auxiliary
power units.

Jet engines
Jet engines are gas turbines optimized to produce thrust from the exhaust gases, or
from ducted fans connected to the gas turbines. Jet engines that produce thrust
primarily from the direct impulse of exhaust gases are often called turbojets, whereas
those that generate most of their thrust from the action of a ducted fan are often called
turbofans or (rarely) fanjets.

Auxiliary power units


Auxiliary power units (APUs) are small gas turbines designed for auxiliary power of
larger machines, such as those inside an aircraft. They supply compressed air for
aircraft ventilation (with an appropriate compressor design), start-up power for larger
jet engines, and electrical and hydraulic power. These are not to be confused with the
auxiliary propulsion units, also abbreviated APUs, aboard the gas-turbine-powered
Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided-missile frigates. The Perrys' APUs are large electric
motors that provide maneuvering help in close waters, or emergency backup if the gas
turbines are not working.

Gas turbines for electrical power production

GE H series power generation gas turbine. This 480-megawatt unit has a rated thermal
efficiency of 60% in combined cycle configurations.
Industrial gas turbines range in size from truck-mounted mobile plants to enormous,
complex systems. They can be particularly efficient up to 60% when waste heat
from the gas turbine is recovered by a heat recovery steam generator to power a
conventional steam turbine in a combined cycle configuration. They can also be run in
a cogeneration configuration: the exhaust is used for space or water heating, or drives
an absorption chiller for cooling or refrigeration. A cogeneration configuration can be
over 90% efficient. The power turbines in the largest industrial gas turbines operate at
3,000 or 3,600 rpm to match the AC power grid frequency and to avoid the need for a
reduction gearbox. Such engines require a dedicated enclosure.
Simple cycle gas turbines in the power industry require smaller capital investment
than either coal or nuclear power plants and can be scaled to generate small or large
amounts of power. Also, the actual construction process can take as little as several
weeks to a few months, compared to years for base load power plants. Their other
main advantage is the ability to be turned on and off within minutes, supplying power
during peak demand. Since they are less efficient than combined cycle plants, they are
usually used as peaking power plants, which operate anywhere from several hours per
day to a couple dozen hours per year, depending on the electricity demand and the
generating capacity of the region. In areas with a shortage of base load and load
following power plant capacity, a gas turbine power plant may regularly operate
during most hours of the day and even into the evening. A typical large simple cycle
gas turbine may produce 100 to 300 megawatts of power and have 35 to 40% thermal
efficiency. The most efficient turbines have reached 46% efficiency. [1]

Turboshaft engines
Turboshaft engines are often used to drive compression trains (for example in gas
pumping stations or natural gas liquefaction plants)and are used to power almost all
modern helicopters. The first shaft bears the compressor and the high speed turbine
(often referred to as Gas Generator or "N1"), while the second shaft bears the low

speed turbine (or Power Turbine or "N2"). This arrangement is used to increase
speed and power output flexibility.

Radial Gas Turbines


1963, Norway, Jan Mowill initiated the development at Kongsberg Vpenfabrikk. The
turbine had a unique, all radial configuration, originally rated at 1200 kW. The turbine
proved very successful and was generally sold in electric generating packages. The
major markets for the units were in the maritime, offshore oil and gas and
communications industries. During the following years, more than a thousand units
were delivered world wide. Kongsberg Vpenfabrikk was privatised, split up and sold
off in the late nineteen eighties and development of the original turbine business was
discontinued under the new ownership. As a result, Jan and Hiroko Mowill founded
OPRA in Hengelo in 1991.
Consequently the first 1.6 MW OP16 was designed as a single shaft, all-radial
machine. NOx emissions were developed to a very low level for both diesel fuel and
natural gas. This was achieved with a unique, patented fuel / air pre mixer in
connection with an annular combustor.
The current production model, OP16-3 features both single and dual fuel operation as
well as low emissions on natural gas. For improved maintenance and servicability, a
four can combustion systems was favoured rather than the annular combustor used on
the prototype.
For a single stage radial turbine the pressure ratio of 6.7: 1 is relatively high, which
entails a high turbine impeller tip speed of 700 m/sec (equal to the velocity of a rifle
bullet).
Since this is nearly the same as the velocity of the gas entering the impeller tip from
the nozzle guide vanes, an impact between the hot gas and the turbine impeller is
avoided.
It could be said that this phenomenon constitutes dynamic cooling gaining about
100 degrees celcius compared to a temperature increase in an axial turbine. OPRAs
radial turbine is able to take this high tip speed due to its Eiffel Tower shape with a
strong base and a thinner blade tip region with low stresses. Having low stresses in the
hot tip region and higher stresses in the cold,fat hub region makes OPRA work with
nature rather than against it.
The OPRA radial turbine stage has an advanced aerodynamic design with an
efficiency of 90% from the inlet of the guide vanes to the exhaust diffuser exit.
The efficient centrifugal compressor has a very good 'match' with the turbine as their
optimal running speeds are similar.

Since both compressor and turbine are close coupled via a Hirth - type teeth
connection, an overhung rotor suspension is possible. This system provides balance
integrity despite the differential thermal expansions between the compressor and
turbine.
A ball bearing is placed in the front of the rotor support housing taking the combined
thrust- and radial load. The rear, tilting pad bearing takes the main radial load. The
cantilever, or overhung suspension of the rotor places the bearings in the cold section
of the engine, avoiding oil supply to hot bearings. This system has considerable
positive impact on engine reliability and maintenance.
A flexible coupling connects the turbine to the two stage planetary gearbox, reducing
the turbine speed from 26000 to 1500 or 1800 rpm depending on generator speed
requirements
The OP16-3 has an ISO rating of 1.9 MW. The engine efficiency of nominally 27% is
at the highest level in the below 2 MW power range. Past competitors (no longer
active) in this range have been at the 23 25 % level.

Scale jet engines


Also known as:

Miniature Gas Turbines


Micro-jets

Many model engineers relish the challenge of re-creating the grand engineering feats
of today as tiny working models. Naturally, the idea of re-creating a powerful engine
such as the jet, fascinated hobbyists since the very first full size engines were powered
up by Hans von Ohain and Frank Whittle back in the 1930s.
Recreating machines such as engines to a different scale is not easy. Because of the
square-cube law, the behaviour of many machines does not always scale up or down
at the same rate as the machine's size (and often not even in a linear way), usually at
best causing a dramatic loss of power or efficiency, and at worst causing them not to
work at all. An automobile engine, for example, will not work if reproduced in the
same shape at the size of a human hand.
With this in mind the pioneer of modern Micro-Jets, Kurt Schreckling, produced one
of the world's first Micro-Turbines, the FD3/67. This engine can produce up to 22
newtons of thrust, and can be built by most mechanically minded people with basic
engineering tools, such as a metal lathe. Its radial compressor, which is cold, is small
and the hot axial turbine is large experiencing more centrifugal forces, meaning that
this design is limited by Mach number. Guiding vanes are used to hold the starter,
after the compressor and before the turbine, but not after that. No bypass within the
engine is used.

Microturbines

A micro turbine designed for DARPA by M-Dot


Also known as:

Turbo alternators
MicroTurbine (registered trademark of Capstone Turbine Corporation)
Turbogenerator (registered tradename of Honeywell Power Systems, Inc.)

Microturbines are becoming wide spread for distributed power and combined heat
and power applications. They range from handheld units producing less than a
kilowatt to commercial sized systems that produce tens or hundreds of kilowatts.
Part of their success is due to advances in electronics, which allows unattended
operation and interfacing with the commercial power grid. Electronic power
switching technology eliminates the need for the generator to be synchronized with
the power grid. This allows the generator to be integrated with the turbine shaft, and
to double as the starter motor.
Microturbine systems have many advantages over reciprocating engine generators,
such as higher power density (with respect to footprint and weight), extremely low
emissions and few, or just one, moving part. Those designed with foil bearings and
air-cooling operate without oil, coolants or other hazardous materials. Microturbines
also have the advantage of having the majority of their waste heat contained in their
relatively high temperature exhaust, whereas the waste heat of recriprocating engines
is split between its exhaust and cooling system. [2] However, reciprocating engine
generators are quicker to respond to changes in output power requirement and are
usually slightly more efficient, although the efficiency of microturbines is increasing.
Microturbines also lose more efficiency at low power levels than reciprocating
engines.
They accept most commercial fuels, such as natural gas, propane, diesel and kerosene.
They are also able to produce renewable energy when fueled with biogas from
landfills and sewage treatment plants.
Microturbine designs usually consist of a single stage radial compressor, a single
stage radial turbine and a recuperator. Recuperators are difficult to design and
manufacture because they operate under high pressure and temperature differentials.

Exhaust heat can be used for water heating, drying processes or absorption chillers,
which create cold for air conditioning from heat energy instead of electric energy.
Typical microturbine efficiencies are 25 to 35%. When in a combined heat and power
cogeneration system, efficiencies of greater than 80% are commonly achieved.
MIT started its millimeter size turbine engine project in the middle of the 1990's when
Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Alan H. Epstein considered the possibility
of creating a personal turbine which will be able to meet all the demands of a modern
person's electrical needs, just like a large turbine can meet the electricity demands of a
small city. According to Professor Epstein current commercial Li-ion rechargeable
batteries deliver about 120-150 w-hr/kg. MIT's millimeter size turbine will deliver
500-700 whr/kg in the near term, rising to 1200-1500 whr/kg in the longer term[3].

Gas turbines in vehicles

Rover JET1
Gas turbines are used on ships, locomotives, helicopters, and in tanks. A number of
experiments have been conducted with gas turbine powered automobiles.
In 1950, designer F.R. Bell and Chief Engineer Maurice Wilks from British car
manufacturers Rover unveiled the first car powered with a gas turbine engine. The
two-seater JET1 had the engine positioned behind the seats, air intake grilles on either
side of the car, and exhaust outlets on the top of the tail. During tests, the car reached
top speeds of 140 km/h, at a turbine speed of 50,000 rpm. The car ran on petrol,
paraffin or diesel oil, but fuel consumption problems proved insurmountable for a
production car. It is currently on display at the London Science Museum. Rover and
the BRM Formula One team joined forces to produce a gas turbine powered coupe,
which entered the 1963 24 Hours of Le Mans, driven by Graham Hill and Richie
Ginther. It averaged 107.8 mph (173 km/h) and had a top speed of 142 mph
(229 km/h). In 1967, the revolutionary STP Oil Treatment Special four-wheel drive
turbine-powered special fielded by racing and entrepreneurial legend Andy Granatelli
and driven by Parnelli Jones nearly won the Indianapolis 500; the STP Pratt &
Whitney powered turbine car was almost a lap ahead of the second place car when a
gearbox bearing failed just three laps from the finish line. In 1971 Lotus principal
Colin Chapman introduced the Lotus 56B F1 car, powered by a Pratt & Whitney gas
turbine. Chapman had a reputation of building radical championship-winning cars, but
had to abandon the project because there were too many problems with turbo lag.

The fictional Batmobile is often said to be powered by a gas turbine or a jet engine. In
fact, in 1989's filmed Batman, the production department built a working turbine
vehicle for the Batmobile prop[4]. Its fuel capacity, however, was reportedly only
enough for 15 seconds of use at a time.

The STP Oil Treatment Special on display at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall
of Fame Museum, with the Pratt & Whitney gas turbine shown.
American car manufacturer Chrysler demonstrated several prototype gas turbinepowered cars from the early 1950s through the early 1980s. Chrysler built fifty
Chrysler Turbine Cars in 1963 and conducted the only consumer trial of gas turbinepowered cars.
In 1993 General Motors introduced the first commercial gas turbine powered hybrid
vehicleas a limited production run of the EV-1 series hybrid. A Williams
International 40 kW turbine drove an alternator which powered the battery-electric
powertrain. The turbine design included a recuperator.
Arrival of Capstone Microturbine has led to several hybrid bus designs from US and
New Zealand manufacturers, starting with HEV-1 by AVS of Chattanooga, Tennessee
in 1999, and closely followed by Ebus and ISE Research in California, and Designline
in New Zealand. AVS turbine hybrids were plagued with reliability and quality
control problems, resulting in liquidation of AVS in 2003. Today, the most successful
design by Designline is now operated in 5 cities in 6 countries, with over 30 buses in
operation worldwide.
It is worth noting that a key advantage of jets and turboprops for aeroplane propulsion
- their superior performance at high altitude compared to piston engines, particularly
naturally-aspirated ones - is irrelevant in automobile applications. Their power-toweight advantage is far less important.
Gas turbines offer a high-powered engine in a very small and light package. However,
they are not as responsive and efficient as small piston engines over the wide range of
RPMs and powers needed in vehicle applications. In hybrids, gas turbines reduce the
responsiveness problem, and the emergence of the continuously variable transmission
may also help alleviate this. A recent idea is the 'Multi-Pressure' turbine proposed by
Robin Mackay of Agile Turbines. This concept is expected to provide three different
power level ranges - each of them exhibiting high efficiency and low emission levels.
The engine has two compressor spindles and an intercooler. By a system of three-way
valves, it can be operated with both 'wings' in super atmospheric pressure mode (high
power) or one 'wing' super atmospheric and the other sub atmospheric (cruising
power) or both 'wings' in sub atmospheric mode (idling). Since there is no change in
direction or speed of gas flow at transition from one power level to another (only

mass flow changes) transition is almost instantaneous - thus overcoming the slow
throttle response characteristic of gas turbines in land vehicle applications.

Turbines have historically been more expensive to produce than piston engines,
though this is partly because piston engines have been mass-produced in huge
quantities for decades, while small gas turbine engines are rarities; but turbines are
mass produced in the closely related form of the turbocharger.
The MTT Turbine SUPERBIKE appeared in 2000 (hence the designation of Y2K
Superbike by MTT) and is the first production motorcycle powered by a jet engine specifically, a Rolls-Royce Allison model 250 turboshaft engine, producing about
283kW (380bhp). Speed-tested to 365km/h or 227mph (according to some stories, the
testing team ran out of road during the test), it holds the Guinness World Records for
most powerful production motorcycle and most expensive production motorcycle,
with a price tag of US$185,000.
Use of gas turbines in military tanks has been more successful. In the 1950s, a
Conqueror heavy tank was experimentally fitted with a Parsons 650-hp gas turbine,
and they have been used as auxiliary power units in several other production models.
The first production turbine tank was the Swedish Stridsvagn 103A. Today, the
Soviet/Russian T-80 and U.S. M1 Abrams tanks use gas turbine engines. See tank for
more details.
Several locomotive classes have been powered by gas turbines, the most recent
incarnation being Bombardier's JetTrain. See gas turbine-electric locomotive for more
information.

Naval use
Gas turbines are used in many naval vessels, where they are valued for their high
power-to-weight ratio and their ships' resulting acceleration and ability to get
underway quickly. The first gas-turbine-powered naval vessel was the Royal Navy's
Motor Gun Boat MGB 2009 (formerly MGB 509) converted in 1947. The first large,
gas-turbine powered ships, were the Royal Navy's Type 81 (Tribal class) frigates, the
first of which (HMS Ashanti) was commissioned in 1961.
The Swedish Navy produced 6 Spica class torpedoboats between 1966 and 1967
powered by 3 Bristol Siddeley Proteus 1282, each delivering 4300 hp. They were later
joined by 6 upgraded Norrkping class ships, still with the same engines. With their
aft torpedo tubes replaced by antishipping missiles they served as missile boats until
the last was retired in 1986.
The Finnish Navy issued two Turunmaa class corvettes, Turunmaa and Karjala, in
1968. They were equipped with one 16 000 shp Rolls-Royce Olympus TMB3 gas
turbine and two Wrtsil marine diesels for slower speeds. Before the waterjetpropulsion Helsinki class missile boats, they were the fastest vessels in the Finnish
Navy; they regularly achieved 37 knot speeds, but they are known to have achieved

45 knots when the restriction mechanism of the turbine was geared off. The
Turunmaas were paid off in 2002. Karjala is today a museum ship in Turku, and
Turunmaa serves as a flotating machine shop and training ship for Satakunta
Polytechnical College.
The next series of major naval vessels were the four Canadian Iroquois class
helicopter carrying destroyers first commissioned in 1972. They used 2 FT-4 main
propulsion engines, 2 FT-12 cruise engines and 3 Solar Saturn 750 KW generators.
The first U.S. gas-turbine powered ships were the U.S. Coast Guard's Hamilton-class
High Endurance Cutters the first of which (USCGC Hamilton) commissioned in 1967.
Since then, they have powered the U.S. Navy's Perry-class frigates, Spruance-class
and Arleigh Burke-class destroyers, and Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruisers.
USS Makin Island, a modified Wasp-class amphibious assault ship, is to be the Navy's
first amphib powered by gas turbines.

Commercial Use
Three Rolls-Royce gas turbines power the 118 WallyPower, a 118 foot super-yacht.
These engines combine for a total of 16,800HP allowing this 118 foot boat to
maintain speeds of 60 knots or 70mph.
Another example of commercial usage of gas turbines in a ship, are the HSS class
fastcraft ferry fleet. HSS 1500-class Stena Explorer, Stena Voyager and Stena
Discovery vessels use combined gas and gas (COGAG) setups of twin GE LM2500
plus GE LM1600 power for a total of 68,000kW. The slightly smaller HSS 900-class
Stena Carisma, uses twin ABBSTAL GT35 turbines rated at 34,000kW gross.

Amateur gas turbines


A popular hobby is to construct a gas turbine from an automotive turbocharger. A
combustion chamber is fabricated and plumbed between the compressor and turbine.
Like many technology based hobbies, they tend to give rise to manufacturing
businesses over time. Several small companies manufacture small turbines and parts
for the amateur. See external links for resources.

Advances in technology
Gas turbine technology has steadily advanced since its inception and continues to
evolve; research is active in producing ever smaller gas turbines. Computer design,
specifically CFD and finite element analysis along with material advances, has
allowed higher compression ratios and temperatures, more efficient combustion,
better cooling of engine parts and reduced emissions. On the emissions side, the
challenge in technology is actually getting a catalytic combustor running properly in
order to achieve single digit NOx emissions to cope with the latest regulations.
Additionally, compliant foil bearings were commercially introduced to gas turbines in
the 1990s. They can withstand over a hundred thousand start/stop cycles and
eliminated the need for an oil system.

On another front, microelectronics and power switching technology have enabled


commercially viable micro turbines for distributed and vehicle power.

Advantages and disadvantages of gas turbine engines


Advantages of gas turbine engines

Very high power-to-weight ratio, compared to reciprocating engines (ie. most


road vehicle engines);
Smaller than most reciprocating engines of the same power rating
Moves in one direction only, and doesn't vibrate, so very reliable;
Simpler design.

Disadvantages of gas turbine engines

Cost is much greater than for a similar-sized reciprocating engine (very highperformance, strong, heat-resistant materials needed);
Use more fuel when idling compared to reciprocating engines - not so good
unless in continual operation.

These disadvantages explain why road vehicles, which are smaller, cheaper and
follow a less regular pattern of use than tanks, helicopters, large boats and so on, do
not use gas turbine engines, regardless of the size and power advantages imminently
available.

Steam engine
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The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive.
A steam engine is an external combustion heat engine that makes use of the heat
energy that exists in steam, converting it to mechanical work.
Steam engines were used as the prime mover in pumping stations, locomotives, steam
ships, traction engines, steam lorries and other road vehicles. They were essential to
the Industrial Revolution and saw widespread commercial use driving machinery in
factories and mills, although most have since been superseded by internal combustion
engines and electric motors.
Steam turbines, technically a type of steam engine, are still widely used for generating
electricity. About 86% of all electric power in the world is generated by use of steam
turbines.
A steam engine requires a boiler to heat water into steam. The expansion or
contraction of steam exerts force upon a piston or turbine blade, whose motion can be

harnessed for the work of turning wheels or driving other machinery. One of the
advantages of the steam engine is that any heat source can be used to raise steam in
the boiler; but the most common is a fire fueled by wood, coal or oil or the heat
energy generated in a nuclear reactor.

Steam engine in action (animation). Note that movement of the connecting


linkage from the centrifugal governor operating the steam throttle is shown
for illustrative purpose only, in practice this link only operates when the
engine speeds up or slows down.

Invention and development

Aeolipile
The first recorded steam-rotated device, the aeolipile, was described by Hero of
Alexandria (Heron) in the 1st century AD, in his manuscript Spiritalia seu

Pneumatica.[1] Steam ejected tangentally from nozzles caused a pivoted ball to rotate;
this suggests that the conversion of steam pressure into mechanical movement was
known in Roman Egypt in the 1st century, although no useful function is evident and
the device seems to have been used simply to demonstrateas a mechanical principle.
More practical was the device described in 1551 by the Arab philosopher and
astronomer, Taqi al-Din[2] who exposed a method for rotating a spit by means of a jet
of steam playing on rotary vanes around the periphery of a wheel. A similar machine
is shown by Giovanni Branca an Italian engineer [3] in 1629 for turning a cylindrical
escapement device that alternately lifted and let fall a pair of pestles working in
mortars. Although these engines are often described as turbines, the steam flow was in
no way concentrated by casing so much of its energy was dissipated in all directions
and would have led to considerable waste of energy. In early writings they are
(perhaps more aptly) termed mills.
Commercial development of the steam engine, however, required an economic
climate in which the developers of engines could profit by their creations. Classical,
and later Mediaeval and Renaissance civilisations provided no such climate. Even as
late as the 17th century, steam engines were created as one-off curiosities. The
difficulty in breaking out of this situation is evident judging by the difficulties
encountered by Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester and later by his widow
in gaining financial investment into the practical application of his ideas for the
exploitation of steam power. In 1663, he published designs for, and installed a steampowered device for raising water on the wall of the Great Tower at Raglan Castle (the
grooves in the wall where the engine was installed were still to be seen in the 19th
Century). However, no one was prepared to risk money in this revolutionary new
concept, and without backers the machine remained undeveloped.Practical
development of the steam engine, however, required an economic climate in which
the developers of engines could profit by their creations. Classical, and later
Mediaeval and Renaissance civilisations provided no such climate. Even as late as the
17th century, steam engines were created as one-off curiosities. The difficulty in
breaking out of this situation is evident judging by the difficulties encountered by
Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester and later by his widow in gaining
financial investment into the practical application of his ideas for the exploitation of
steam power. In 1663, he published designs for, and installed a steam-powered device
for raising water on the wall of the Great Tower at Raglan Castle (the grooves in the
wall where the engine was installed were still to be seen in the 19th Century).
However, no one was prepared to risk money in this revolutionary new concept, and
without backers the machine remained undeveloped.

Denis Papin's design for a piston-and-cylinder engine, 1680.


One of Denis Papins centres of interest was in the creating of a vacuum in a closed
cylinder and in Paris in the mid 1670s he collaborated with the Dutch physicist,
Huygens working on an engine which drove out the air from a cylinder by exploding
gunpowder inside it. Realising the incompleteness of the vacuum produced by this
means and on moving to England in 1680, Papin devised a version of the same
cylinder that obtained a a more complete vacuum from boiling water and then
allowing the steam to condense; in this way he was able to raise weights by attaching
the end of the piston to a rope passing over a pulley. As a demonstration model the
system worked, but in order to repeat the process the whole apparatus had to be
dismantled and reassembled. Papin quickly saw that to make an automatic cycle the
steam would have to be generated separately in a boiler; however as he did not take
the project further all we can say is that he invented the reciprocating steam engine
conceptually and thus paved the way to Newcomens engine. Papin also designed a
paddle boat driven by a jet playing on a mill-wheel in a combination of Taqi al Din
and Saverey's conceptions and; he is also credited with a number of significant
devices such as the safety valve.
Early industrial steam engines were designed by Thomas Savery (the "fire-engine",
1698) but it was Thomas Newcomen and his "atmospheric-engine" of 1712 that
demonstrated the first practical industrial engine for which there was a commercial
demand. Together, Newcomen and Savery developed a beam engine that worked on
the atmospheric, or vacuum, principle. The first industrial applications of the vacuum
engines were in the pumping of water from deep mineshafts. In mineshaft pumps the
reciprocating beam was connected to an operating rod that descended the shaft to a
pump chamber. The oscillations of the operating rod are transferred to a pump piston
that moves the water, through check valves, to the top of the shaft. Early Newcomen
engines operated so slowly that the valves were manually opened and closed by an
attendant. An improvement was the replacement of manual operation of the valves
with an operation derived from the motion of the engine itself, by lengths of rope
known as potter cord (Legend has it that this was first done in 1713 by a boy,
Humphrey Potter, charged with opening the valves; when he grew bored and wanted
to play with the other children he set up ropes to automate the process.)[4]

Humphrey Gainsborough produced a model condensing steam engine in the 1760s,


which he showed to Richard Lovell Edgeworth, a member of the Lunar Society.[5] In
1769 James Watt, another member of the Lunar Society, patented the first significant
improvements to the Newcomen type vacuum engine that made it much more fuel
efficient. Watt's leap was to separate the condensing phase of the vacuum engine into
a separate chamber, while keeping the piston and cylinder at the temperature of the
steam. Gainsborough believed that Watt had used his ideas for the invention, but there
is no proof of this.[5]
Watt, together with his business partner Matthew Boulton, developed these patents
into the Watt steam engine in Birmingham, England. The increased efficiency of the
Watt engine finally led to the general acceptance and use of steam power in industry.
Additionally, unlike the Newcomen engine, the Watt engine operated smoothly
enough to be connected to a drive shaftvia sun and planet gearsto provide rotary
power. This was in all essentials the engine that we know today. In early steam
engines the piston is usually connected to a balanced beam, rather than directly to a
connecting rod, and these engines are therefore known as beam engines.

Richard Trevithick's No. 14 Engine, built by Hazeldine and Co., Bridgnorth, about
1804. This was a single-acting, stationary high pressure engine that operated at a
working pressure of 50 psi (350 kPa).
The next improvement in efficiency came with the American Oliver Evans and the
Briton Richard Trevithick's use of high pressure steam.[6][7] Trevithick built successful
industrial high pressure single-acting engines known as Cornish engines. However
with increased pressure came much danger as engines and boilers were now likely to
fail mechanically by a violent outwards explosion, and there were many early
disasters. The most important refinement to the high pressure engine at this point was
the safety valve, which releases excess pressure. Reliable and safe operation came
only with a great deal of experience and codification of construction, operating, and
maintenance procedures.
Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot demonstrated the first functional self-propelled steam vehicle,
his "fardier" (steam wagon), in 1769. Arguably, this was the first automobile. While
not generally successful as a transportation device, the self-propelled steam tractor
proved very useful as a self mobile power source to drive other farm machinery such
as grain threshers or hay balers. In 1802 William Symington built the "first practical
steamboat", and in 1807 Robert Fulton used the Watt steam engine to power the first
commercially successful steamboat. On February 21, 1804 at the Penydarren
ironworks at Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales, the first self-propelled railway steam
engine or steam locomotive, built by Richard Trevithick, was demonstrated.

Reciprocating engines
Reciprocating engines use the action of steam to move a piston in a sealed chamber or
cylinder. The reciprocating action of the piston can be translated via a mechanical
linkage into either linear motion, usually for working water or air pumps, or else into
rotary motion to drive the flywheel of a stationary engine, or else the wheel(s) of a
vehicle.

Vacuum engines
Early steam engines, or "fire engines" as they were at first called such as
"atmospheric" and Watt's "condensing" engines, worked on the vacuum principle and
are thus known as vacuum engines Although Savery's patent of 2 July 1698 claimed,
in addition to "the raising of water", the ability to "occasion... motion to all sorts of
mill-works" there is no evidence that they were used for any purpose other than
pumping.[3] Such engines operate by admitting low pressure steam into an operating
chamber or cylinder. The inlet valve is then closed and the steam cooled, condensing
it to a smaller volume and thus creating a vacuum in the cylinder The upper end of the
cylinder being open to the atmospheric pressure operates on the opposite side of a
piston, pushing the piston to the bottom of the cylinder.

Engraving of Newcomen engine. This appears to be copied from a drawing in


Desaguliers' 1744 work: "A course of experimental philosophy", itself believed to
have been a reversed copy of Henry Beighton's engraving dated 1717 representing
what is probably the second Newcomen engine erected around 1714 at Griff colliery,
Warwickshire. (See Hulse p.84)
The piston is connected by a chain to the end of a large beam pivoted near its middle.
A weighted force pump is connected by a chain to the opposite end of the beam which
gives the pumping stroke and returns the piston to the top of the cylinder by force of
gravity, the low pressure steam being insufficient to move the piston upwards. In the
Newcomen engine the cooling water is sprayed directly into the cylinder the still-

warm condensate running off into a hot well. [1] [8] Repeated and wasteful cooling
and reheating of the working cylinder was a source of inefficiency, however these
engines enabled the pumping of greater volumes of water and/or from greater depths
than had been hitherto possible. Watt's version of this engine as developed and
marketed from 1774 onwards in partnership with Matthew Boulton, was meant to
improve efficiency through use of a separate condensing chamber immersed in a bath
of cold water, connected to the working cylinder by a pipe and controlled by a valve.
A small vacuum pump connected to the pump side of the beam drew off the warm
condensate and delivered it to the hot well, at the same time helping to create the
vacuum and draw the condensate out of the cylinder.

Early Watt pumping engine.


The hot well was also a source of pre-heated water for the boiler. Another radical
change was to close off the top of the cylinder and introduce low pressure steam
above the piston and inside steam jackets that maintained cylinder temperature
constant. On the upward return stroke, the steam on top was transferred through a pipe
to the underside of the piston to be condensed for the downward stroke. Thus the
engine was thus no longer "atmospheric", the power stroke depending on the
differential between the low-pressure steam and the partial vacuum. Sealing of the
piston on a Newcomen engine was achieved by maintaining a small quantity of water
on its upper side. This was no longer possible in Watt's engine due to the presence of
the steam; so sealing of the piston and its lubrication was obtained by using a mixture
of tallow and oil. The piston rod also passed through a gland on the top cylinder cover
sealed in a similar way.[2]
Vacuum engines, although in general limited in their efficiency, were at least
relatively safe, use of very low pressure steam being preferable due to the primitive
state of 18th century boiler technology. Power was limited by the low pressure, the
displacement of the cylinder, combustion and evaporation rates andwhere present
condenser capacity. Maximum theoretical efficiency was limited by the relatively low
temperature differential on either side of the piston; this meant that for a vacuum
engine to provide a usable amount of power, the first industrial production engines
had to be very large, and were thus expensive to build and install.

Trevithick pumping engine (Cornish system).


Around 1811 Richard Trevithick was required to update a Watt pumping engine in
order to adapt it to one of his new Cornish boilers. Steam pressure above the piston
was increased eventually reaching 40 psi (2.8 bars) and now provided much of the
power for the downward stroke; at the same time condensing was improved. This
considerably raised efficiency and further pumping engines on the Cornish system
(often known as Cornish engines) were built new throughout the 19th Century, older
Watt engines being updated to conform. Many of these engines were supplied
worldwide and gave reliable and efficient service over a great many years with greatly
reduced coal consumption. Some of them were very large and the type continued to
be built right down to the 1890s.

High pressure engines


In a high pressure engine, steam is raised in a boiler to a high pressure and
temperature, it is then admitted to a working chamber where it expands and acts upon
a piston. "Cornish engines" used steam pressure alone to raise the piston. The piston
consequently reciprocates, much like in the vacuum engine.
The importance of raising steam under pressure (from a thermodynamic standpoint) is
that it attains a higher temperature. Thus, any engine using such steam operates at a
higher temperature differential than is possible with a low pressure vacuum engine.
After displacing the vacuum engine, the high pressure engine became the basis for
further development of reciprocating steam technology.

High pressure steam also has the advantage that engines can be much smaller for a
given power range, and thus less expensive. There is also the benefit that steam
engines then could be developed that were small enough and powerful enough to
propel themselves while doing useful work. As a result, steam power for
transportation became a practicality, most notably steam locomotives and ships,
which revolutionised cargo businesses, travel, military strategy, and essentially every
aspect of society at the time.

A labeled schematic diagram of a typical single cylinder, simple expansion, doubleacting high pressure horizontal steam engine. Power takeoff from the engine is by
way of a belt.
1 - Piston
2 - Piston rod
3 - Crosshead bearing
4 - Connecting rod
5 - Crank
6 - Eccentric valve motion
7 - Flywheel
8 - Sliding valve
9 - Centrifugal governor.
[edit] Double-acting engine
The next major advance in high pressure steam engines was to make them doubleacting. In the single-acting high pressure engine above, the cylinder is vertical and the
piston returns to the startor bottomof the stroke by the momentum of the
flywheel (not shown).
In the double-acting engine, steam is admitted alternately to each side of the piston
while the other is exhausting. This requires inlet and exhaust ports at either end of the
cylinder (see the animated expansion engine below) with steam flow being controlled
by valves. This system increases the speed and smoothness of the reciprocation and
allows the cylinder to be mounted horizontally or at an angle.
Power is transmitted from the piston by a sliding rodsealed to the cylinder to
prevent the escape of steam which in turn drives a connecting rod via a sliding
crosshead). This in combination with the connecting rod converts the reciprocating
motion to rotary motion. The inlet and exhaust valves have their reciprocating motion
derived from the rotary motion by way of an additional crank mounted eccentrically

(i.e off centre) from the drive shaft. The valve gear may include a reversing
mechanism to allow reversal of the rotary motion.
A double-acting piston engine provides as much power as a more expensive 2-piston
single-acting engine, and also allows the use of a much smaller flywheel than what
would be required by a one-piston single-acting engine. Both of these considerations
made the double-acting piston engine smaller and less expensive for a given power
range.
Most reciprocating steam engines now use this technology, notable examples
including steam locomotives and marine engines. When a pair (or more) of double
acting cylinders, for instance in a steam locomotive, are connected to a common
driveshaft their crank phasing is offset by an angle of 90. This is called quartering
and ensures that the engine will always start, no matter what position the crank is in.
Some engines have used only a single double-acting cylinder, driving paddlewheels
on each side. When shutting down such an engine it was important that the piston be
away from either extreme range of its travel so that it could be readily restarted (as
there was not a second quartered piston to facilitate this).

[edit] Steam distribution

Schematic Indicator diagram showing the four events in a double piston stroke
In most reciprocating piston engines the steam reverses its direction of flow at each
stroke (counterflow), entering and exhausting from the cylinder by the same port. The
complete engine cycle occupies one rotation of the crank and two piston strokes; the
cycle also comprises four events admission, expansion, exhaust, compression.
These events are controlled by valves often working inside a steam chest adjacent to
the cylinder; the valves distribute the steam by opening and closing steam ports
communicating with the cylinder end(s) and are driven by valve gear, of which there
are many types. The simplest valve gears give events of fixed length during the
engine cycle and often make the engine rotate in only one direction. Most however
have a reversing mechanism which additionally can provide means for saving steam
as speed and momentum are gained by gradually "shortening the cutoff" or rather,
shortening the admission event; this in turn proportionately lengthens the expansion

period. However as one and the same valve usually controls both steam flows, a short
cutoff at admission adversely affects the exhaust and compression periods which
should ideally always be kept fairly constant; if the exhaust event is too brief, the
totality of the exhaust steam cannot evacuate the cylinder, choking it and giving
excessive compression ("kick back"). In the 1840s and 50s there were attempts to
overcome this problem by means of various patent valve gears with separate variable
cutoff valves riding on the back of the main slide valve; the latter usually had fixed or
limited cutoff. The combined setup gave a fair approximation of the ideal events, at
the expense of increased friction and wear, and the mechanism tended to be
complicated. The usual compromise solution has ever since been to provide lap by
lengthening rubbing surfaces of the valve in such a way as to overlap the port on the
admission side, with the effect that the exhaust side remains open for a longer period
after cut-off on the admission side has occurred. This expedient has since been
generally considered satisfactory for most purposes and makes possible the use of the
simpler Stephenson, Joy and Walschaerts motions. Later, poppet valve gears had
separate admission and exhaust valves driven by cams profiled so as to give ideal
events; nevertheless most of these gears never succeeded in ousting conventional
gears due to various other issues including leakage and more delicate
mechanisms[9][10].
[edit] Compression
Before the exhaust phase is quite complete, the exhaust side of the valve closes,
shutting a portion of the exhaust steam inside the cylinder. This determines the
compression phase where a cushion of steam is formed against which the piston does
work whilst its velocity is rapidly decreasing; it moreover obviates the pressure and
temperature shock, which would otherwise be caused by the sudden admission of the
high pressure steam at the beginning of the following cycle.
[edit] Lead
The above effect is further enhanced by providing lead: as was later discovered with
the internal combustion engine, it has been found advantageous since the late 1830s to
advance the admission phase, giving the valve lead so that admission occurs a little
before the end of the exhaust stroke in order to fill the clearance volume comprising
the ports and the cylinder ends (not part of the piston-swept volume) before the steam
begins to exert effort on the piston.[11]
[edit] Simple expansion
This means that a charge of steam works only once in the cylinder. It is then
exhausted directly into the atmosphere or into a condenser, but remaining heat can be
recuperated if needed to heat a living space, or to provide warm feedwater for the
engine itself.
[edit] Compounding
As steam expands in a high pressure engine its temperature drops; because no heat is
released from the system, this is known as adiabatic expansion and results in steam
entering the cylinder at high temperature and leaving at low temperature. This causes

a cycle of heating and cooling of the cylinder with every stroke which is a source of
inefficiency.
A method to lessen the magnitude of this heating and cooling was invented in 1804 by
British engineer Arthur Woolf, who patented his Woolf high pressure compound
engine in 1805. In the compound engine, high pressure steam from the boiler expands
in a high pressure (HP) cylinder and then enters one or more subsequent lower
pressure (LP) cylinders. The complete expansion of the steam now occurs across
multiple cylinders and as less expansion now occurs in each cylinder so less heat is
lost by the steam in each. This reduces the magnitude of cylinder heating and cooling,
increasing the efficiency of the engine. To derive equal work from lower pressure
steam requires a larger cylinder volume as this steam occupies a greater volume.
Therefore the bore, and often the stroke, are increased in low pressure cylinders
resulting in larger cylinders.
Double expansion (usually known as compound) engines expanded the steam in two
stages. The pairs may be duplicated or the work of the large LP cylinder can be split
with one HP cylinder exhausting into one or the other, giving a 3-cylinder layout
where cylinder and piston diameter are about the same making the reciprocating
masses easier to balance.
Two-cylinder compounds can be arranged as:

Cross compounds - The cylinders are side by side.


Tandem compounds - The cylinders are end to end, driving a common
connecting rod
Angle compounds - The cylinders are arranged in a vee (usually at a 90
angle) and drive a common crank.

With two-cylinder compounds used in railway work, the pistons are connected to the
cranks as with a two-cylinder simple at 90 out of phase with each other (quartered).
When the double expansion group is duplicated, producing a 4-cylinder compound,
the individual pistons within the group are usually balanced at 180, the groups being
set at 90 to each other. In one case (the first type of Vauclain compound), the pistons
worked in the same phase driving a common crosshead and crank, again set at 90 as
for a two-cylinder engine. With the 3-cylinder compound arrangement, the LP cranks
were either set at 90 with the HP one at 135 to the other two, or in some cases all
three cranks were set at 120.
The adoption of compounding was common for industrial units, for road engines and
almost universal for marine engines after 1880; it was not universally popular in
railway locomotives where it was often perceived as complicated. This is partly due to
the harsh railway operating environment and limited space afforded by the loading
gauge (particularly in Britain, where compounding was never common and not
employed after 1930). However although never in the majority it was popular in many
other countries [12]
[edit] Multiple expansion

An animation of a simplified triple-expansion engine.


High-pressure steam (red) enters from the boiler and passes through the engine,
exhausting as low-pressure steam (blue) to the condenser.

Model of a triple expansion engine

S/S Ukkopekka Triple expansion steam engine


It is a logical extension of the compound engine above to split the expansion into yet
more stages to increase efficiency. The result is the multiple expansion engine. Such
engines use either three or four expansion stages and are known as triple and
quadruple expansion engines respectively. These engines use a series of doubleacting cylinders of progressively increasing diameter and/or stroke and hence volume.
These cylinders are designed to divide the work into three or four, as appropriate,
equal portions for each expansion stage. As with the double expansion engine, where
space is at a premium, two smaller cylinders of a large sum volume may be used for
the low pressure stage. Multiple expansion engines typically had the cylinders
arranged inline, but various other formations were used.
The images to the right show a model and an animation of a triple expansion engine.
The steam travels through the engine from left to right. The valve chest for each of the
cylinders is to the left of the corresponding cylinder.

The development of this type of engine was important for its use in steamships as by
exhausting to a condenser the water can be reclaimed to feed the boiler, which is
unable to use seawater. Land-based steam engines could exhaust much of their steam,
as feed water was usually readily available. Prior to and during World War II, the
expansion engine dominated marine applications where high vessel speed was not
essential. It was however superseded by the British invented steam turbine where
speed was required, for instance in warships and ocean liners. HMS Dreadnought of
1905 was the first major warship to replace the proven technology of the reciprocating
engine with the then novel steam turbine.
[edit] Uniflow (or unaflow) engine
Main article: Uniflow steam engine
This is intended to remedy the difficulties arising from the usual counterflow cycle
mentioned above which means that at each stroke the port and the cylinder walls will
be cooled by the passing exhaust steam, whilst the hotter incoming admission steam
will waste some of its energy in restoring working temperature. The aim of the
uniflow is to remedy this defect by providing an additional port uncovered by the
piston at the end of its half-stroke making the steam flow only in one direction. By
this means, thermal efficiency is improved by having a steady temperature gradient
along the cylinder bore. The simple-expansion uniflow engine is reported to give
efficiency equivalent to that of classic compound systems with the added advantage of
superior part-load performance. It is also readily adaptable to high-speed uses and was
a common way to drive electricity generators towards the end of the 19th Century
before the coming of the steam turbine.
Uniflow engines have been produced in single-acting, double-acting, simple, and
compound versions. Skinner 4-crank 8-cylinder single-acting tandem compound [3]
engines power two Great Lakes ships still trading today (2007). These are the Saint
Marys Challenger,[4] that in 2005 completed 100 years of continuous operation as a
powered carrier (the Skinner engine was fitted in 1950) and the car ferry, Badger.[5]
In the early 1950s the Ultimax engine, a 2-crank 4-cylinder arrangement similar to
Skinners, was developed by Abner Doble for the Paxton car project with tandem
opposed single-acting cylinders giving effective double-action. [6]

[edit] Turbine engines


Main article: Steam turbine
A steam turbine consists of an alternating series of rotating discs mounted on a drive
shaft, rotors, and static discs fixed to the turbine casing, stators. The rotors have a
propeller-like arrangement of blades at the outer edge. Steam acts upon these blades,
producing rotary motion. The stator consists of a similar, but fixed, series of blades
that serve to redirect the steam flow onto the next rotor stage. A steam turbine
exhausts into a condenser that provides a vacuum. The stages of a steam turbine are
typically arranged to extract the maximum potential work from a specific velocity and
pressure of steam, giving rise to a series of variably sized high and low pressure

stages. Turbines rotate at very high speed, therefore are usually connected to
reduction gearing to drive another mechanism, such as a ship's propeller, at a lower
speed. A turbine rotor is also capable of providing power when rotating in one
direction only. Therefore a reversing stage or gearbox is usually required where
power is required in the opposite direction.
Steam turbines provide direct rotational force and therefore do not require a linkage
mechanism to convert reciprocating to rotary motion. Thus, they produce smoother
rotational forces on the output shaft. This contributes to a lower maintenance
requirement and less wear on the machinery they power than a comparable
reciprocating engine.
The main use for steam turbines is in electricity generation (about 86% of the world's
electric production is by use of steam turbines)[citation needed] and to a lesser extent as
marine prime movers. In the former, the high speed of rotation is an advantage, and in
both cases the relative bulk is not a disadvantage. Virtually all nuclear power plants
and some nuclear submarines, generate electricity by heating water to provide steam
that drives a turbine connected to an electrical generator for main propulsion. A
limited number of steam turbine railroad locomotives were manufactured . Some noncondensing direct-drive locomotives did meet with some success for long haul freight
operations in Sweden, but were not repeated. Elsewhere, notably in the U.S.A., more
advanced designs with electric transmission were built experimentally, but not
reproduced. It was found that steam turbines were not ideally suited to the railroad
environment and these locomotives failed to oust the classic reciprocating steam unit
in the way that modern diesel and electric traction has done.

[edit] Other engines


Other types of steam engine have been produced and proposed, but have not been
nearly so widely adopted as reciprocating or turbine engines.

[edit] Rotary steam engines


It is possible to use a mechanism based on a pistonless rotary engine such as the
Wankel engine in place of the cylinders and valve gear of a conventional
reciprocating steam engine. Many such engines have been designed, from the time of
James Watt to the present day, but relatively few were actually built and even fewer
went into quantity production; see link at bottom of article for more details. The major
problem is the difficulty of sealing the rotors to make them steam-tight in the face of
wear and thermal expansion; the resulting leakage made them very inefficient. Lack
of expansive working, or any means of control of the cutoff is also a serious problem
with many such designs. By the 1840s it was clear that the concept had inherent
problems and rotary engines were treated with some derision in the technical press.
However, the arrival of electricity on the scene, and the obvious advantages of driving
a dynamo directly from a high-speed engine, led to something of a revival in interest
in the 1880s and 1890s, and a few designs had some limited success.
Of the few designs that were manufactured in quantity, those of the Hult Brothers
Rotary Steam Engine Company of Stockholm, Sweden, and the spherical engine of

Beauchamp Tower are notable. Tower's engines were used by the Great Eastern
Railway to drive lighting dynamos on their locomotives, and by the Admiralty for
driving dynamos on board the ships of the Royal Navy. They were eventually
replaced in these niche applications by steam turbines.

[edit] Jet type


Invented by Australian engineer Alan Burns and developed in Britain by engineers at
Pursuit Dynamics, this underwater jet engine uses high pressure steam to draw in
water through an intake at the front and expel it at high speed through the rear. When
steam condenses in water, a shock wave is created and is focused by the chamber to
blast water out of the back. To improve the engine's efficiency, the engine draws in air
through a vent ahead of the steam jet, which creates air bubbles and changes the way
the steam mixes with the water.
Unlike in conventional steam engines, there are no moving parts to wear out, and the
exhaust water is only several degrees warmer in tests. The engine can also serve as
pump and mixer. This type of system is referred to as 'PDX Technology' by Pursuit
Dynamics.

[edit] Rocket type


The aeolipile represents the use of steam by the reaction principle, although not for
direct propulsion.
In more modern times there has been limited use of steam for rocketryparticularly
for rocket cars. The technique is simple in concept, simply fill a pressure vessel with
hot water at high pressure, and open a valve leading to a suitable nozzle. The drop in
pressure immediately boils some of the water and the steam leaves through a nozzle,
giving a significant propulsive force.
It might be expected that water in the pressure vessel should be at high pressure; but
in practice the pressure vessel has considerable mass, which reduces the acceleration
of the vehicle. Therefore a much lower pressure is used, which permits a lighter
pressure vessel, which in turn gives the highest final speed.
There are even speculative plans for interplanetary use. Although steam rockets are
relatively inefficient in their use of propellant, this very well may not matter as the
solar system is believed to have extremely large stores of water ice which can be used
as propellant. Extracting this water and using it in interplanetary rockets requires
several orders of magnitude less equipment than breaking it down to hydrogen and
oxygen for conventional rocketry.[13]

[edit] Applications
Steam engines can be classified by their application:

[edit] Stationary engines

Stationary steam engines can be classified into two main types:

Winding engines, rolling mill engines, (marine engines) and similar


applications which need to frequently stop and reverse.
Engines providing power, which stop rarely and do not need to reverse. These
include engines used in thermal power stations and those that were used in
mills, factories and to power cable railways and cable tramways before the
widespread use of electric power. Very low power engines are used to power
model ships and specialty applications such as the steam clock.

[edit] Vehicle engines


Steam engines have been used to power a wide array of types of vehicle:

Steamboat and steamship


Land vehicles:
o Steam locomotive
o Steam car
o Steam lorry
o Steam roller
o Steam shovel
o Traction engine
o Steam aircraft

[edit] Advantages
The strength of the steam engine for modern purposes is in its ability to convert heat
from almost any source into mechanical work. Unlike the internal combustion engine,
the steam engine is not particular about the source of heat. Most notably, without the
use of a steam engine nuclear energy could not be harnessed for useful work, as a
nuclear reactor does not directly generate either mechanical work or electrical
energythe reactor itself simply heats or boils water. It is the steam engine which
converts the heat energy into useful work. Steam may also be produced without
combustion of fuel, through solar concentrators. A demonstration power plant has
been built using a central heat collecting tower and a large number of solar tracking
mirrors, (called heliostats). (see Whitecliffs Project[7])
Similar advantages are found in a different type of external combustion engine, the
Stirling engine, which offers efficient power in a compact engine.
Steam locomotives are especially advantageous at high elevations as they are not
adversely affected by the lower atmospheric pressure. This was inadvertently
discovered when steam locomotives operated at high altitudes in the mountains of
South America were replaced by diesel-electric units of equivalent sea level power.
These were quickly replaced by much more powerful locomotives capable of
producing sufficient power at high altitude.
In Switzerland (Brienz Rothhorn) and Austria (Schafberg Bahn) new rack steam
locomotives have proved very successful. They were designed based on a 1930s

design of Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works (SLM) but with all of today's
possible improvements like roller bearings, heat insulation, light-oil firing, improved
inner streamlining, one-man-driving and so on. These resulted in 60 percent lower
fuel consumption per passenger and massively reduced costs for maintenance and
handling. Economics now are similar or better than with most advanced diesel or
electric systems. Also a steam train with similar speed and capacity is 50 percent
lighter than an electric or diesel train, thus, especially on rack railways, significantly
reducing wear and tear on the track. Also, a new steam engine for a paddle steam ship
on Lake Geneva, the Montreux, was designed and built, being the world's first fullsize ship steam engine with an electronic remote control[8]. The steam group of SLM
in 2000 created a wholly-owned company called DLM to design modern steam
engines and steam locomotives.

[edit] Efficiency
Main article: thermodynamic efficiency
To get the efficiency of an engine, divide the number of joules of mechanical work
that the engine produces by the number of joules of energy input to the engine by the
burning fuel. In general, the rest of the energy is dumped into the environment as heat.
No pure heat engine can be more efficient than the Carnot cycle, in which heat is
moved from a high temperature reservoir to one at a low temperature, and the
efficiency depends on the temperature difference. Hence, steam engines should
ideally be operated at the highest steam temperature possible (superheated steam), and
release the waste heat at the lowest temperature possible.
In practice, a steam engine exhausting the steam to atmosphere will have an efficiency
(including the boiler) of 1% to 8%, but with the addition of a condenser the efficiency
may be greatly improved. A power station with steam reheat, etc. will achieve 30% to
42% efficiency. Combined cycle in which the burning material is first used to drive a
gas turbine can produce 50% to 60% efficiency. It is also possible to capture the waste
heat using cogeneration in which the residual steam is used for heating. It is therefore
possible to use about 90% of the energy produced by burning fuelonly 10% of the
energy produced by the combustion of the fuel goes wasted into the atmosphere.
The reason for varying efficiencies is because of the thermodynamic rule of the
Carnot Cycle. The efficiency is the absolute temperature of the cold reservoir over the
absolute temperature of the steam, subtracted from one. As the temperature changes in
seasons, the efficiency changes with it, unless the cold reservoir is kept in an
isothermal state. It should be noted that the Carnot Cycle calculations require
absolute temperatures.
One source of inefficiency is that the condenser causes losses by being somewhat
hotter than the outside world, although this can be mitigated by condensing the steam
in a heat exchanger and using the recovered heat, for example to pre-heat the air being
used in the burner of an external combustion engine.

The operation of the engine portion alone is not dependent upon steam; any
pressurized gas may be used. Compressed air is sometimes used to test or demonstrate
small model "steam" engines.

Steam locomotive
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK:


British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. 92214 (preserved) at Barrow Hill,
October 10, 2004
A steam locomotive is a locomotive powered by steam. The term usually refers to its
use on railways, but can also refer to a "road locomotive" such as a traction engine or
steamroller.
Steam locomotives dominated rail traction from the mid 19th century until the mid
20th century, after which they were superseded by diesel and electric locomotives.
Many consider the steam locomotive to be one of the most fascinating mechanical
devices ever created, passing steam locomotives often grabbing the attention of
bystanders.

Contents
[hide]

1 Origins
2 Basic form
o 2.1 Boiler
o 2.2 Cylinders
o 2.3 Frame

2.4 Fuel and water


2.5 Crew
3 Fittings and appliances
o 3.1 Steam pumps and injectors
o 3.2 Boiler lagging
o 3.3 Pressure gauge
o 3.4 Superheating
o 3.5 Stokers
o 3.6 Feedwater heaters
o 3.7 Condensers and water re-supply
o 3.8 Braking
o 3.9 Lubrication
o 3.10 Buffers
o 3.11 Pilots
o 3.12 Headlights
o 3.13 Bells and whistles
o 3.14 Automatic Train Control
o 3.15 Booster engines
4 Variations
o 4.1 Cylinders
o 4.2 Cab forward
o 4.3 Steam turbines
o 4.4 Valve gear
o 4.5 Compounding
o 4.6 Articulated and Duplex types
o 4.7 Hybrid power
5 Manufacture
o 5.1 United States
o 5.2 United Kingdom
o 5.3 Australia
6 Categorisation
7 Performance
o 7.1 Measurement
o 7.2 Relation to wheel arrangement
8 The end of steam
o 8.1 United States
o 8.2 United Kingdom
o 8.3 South Korea
o 8.4 Other countries
9 Hopes of revival
10 References
11 See also
12 External links
13 Books on steam locomotives
o
o

[edit] Origins

The earliest railways employed horses to draw carts over the track. As steam engines
were developed in the 1700s, various attempts were made to apply these to road and
railroad use.[1] The first attempts were made in Great Britain; the earliest steam
locomotive was built in 1804 by Richard Trevithick and Andrew Vivian. It ran with
mixed success on the narrow gauge "Penydarren" (Merthyr Tydfil) tramway in
Wales.[1]. Then followed the successful twin cylinder locomotives built by Matthew
Murray for the edge railed Middleton Railway in 1812. These early efforts culminated
in 1829 with Stephenson's Rocket, which was the first viable mainline locomotive.[2]

Trevithick's locomotive, 1804.


Inspired by British success, the United States started developing steam locomotives in
1829 with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's Tom Thumb. This was the first
locomotive to run in America, although it was intended as a demonstration of the
potential of steam traction, rather than as a revenue-earning locomotive. The first
successful steam railway in the US was the South Carolina Railroad whose inaugural
train ran in December 1830 hauled by the Best Friend of Charleston. Many of the
earliest locomotives for American railroads were imported from England, including
the Stourbridge Lion and the John Bull, but a national locomotive manufacturing
industry was quickly established, with locomotives like the DeWitt Clinton being built
in the 1830s.[2]
See also: History of rail transport, Category:Early steam locomotives

[edit] Basic form

Scheme of steam locomotive. (see Steam locomotive components)

[edit] Boiler
The typical steam locomotive employs a horizontal fire-tube boiler with the firebox at
the rear. The boiler projects slightly into a cab, which shields the locomotive
operators from the weather. At the front of the boiler is the smokebox, with chimney
(US: "smoke stack") protruding from the top. Steam is collected from the top of the

boiler, either in a perforated tube fitted above the water level or from a dome. This
system reduces the risk of water entering the cylinders.

[edit] Cylinders
The steam passes through a throttle (known as the "regulator valve"), then into the
cylinders of a reciprocating engine. The pistons drive the driving wheels directly
through a connecting rod (US: "main rod") and a crankpin on the main driver. The
valves of the engine are controlled through a set of rods and linkages called the valve
gear; this gear is adjustable to control the direction and cut-off of the valve gear. The
cut-off point determines the proportion of the stroke, during which steam is admitted
into the cylinder; for example a 50% cut-off admits steam for half the stroke of the
piston. The remainder of the stroke is driven by the expansive force of the steam.
Careful use of cut-off provides economical use of steam and, in turn, reduces fuel and
water consumption. The reversing lever (US: "Johnson bar", or "screw-reverser" if so
equipped) which controls the cut-off therefore performs a similar function to a
gearshift in an automobile. Exhaust steam escapes the engine through the chimney,
via a nozzle called a blastpipe. This action creates a draft through the fire grate
according to the steam exhausted. The blast of exhausted steam produces the familiar
"chuffing" sound of the steam locomotive.
The pistons are double acting, with steam admitted to either end in turn. In a twocylinder locomotive, one cylinder is located on either side of the locomotive. The
cylinders are set 90 degrees out of phase with each other. During a full rotation of the
driving wheel, steam provides four power strokes per revolution; that is to say each
cylinder receives two injections of steam. The first stroke is to the front of the piston
and the second stroke to the rear of the piston; hence two working strokes. Each steam
stroke delivers a quarter turn of the wheel. Consequently two deliveries of steam onto
each piston face in two cylinders generates a full revolution of the driving wheel. The
driving wheels are connected on each side by coupling rods (US: "connecting rods")
to transmit power from the main driver to the other wheels. At the two "dead centres",
when the connecting rod is on the same axis as the crankpin on the driving wheel, it
will be noted that no turning force can be applied. If the locomotive were to come to
rest in this position it would be impossible for it to move off again, so the cylinders
and crankpins are arranged such that the dead centres occur out of phase with each
other. This precaution is unnecessary on most other reciprocating engines (such as an
internal combustion engine) which are never expected to start from rest under their
own power, and employ a flywheel to overcome the dead centres.

Walschaerts valve gear in a steam locomotive. In this animation, the red colour
represents live steam entering the cylinder, blue represents expanded (spent) steam

being exhausted from the cylinder. Note how the one cylinder receives a two steam
stroke injection during each full rotation; the same occurs in the cylinder on the other
side of the engine.

[edit] Frame
The boiler rests on a frame, to which the cylinders are mounted and which in turn rest
on the axles. The driving axles are mounted in bearings which move up and down in
the frame. They are also connected to the frame via leaf springs or, less commonly,
volute springs and linkages which allow axles some degree of independent movement
over bumps in the track. Many locomotives have leading bogies (US: "trucks") to
guide them into curves and/or a trailing bogie to support the firebox weight.
British locomotives usually have plate frames (made from steel plate) while
American locomotives usually have bar frames (made from steel bar) or cast steel
frames. Each method has significant advantages and disadvantages.

[edit] Fuel and water

Water gauge. Here the water in the boiler is at the top nut, the maximum working
level.
Generally, the largest locomotives are permanently coupled to a tender that carries the
water and fuel. Alternatively, smaller locomotives carry the fuel in a bunker attached
to the cab, and the water in tanks mounted on the engine, either beside the boiler or on
top; these are called "tank engines".
The fuel source used depends on what is economically available locally to the
railway. In the UK and parts of Europe, a plentiful supply of coal made this the
obvious choice from the earliest days of the steam engine. Wood-burning engines
were found in rural and logging districts in Europe and in the U.S.A. well into the
19th century. Bagasse, a waste by-product of the refining process, was burned in

sugar cane farming operations. In the USA, the ready availability of oil made this a
popular steam locomotive fuel; the Southern Pacific, for example, went directly from
wood to oil.[citation needed] In Victoria, Australia after World War II, many steam
locomotives were converted to oil firing. Also in Australia, waste oil fired the West
Cost Rail's regular 4-6-4 steam passenger service during the late 1990s[citation needed].
German, Russian and Australian railways experimented using coal dust to fire
locomotives.
Water was supplied at passenger stations and loco depots from a dedicated water
tower connected to water cranes or gantries. In the UK and the USA, water troughs
(track pans) were provided on some main lines to allow express trains to replenish
their water supply without stopping. This was achieved by using a 'water scoop' fitted
under the tender; the fireman remotely lowered the scoop into the trough, the speed of
the engine forced the water into the tender, and the scoop was raised again once the
tank was full.

[edit] Crew
A crew of at least two people is required to operate a steam locomotive. One, the
driver or engineer, is responsible for controlling the locomotive and the other, the
boilerman or fireman, is responsible for the fire, steam pressure, and water.[3]
See also Category:locomotive parts

[edit] Fittings and appliances


All locomotives are fitted with a variety of appliances. Some of these relate directly to
the operation of the steam engine; while others are for signalling, train control, or
other purposes. In the United States the Federal Railroad Administration mandated the
use of certain appliances over the years in response to safety issues. The most typical
appliances are as follows:

[edit] Steam pumps and injectors


Water must be forced into the boiler, to replace that which is exhausted after
delivering a working stroke to the pistons. Early engines used pumps driven by the
motion of the pistons. Later steam injectors replaced the pump, while some engines
use turbopumps. Standard practice evolved to use two independent systems for
feeding water to the boiler. Vertical glass tubes, known as water gauges or water
glasses, show the level of water in the boiler.

[edit] Boiler lagging

Manometer-type pressure gauge mounted alongside the chimney of a replica of


Stephenson's Rocket
Large amounts of heat are wasted if a boiler is not insulated. Early locomotives used
shaped wooden battens fitted lengthways along the boiler barrel and held in place by
metal bands. Improved insulating methods included: applying a thick paste containing
a porous mineral, such as kieselgur; fixing "mattresses" of stitched asbestos cloth
stuffed with asbestos fibre around (but on separators so as not quite to touch) the
boiler; attaching shaped blocks of insulating compound. The most common modern
day material is glass wool, or wrappings of aluminium foil. The installation is covered
by a close fitted sheet-metal casing.[4] Effective lagging is particularly important for
fireless locomotives.

[edit] Pressure gauge

Pressure gauges on Blackmore Vale. The right-hand one shows boiler pressure, the
one on the left steam chest pressure
The earliest locomotives did not show the pressure of steam in the boiler, but it was
possible to estimate this by the state of the safety valve. However, the promoters of
the Rainhill trials urged that each contender have a proper mechanism for reading the
boiler pressure and Stephenson devised a nine-foot vertical glass tube of mercury,
mounted alongside the chimney, for the Rocket. The Bourdon tube gauge, in which
the pressure straightens an oval-section, coiled tube of brass or bronze connected to a
pointer, was not introduced until the 1850s. This is the device used today.[5] Some
locomotives have an additional pressure gauge in the steam chest. This helps the
driver avoid wheel-slip at startup, by warning if the regulator opening is too great.

[edit] Superheating
In the 1800s most engines used saturated steam. Post-1900 superheated steam
appeared in the U.S.A. Prior to superheating locomotive development had almost
reached its practical capacity with saturated steam. Swengel (1967:122) said that 'no
single development ever equalled the superheater as a means of removing limitations
from steam locomotive design'.
The normal method for superheating is to route the steam from the dome to a header
in the smokebox. The steam is then directed through a set of small "U" shaped tubes
in enlarged boiler tubes, and then into a second header and on through the cylinders.
Superheating produces an increase in efficiency of 10-15% for an increase in
temperature of 100 to 150 F (55 to 85 C). Although some locomotives have a
greater degree of superheat applied, higher temperatures do not offer proportionally
greater efficiencies. Superheated locomotives were sometimes fitted with pyrometers
to indicate the steam temperature which, towards the end of the steam era, was
typically around 600F (315C).
One pound of saturated steam at 200 p.s.i. occupies 2.134 cubic feet of space and
when admitted to the cylinders the water (condensation) content is about 7%. At
higher boiler pressure the water content in the cylinder increases. Prior to
superheating, the boiler limit for any given locomotive was 200 p.s.i. as a locomotive
could not as a rule, handle more than 7% water in its cylinders. Superheating, in short,
dries out the steam, increases its volume and this gain increases the amount of work
delivered from the same one pound of water. For this reason, it was common to find
that the best improvements did not occur until locomotives were some way into their
overhaul cycle and leaks had started to develop.[6] The use of superheaters became
standard in all high-powered locomotives of the 20th century.
Superheating increased the tractive effort of a modified locomotive over its prior
saturated condition. A bad practice which followed the initial introduction of
superheating involved dropping the boiler pressure to achieve the same tractive effort,
increasing the cylinder size to obtain increased work and removing many small tubes
and replacing them with larger diameter flues to hold the superheaters. These
modifications actually lessened the amount of evaporate surface, compared with the
old saturated boiler, and limited the capacity of the locomotive.[7] Had the boiler
pressure remained the same following superheating the overall effectiveness of the
locomotive would have increased. By the mid-1920s, designers understood that
superheating, large furnaces and higher boiler capacity were the key to successful
locomotives.[7]

[edit] Stokers
A factor that limits locomotive performance is the rate at which fuel is fed into the
fire. In the early 20th century some locomotives became so large, that the fireman
could not shovel coal fast enough.[citation needed] In the United States, various steampowered mechanical stokers became standard equipment and were adopted and used
elsewhere including Australia and South Africa.

[edit] Feedwater heaters

Introducing cold water into a boiler reduces power, and from the 1920s a variety of
heaters extracted waste heat from the exhaust and raised the temperature of the feed
water. An example of the pre-heater is found on the Franco-Crosti boiler.
The use of live steam and exhaust steam injectors also assists in the pre-heating of
boiler feed water, though there is no efficiency advantage to live steam injectors. Such
pre-heating also reduces the thermal shock that a boiler might experience when cold
water is introduced directly.

[edit] Condensers and water re-supply

The conventional means of watering a locomotive was by refilling its tender or tank,
from trackside water towers or standpipes.
Steam locomotives consume vast quantities of water, and supplying this was a
constant logistical problem. In some desert areas, condensing engines were devised.
These engines had huge radiators in their tenders and instead of exhausting steam out
of the funnel it was captured and passed back to the tender and condensed. The
cylinder lubricating oil was removed from the exhausted steam to avoid a
phenomenon known as priming, a condition caused by foaming in the boiler which
would allow water to be carried into the cylinders causing damage because of its
incompressibility. The most notable engines employing condensers (Class 25C)
worked across the Karoo desert of South Africa, from the 1950 until the 1980s.
Some British and American locomotives were equipped with scoops which collected
water from "water troughs" (US: "track pans") while in motion, thus avoiding stops
for water. In the US, small communities that were established near sections of the
railroad with track pans were often referred to as "jerkwater towns" (a term which
today is considered derisive). In Australia and South Africa, locomotives in drier
regions operated with large oversized tenders and some even had an additional water
wagon, sometimes called a "canteen".
Steam locomotives working on underground railways (such as London's Metropolitan
Railway) were fitted with condensing apparatus for a different, but obvious, reason.
These were still being used between King's Cross and Moorgate into the 1950s.

[edit] Braking
Locomotives have their own braking system, independent from the rest of the train.
Locomotive brakes employ large shoes which press against the driving wheel treads.
With the advent of air brakes, a separate system also allowed the driver to control the
brakes on all cars. These systems require steam-powered pumps, which are mounted

on the side of the boiler or on the smokebox front. Such systems operated in the
United States, Canada and Australia.
An alternative to the air brake is the vacuum brake. Where vacuum brakes are used, a
steam-operated ejector is mounted on the engine instead of the air pump. A secondary
ejector or crosshead vacuum pump is used to maintain the vacuum in the system.
Vacuum systems existed on British, Indian and South African rail networks.
Steam locomotives are nearly always fitted with sandboxes from which sand can be
delivered to the rails to improve traction and braking in wet weather. On American
locomotives the sandboxes, or sand domes, are usually mounted on top of the boiler.
In Britain, the limited loading gauge precludes this, so the sandboxes are mounted just
above, or just below, the running plate.

[edit] Lubrication

Wakefield brand displacement lubricator mounted on a locomotive boiler backplate.


Through the right-hand sight glass a drip of oil (travelling upwards through water) can
be seen.
The pistons and valves on the earliest locomotives were lubricated by the enginemen
dropping a lump of tallow down the blast pipe.[8]
As speeds and distances increased, mechanisms were developed that injected thick
mineral oil into the steam supply. The first, a displacement lubricator, mounted in the
cab, uses a controlled stream of steam condensing into a sealed container of oil. Water
from the condensed steam displaces the oil into pipes. The apparatus is usually fitted
with sight-glasses confirms the rate of supply. A later method used a mechanical
pump worked from one of the crossheads. In both cases, the supply of oil is
proportional to the speed of the locomotive.

Big-end bearing (with connecting rod and coupling rod) of Blackmoor Vale showing
pierced cork stoppers to oil reservoirs.
Lubricating the frame components (axle bearings, horn blocks and bogie pivots)
depends on capillary action: trimmings of worsted yarn are trailed from oil reservoirs
into pipes leading to the respective component.[9] The rate of oil supplied is controlled
by the size of the bundle of yarn and not the speed of the locomotive, so it is
necessary to remove the trimmings (which are mounted on wire) when stationary.
However, at regular stops (such as a terminating station platform) oil finding its way
onto the track can still be a problem.
Crank pin and crosshead bearings carry small cup-shaped reservoirs for oil. These
have feed pipes to the bearing surface that start above the normal fill level, or are kept
closed by a loose-fitting pin, so that only when the locomotive is in motion does oil
enter. In United Kingdom practice the cups are closed with simple corks, but these
have a piece of porous cane pushed through them to admit air. It is customary for a
small capsule of pungent oil (aniseed or garlic) to be incorporated in the bearing metal
to warn if the lubrication fails and excess heating or wear occurs.

[edit] Buffers
In British practice, the locomotive usually had buffers at each end to absorb
compressive loads ("buffets"[10]). The tensional load of drawing the train (draft force)
is carried by the coupling system. Together these control slack between the
locomotive and train, absorb minor impacts, and provide a bearing point for pushing
movements.
In American practice all of the forces between the locomotive and cars are handled
through the coupler and its associated draft gear, which allows some limited slack
movement. Small dimples called "poling pockets" at the front and rear corners of the
locomotive allowed wagons to be pushed on an adjacent track using a pole braced
between the locomotive and the cars.

[edit] Pilots
In the United States, South Africa and Australia, locomotives had a pilot at the front
end. Plow-shaped, and called cow catchers, they were quite large and were designed
to remove obstacles from the track such as cattle, bison, other animals or tree limbs.
Though unable to "catch" stray cattle these distinctive items remained on locomotives
in those countries until the end of steam. Switching engines usually replaced the pilot
with small steps. In places like Victoria, Australia, the cow catchers became a trade
mark of that state's engines (Dee:1998).

[edit] Headlights
When night operations began, railway companies in some countries equipped their
locomotives with lights to allow the driver to see what lay ahead of the train or to
enable others to see the locomotive. Originally headlights were oil or acetylene lamps,
but when electric lights became available they quickly replaced the older types.

Britain used low intensity oil lamps and were not intended to allow the driver to see
the way ahead (locomotive drivers were expected to have sufficient route knowledge)
but were used to indicate the class of a train by their position on the front of the
locomotive. Four lamp irons were provided: one below the chimney and three evenly
spaced across the top of the buffer beam.
In some countries heritage steam operation continues on the national network. Some
railway authorities have mandated powerful headlights on at all times, including
during daylight. This was to further inform the public or track workers of any active
trains.

[edit] Bells and whistles


Locomotives used bells and steam whistles from earliest days. In the United States
and Canada bells warned of a train in motion. In Britain, where all lines are by law
fenced throughout,[11] bells were never a requirement; whistles are used to signal
personnel and give warnings. In Australia, locomotives carried distinctive whistles
heard at long distances.

[edit] Automatic Train Control


From early in the twentieth century operating companies in such countries as
Germany and Britain began to fit locomotives with in-cab signalling which
automatically applied the brakes when a signal was passed at "caution". In Britain
these became mandatory in 1956.

[edit] Booster engines


In the United States and (sometimes) Australia the trailing truck was often equipped
with an auxiliary steam engine which provided extra power for starting. This booster
engine was set to cut out automatically at a certain speed.

[edit] Variations
Numerous variations to the simple locomotive occurred as railways attempted to
develop more powerful, more efficient and fast steam locomotives.

[edit] Cylinders
Some locomotives received extra cylinders and experiments combined two
locomotives in one (e.g. the Mallet and Garratt locomotives). Some locomotives
carried their cylinders vertically alongside the boiler and drove the wheels through a
system of shafts and gears (e.g. the Shay locomotive; see "geared steam locomotive").
From about 1930, most new British express passenger locomotives were 4-6-0 or 4-62 types with three or four cylinders. Examples include:

GWR 4073 Class, four-cylinder 4-6-0


LNER Class A1/A3, three-cylinder 4-6-2

[edit] Cab forward


In the United States on the Southern Pacific Railroad a series of cab forward
locomotives had the cab and the firebox at the front of the locomotive and the tender
behind the smokebox, so that the engine appeared to run backwards. This was only
possible by using oil-firing. Another variation was the Camelback type locomotive
with the cab half-way along the boiler.

[edit] Steam turbines


Experiments with steam turbines using direct-drive and electrical transmissions, in
different countries, proved unsuccessful.[4] The LMS also built Turbomotive, an
attempt to prove the efficiency of steam turbines.[4] In the United States the Union
Pacific, Chesapeake and Ohio, and Norfolk & Western railways all built turbineelectric locomotives. The Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) also built turbine locos but
with a direct-drive gearbox. However, all designs failed due to dust, vibration, design
flaws, or inefficiency below speed. The last one in service was the N&W's being
retired in January 1958. The longest in service was the PRR's with 6 years of service
(1944-1950).

[edit] Valve gear


Numerous technological advances improved the steam engine. Early locomotives
used simple valve gear that gave full power in either forward or reverse.[5] Soon
Stephenson valve gear allowed the driver to control cutoff; this was largely
superseded by Walschaerts valve gear and similar patterns. Early locomotive practices
of slide valves and outside admission, which were easy to construct but inefficient and
prone to wear.[5] Eventually, slide valves were superseded by inside admission piston
valves, though there were attempts to apply poppet valves (common by then on
stationary engines) in the 20th century. Stephenson valve gear was generally placed
within the frame and was difficult to access for maintenance; later patterns applied
outside the frame, were readily visible and maintained.

[edit] Compounding
Around 1900, compound locomotives appeared, which used the engine's steam twice.
Some attempts were made to apply this to a single engine (e.g. the Vauclain
compound) but the predominant form was the Mallet locomotive, which used two
separate engines in one articulated frame. The high pressure stage was attached
directly to the boiler frame; in front of this was a separate low pressure engine on its
own frame, powered by the exhaust from the rear engine. Other prototypes included
the LMS a parallel high-low pressure boilered locomotive, called Fury.

[edit] Articulated and Duplex types


Articulation itself proved very popular, and there were numerous variations, both
compound and simple. Duplex locomotives with two engines in one rigid frame were
also tried, but were not notably successful.[citation needed]

[edit] Hybrid power


Mixed power locomotive prototypes have been produced. The LNER had a prototype
Kitson-Still hybrid built for testing, using a steam and diesel engine on a 2-6-2
wheelbase. It proved more efficient, but its running costs were 25% higher than an
equivalent steam locomotive.

[edit] Manufacture
[edit] United States
With the notable exception of the USRA standard locomotives, set during World War
1, in the United States, steam locomotive manufacture was always customised.
Railroads ordered locomotives tailored to their specific requirements, though basic
similarities were always present. Railroads developed specific characteristics; for
example, the Pennsylvania Railroad had a preference for the Belpaire firebox,[citation
needed]
while the Delaware and Hudson Railroad was famous for its elaborately flanged
smokestacks.[citation needed] In the United States, specialised manufacturers constructed
locomotives for all rail companies, although all railroads had shops capable of heavy
repairs and some railroads(for example the Norfolk and Western Railway) constructed
locomotives in their own shops. It was not uncommon for a group of locomotives to
be sold from one railroad to another.[citation needed]
Steam locomotives required regular service and overhaul (often at governmentregulated intervals). Many alterations occurred during overhauls. New appliances
were added, unsatisfactory features removed, cylinders improved or replaced. Any
part of the locomotive, including boilers were replaced or upgraded. On the Baltimore
and Ohio Railroad two 2-10-2 locomotives were dismantled; the boilers were placed
onto two new Class T 4-8-2 locomotives and the residue wheel machinery made a pair
of Class U 0-10-0 switchers with new boilers. Union Pacific's fleet of 3 cylinder 4-102 engines were converted into two cylinder engines in 1942, because of high
maintenance problems.

Great Western Railway No. 6833 Calcot Grange, a 4-6-0 Grange class steam
locomotive, at Bristol Temple Meads station, Bristol, England. Note the Belpaire
(square-topped) firebox.

[edit] United Kingdom

Before the 1923 Grouping, the picture in the UK was mixed. The larger railway
companies built locomotives in their own workshops but the smaller ones and
industrial concerns ordered them from outside builders.
Between 1923 and 1947, the "Big Four" railway companies (the Great Western
Railway, the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, the London and North Eastern
Railway and the Southern Railway) all built most of their own locomotives. Generally
speaking, they only bought locomotives from outside builders when their own works
were fully occupied. From 1948, British Railways adopted the same policy and
continued to build new steam locomotives until 1960 (the last being named Evening
Star).
Some independent manufacturers produced steam locomotives for a few more years,
the last British-built industrial steam locomotive being constructed by Hunslet in
1971. Since then, a few specialised manufacturers have continued to produce small
locomotives for narrow gauge and miniature railways, but as the prime market for
these is the tourist and heritage railway sector, the demand for such locomotives is
limited.

[edit] Australia
In Australia, Clyde Engineering of Sydney and also the Eveleigh Workshops built
steam locomotives for the New South Wales Government Railways. These include the
C38 class 4-6-2, the first five were build at Clyde with streamlining, the other 25
locomotives were built at Eveleigh (13) in Sydney, and Cardiff Workshops (12) near
Newcastle. In Queensland, steam locomotives were locally constructed by Walkers.
Similarly the South Australian state government railways also manufactured steam
locomotives locally at Islington in Adelaide. The Victorian Railways constructed
most of their locomotives at their Newport Workshops and Bendigo while in the early
days locomotives were built in Ballarat. Locomotives constructed at the Newport
shops ranged from the nA class 2-6-2T built for the narrow gauge, up to the H class 48-4, the largest conventional locomotive ever to operate in Australia, which weighed
260 tons. However, the title of largest locomotive in Australia goes to the 263 ton
NSWGR AD60 class 4-8-4+4-8-4 Garratt (Oberg:1975), which were built by BeyerPeacock in the United Kingdom.

[edit] Categorisation

The Gov. Stanford, a 4-4-0 (in Whyte notation) locomotive typical of 19th Century
American practice
Steam locomotives are categorised by their wheel arrangement. The two dominant
systems for this are the Whyte notation and UIC classification.
The Whyte notation, used in most English speaking and Commonwealth countries,
represents each set of wheels with a number. Different arrangements were given
names which usually reflect the first usage of the arrangement; for instance the "Santa
Fe" type (2-10-2) is so called because the first examples were built for the Atchison,
Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. These names were informally given and varied
according to region and even politics.
The UIC classification is used mostly in European countries apart from the United
Kingdom. It designates consecutive pairs of wheels (informally "axles") with a
number for non-driving wheels and a capital letter for driving wheels (A=1, B=2 etc).
So a Whyte 4-6-2 designation would be an equivalent to a 2-C-1 UIC designation.
On many railroads, locomotives were organised into classes. These broadly
represented locomotives which could be substituted for each other in service, but most
commonly a class represented a single design. As a rule classes were assigned some
sort of code, generally based on the wheel arrangement. Classes also commonly
acquired nicknames representing notable (and sometimes uncomplimentary) features
of the locomotives.[citation needed]

[edit] Performance
[edit] Measurement
In the steam locomotive era two measures of locomotive performance were generally
applied. At first, locomotives were rated by tractive effort This can be roughly
calculated by multiplying the total piston area by 85% of the boiler pressure (a rule of
thumb reflecting the slightly lower pressure in the steam chest above the cylinder) and
dividing by the ratio of the driver diameter over the piston stroke.[6] However, the
precise formula is:
Tractive Effort is defined as the average force developed during one revolution of the
driving wheels at the rail head.[7] This is expressed as:
T.E. = (B x S x 0.85P) D
B is bore of cylinder (diameter)in inches. S is cylinder stroke, in inches. P is boiler
pressure in pound per square inch; and D is driving wheel diameter in inches
It is critical to appreciate the use of the term 'average', as not all effort is constant
during the one revolution of the drivers for at some points of the cycle only one piston
is exerting turning moment and at other points both pistons are working. Not all
boilers deliver full power at starting and also the tractive effort decreases as the
rotating speed increases.[7]

Tractive effort is a measure of the heaviest load a locomotive can start or haul at very
low speed over the ruling grade in a given territory.[7]
However, as the pressure grew to run faster freight and heavier passenger trains,
tractive effort was seen to be an inadequate measure of performance because it did not
take into account speed.
Therefore in the 20th century, locomotives began to be rated by power output. A
variety of calculations and formulas were applied, but in general railroads used
dynamometer cars to measure tractive force at speed in actual road testing. This
measure was termed drawbar horsepower in the United States and remained the
standard measure of performance to the end of mainline usage.[citation needed]
British railway companies have been reluctant to disclose figures for drawbar
horsepower and have usually relied on continuous tractive effort instead.

[edit] Relation to wheel arrangement


Whyte classification is connected to locomotive performance, but through a
somewhat circuitous path. Given adequate proportions of the rest of the locomotive,
power output is determined by the size of the fire, and for a bituminous coal-fuelled
locomotive, this is determined by the grate area. Modern non-compound locomotives
are typically able to produce about 40 drawbar horsepower per square foot of grate.
Tractive force, as noted earlier, is largely determined by the boiler pressure, the
cylinder proportions, and the size of the drivers. However, it is also limited by the
weight on the drivers (termed adhesive weight), which needs to be at least four times
the tractive effort.[4]
The weight of the locomotive is roughly proportional to the power output; the number
of axles required is determined by this weight divided by the axleload limit for the
trackage where the locomotive is to be used. The number of drivers is derived from
the adhesive weight in the same manner, leaving the remaining axles to be accounted
for by the leading and trailing bogies.[4] Passenger locomotives conventionally had
two-axle leading bogies for better guidance at speed; on the other hand, the vast
increase of the grate and firebox in the 20th century meant that trailing bogie was
called upon to provide its support.
As a rule, "shunting engines" (US "switching engines") omitted leading and trailing
bogies, both to maximise tractive effort available and to reduce wheelbase. Speed was
unimportant; making the smallest engine (and therefore smallest fuel consumption)
for the tractive effort paramount. Drivers were small and usually supported the
firebox as well as the main section of the boiler. Helper engines tended to follow the
principles of switchers, except that the wheelbase limitation did not apply. Therefore
helpers tended to multiply the number of drivers, leading eventually to the Mallet type
with its many driven wheels. These tended to acquire leading and then trailing bogies
as guidance of the engine became more of an issue.
As locomotive types began to diverge in the late 1800s, freight engines at first
emphasised tractive effort, whereas passenger engines emphasised speed. Freight
locomotives multiplied axles, kept the leading bogie to a single axle, and grew a

trailing bogie as the firebox expanded and could no longer fit between or above the
drivers. Passenger locomotives had two axle leading bogies, fewer axles, and very
large drivers in order to limit the speed at which the reciprocating parts had to move.
In the 1920s the focus in the United States turned to horsepower, epitomised by the
"super power" concept promoted by the Lima Locomotive Works. Freight trains were
to be driven faster; passenger trains needed to pull heavier loads at speed. In essence,
the grate and firebox expanded without changes to the remainder of the locomotive,
forcing the trailing bogie to grow a second axle. Freight 2-8-2s became 2-8-4s while
2-10-2s became 2-10-4s. Similarly, passenger 4-6-2s became 4-6-4s. In the United
States this led to a convergence on the dual-purpose 4-8-4 configuration, which was
used for both freight and passenger service.[12] Mallet locomotives went through a
similar transformation and were upgraded from helpers into huge road engines with
gargantuan fireboxes; their drivers increased in size in order to allow faster running.

[edit] The end of steam

Timken 1111, a 4-8-4 locomotive typical of late American power


The introduction of diesel-electric locomotives in the first part of the 20th century
spelled the end of steam locomotives, though they were used in North America and
Europe to mid-century, and continued in use in other countries to the end of the
century. Steam locomotives are in general simple machines, which can be
maintainable under primitive conditions and consume a wide variety of fuels. They
are as a rule inefficient compared to modern diesels, requiring constant maintenance
and labour to keep them operational.[13] Water is required at many points throughout a
rail network and becomes a major problem in desert areas, as are found in some
regions within the United States, Australia and South Africa. In other localities the
local water is unsuitable. The reciprocating mechanism on the driving wheels tend to
pound the rails (see "hammer blow"), thus requiring more maintenance. Steam
locomotives require several hours' boiling up before service and an end-of-day
procedure to remove ash and clinker. Diesel or electric locomotives, by comparison,
commence working from the first turn of the key and do not require the labourintensive cleaning, raking and servicing after a shift.[14] Finally, the smoke from steam
locomotives is objectionable; in fact, the first electric and diesel locomotives were
developed to meet smoke abatement requirements.[14]

[edit] United States

Mainline diesel-electric locomotives first appeared on the Baltimore and Ohio


Railroad, in 1935 as locomotive No. 50. The diesel reduced operating and
maintenance costs dramatically, while increasing locomotive availability. On the
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad the new units delivered over 350,000 miles
a year, compared with about 120,000150,000 for a mainline steam locomotive.[4]
World War II delayed dieselisation in the U.S.A, but the pace picked up in the 1950s,
and by 1960 the last American Class I holdout, the Norfolk and Western Railway,
discontinued steam operations. Some U.S. shortlines continued steam operations into
the 1960s, and one steel mill continued to operate steam locomotives up to
1980.[Northwestern Steel and Wire][citation needed]

[edit] United Kingdom


Trials of diesel locomotives began in the United Kingdom in the 1930s but made only
limited progress. One problem was that British diesel locomotives were often
seriously under-powered, compared with the steam locomotives they were competing
against.
After 1945, problems associated with post-war reconstruction and the availability of
cheap domestic-produced coal kept steam in widespread use until the 1960s, when
rising labour costs led to its withdrawal in 1968.[citation needed]. At the end of steam,
British Railways estimated that its steam locomotives were costing around four times
more in running costs than diesels (even though most of its steam locomotives were
allowed to deteriorate to a sorry state of repair before being scrapped).[citation needed] The
use of steam locomotives in British industry continued until 1974.[citation needed]

[edit] South Korea


In South Korea, the first steam locomotive was the Moga 2-6-0, followed by; Sata,
Fureo, Ame, Sigue, Mika, Farsi, Hurgi, Class 901, Mateo, Sori, and Tou. Used until
1967, that train is now in the Railroad Museum.

[edit] Other countries


In other countries, the conversion from steam was slower. By March 1973 in
Australia, steam had vanished in all states. Diesel locomotives were more efficient
and the demand for manual labour to service and repairs was less than steam. Cheap
oil had cost advantages over coal.
In Finland, the first diesels were introduced in the mid-1950s and they superceded the
steam locomotives during the early '60s. The State Railways (VR) operated steam
locomotives until 1975.
In South Africa an oil embargo combined with an abundance of cheap local coal,
cheap labour force, ensured steam locomotives survived into the 1990s.[citation needed]
Locomotive engineer L. D. Porta's designs appeared on a Class 19D engine in 1979,
then a former Class 25 4-8-4 engine, became a Class 26, termed the "Red Devil" No.
3450, which demonstrated an improved overall performance with decreased coal and
water consumption. The single class 26 locomotive operated until the end of steam.
Another class 25NC locomotive, No. 3454, nicknamed the "Blue Devil" because of its

colour scheme, received modifications including a most obvious set of double sideby-side exhaust stacks. In southern Natal, two former South African Railway 2 ft
(610 mm) gauge NGG16 Garratts operating on the privatised Port Shepstone & Alfred
County Railway (ACR)received some L. D. Porta modifications in 1990 becoming a
new NGG16A class.[15]
China continued to build mainline steam locomotives until late in the century, even
building a few examples for American tourist operations.[citation needed]

[edit] Hopes of revival


Dramatic increases in the cost of diesel fuel prompted several initiatives to revive
steam power.[16][17] None of these has progressed to the point of production, and in the
early 21st century, the steam locomotives operate only in a few isolated regions and in
tourist operations.
In Germany a small number of fireless steam locomotives are still working in
industrial service, e.g. at power stations.
The Swiss company Dampflokomotiv und Maschinenfabrik DLM AG delivered
several new steam locomotives to rack railways in Switzerland and Austria between
1992 and 1996. One was the Brienz Rothorn Bahn.

Steam locomotive components


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A listing of the components typically found on Steam locomotives.

Guide to steam locomotive components (The image is of a composite imaginary


locomotive, not all components are present on all locomotives and not all possible
components are present and/or labelled in the illustration above).
1. Tender Container holding both water for the boiler and combustible fuel
such as wood, coal or oil for the fire box.
2. Cab Compartment from which the engineer and fireman can control the
engine and tend the firebox.
3. Whistle Steam powered whistle, located on top of the boiler and used as a
signalling and warning device.
4. Reach rod Rod linking the reversing actuator in the cab (often a 'johnson
bar') to the valve gear.
5. Safety valve Pressure relief valve to stop the boiler exceeding the operating
limit.
6. Generator Steam powered electrical generator to power pumps, head
lights etc, on later locomotives.
7. Sand box/Sand dome Holds sand that can be deposited on the rails to
improve traction, especially in wet or icy conditions.
8. Throttle Lever Controls the opening of the regulator/throttle valve thereby
controlling the supply of steam to the cylinders.
9. Steam dome Collects the steam at the top of the boiler so that it can be fed
to the engine via the regulator/throttle valve.

10. Air pump Provides air pressure for operating the brakes (train air brake
system). This is sometimes called a Westinghouse pump after George
Westinghouse.
11. Smoke box Collects the hot gas that have passed from the firebox and
through the boiler tubes. It may contain a cinder guard to prevent hot cinders
being exhausted up the chimney.
12. Main steam pipe carries steam to the cylinders.
13. Smoke box door Hinged circular door to allow service access to the smoke
box.
14. Hand rail Support rail for crew when walking along the foot board.
15. Trailing truck/Rear bogie Wheels at the rear of the locomotive to help
support the weight of the cab and fire box.
16. Foot board/Running board Walkway along the locomotive to facilitate
inspection and maintenance. UK terminology is Footplate.
17. Frame Steel beams around which the locomotive is built. The wheels run
in slots within the frames, and the cab, fire box, boiler and smoke box are
mounted on top. American locomotives usually have bar frames (made from
steel bar) or cast steel frames, while British locomotives usually have plate
frames (made from steel plate).
18. Brake shoe Applied directly to all the driving wheels for braking.
19. Sand pipe Deposits sand directly in front of the driving wheels to aid
traction.
20. Side rods/Coupling rods Connects the driving wheels together.
21. Valve gear System of rods and linkages synchronising the valves with the
pistons and controls the direction and power output of the locomotive.
22. Main rod/Connecting rod Steel arm that converts the horizontal motion of
the piston into a rotation motion of the driver wheels.
23. Piston rod Connects the piston to the cross-head axle, which drives the
main/connecting rods.
24. Piston Driven backward and forward within the cylinder by steam
pressure, producing mechanical motion from steam expansion.
25. Valve Controls the supply of steam to the cylinders, timing is synchronised
by the valve gear connect to the Drivers. Steam locomotives may have slide
valves, piston valves or poppet valves.
26. Valve chest Small chamber (sometimes cylindrical) above or to the side of
the main cylinder containing passageways used by the valves to distribute live
steam to the cylinders.
27. Firebox Furnace chamber that is built into the boiler and usually
surrounded by water. Almost anything combustible can be used as fuel but
generally coal, coke, wood or oil are burnt.
28. Boiler tubes Carry hot gasses from the fire box through the boiler, heating
the surrounding water.
29. Boiler Water container that is heated by hot gases passed through boiler
tubes, thereby producing steam.
30. Superheater tubes Pass steam back through the boiler to dry out and
'super heat' the steam for greater efficiency.
31. Regulator/Throttle valve Controls the amount of steam delivered to the
cylinders.

32. Superheater Feeds steam back through boiler tubes to superheat (heat
beyond just boiling point) the steam to increase the engine efficiency and
power.
33. Smokestack/Chimney Short chimney on top of the smoke box to carry the
exhaust (smoke) away from the engine so that it doesn't obscure the engineers
vision. Usually extended down inside the smoke box.
34. Headlight Lamp on front of the smoke box to provide forward visibility.
35. Brake hose Air or vacuum hose for transmitting braking control to
attached rolling stock. See air brake and vacuum brake.
36. Water compartment Container for water used by the boiler to produce
steam that is subsequently usually exhausted from the cylinders.
37. Coal bunker Fuel supply for the furnace. Variations may hold wood, coke,
or oil. Fed to the firebox either manually or, in later engines, mechanically.
38. Grate Holds the burning fuel and allows unburnable ash to drop through.
39. Ashpan hopper Collects the unburnable ash from spent fuel.
40. Journal box Contains the bearing for a driver wheel's axle.
41. Equalising levers/Equalising bars Part of the locomotive suspension
system, connected to Leaf Springs, free to pivot about their centre which is
firmly fixed to the frame.
42. Leaf Springs Main suspension element for the locomotive. For each driver
wheel there is a leaf spring suspending its axle's journal box.
43. Driver Wheel driven by the pistons to propel the locomotive. Drivers are
balanced by weights so that the centre of gravity, of the drivers and rods,
coincides with the center of rotation. There are 3 sets of driving wheels in this
example.
44. Pedestal or saddle Connects a leaf springs to a driver wheel's journal box.
45. Blast pipe Directs exhaust steam up the chimney, creating a draught that
draws air through the fire and along the boiler tubes.
46. Pilot truck/Leading bogie Wheels at the front to guide the locomotive
along the track.
47. Coupler Device at the front and rear of the locomotive for connecting
locomotives and rail cars together.

MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING

Mechanical engineering
Mechanical engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of
principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of
mechanical systems. It requires a solid understanding of key concepts including
mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics and energy. Practitioners of mechanical
engineering, known as mechanical engineers, use these principles and others in the
design and analysis of automobiles, aircraft, heating & cooling systems,
manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, and more.

Mechanical engineers design and build engines and power plants...

...structures and vehicles of all sizes...

...and moving mechanisms, machines, and robots.

Development
Mechanical engineering could be found in many ancient and medieval societies,
found throughout the globe. In ancient Greece, there were brilliant mechanical

engineers such as Archimedes (287 BC-212 BC), as well as Heron of Alexandria (1070 AD). The mechanical works of the latter two deeply influenced mechanics in the
Western tradition, although there were many others who contributed to early
mechanical science. In ancient China, there were also many notable figures, such as
Zhang Heng (78-139 AD) and Ma Jun (200-265 AD). The medieval Chinese
horologist and engineer Su Song (1020-1101 AD) incorporated an escapement
mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before any escapement
could be found in clocks of medieval Europe, as well as the world's first known
endless power-transmitting chain drive.
Before the Industrial Revolution, most engineering was restricted to military and civil
uses. Engineers in the military, though not always referred to as such, designed
fortification systems and various war machines. Civil engineers were responsible
primarily for building and ground structures. "During the early 19th century in
England mechanical engineering developed as a separate field to provide
manufacturing machines and the engines to power them. The first British professional
society of civil engineers was formed in 1818; that for mechanical engineers followed
in 1847." In the United States, the first mechanical engineering professional society
was formed in 1880, making it the third oldest type of engineering behind civil (1852)
and mining & metallurgical (1871). "The first schools in the United States to offer an
engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an
institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, and Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute in 1825. An engineering education is based on a strong foundation in
mathematics and science; this is followed by courses emphasizing the application of
this knowledge to a specific field and studies in the social sciences and humanities to
give the engineer a broader education.

Education
A Bachelor of Science (BS) / Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree in Mechanical
Engineering is offered at many universities in the United States, and similar programs
are offered at universities in most industrialized nations. In the U.S., Japan, Germany,
Canada, Taiwan, South Korea, South Africa and many others, Mechanical
Engineering programs typically take 4 to 5 years and result in a Bachelor of Science
in Mechanical Engineering (BSc) or in a Bachelor of Technology (BTech), but some
countries like Singapore, Malaysia, India, and Nigeria offer a 4 year Bachelor of
Science (BSc) / Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) degree with Honors (Hons) in
Mechanical Engineering. In Australia and New Zealand, requirements are typically a
4 years Bachelor of Engineering (BE or BEng) degree, equivalent to the British MEng
level. A BEng degree differ from a BSc degree in that the students obtain a broader
education consisting of information relevant to various engineering disciplines.
Most Mechanical Engineering programs in the U.S. are accredited by Accreditation
Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) to ensure similar course requirements
and standards between universities. The ABET web site lists 276 accredited
Mechanical Engineering programs as of June 19, 2006.[1] Mechanical Engineering

programs in Canada are accredited by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board


(CEAB).[2]
Some Mechanical Engineers go on to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master
of Engineering, Master of Science, Master of Engineering Management (MEng.Mgt,
MEM), a Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering (DEng, PhD) or an Engineer's degree.
The Master's and Engineer's degrees may consist of either research, coursework or a
mixture of the two. The Doctor of Philosophy consists of a significant research
component and is often viewed as the entry point to academia. [3]

Mechanical engineering coursework


Mechanical engineering programs generally cover the same fundamental subjects.
Universities in the United States offering accredited programs in mechanical
engineering are required to offer several major subjects of study, as determined by
ABET. This is to ensure a minimum level of competence among graduating engineers
and to inspire confidence in the engineering profession as a whole. The specific
courses required to graduate, however, may differ from program to program.
Universities will often combine multiple subjects into a single class or split a subject
into multiple classes, depending on the faculty available and the University's major
area(s) of research. Fundamental subjects of mechanical engineering include:

statics & dynamics


strength of materials & solid mechanics,
instrumentation and measurement,
thermodynamics, heat transfer, energy conversion, and refrigeration / air
conditioning,
fluid mechanics/fluid dynamics,
mechanism design (including kinematics and dynamics),
manufacturing technology or processes,
hydraulics & pneumatics,
engineering design,
mechatronics and/or control theory,
drafting, CAD (usually including Solid modeling), and CAM.[4][5]

Mechanical engineers are also expected to understand and be able to apply basic
concepts from chemistry, chemical engineering, electrical engineering, civil
engineering, and physics. Most mechanical engineering programs include several
semesters of calculus, as well as advanced mathematical concepts which may include
differential equations and partial differential equations, linear and modern algebra,
and differential geometry, among others.
In addition to the core mechanical engineering curriculum, many mechanical
engineering programs offer more specialized programs and classes, such as
mechatronics / robotics, transport and logistics, cryogenics, fuel technology,
automotive engineering, biomechanics, vibration, optics and others, if a separate
department does not exist for these subjects.[6]
Most mechanical engineering programs also require varying amounts of research or
community projects to gain practical problem-solving experience. Mechanical

engineering students usually hold one or more internships while studying, though this
is not typically mandated by the university.

License
After being awarded a degree, Engineers may seek license by a state or national
government. The purpose of this process is to ensure that engineers possess the
necessary technical knowledge and real-world experience to engineer safely. Once
certified, the engineer is given the title of Professional Engineer (in the United States,
Canada, Japan, South Korea and South Africa), Chartered Engineer (in the UK,
Ireland, India and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and
New Zealand) or European Engineer (much of the European Union). Not all
mechanical engineers choose to become licensed; those that do can be distinguished
as Chartered/Professional Engineers by the post-nominal title PE or CEng, as in:
Ryan Jones, PE.
In the U.S., to become a licensed Professional Engineer, an Engineer must

pass the comprehensive FE (Fundamentals of Engineering) exam,


work a given number of years as an Engineering Intern (EI) or Engineer-inTraining (EIT),
pass the Principles and Practice or PE (Practicing Engineer or Professional
Engineer) exam.

In the United States, the requirements and steps of this process are set forth by the
National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES), website, a
national non-profit representing all states. In the UK, current graduates require a MSc,
MEng or BEng (Hons) in order to become chartered through the Institution of
Mechanical Engineers.
"In most modern countries, certain engineering tasks, such as the design of bridges,
electric power plants, and chemical plants, must be approved by a Professional
Engineer or a Chartered Engineer."[7] In the USA and Canada, only a licensed
engineer may seal engineering work for public and private clients.".[8] This
requirement is written into state and provincial legislation, such as Quebec's Engineer
Act.[9] In other countries, such as Australia, no such legislation exists; however,
practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics independent of legislation
that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion.[10]
(See Also: FE Exam | Professional Engineer | Chartered Engineer |
Incorporated Engineer | Washington Accord)

Salaries and workforce statistics


The total number of engineers employed in the U.S. in 2004 was roughly 1.4 million.
Of these, 226,000 were mechanical engineers (15.6%), second only in size to civil
engineers at 237,000 (16.4%). The total number of mechanical engineering jobs in

2004 was projected to grow 9 to 17%, with average starting salaries being $50,236
with a bachelor's degree, $59,880 with a master's degree, and $68,299 with a
doctorate degree. This places mechanical engineering at 8th of 14 among engineering
bachelors degrees, 4th of 11 among masters degrees, and 6th of 7 among doctorate
degrees in average annual salary.[11] The median annual earning of mechanical
engineers in the U.S. workforce is roughly $63,000. This number is highest when
working for the government ($72,500), and lowest when doing general purpose
machinery manufacturing in the private sector ($55,850).[12]
Canadian engineers make an average of $29.83 per hour with 4% unemployed. The
average for all occupations is $18.07 per hour with 7% unemployed. Twelve percent
of these engineers are self-employed, and since 1997 the proportion of female
engineers has risen to 6%.[13]

Process of mechanical engineering


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Further information might be found on the talk page or at requests for expansion. Please
remove this message once the section has been expanded.
This article has been tagged since January 2007.

The process of mechanical engineering is optimization: engineers strive to optimize


cost, increase productivity, durability, safety, and overall usefulness of objects. This
process can be as simple as the design of a chair for comfort or as complex as the
optimization of a turbocharged engine for many criteria, such as fuel consumption and
power output. It can be as small as the cutting of a nano-sized gear or as large as the
assembly of a supertanker used to carry oil around the world.
Mechanical engineers must have the ability to work methodically and logically to
solve problems. It is also important that they view their work objectively.

Tools and work


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Further information might be found on the talk page or at requests for expansion. Please
remove this message once the section has been expanded.
This article has been tagged since January 2007.

Modern analysis and design processes in mechanical engineering are aided by various
computational tools including finite element analysis (FEA), computational fluid
dynamics (CFD), computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing
(CAM) and Failure Modes & Effect Analysis (FMEA). These modern processes
facilitate engineers to model (create a 3D model or object in a computer), analyze the
quality of design etc, before a prototype is created. By this the invention and

experimenting with new designs becomes very easy and can be done without any
money invested in tooling and prototypes. Simple models can be free and
instantaneous, but complicated models, like those describing the mechanics of living
tissue, can require years to develop, and the actual computation can be very processor
intensive, requiring powerful computers and a lot of cycle time.

Subdisciplines
The field of mechanical engineering can be thought of as a collection of many
mechanical disciplines. Several of these subdisciplines which are typically taught at
the undergraduate level are listed below, with a brief explanation and the most
common application of each. Some of these subdisciplines are unique to mechanical
engineering, while others are a combination of mechanical engineering and one or
more other disciplines. Most work that a mechanical engineer does uses skills and
techniques from several of these subdisciplines, as well as specialized subdisciplines.
Specialized subdisciplines, as used in this article, are usually the subject of graduate
studies or on-the-job training more than undergraduate research. Several specialized
subdisciplines are discussed at the end of this section

Mechanics

Mohr's circle, a common tool to study stresses in a mechanical element


Mechanics is, in the most general sense, the study of forces and their effect upon
matter. Typically, engineering mechanics is used to analyze and predict the
acceleration and deformation (both elastic and plastic) of objects under known forces
(also called loads) or stresses. Subdisciplines of mechanics include

Statics, the study of non-moving bodies under known loads


Dynamics (or kinetics), the study of how forces affect moving bodies
Mechanics of materials, the study of how different materials deform under
various types of stress
Fluid Mechanics, the study of how fluids react to forces. Fluid mechanics can
be further split into fluid statics and fluid dynamics, and is itself a
subdiscipline of continuum mechanics. The application of fluid mechanics in
engineering is called hydraulics.
Continuum mechanics is a method of applying mechanics that assumes that
objects are continuous. It is contrasted by discrete mechanics.

Uses
Mechanical engineers typically use mechanics in the design or analysis phases of
engineering. If the engineering project were the design of a vehicle, statics might be
employed to design the frame of the vehicle, in order to evaluate where the stresses
will be most intense. Dynamics might be used when designing the car's engine, to
evaluate the forces in the pistons and cams as the engine cycles. Mechanics of
materials might be used to choose appropriate materials for the frame and engine.
Fluid mechanics might be used to design a ventilation system for the vehicle (see
HVAC), or to design the intake system for the engine.

Kinematics
Kinematics is the study of the motion of bodies (objects) and systems (groups of
objects), while ignoring the forces that cause the motion. The movement of a crane
and the oscillations of a piston in an engine are both simple kinematic systems. The
crane is a type of open kinematic chain, while the piston is part of a closed four bar
linkage.
Uses Mechanical engineers typically use kinematics in the design and analysis of
mechanisms. Kinematics can be used to find the possible range of motion for a given
mechanism, or, working in reverse, can be used to design a mechanism that has a
desired range of motion.

Mechatronics and robotics


Mechatronics is an interdisciplinary branch of mechanical engineering, electrical
engineering and software engineering that is concerned with integrating electrical and
mechanical engineering to create hybrid systems. In this way, machines can be
automated through the use of electric motors, servo-mechanisms, and other electrical
systems in conjunction with special software. A common example of a mechatronics
system is a CD-ROM drive. Mechanical systems open and close the drive, spin the

CD and move the laser, while an optical system reads the data on the CD and converts
it to bits. Integrated software controls the process and communicates the contents of
the CD to the computer.
Uses Mechatronics is currently used in the following areas of engineering:

Automation, and in the area of robotics.


Servo-Mechanics
Sensing and Control Systems
Automotive engineering, in the design of subsystems such as anti-lock braking
systems
Computer engineering, in the design of mechanisms such as hard drives, CDROM drives, etc.

Industrial robots perform repetitive tasks, such as assembling vehicles.


Robotics is the application of mechatronics to create robots, which perform tasks that
are dangerous, unpleasant, or repetitive. These robots may be of any shape and size,
but all are preprogrammed and interact physically with the world. To create a robot,
an engineer typically employs kinematics (to determine the robot's range of motion)
and mechanics (to determine the stresses within the robot).
Uses
Robots are used extensively in Industrial engineering. They allow businesses to save
money on labor and perform tasks that are either too dangerous or too precise for
humans to perform them economically. Many companies employ assembly lines of
robots, and some factories are so reboticized that they can run by themselves. Outside
the factory, robots have been employed in bomb disposal, space exploration, and
many other fields. Robots are also sold for various residential applications.

Structural analysis
Structural analysis is the branch of mechanical engineering (and also civil
engineering) devoted to examining why and how objects fail. Structural failures occur
in two general modes: static failure, and fatigue failure. Static structural failure
occurs when, upon being loaded (having a force applied) the object being analyzed
either breaks or is deformed plastically, depending on the criterion for failure. Fatigue
failure occurs when an object fails after a number of repeated loading and unloading

cycles. Fatigue failure occurs because of imperfections in the object: a microscopic


crack on the surface of the object, for instance, will grow slightly with each cycle
(propagation) until the crack is large enough to cause failure.
Failure is not simply defined as when a part breaks, however; it is defined as when a
part does not operate as intended. Some systems, such as the perforated top sections
of some plastic bags, are designed to break. If these systems do not break, failure
analysis might be employed to determine the cause.
Uses Structural analysis is often used by mechanical engineers after a failure has
occurred, or when designing to prevent failure. Engineers may use various books and
handbooks such as those published by ASM [1] to aid them in determining the type of
failure and possible causes.
Structural analysis may be used the office when designing parts, in the field to
analyze failed parts, or in laboratories where parts might undergo controlled failure
tests.

Thermodynamics and Thermo-Science


Thermodynamics is an applied science used in several branches of engineering,
including Mechanical and Chemical Engineering. At its simplest, thermodynamics is
the study of energy, its use and transformation through a system. Typically,
engineering thermodynamics is concerned with changing energy from one form to
another. As an example, automotive engines convert chemical energy (enthalpy) from
the fuel into heat, and then into mechanical work that eventually turns the wheels.
Uses Thermodynamics principles are used by mechanical engineers in the fields of
heat transfer, thermofluids, and energy conversion. Mechanical engineers use thermoscience to design engines and power plants, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning
(HVAC) systems, heat exchangers, heat sinks, radiators, refrigeration, insulation, and
others.

Drafting

A CAD model of a mechanical double seal


Main article: Technical drawing
Drafting or technical drawing is the means by which mechanical engineers create
instructions for manufacturing parts. A technical drawing can be a computer model or
hand-drawn schematic showing all the dimensions necessary to manufacture a part, as
well as assembly notes, a list of required materials, and other pertinent information. A
U.S. mechanical engineer or skilled worker who creates technical drawings may be
referred to as a drafter or draftsman (or, more politically correctly, draftsperson).
Drafting has historically been a two-dimensional process, but recent Computer-Aided
Designing (CAD) programs have begun to allow the designer to create in three
dimensions.
Instructions for manufacturing a part must be fed to the necessary machinery, either
manually, through programmed instructions, or through the use of a Computer-Aided
Manufacturing (CAM) or combined CAD/CAM program. Optionally, an engineer
may also manually manufacture a part using the technical drawings, but this is
becoming an increasing rarity, except in the areas of applied spray coatings, finishes,
and other processes that cannot economically be done by a machine.
Uses Drafting is used in nearly every subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, and by
many other branches of engineering and architecture. Three-dimensional models
created using CAD software are also commonly used in Finite element analysis (FEA)
and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

List of specialized subdisciplines

An aerodynamic test vehicle used by mechanical engineers.


The following is a list of some additional subdisciplines and topics within mechanical
engineering. These topics may be considered specialized because they are not
typically part of undergraduate mechanical engineering requirements, or require
training beyond an undergraduate level to be useful.

Acoustical engineering
Aerospace engineering
Alternative energy
Automotive engineering
Biomedical engineering
Computer-aided engineering
Design optimization
Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)

Nanotechnology
Nuclear engineering
Piping
Power generation
Engineering-based programming

Frontiers of research in mechanical engineering


Mechanical engineering is not a static field of engineering. Mechanical engineers are
constantly pushing the boundaries of what is physically possible in order to produce
safer, cheaper, and more efficient machines and mechanical systems. Some
technologies at the cutting edge of mechanical engineering are listed below (see also
exploratory engineering).

Mechatronics
Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering, electronic
engineering, and software engineering. The purpose of this interdisciplinary
engineering field is the study of automata from an engineering perspective and serves
the purposes of controlling advanced hybrid systems.

Nanotechnology
At the smallest scales, mechanical engineering becomes nanotechnology and
molecular engineering - one speculative goal of which is to create a molecular
assembler to build molecules and materials via mechanosynthesis. For now this goal
remains within exploratory engineering.

Nuclear fusion
Most nuclear power plants today work on the principle of nuclear fission. An
international effort is currently underway to explore the potential of nuclear fusion as
a clean alternative energy source, and an experimental 500 MW power plant known as
ITER is currently under construction as of 2007 in France.[14]

Statics
Statics is the branch of physics concerned with the analysis of loads (force,
torque/moment) on physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the
relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and
structures are at rest under the action of external forces of equilibrium. When in static

equilibrium, the system is either at rest, or moving at constant velocity through its
center of mass.
By Newton's second law, this situation implies that the net force and net torque (also
known as moment) on every body in the system is zero, meaning that for every force
bearing upon a member, there must be an equal and opposite force. From this
constraint, such quantities as stress or pressure can be derived. The net forces
equalling zero is known as the first condition for equilibrium, and the net torque
equalling zero is known as the second condition for equilibrium. See statically
determinate.
Statics is thoroughly used in the analysis of structures, for instance in architectural
and structural engineering. Strength of materials is a related field of mechanics that
relies heavily on the application of static equilibrium.
Hydrostatics, also known as fluid statics, is the study of fluids at rest. This analyzes
systems in static equilibrium which involve forces due to mechanical fluids. The
characteristic of any fluid at rest is that the force exerted on any particle of the fluid is
the same in every direction. If the force is unequal the fluid will move in the direction
of the resulting force. This concept was first formulated in a slightly extended form by
the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal in 1647 and would be later
known as Pascal's Law. This law has many important applications in hydraulics.
Galileo also was a major figure in the development of hydrostatics.
In economics, "static" analysis has substantially the same meaning as in physics.
Since the time of Paul Samuelson's Foundations of Economic Analysis (1947), the
focus has been on "comparative statics", i.e., the comparison of one static equilibrium
to another, with little or no discussion of the process of going between them except
to note the exogenous changes that caused the movement.
In exploration geophysics, "statics" is used as a short form for "static correction",
referring to bulk time shifts of a reflection seismogram to correct for the variations in
elevation and velocity of the seismic pulse through the weathered and unconsolidated
upper layers.

Strength of materials
Strength of materials is materials science applied to the study of engineering
materials and their mechanical behavior in general (such as stress, deformation, strain
and stress-strain relations). Strength is considered in terms of compressive strength,
tensile strength, and shear strength, namely the limit states of compressive stress,
tensile stress and shear stress respectively. Strength can be simply defined as the
ability of a material to resist the application of force. The effects of dynamic loading
is probably the most important practical part of the strength of materials, especially
the problem of fatigue. Repeated loading often initiates brittle cracks, which grow
slowly until failure occurs.

Definitions
Stress terms
Uniaxial stress is expressed by

where F is the force (N) acting on an area A (m^2). The area can be the undeformed
area or the deformed area, depending on whether engineering stress or true stress is
used.

Compressive stress (or compression) is the stress state when the material
(compression member) tends to compact. A simple case of compression is the
uniaxial compression induced by the action of opposite, pushing forces.
Compressive strength for materials is generally higher than that of tensile
stress, but geometry is very important in the analysis, as compressive stress
can lead to buckling.

Tensile stress is a loading that tends to produce stretching of a material by the


application of axially directed pulling forces. Any material which falls into the
"elastic" category can generally tolerate mild tensile stresses while materials
such as ceramics and brittle alloys are very succeptable to failure under the
same conditions. If a material is stressed beyond its limits, it will fail. The
failure mode, either ductile or brittle, is based mostly on the microstructure of
the material. Some Steel alloys are examples of materials with high tensile
strength.

Shear stress is caused when a force is applied to produce a sliding failure of a


material along a plane that is parallel to the direction of the applied force. An
example is cutting paper with scissors.

Strength terms
Yield strength is the lowest stress that gives permanent deformation in a material. In
some materials, like aluminium alloys, the point of yielding is hard to define, thus it is
usually given as the stress required to cause 0.2% plastic strain.
Compressive strength is a limit state of compressive stress that leads to compressive
failure in the manner of ductile failure (infinite theoretical yield) or in the manner of
brittle failure (rupture as the result of crack propagation, or sliding along a weak plane
- see shear strength).
Tensile strength or ultimate tensile strength is a limit state of tensile stress that leads
to tensile failure in the manner of ductile failure (yield as the first stage of failure,

some hardening in the second stage and break after a possible "neck" formation) or in
the manner of brittle failure (sudden breaking in two or more pieces with a low stress
state). Tensile strength can be given as either true stress or engineering stress.
Fatigue strength is a measure of the strength of a material or a component under
cyclic loading, and is usually more difficult to assess than the static strength
measures. Fatigue strength is given as stress amplitude or stress range ( = max
min), usually at zero mean stress, along with the number of cycles to failure.
Impact strength, often measured with the Izod_impact_strength_test or
Charpy_impact_test, both of which measure the impact energy required to fracture a
sample.

Strain - deformation terms


Deformation of the material is the change in geometry when stress is applied (in the
form of force loading, gravitational field, acceleration, thermal expansion, etc.).
Deformation is expressed by the displacement field of the material.
Strain or reduced deformation is a mathematical term to express the trend of the
deformation change among the material field. For uniaxial loading - displacements of
a specimen (for example a bar element) it is expressed as the quotient of the
displacement and the length of the specimen. For 3D displacement fields it is
expressed as derivatives of displacement functions in terms of a second order tensor
(with 6 independent elements).
Deflection is a term to describe the magnitude to which a structural element bends
under a load.

Stress-strain relations
Elasticity is the ability of a material to return to its previous shape after stress is
released. In many materials, the relation between applied stress and the resulting
strain is directly proportional (up to a certain limit), and a graph representing those
two quantities is a straight line. The slope of this line is known as Young's Modulus,
or the "Modulus of Elasticity." The Modulus of Elasticity can be used to determine
stress-strain relationships in the linear-elastic portion of the stress-strain curve. The
linear-elastic region is taken to be between 0 and 0.2% strain, and is defined as the
region of strain in which no yielding (permanent deformation) occurs.
Plasticity or plastic deformation is the opposite of elastic deformation and is accepted
as unrecoverable strain. Plastic deformation is retained even after the relaxation of the
applied stress. Most materials in the linear-elastic category are usually capable of
plastic deformation. Brittle materials, like ceramics, do not experience any plastic
deformation and will fracture under relatively low stress. Materials such as metals
usually experience a small amount of plastic deformation before failure while soft or
ductile polymers will plasticly deform much more.

Consider the difference between a fresh carrot and chewed bubble gum. The carrot
will stretch very little before breaking, but nevertheless will still stretch. The chewed
bubble gum, on the other hand, will plasticly deform enormously before finally
breaking.

Design terms
Ultimate strength is an attribute directly related to a material, rather than just specific
specimen of the material, and as such is quoted force per unit of cross section area
(N/m). For example, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of AISI 1018 Steel is 440
MN/m. In general, the SI unit of stress is the pascal, where 1 Pa = 1 N/m. In English
units, the unit of stress is given as lbf/in or pounds-force per square inch. This unit is
often abbreviated as psi. One thousand psi is abbreviated ksi.
Factor of safety is a design constraint that an engineered component or structure must
achieve. FS = UTS / R, where FS: the Factor of Safety, R: The applied stress, and
UTS: the Ultimate force (or stress).
Margin of Safety is also sometimes used to as design constraint. It is defined
MS=Factor of safety - 1
For example to achieve a factor of safety of 4, the allowable stress in an AISI 1018
steel component can be worked out as R = UTS / FS = 440/4 = 110 MPa, or R =
110106 N/m.

Classical mechanics
Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from
projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft,
planets, stars, and galaxies. It produces very accurate results within these domains,
and is one of the oldest and largest subjects in science and technology.
Besides this, many related specialties exist, dealing with gases, liquids, and solids,
and so on. Classical mechanics is enhanced by special relativity for objects moving
with high velocity, approaching the speed of light. Furthermore, general relativity is
employed to handle gravitation at a deeper level.
In physics, classical mechanics is one of the two major sub-fields of study in the
science of mechanics, which is concerned with the set of physical laws governing and
mathematically describing the motions of bodies and aggregates of bodies. The other
sub-field is quantum mechanics.
The term classical mechanics was coined in the early 20th century to describe the
system of mathematical physics begun by Isaac Newton and many contemporary 17th
century workers, building upon the earlier astronomical theories of Kepler, which in
turn were based on the precise observations of Brahe and the studies of terrestrial

projectile motion of Galileo, but before the development of quantum physics and
relativity. Therefore, some sources exclude so-called "relativistic physics" from that
category. However, a number of modern sources do include Einstein's mechanics,
which in their view represents classical mechanics in its most developed and most
accurate form. The initial stage in the development of classical mechanics is often
referred to as Newtonian mechanics, and is associated with the physical concepts
employed by and the mathematical methods invented by Newton himself, in parallel
with Leibniz, and others. This is further described in the following sections. More
abstract, and general methods include Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian
mechanics. While the terms classical mechanics and Newtonian mechanics are
usually considered equivalent (if relativity is excluded), much of the content of
classical mechanics was created in the 18th and 19th centuries and extends
considerably beyond (particularly in its use of analytical mathematics) the work of
Newton.

Description of the theory


The following introduces the basic concepts of classical mechanics. For simplicity, it
often models real-world objects as point particles, objects with negligible size. The
motion of a point particle is characterized by a small number of parameters: its
position, mass, and the forces applied to it. Each of these parameters is discussed in
turn.
In reality, the kind of objects which classical mechanics can describe always have a
non-zero size. (The physics of very small particles, such as the electron, is more
accurately described by quantum mechanics). Objects with non-zero size have more
complicated behavior than hypothetical point particles, because of the additional
degrees of freedomfor example, a baseball can spin while it is moving. However,
the results for point particles can be used to study such objects by treating them as
composite objects, made up of a large number of interacting point particles. The
center of mass of a composite object behaves like a point particle.

Displacement and its derivatives

The SI derived units with kg, m and s


displacement

speed

m s-1

acceleration

m s-2

jerk

m s-3

specific energy

m2 s-2

absorbed dose rate

m2 s-3

moment of inertia

kg m2

momentum

kg m s-1

angular momentum

kg m2 s-1

The displacement, or position, of a point


particle
is defined with respect to an arbitrary
torque
kg m2 s-2
fixed reference point, O, in space, usually
energy
kg m2 s-2
accompanied by a coordinate system, with the
2 -3
reference point located at the origin of the
power
kg m s
coordinate
system. It is defined as the vector r
pressure
kg m-1 s-2
from O to the particle. In general, the point
surface tension
kg s-2
particle need not be stationary relative to O, so
r is a function of t, the time elapsed since an
irradiance
kg s-3
arbitrary initial time. In pre-Einstein relativity
2 -1
kinematic viscosity
m s
(known as Galilean relativity), time is
dynamic viscosity
kg m-1 s
considered an absolute, i.e., the time interval
between any given pair of events is the same
for all observers. In addition to relying on absolute time, classical mechanics assumes
Euclidean geometry for the structure of space.[1]
kg m s-2

force

Velocity
The velocity, or the rate of change of position with time, is defined as the derivative of
the position with respect to time or

.
In classical mechanics, velocities are directly additive and subtractive. For example, if
one car traveling East at 60 km/h passes another car traveling East at 50 km/h, then
from the perspective of the slower car, the faster car is traveling East at 6050 = 10
km/h. Whereas, from the perspective of the faster car, the slower car is moving 10
km/h to the West. What if the car is traveling north? Velocities are directly additive as
vector quantities; they must be dealt with using vector analysis.
Mathematically, if the velocity of the first object in the previous discussion is denoted
by the vector

and the velocity of the second object by the vector

where u is the speed of the first object, v is the speed of the second object, and and
are unit vectors in the directions of motion of each particle respectively, then the
velocity of the first object as seen by the second object is:

Similarly:

When both objects are moving in the same direction, this equation can be simplified
to:

Or, by ignoring direction, the difference can be given in terms of speed only:

Acceleration
The acceleration, or rate of change of velocity, is the derivative of the velocity with
respect to time (the second derivative of the position with respect to time) or

.
Acceleration can arise from a change with time of the magnitude of the velocity or of
the direction of the velocity or both. If only the magnitude, v, of the velocity
decreases, this is sometimes referred to as deceleration, but generally any change in
the velocity with time, including deceleration, is simply referred to as acceleration.
Frames of reference
While the position and velocity and acceleration of a particle can be referred to any
arbitrary point of reference and accompanying coordinate system (reference frame),
Classical Mechanics assumes the existence of a special family of reference frames in
terms of which the mechanical laws of nature take a comparatively simple form.
These special reference frames are called inertial frames. They are characterized by
the absence of accelerated motion between any two of them and the requirement of
forces to produce accelerated motion of particles relative to any one of them. Any
non-inertial reference frame would be accelerated with respect to an inertial one and
relative to such a non-inertial frame a particle would, nevertheless, display accelerated
motion. A weakness in the concept of inertial frames is the absence of any guaranteed
method for identifying them. For practical purposes, reference frames that are
unaccelerated with respect to the distant stars are regarded as good approximations to
inertial frames.
The following consequences can be derived about the perspective of an event in two
inertial reference frames, S and S', where S' is traveling at a relative velocity of to S.

by

(the velocity of a particle from the perspective of S' is slower


than its velocity from the perspective of S)

= (the acceleration of a particle remains the same regardless of reference


frame)
= (the force on a particle remains the same regardless of reference frame)
the speed of light is not a constant in classical mechanics
the form of Maxwell's equations is not preserved across such inertial reference
frames. However, in Einstein's theory of special relativity, the assumed
constancy (invariance) of the vacuum speed of light alters the relationships
between inertial reference frames so as to render Maxwell's equations
invariant.

Forces; Newton's Second Law


Newton was the first to mathematically express the relationship between force and
momentum. Some physicists interpret Newton's second law of motion as a definition
of force and mass, while others consider it to be a fundamental postulate, a law of
nature. Either interpretation has the same mathematical consequences, historically
known as "Newton's Second Law":

.
is called the (canonical) momentum. The net force on a particle is,
The quantity
thus, equal to rate change of momentum of the particle with time. Typically, the mass
m is constant in time, and Newton's law can be written in the simplified form

is the acceleration. It is not always the case that m is independent of t.


where
For example, the mass of a rocket decreases as its propellant is ejected. Under such
circumstances, the above equation is incorrect and the full form of Newton's second
law must be used.
Newton's second law is insufficient to describe the motion of a particle. In addition, it
requires a value for , obtained by considering the particular physical entities with
which the particle is interacting. For example, a typical resistive force may be
modelled as a function of the velocity of the particle, for example:

with a positive constant (although this relation is known to be incorrect for drag in
dense air, for example, it is accurate enough for elementary work). Once independent
relations for each force acting on a particle are available, they can be substituted into
Newton's second law to obtain an ordinary differential equation, which is called the
equation of motion. Continuing the example, assume that friction is the only force
acting on the particle. Then the equation of motion is

.
This can be integrated to obtain

where is the initial velocity. This means that the velocity of this particle decays
exponentially to zero as time progresses. This expression can be further integrated to
obtain the position of the particle as a function of time.

Important forces include the gravitational force and the Lorentz force for
electromagnetism. In addition, Newton's third law can sometimes be used to deduce
the forces acting on a particle: if it is known that particle A exerts a force on
another particle B, it follows that B must exert an equal and opposite reaction force, , on A. The strong form of Newton's third law requires that and - act along the
line connecting A and B, while the weak form does not. Illustrations of the weak form
of Newton's third law are often found for magnetic forces.

Energy
If a force is applied to a particle that achieves a displacement
, the work done
by the force is defined as the scalar product of force and displacement vectors:
.
If the mass of the particle is constant, and Wtotal is the total work done on the particle,
obtained by summing the work done by each applied force, from Newton's second
law:
,
where Ek is called the kinetic energy. For a point particle, it is mathematically defined
as the amount of work done to accelerate the particle from zero velocity to the given
velocity v:
.
For extended objects composed of many particles, the kinetic energy of the composite
body is the sum of the kinetic energies of the particles.
A particular class of forces, known as conservative forces, can be expressed as the
gradient of a scalar function, known as the potential energy and denoted Ep:
.
If all the forces acting on a particle are conservative, and Ep is the total potential
energy (which is defined as a work of involved forces to rearrange mutual positions of
bodies), obtained by summing the potential energies corresponding to each force

.
This result is known as conservation of energy and states that the total energy,

is constant in time. It is often useful, because many commonly encountered forces are
conservative.

Beyond Newton's Laws


Classical mechanics also includes descriptions of the complex motions of extended
non-pointlike objects. The concepts of angular momentum rely on the same calculus
used to describe one-dimensional motion.
There are two important alternative formulations of classical mechanics: Lagrangian
mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics. They are equivalent to Newtonian mechanics,
but are often more useful for solving problems. These, and other modern
formulations, usually bypass the concept of "force", instead referring to other physical
quantities, such as energy, for describing mechanical systems.

Classical transformations
Consider two reference frames S and S' . For observers in each of the reference frames
an event has space-time coordinates of (x,y,z,t) in frame S and (x' ,y' ,z' ,t' ) in frame S'
. Assuming time is measured the same in all reference frames, and if we require x = x'
when t = 0, then the relation between the space-time coordinates of the same event
observed from the reference frames S' and S, which are moving at a relative velocity
of u in the x direction is:
x' = x - ut
y' = y
z' = z
t' = t
This set of formulas defines a group transformation known as the Galilean
transformation (informally, the Galilean transform). This type of transformation is a
limiting case of special relativity when the velocity u is very small compared to c, the
speed of light.
For some problems, it is convenient to use rotating coordinates (reference frames).
Thereby one can either keep a mapping to a convenient inertial frame, or introduce
additionally a fictitious centrifugal force and Coriolis force.

History
Some Greek philosophers of antiquity, among them Aristotle, may have been the first
to maintain the idea that "everything happens for a reason" and that theoretical
principles can assist in the understanding of nature. While, to a modern reader, many
of these preserved ideas come forth as eminently reasonable, there is a conspicuous
lack of both mathematical theory and controlled experiment, as we know it. These
both turned out to be decisive factors in forming modern science, and they started out
with classical mechanics.

The first scientist to require a causal explanation of the motions of the planets was
Kepler, seeing that the orbits were ellipses on the basis of the observations by Tycho
Brahe on the orbit of Mars. This break with medieval thought happened around the
same time (say A.D 1600) when Galilei proposed abstract mathematical laws for the
motion of particles. He may (or may not) have performed the famous experiment of
dropping two cannon balls of different masses from the tower of Pisa, showing that
they both hit the ground at the same time. The reality of this experiment is disputed,
but, more importantly, he did carry out quantitative experiments by rolling balls on an
inclined plane. His theory of accelerated motion derived from the results of such
experiments, and forms a cornerstone of classical mechanics.
As foundation for his principles of natural philosophy, Newton proposed three laws of
motion, the law of inertia, his second law, mentioned above, and the law of action and
reaction. He demonstrated that these laws apply to everyday objects as well as to
celestial objects. In particular, he obtained a theoretical explanation of Kepler's laws
of motion of the planets.
Newton previously invented the calculus, of mathematics, and used it to perform the
mathematical calculations. For acceptability, his book, the Principia, was formulated
entirely in terms of the long established geometric methods, which were soon to be
eclipsed by his calculus. However it was Leibniz who developed the notation of the
derivative and integral preferred today.
Newton, and most of his contemporaries, with the notable exception of Huygens,
worked on the assumption that classical mechanics would be able to explain all
phenomena, including light, in the form of geometric optics. Even when discovering
the so-called Newton's rings (a wave interference phenomenon) his explanation
remained with his own corpuscular theory of light.
After Newton, classical mechanics became a principal field of study in mathematics
as well as physics.
Some difficulties were discovered in the late 19th century that could only be resolved
by more modern physics. When combined with thermodynamics, classical mechanics
leads to the Gibbs paradox of classical statistical mechanics, in which entropy is not a
well-defined quantity. As experiments reached the atomic level, classical mechanics
failed to explain, even approximately, such basic things as the energy levels and sizes
of atoms. The effort at resolving these problems led to the development of quantum
mechanics. Similarly, the different behaviour of classical electromagnetism and
classical mechanics under coordinate transformations (between differently moving
frames of reference), eventually led to the theory of relativity.
Since the end of the 20th century, the place of classical mechanics in physics has been
no longer that of an independent theory. Along with classical electromagnetism, it has
become embedded in relativistic quantum mechanics or quantum field theory.[2] It is
the non-relativistic, non-quantum mechanical limit for massive particles.

Limits of validity
Many branches of classical mechanics are simplifications or approximations of more
accurate forms; two of the most accurate being general relativity and relativistic
statistical mechanics. Geometric optics is an approximation to the quantum theory of
light, and does not have a superior "classical" form.

The Newtonian approximation to special relativity


Newtonian, or non-relativistic classical mechanics approximates the relativistic
momentum
than the speed of light.

with m0v, so it is only valid when the velocity is much less

For example, the relativistic cyclotron frequency of a cyclotron, gyrotron, or high


, where fc is the classical
voltage magnetron is given by
frequency of an electron (or other charged particle) with kinetic energy T and (rest)
mass m0 circling in a magnetic field. The (rest) mass of an electron is 511 keV. So the
frequency correction is 1% for a magnetic vacuum tube with a 5.11 kV. direct current
accelerating voltage.

The classical approximation to quantum mechanics


The ray approximation of classical mechanics breaks down when the de Broglie
wavelength is not much smaller than other dimensions of the system. For nonrelativistic particles, this wavelength is

where h is Planck's constant and p is the momentum.


Again, this happens with electrons before it happens with heavier particles. For
example, the electrons used by Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer in 1927,
accelerated by 54 volts, had a wave length of 0.167 nm, which was long enough to
exhibit a single diffraction side lobe when reflecting from the face of a nickel crystal
with atomic spacing of 0.215 nm. With a larger vacuum chamber, it would seem
relatively easy to increase the angular resolution from around a radian to a milliradian
and see quantum diffraction from the periodic patterns of integrated circuit computer
memory.

More practical examples of the failure of classical mechanics on an engineering scale


are conduction by quantum tunneling in tunnel diodes and very narrow transistor
gates in integrated circuits.
Classical mechanics is the same extreme high frequency approximation as geometric
optics. It is more often accurate because it describes particles and bodies with rest
mass. These have more momentum and therefore shorter De Broglie wavelengths than
massless particles, such as light, with the same kinetic energies.

Solid mechanics
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Solid mechanics is the branch of physics and mathematics that concerns the behavior
of solid matter under external actions (e.g., external forces, temperature changes,
applied displacements, etc.). It is part of a broader study known as continuum
mechanics.
A material has a rest shape and its shape departs away from the rest shape due to
stress. The amount of departure from rest shape is called deformation, the proportion
of deformation to original size is called strain. If the applied stress is sufficiently low
(or the imposed strain is small enough), almost all solid materials behave in such a
way that the strain is directly proportional to the stress; the coefficient of the
proportion is called the modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus. This region of
deformation is known as the linearly elastic region.

Major topics
There are several standard models for how solid materials respond to stress:
1. Elastic Linearly elastic materials can be described by the 3-dimensional
elasticity equations. A spring obeying Hooke's law is a one-dimensional linear
version of a general elastic body. By definition, when the stress is removed,
elastic deformation is fully recovered.
2. Viscoelastic a material that is elastic, but also has damping: on loading, as
well as on unloading, some work has to be done against the damping effects.
This work is converted in heat within the material. This results in a hysteresis
loop in the stressstrain curve.
3. Plastic a material that, when the stress exceeds a threshold (yield stress),
permanently changes its rest shape in response. The material commonly
known as "plastic" is named after this property. Plastic deformation is not
recovered on unloading, although generally the elastic deformation up to yield
is.

One of the most common practical applications of Solid Mechanics is the EulerBernoulli beam equation.
Solid mechanics extensively uses tensors to describe stresses, strains, and the
relationship between them.
Typically, solid mechanics uses linear models to relate stresses and strains (see linear
elasticity). However, real materials often exhibit non-linear behavior.
For more specific definitions of stress, strain, and the relationship between them,
please see strength of materials.

Pressure

The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin in
Canberra, Australia.
Pressure (symbol: p) is the force per unit area applied on a surface in a direction
perpendicular to that surface.
Gauge pressure or gage pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or
ambient pr