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a unit in R, then u is also a unit in R.

Exercise 2. Which of the following are subrings of Q:

(a) the set of rational numbers with odd denominators (when written in

lowest terms),

(b) the set of rational numbers with even denominators (when written in

lowest terms),

(c) the set of nonnegative rational numbers,

(d) the set of squares of rational numbers,

(e) the set of all rational numbers with odd numerators (when written in

lowest terms).

Problem 3. An element a of a ring R is called idempotent if a2 a. A ring

R is called Boolean if every element of R is idempotent. Prove that Boolean

rings are commutative.

Exercise 4. Let K be a field. A discrete valuation on K is a function v : K

Z satisfying

(i) vpabq vpaq ` vpbq for all a, b P K (i.e., v is a homomorphism [think

logarithm!]),

(ii) v is surjective, and

(iii) vpx ` yq mintvpxq, vpyqu for all x, y P K with x ` y 0.

The set Ov tx P K | vpxq 0u Y t0u is called the valuation ring of v.

(a) Prove that Ov is a subring of K containing 1.

(b) Prove that for each x P K , x or x1 is in Ov .

(c) Prove that an element x is a unit of Ov if and only if vpxq 0.

Problem 5. Fix a prime p and define vp : Q Z by vp pa{bq where

a{b p c{d where p ffl c and p ffl d. Prove that vp is a valuation, then prove

that

Ovp ta{b P Q | pp, bq 1u.

Finally, determine exactly what rational numbers constitute Ovp , the units

in Ovp .

Remark. The ring Ovp above is frequently called Zppq , the ring of p-local integers. Look at exercises 3 and 6 on p.238 of the book for another interesting

example of a valuation and valuation ring.

Date: 30.III.15.

1

N g1 ` g2 ` ` gn , an element of the group ring ZG. Prove that N is in

the center of ZG.

Challenge 7. Prove that the rings Zrxs and Qrxs are not isomorphic.

Exercise 8. Decide which of the following are ideals of the ring Zrxs:

(a) the set of all polynomials whose constant term is a multiple of 3,

(b) the set of all polynomials whose coefficient of x2 is a multiple of 3,

(c) the set of all polynomials whose constant term, coefficient of x, and

coefficient of x2 are zero,

(d) Zrx2 s, the set of polynomials in which only even powers of x appear,

(e) the set of polynomials whose coefficients sum to 0,

(f) the set of polynomials ppxq such that p1 p0q 0, where p1 pxq is the usual

first derivative of ppxq with respect to x.

Problem 9. Find all ring homomorphisms Z Z{30Z. In each case describe

the kernel and the image.

Challenge 10. Let I and J be ideals of R.

(a) Prove that I ` J is the smallest ideal of R containing both I and J.

(b) Prove that IJ is an ideal contained in I X J.

(c) Give an example where IJ I X J.

(d) Prove that if R is commutative and if I ` J R, then IJ I X J.

Problem 11. Let R be a commutative ring with 1. Prove that the principal

ideal generated by x in the polynomial ring Rrxs is a prime ideal if and only

if R is an integral domain. Prove that pxq is a maximal ideal if and only if

R is a field.

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