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2 Periodic Waves

direction has a frequency of 25.0 Hz, as in

the figure. Find the

(a) amplitude,

(b) wavelength,

(c) period, and

(d) speed of the wave.

Example:

A wave traveling in the

positive x direction has a frequency of

25.0 Hz, as in the figure. Find the

(a) amplitude,

(b) wavelength,

(c) period, and

(d) speed of the wave.

(a) The transverse distance from the trough (lowest point) to the creast (hightest)

point of the wave is twice the amplitude. In the picture this distance is 18.0 cm.

So we have 2A = 0.180 m A = 0.090 m (give your answer in SI units by

default: kg, m, s and derived units)

(b) Distance from crest to trough = one half the distance from crest to crest. Here

this distance is given to be 10.0 cm = 0.100 m. So we have = 0.100m

= 0.200 m

(c) Period is the inverse of the frequency; i.e. T = 1/f. We are given f=25.0 Hz. So

we have T = 1/(25.0 Hz) = 1/(25.0 s-1) T = 0.040 s.

(d) (wave speed) = (frequency) x (wavelength)

v = f = (25.0 s-1 ) x (0.200 m) v = 5.00 m/s

The speed at which the wave moves to the right depends on how quickly

one particle of the string is accelerated upward in response to the net

pulling force.

F

v=

m L

Tension

(force) in the string

linear density

= mass per unit length

3

Transverse waves travel on each string of an electric guitar after the string is

plucked. The length of each string between its two fixed ends is 0.628 m, and the

mass is 0.208 g for the highest pitched E string and 3.32 g for the lowest pitched E

string. Each string is under a tension of 226 N. Find the speeds of the waves on

the two strings.

Transverse waves travel on each string of an electric guitar after the string is

plucked. The length of each string between its two fixed ends is 0.628 m, and the

mass is 0.208 g for the highest pitched E string and 3.32 g for the lowest pitched E

string. Each string is under a tension of 226 N. Find the speeds of the waves on

the two strings.

F

=

v1 =

m1 L

226 N

= 826 m s

-3

0.208 10 kg (0.628 m )

v2 =

F

m2 L

226 N

= 207 m s

-3

3.32 10 kg (0.628 m )

Is the speed of a transverse wave on a string the same as the speed at

which a particle on the string moves?

They are not even in the same direction for a transverse wave.

6

y, of a given particle (labeled by its position along

the direction of travel of the wave: x), at a certain

time t.

So y is a function of both x and t. (a bi-variate function)

One way to think about this: you have a harmonic

oscillator at the origin:

y(0,t) = A sin(2ft), which transmits its information to

position x at wave speed v with a delay of t = |x/v|.

And so we have y(x, t) =y(0, t-|x/v|)

In the +x direction: |x/v|= x/v = x/(f )

y = A sin[2ft - 2fx/ (f )] = A sin(2ft - 2x/ )

For wave in the x direction, we move from x=0 to

negative x values where |x/v|= -x/v

7

the equation y = 0.17 sin (8.2t + 0.54x), where y is the displacement (in

meters), t is in seconds, and x is in meters.

(a) What is the speed of the wave?

(b) What is the displacement of the particle at x = 0.30 m at time t= 7.2 s?

the equation y = 0.17 sin (8.2t + 0.54x), where y is the displacement (in

meters), t is in seconds, and x is in meters.

(a) What is the speed of the wave?

(b) What is the displacement of the particle at x = 0.30 m at time t= 7.2 s?

(a) (Wave speed)=(frequency)*(wavelength) v= f

and we know the wave as the form y=A sin(2f t + 2x/)

** note the + sign here means the wave is traveling in the x direction.

and 2/ = 0.54 m-1 = 2 / (0.54 m-1) = 3.7 m

v= f = (4.1 s-1)(3.7 m) v = 15 m/s

(b) y(0.30 m, 7.2s)= (0.17m) (sin) ( is known as the phase angle)

where = (2f t 2x/) (+ in our case)

= (8.2 s-1)(7.2 s) + (0.54 m-1)(0.30 m) = 185.9885683

sin(185.9885683 rad)= -0.593 y(0.30 m, 7.2s) = -0.10 m

Note: The phase angles (2ft - 2x/) and/or (2ft + 2x/) are measured in

radians, not degrees. SET YOUR CALUCLATOR IN RADIAN (RAD) MODE

WHEN WORKING ON THIS SORT OF PROBLEM

Also: Keep as many digits as you get from the calculator for the phase

angleits important to NOT round off.

condensations (compressions), or

between adjacent rarefactions, is

equal to the wavelength of the sound

wave.

10

along with the wave.

11

FREQUENCY

The frequency is the number of

cycles per second: f=1/T

AGAIN: wave speed v=f

called a pure tone.

The brain interprets the frequency in

terms of the subjective quality called

pitch. Like most biological

responses, the conversion is

logarithmic.

Connection to Music: the 12 semitones in an octave have

frequencies whose logarithms are

approximately equally spaced.

12

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