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# BHARATHIDASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ME6501 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN
UNIT-I FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS
PART-A
2. List down the processes involved in product cycle.
3. Define optimization.
4. Write the application of homogeneous coordinate representation.
6. Name the factors considered for selecting CAD.
7. Draw the flow diagram of sequential engineering.
8. Draw the design process layout of ohsuga model.
9. Mention the different phases in pahl and beitz model.
10. Discuss about the morphology design.
11. Illustrate the steps involved in shighley method.
12. Show the steps followed in planning the production process.
13. State the characteristics of concurrent engineering.
14. Prepare the concurrent workflow in the planning stage in concurrent engineering.
15. Plot a graph between number of design changes in sequential engineering and concurrent
engineering.
16. Classify the types of computer graphics.
17. Derive the transformation matrix for rotation about arbitrary point in 2D.
18. Choose the different coordinate systems used in multiple coordinate systems?
19. Formulate the steps involved in workstation transformation.
20. What are the requirements for drawing lines in computer graphics?
21. Mention any four applications of computer aided design in mechanical engineering.
22. List the types of 2D geometric transformation.
23. What is clipping and line drawing?
24. How does Bresenhams method differ from DDA algorithm?
25. What are the roles of CAD in design?
PART-B
1. Define design process? Draw flow diagram and explain its function.
2. List down the 2D transformation matrix for the following transformation processes.
(i) Translation (ii) Scaling (iii) Rotation (iv) Shearing
3. Describe homogeneous coordinate transformation system and matrix.
4. (i) Examine composite transformation? How is it useful?
(ii) Write short note on reflection.
5. (i) With a neat sketch explain the product cycle.
(ii)Draw and explain the CAD system architecture.
6. Describe the role of computer in CAD? Draw flow diagram of CAD, write their benefits and
7. A triangle has coordinates of A (0, 0), B (4, 0) and C (2,5).Rotate the triangle counterclockwise
by 30 about the origin. Also find the rotation matrix and resultant triangle after rotation.

8. Find the transformation matrix to transform the given matrix ABCD to three fourth of its size
with center still remaining at the same position. The coordinates of the rectangle are
A(2,3),B(6,3),C(6,6),D(2,6) and its center at (4,4.5).Also find the resultant coordinates of the
given rectangle.
9.
Show that the transformation matrix for a reflection about the line y=x is equidistance to
reflection to x-axis followed by counterclockwise rotation of 90. (BT-3)
10.
A triangle has coordinates with A (5,8),B(3,5) and C (7,5).It is mirrored about a line
y=6.Obtain the resultant coordinates.
11 (i) Compare sequential and simultaneous engineering.
(ii) Explain viewing transformation system.
12. (i) With an example, explain each type of two dimensional transformation.
(ii) Explain the techniques involved in line drawing algorithm.
13 Write short note on the following items.
(i) Line Drawing
(ii) Digital Differential Analyzer Algorithm (iii) Bresenham's Line
Algorithm.
14. Write short note on the following items.
(i) Clipping (ii) normalized Transformation (iii) Workstation Transformation.
15. What is meant by concurrent engineering? Describe the various schemes for concurrent
engineering.

UNIT-II
GEOMETRIC MODELING
PART-A
1. Define geometrical modeling?
2. List the main drawback of wireframe modeling?
3. Define curve and free form curve.
4. Write down Bezier matrix.
5. Mention any four characteristics of Bezier curves.
6. Write down the difference between Bezier curves and Hermite curve.
7. State the limitations of B - Spline curve.
8. Discuss the various types of surfaces?
9. Illustrate the common surface entities used in a surface modeling.
10. Discuss how coons surfaces generated?
11. Draw the diagram of Bezier surface.
12. Show the applications of surface modeling.
14. Explain how parametric surfaces defined?
15. Analyze the types of parametric Bi-Cubic surfaces used in CAD.
17. Assess the various forms of solid model representation?
19. Formulate the rules to be followed in topological consistency?
20. State the applications of coons surface.
21. Differentiate between interpolated curve and approximation curves.
22. Write down the applications of surface modelling.
23. Why B-rep scheme is more widely used?
25. What do you mean by rational and non-rational curve?

PART-B
1. (i) Define B-rep method? Explain in detail. (ii) Write short notes on
order of continuity.
2. (i) Describe the salient features of a solid modeling package?
(ii) Examine about wire frame modeling and explain in detail.
3. (i) Describe the representation of curves.
(ii) Find the shape of cubic spline curve if the result is (a) P0=P1, P1=P0 (b) P0=P1, P1=-P0'
4. Identify the formulation involved in Bezier surface and cubic Bezier surface.
5. Summarized how solids are represented and describe neatly the various types of solid
modeling approaches.
6. (i) Describe B-spline surface and explain it.
(ii)Write short notes on solid modeling and its representation.
7. Describe briefly boundary representation (B-rep) and Constructive Solid Modeling (CSG) in
solid modeling.
8. (i) Write short notes on Surface Patch.
(ii) Examine the techniques involved in surface modeling.
9. Examine briefly about coons surface and Hermite Bicubic surface formulation.
10. (i) Explain the matrix formulation in cubic B-spline curves.
11. Explain surface modeling and discuss the various types of it, Give the advantages,
disadvantages and applications of surface modeling.
12. (i) Point out the mathematical representation of curves.
(ii) Analyze the steps involved in Bezier curves.
13.
(i) Assess the formulation involved in Hermite curve.
(ii) Summarized the characteristics of Bezier and B-spline
curves.
14.
(i) Generalized analytical and synthetic surfaces? Explain in
detail. (ii) Formulate the types of surfaces.
15.
(i) Briefly explain the different schemes used to generate a
solid model.
(ii) Write short notes on approximation synthetic curves.

## UNIT-3 VISUAL REALISM

PART A
1. Define visual realism.
2. Classify the components of Visual realism.
3. Identify the applications of visual realism.
4. List the various approaches of visual realism.
5. Compare object space method and image space method.
6. List the various types of image space algorithms.
7. Name the various test to determine visibility.
8. Show the types of coherence.
9. Survey the use of lighting model or Shading model.
10. What are the shading enhancement methods used in computer graphics.
12. List down the models available for colours.

## 13. Mention the properties that describe various colours.

15. How colour parameters are classified?
17. Apply the types of animation.
18. Categories the two basic approaches of key frame animations.
19. Analyze the common problems in animations
20. Show the three approaches of Hidden line removal algorithm
21. Tell about Depth Buffer algorithm.
22. Distinguish Additive colour model and Subtractive colour model.
23. Define interpolative shading and list the two methods used for interpolative shading.
24. List the applications of animation.
25. Write down painters algorithm.
PART B
1. a. Explain the techniques used for visual realism.
b.Illustrate any four visibility techniques in computer graphics
2. a.Summarise about object space method and image space method.
b.Outline the hidden surface removal algorithm with an example.
3. a.What are illumination models or shading models? Explain them in detail.
b. What is Ray tracing and explain the process with its algorithm.
4. Summarize about the coherence and explain its types.
5. a. Explain any three shading enhancement methods.
6. Name the different colour models and explain them in detail.
8. Choose the two main types of light source used in lighting techniques
9. Develop the user interface for shading and colouring.
10. Examine the types of animation models and explain in detail.
11. List about the computer animation hardware and software.
12. Distinguish Simulation approach and Hybrid approach.
13. a. Define computer animation and explain the various means of achieving it.
b. Show how the computer animation differs from conventional animations
14. Explain briefly various animation techniques.
15. Discuss the hidden line elimination process in visual realism.

## UNIT 4 ASSEMBLY OF PARTS

PART-A
1. Define assembly modeling.
2. List down the assembly modeling approaches.
3. Identify the techniques in evaluation of assembly sequences.
4. Define tolerance.
5. Define basic hole and basic shaft.
6. Give the applications of hole basis system and shaft basis system.
7. What are unilateral and bilateral tolerances?
8. Name the factors that influence the amount of tolerance to be given on part.

## 9. Define fit and write the types of fits.

10. Interpret the methods of kinematic analysis.
11. Discuss about the first moment of inertia.
12. Give the application areas of R5, R10 and R20 series.
13. Relate about kinematic and dynamic analysis.
14. Explain about the fundamental deviation and tolerance zone.
15. Classify the mating condition often used in assembly modeling.
16. Select the series designated as R 5/2, R10/4.
18. What are design function and design function variables used in assembly modeling.
19. Formulate how the ISO system of Holes, Shafts and Tolerance grades used in assembly
modeling.
20. Create the symbols for Tolerance characteristics.
21. Define interference checking.
22. List down the methods for tolerance analysis.
23. How are holes and shaft designated?
24. Draw the hierarchical relationship in generation of an assembly model in CAD.
25. Explain the types of fits.
PART-B
1. List the importance of assembly modeling and identify the various steps in generations of
assembly model.
2. (a) Examine any two Assembly modeling approaches.
(b) Write short notes on mating conditions.
3. (a)Describe the representation of assembly and assembly plans.
(b) Write short notes on inference of position and orientation.
4. Define geometric tolerance. Discuss in detail about the types of tolerances.
5. Summarize about preferred numbers, fits and types of fits.
6. Describe about hole basis system and shat basis system? Which one is preferred and why?
7. Discuss tolerance accumulation? explain with an examples.
8.(a)Illustrate the terms used in tolerance analysis.
(b) Calculate the IT tolerance of diameter 250 mm of tolerance grade 13.
9.(a)Calculate the IT tolerance of diameter 45mm of tolerance grade 5.
(b) Show the numerical examples of various fits.
10. Analysis the methods of indicating the tolerance on drawing.
11. Explain the following.
(a) Worst case arithmetic method (b) worst case statistical method (c) Monte-Carlo simulation
method.
12. Explain in detail about mass property calculation.
13.Compare first moment of inertia, second moment of inertia and Product of inertia.
14. Formulate Denavit -Hartenberg (D-H) representation and explain in details.
15. Explain briefly interference checking.
16. Briefly explain the elements of a mechanism analysis.

PART-A
1. List down the various elements of CAD/CAM structure without graphics system.
2. Where does the graphics system position in CAD/CAM structure?
3. Define database.
4. State the objectives of database.
5. Mention the need for graphic standards.
6. Name the various interface standards at different levels.
7. Write down the aim of graphic standardization.
8. Give the types of graphics standard.
9. Define GKS and CORE system.
10. Predict the features of GKS.
11. Classify GKS and sketch the layer model of GKS.
12. What are the logical concepts involved in GKS.
13. Compare PHIGS and IGS.
14. Illustrate the various features of PHIGS.
15. Draw a neat sketch of image exchange using OpenGL.
16. Mention the advantages of OpenGL.
17. Show the limitations of IGES and DXF.
18. Point out the features of NAPLPS.
19. Tabulate the basic sections in DXE File format.
20. Obtain a sketch for three layered architecture for product data exchange.
21. List down the requirements of data exchange.
22. Assess the various file section in IGES.
23. Summarize the eight major areas in step documentation.
24. Create the flow diagram to communicate between two CAD systems using IGES.
25. Discuss the advantage of open graphics library.
PART-B
1. (a)Define Graphics Keneral System. Explain briefly with suitable examples.
(b)Examine IGES data exchange format.
2. Describe the data exchange standard and development in data exchange format.
3. (a)Write short notes on data base management.
(b)Identify the thrust involved in developing CAD standards.
4. (a)Describe PHIGS.
(b)Show how data is exchanged between two cad System.
5. (a) Summarize the standards for exchanging images.
(b) Discuss about open graphics library.
6. (a)Describe (i) Local area network (ii)Wide area network.
(b)Describe Standard for the Exchange of product model Data (STEP) in detail.
7. (a) Describe the types of Graphics Standards.
(b) Discuss the two basic items of GKS such as primitives and attributes.
8. (a).Examine the features of open GL.
(b).Illustrate (i) Direct CAD system Export (ii) Direct Translation software (iii) Neutral data
exchange format.
9. Classify the Neutral file formats and Explain in detail?

10. Analyse Continuous acquisition and life cycle support and elaborate their types.
11. Explain Product Data Exchange standard and draw the three layer architecture of PDES.
12. Infer the different levels of graphics standard communication and elaborate the each.
13. (a)Explain drawing exchange format (DXF).
(b) Compare IGES and STEP.
14. Elaborate (i) HTML (ii) VRML (iii) CGM (IV) BITMAPS (V) Computer Aided Design
Interface.
15. (a) Write short notes on (i) OpenGL (ii) Standards for computer graphics.
(b) Explain the initial graphics exchange specification methodology.