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FACTORS RELATED TO DROP OUTS AND PERFORMANCE OFCWTS

STUDENTS AT LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY SAN


PABLO CITY CAMPUS ACADEMIC YEAR 2010 - 2011
A Research Paper Presented to the Faculty of the College of Teacher Education
Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus San Pablo City In Partial
Of Fulfillment Of the Requirements in Methods of Research for the Degree Bachelor
of Secondary Education Major in Social Studies is prepared and submitted by
Elaine Rose P. Carandang in partial of fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
of Bachelor of Secondary Education, Major in Mathematics, has been examined and
is recommended for acceptance and approval for oral examination.
MRS. FE D. BELEN
Adviser
PANEL OF EXAMINERS
Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with a rating of ______.
MRS. FE D. BELEN
Chairman
NELIA T. SALVADOR, Ed.D.
Subject Specialist
PROF. MARILYN P. SANTOS
Subject Specialist Statistician
MRS. CECILIA B.DIVA
Technical Editor & English Critic PROF.
MAURO D. LUCIDO JR.
Dean, College of Teacher Education

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The researcher wants to give thanks to all the persons that have become a big part
of thisstudy. First I would like to thank our God for giving me the strength to finish
this study; To my family, especially to my mother, father, sister and cousin for their
moral andfinancial support in order to finish this study; To all my friends and
classmates, especially to I.S.P.O.Y., Marilyn C. Atienza, Ida,Maries, Maricris, Ates
and to all Social Science major who had helped the researcher to do this study
presentable; To Dr. Nelia T. Salvador & Mrs. Fe D. Belen, for guiding and helping me
in order tomake the study a well done achievement. To Laguna State Polytechnic
University for helping every student to be able to become a responsible in the
future. And lastly to all the respondents for all their full cooperation that made them
a big part of this study. E.R.P.C.

DEDICATION
The researcher wants to dedicate this study, first to Beloved God for giving us the
light as guide to this research: To the teachers for discovering the hidden potential
and also the guidance that was intensely needed in this problem; To fellow
classmates and friends, hope that we can enrich our knowledge and skills that have
become an instrument for everyones success; And to my family, my mother, father
and my sister who were always there to help in this problem in order to make this
study possible; To my beloved grandmother who just passed away and whom the
researcher admired; To Laguna State Polytechnic University for creating and
enriching the knowledge of every student in order to attain the maximum fulfillment
of the students to become an effective unit as an individual; And lastly to all CWTS
college students of Laguna State Polytechnic University. E.R.P.C.

ABSTRACT
This study aims to know the Factors related to drop outs and performance of
CWTS students in LSPU SPCC academic year 2010 - 2011.
It sought answers to the following questions.
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1 age;
1.2 gender;
1.3 course;
1.4 year level; and 1.5 general weighted average?
2. What is the level of performance of students enrolled in CWTS during 2010
2011?
3. How do the respondents perceive the factors related to the number of drop
outs:
3.1 teachers methodologies;
3.2 attitude of students; and 3.3 schedule?
4. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and
their performance?
5. Is there a significant relationship between the performance of the respondents
and factors related to CWTS?
5.1 teachers methodologies;
5.2 attitude of students; and 5.3 schedule?
Majority of the respondents are in age of 17 with 28 or 47%; 43 or 72 are female;
10 or15% are taking BS Biology; and 52 or 87% are in 1st year level. 19 or 32% of
the grade of the respondents ranges 2.6 3.0. Students attitude (mean = 3.57)

and Programs schedule (mean = 3.56) are interpreted asAgree. While teachers
methodologies (mean = 3.33) is interpreted as uncertain. The person related
factors resulted as significant to the level of performance ofrespondents. The
performance of the respondents is not significant to the CWTS related variables.

Conclusion
1. The hypothesis that There is no significant relationship between the profile of
the respondents and their performance is Rejected.
2. The hypothesis that There is no significant relationship between the
performance of students and factors related to CWTS program is Accepted

Recommendations
1. Teachers methodologies must utilized students centered since CWTSs program
has a vast number of learners.
2. Students must be accountable on following the programs schedule and equip
their own time management.
3. Institutions should promote collaborative training as early as possible so that it
will culminate the attitude of learners towards community service.
4. Researchers must extend their scope on the performance of students in such
area of learning, especially in community subject.

CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDIntroduction The Laguna State Polytechnic
University, San Pablo City Campus, school year 2011-2012 offers two (2) of the
National Service Training Program (NSTP) courses for the freshmen college
students. The two programs are Reserve Officers Training Corp (ROTC) program and
Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS) The CWTS refers to the program component
or activities contributory to the general welfare and the betterment of life for the
members of the community or the enhancement of its facilities, especially those
devoted to improving health education, environment, entrepreneurship, safety
recreation and moral citizenry and other social welfare services (Khim,2009). Thus,
it is timely and relevant that we know the perception of the freshmen college
students toward taking up the required NSTP course, either ROTC or CWTS as a
prerequisite course for graduation. The graduation rate for students who enrolled in
community service and other student populations continues to be far below the
national average. According to the 23rd Report to Congress, only 57% of youth with
disabilities graduated with regular diplomas during the 2003 -2008 school year
(U.S. Department of Education, 2007). Other student populations who have
disproportionately high rates of dropout include those from low socio-economic
circumstances or single-parent families and those who are identified as Native
American or Hispanic/Latino(National Center for Education Statistics, 2002;
Rosenthal, 2005). The problem of dropout can no longer be ignored, given the
associated negative impact on individuals and society(www.person03service.com).
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 has focused recent attention on the problem
of dropout and is driving efforts to increase graduation rates for all students. This
law holds schools accountable for student progress using indicators of adequate
yearly progress (AYP), including measures of academic performance and rates of
school completion. Educators, administrators, and policymakers at district and state
levels are in need of interventions that will increase high school graduation for all
students, especially those at risk of school failure. With the recent emphasis on
accountability, personnel from local and state education agencies are charged with

developing programs that engage students in school and learning, ensure


acquisition of academic and social skills necessary for adulthood, and result in high
rates of school completion(Kilpatrick, 2006). Programs and practices designed to
prevent dropout have been implemented in schools across the country for decades.
These practices vary and include counseling services, mentoring programs,
tutoring, attendance monitoring, and after-school programs. Unfortunately, the
extent to which these interventions are systematically targeted for disengaged
learners is unclear, and closer examination suggests many of these programs and
practices lack research or evaluation data documenting effectiveness (Lehr, Hansen,
Sinclair, & Christenson, 2003). The resources required for program implementation
in terms of time, staff, and dollars point to the need for clear evidence of
effectiveness. Additionally, the current federal administration has drawn increased
attention to the need for educational decisions grounded in scientifically based
evidence and the conceptual cause are the attitude, teachers collaboration and etc.
(Feuer,Towne, & Shavelson, 2002). The Essential Tool provides a synthesis of
research-based dropout prevention and intervention and offers examples of
interventions that show evidence of effectiveness especially boredom on the
subjects. This has proven to be a difficult task because the intervention research on
dropout and school completion that can be used to inform practice is incomplete
(Dynarski &Gleason, 2002; Lehr et al., 2003; Sutherland & MacMillan, 2001).
Although there is not yet a solid foundation of research on dropout intervention and
prevention from which to make strong conclusions, there is information that
educators, administrators, and policymakers can use to help make informed
decisions. The tool is intended as a base of current knowledge that can be built
upon as additional interventions are implemented and empirically validated to know
the factors of drop outs.
Background of the Study
The National Defense Act was amended on 1990 by Presidential Decree No, 1706
or the National Law which offered the three components of National Service Training
Program namely: Military Service, and Law Enforcement Service with DND, CHED
and DILG respectively as implementing agencies: However, concerned agencies

were not prepared to implement CWS and LES components, thus MS program was
the only program pursued in college and universities. In1991, RA 7077, otherwise
known as the AFP Reservist Act was enforced prescribing for a two-year ROTC
Program as a requirement for graduation to all tertiary level students. In 1994, a
tripartite committee was formed among DND, CHED and DILG representatives
modifying the traditional two year ROTC program into expanded ROTC program
which provide for a mandatory Military Service, Civic Welfare Service on the second
year. Republic Act 9163 NSTP Act of 2001 was assigned by President Gloria
Macapagal Arroyo on 23 January 2002 and promulgated on 23 March 2002. The
NSTP now being implemented offers three component namely: Reserve Officer
Training Corp (ROTC), Literacy Training Service (LTS) and Civic Welfare Training
Service (CWTS) for a period of 1 year or two semesters. Effective on the first
semester of Academic Year 2002-2003, all freshmen students on the tertiary level
mandated to finish within one year of any one year of any of one of the three
components as a prerequisite for graduation from any baccalaureate degree course
or from any two year technical/vocational course (www.govph.com). The stream of
the program factors are hypothetically determined: Homesickness and feeling that
you dont fit in (fond of problem Feroe, 2005). Educational burn out. While college
gives you control and flexibility over your schedule, the hard demanding schedule,
challenging courses, and boatload of homework certainly has turned a lot of
students away from the desire to continue. Academic unpreparedness. Personal or
family issues. Financial constraints. Additionally, financial situations can change
from year to year. Too much fun but not enough education. Some students take
advantage of their friendships, which could put them on academic probation due to
suffering grades or absence in classes. The school isnt a good academic fit for the
student. Youve selected a great school that is very arts-centric. However, you
realize that you like the sciences better. Similarly, you may hate the average class
size of 100 and prefer much smaller classes for more individualized attention.
Setting sights on the wrong major. You may have wanted to be a doctor but after
taking several science classes, you decided that youre rather go into marketing.
Does your school have a marketing major? If not, youre likely to go elsewhere. No
guidance or mentors. External demands, particularly within part time or full time

employment. The major outline of the suggested causes are the teacher factor and
students which has a great stream (Gores, 2007) In relation to over 30% of college
students leave after the first year and almost 50% never graduate, according to the
Department of Education. The leading reason for this problem seems to be a lack of
money and principally by the students themselves. According to the National Center
for Public Policy and Higher Education: 1/2 of all entering freshman borrow funds
for certain unit, 1/5 of those who borrow drop out and those who drop out are twice
as likely to be unemployed as borrowers who received a degree and more than ten
times as likely to default on their loans. Notion of a knowledge base for teaching
and, specifically, this argument that teachers possess pedagogical content
knowledge, invites further analysis. (Buchmann,2006) for example, describes two
likely political or social forces behind the knowledge base argument and the base of
subject interaction. One stems from motivations to professionalize teaching.
Researchers attempt to dignify the practice of teaching by showing its rich, complex
nature especially the complex subject program. The tone of the discussions is often
positive, perhaps inspiring, liberating or enlightening. The other stems from
motivations to evaluate teaching. Researchers attempt to scrutinize the nature of
teaching in order to better clarify ways in which teachers should be accountable.
The tone of these discussions is often negative or critical,sometimes belittling the
enterprise of teaching as a whole (applying teaching as a whole, 2005) Irrespective
of whether one studies teachers in order to praise them or to bury them, atleast
two interesting philosophical questions arise when the notion of teacher knowledge
isexamined in greater detail affecting the number of drop outs. The first, which will
be called thetacit problem, is that teacher knowledge appears to be primarily a
form of knowledge how. Inother words, the most credible justification for a
teachers knowing is the fact that he or she cando something in the classroom (eg.,
create situations that enable students to learn). The second,which will be called the
situated problem, is that teacher knowledge is deeply dependent onparticular
times, places, and contexts, and lacks the general character of knowledge
inmathematics, physics, or even psychology. Thus, it is difficult to formulate criteria
which can beused to explain how a piece or instance of teacher knowledge might be
justified. According to many researchers most have described the tacit and situated

nature ofteacher knowledge. The motive for rehashing these problems is not to
disprove what Shulman(2008) writes, but to speak more carefully about the
connection between knowledge and teachingand its relevance on dropping causes.
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to know the Factors related to drop outs and performance of
CWTS students in LSPU SPCC academic year 2010 - 2011. It sought answers to
the following questions.
6. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
6.1 age;
6.2 gender;
6.3 course;
6.4 year level; and 6.5 general weighted average?
7. What is the level of performance of students enrolled in CWTS during 2010
2011?
8. How do the respondents perceive the factors related to the number of drop outs:
8.1 teachers methodologies;
8.2 attitude of students; and 8.3 schedule?
9. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and
their performance?
10. Is there a significant relationship between the performance of the respondents
and factors related to CWTS?
10.1 teachers methodologies;
10.2 attitude of students; and 10.3 schedule?
Significance of the Study

It is hope that the findings of this study will help the students to develop their
physical, moral, intellectual, and social well being. Enlighten their mind to know
their vital role in nation building. Also help to promote their civic consciousness
and at the same time inculcate in theyouth or students the patriotism, nationalism
and endurance and their involvement in public andcivic affairs. Finally with many
strong youth-focused organizations in the government and publicsector, Filipinos
are placing great importance on youth participation and service: programs likethe
NSTP target youth in schools to participate in building civic community. These
programs areproviding services that improve Filipino community, but more
importantly they are building asense of civic responsibility in the students who are
the future of the Philippines.
Scope and Limitation
The study is all about the factors related to drop outs and performance of CWTS
studentsin Laguna State Polytechnic University, San Pablo City Campus. It is limited
to sixty (60)students coming from all enrolled students in CWTS academic year
2010 - 2011. The main source of data is on the survey questionnaire prepared by
the researcher. Itprovides more information as the main instrument that determines
how the respondents are ableto relate in this study.
Theoretical Framework
This study was based on how individuals cope with academic standings; individuals
areclassified into introverts and extroverts. Their decisions and actions are
determined primarily byobjective relationship and their attention and interests are
centred on the immediate environment rather than attaining good grades. The
research task is interactive: to clarify the nature of the interfaces and optimal
readiness by Edward Thorndike through investigations of how students partially
made to finish curriculum. Needless to say, this law conditionally understood; they
have to learn about the facts that can set their interest and drive the responsibility
of taking fulfilling a subject course.
Conceptual Framework

The independent variable of the study comprises the person related factors; age,
gender ,course, year level, general average. While factors related to CWTS
comprises attitude of students, teachers methodologies and schedule while the
dependent variable of the study is the performance of students who were enrolled
in CWTS during 2010 - 2011. The result of performance of students in CWTS act as
dependent variable in the study. It is assumed to be affected by the independent
variables.
Paradigm
Independent variable(s) Dependent variable(s) I. Profile of the respondents Age;
Gender; Course; Year level; and Performance of students General Average II.
Factors related to drop out Attitude of students; Teachers methodologies; and
Schedule
Figure 1. Research Paradigm of the study Figure 1. shows the relationship
between the independent variables and the dependent variables or performance of
students in Laguna State Polytechnic University.
Hypotheses
3. There is no significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and
their performance.
4. There is no significant relationship between the performance of students and
factors related to CWTS program.

Definition of Terms
The terms used had defined from the operational point of view of the researcher to
help the readers comprehend the study efficiently.
o

CWTS. (Civic Welfare Training Service) a particular program and a subject in


where students are taking three (3) units every Saturday at Laguna State
Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus.

Performance. Refers to the quantity of achievement of the respondents

enrolled in CWTS during2010 - 2011.


Drop out. Refers to the students who stopped un/intentionally the program of

CWTS because of such factors.


Profile. Is a set of characteristics for an individual who are enrolled in a CWTS

subject.
Age. Refers to the respondents period of birth. Gender. Is a socially

o
o
o

constructed definition of women and men.


Year level. Refers to the level of attainment of the respondents.
Course. Refers to the specific field that individual choose in college.
Attitude of students. Refers to the mental predisposition of the respondents

based on the CWTS program Academic year 2010.


Teachers methodologies. Refers to the methods of instruction delivered by

the coordinators of CWTS.


Schedule. The time agreement of CWTS students enrolled in a subject and
the instructors.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the related literature and studies that may have significant
learningin the present study.Related Literature The CWTS refers to the program
component or activities contribution to the generalwelfare and the betterment of life
for the members of the community or the enhancement of itsfacilities, especially
those devoted to improving health, education, environment,entrepreneurship,
safety recreation and moral citizenry and other social welfare servicesThe
Components of CWTS The Civic Welfare Training Services (CWTS) is one of the
program in National ServiceTraining Program (NSTP) is geared towards activities
that have social impact through activities that could contribute to health
education, environment, entrepreneurship, safety, recreation, and morals of the
citizenry (www.laws.com). Thus, the CWTS component of the NSTP stressed the
importance of youth, involve mention broad programs or activities that will benefit
from people. While the CWTS focused on programs to enhance the living conditions
of the people Guthrie (2004) There are many reasons for teens to underperform at
school, including a lack of motivation to do well, problems at home or with peers,
poor work habits or study skills, emotional and behavior problems, learning
disabilities (such as dyslexia), attention deficithyperactivity disorder, mental
retardation or below average intelligence and other medica lproblems, including
anxiety and depression. Also keep in mind that children with sleepproblems, such
as obstructive sleep pane, or inadequate sleep, can have problems in school,usually
secondary to intentional problems and daytime sleepiness as in such case college
levelare vulnerable in acting as a student as adolescent period foresee as in Asia
more and morecollege level degrade the privilege as behavioural concerned. For
Aderson (2003) it is important to find the reason for your childs poor
performance,especially if she is in college level, and come up with a treatment plan
so that she can perform upto her full potential. Another reason to get your child
help is that doing poorly in school caneasily lead to problems with low self-esteem,
behavior problems and depression that lead todropping. It is sometimes difficult to
figure out if a childs problems at school are caused by theirother medical problems,
such as depression, or if these other problems began because of theirpoor school
performance. Children who do poorly at school may be under a lot of stress, and
will

19. develop different ways to cope with this stress. Some may externalize their
feelings, which canlead to acting out and behavior problems or becoming the class
clown. Other children willinternalize their feelings, and will develop almost daily
complaints of headaches orstomachaches. A thorough evaluation by an experienced
professional is usually needed tocorrectly diagnose children with complex problems.
In congruence to imitativeness of thoseforced to work for the sake of finishing the
course requirement as in relation to the communityservice a social practicum
(www.realm cc.com). Gorucd, F. O., & Puringht, (2004) When the fact realize your
child has a problem atschool, you should schedule a meeting with her teacher to
discuss the problem. Other resourcesthat may be helpful including talking with the
school psychologist or counselor or yourPediatrician especially coordinating to the
school. This study examined the effects of practice schedule manipulations
implemented in aninstructional setting on the performance and learning of low- and
high-skilled students. Collegeundergraduates (N = 83) enrolled in 5 social classes
completed practiced these skills under ablocked or alternating schedule, and then
completed a posttest. Results indicated that practiceschedule effects on learning
were influenced by student ability. Low-skilled students assigned tothe blocked
schedule had higher posttest scores than those assigned to the alternating
schedule,whereas no significant differences were found for high-skilled students.
These findings arediscussed in relation to previous applied and laboratory-based
findings and as a means formanipulating practice difficulty in teaching physical
education and humanism (Perspective ofJaques Derrida, 2002)
20. Ask about different things at school: classmates, recess, lunch, and art projects
can be justas important as a math test. Its helpful to start out with friendlier topics
before asking aboutcontentious issues. If a child is having trouble with chemistry,
also congratulate him about asubject where his performance is good. In relation to
the community relation (Frohsd, 2003)recent issues of affecting many variables
related for dropping out with a high performance riskyis a doubt morphologically in
relation. Meanwhile according to Whirt (2005) under-utilization of existing facilities
by thedisadvantaged groups reflects one aspect of deprivation, the higher failure
and dropout rate of thedisadvantaged, reflects the other aspect of their educational
backwardness. The previous chapterhad clearly shown that under-utilization of the

facilities was highest in respect of the scheduledtribes in all the states followed by
the scheduled castes. The analysis of the comparative dropoutrates for the
scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and others. Causes of dropouts among
thescheduled castes and the scheduled tribes as perceived either by the students
themselves or bytheir teachers and heads of the Institutions would also be analyzed
here. As defined by the Indian Professionals on Board - Dropout is a universal
phenomenon inIndian educational system at all the levels which results in
considerable wastage of resources.Dropout is most serious at primary school level.
A number of studies have shown that dropout ishigher in case of disadvantaged
poor students. The major reason given usually being that thechildren are an
economic asset to the parents. In the case of ITIs, it was hypothesized thatdropout
rate would be higher among the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes students
thandie non-scheduled students because of their comparatively poor economic
status.
21. To understand the phenomenon of dropout among the ITI students this chapter
examinesfirst the extent and nature of dropout of the scheduled castes and the
scheduled tribes ascompared to others. The reasons for dropouts are discussed
next, and, finally, the chapter makessome suggestions for reducing dropouts from
the Industrial Training Courses(www.indED.com). Ordinarily, a dropout is defined as
a person who withdraws from a programme of studybefore completing the same. It
differs from wastage where a student takes longer time tocomplete a course than
the prescribed one. For example, at the primary level all those childrenwho are
admitted to class I and who do not complete class IV or V, are taker as dropouts. In
thecase of ITIs all those students who join a particular trade but do not complete
the same becausethey leave the programme before a varieties of reasons can come
up example a rudimentary caseof community service as defined by (Gordon, 2001)
a student maybe included (a class session)but S/he is not on the core of course
which necessarily dropping the core. The costs of dropping out of high school can
have a profound effect on a young personslife. The relative earnings of high school
dropouts are lower than those for students whocomplete high school and/or college.
Similarly, high school dropouts experience moreunemployment during their work
careers. Young women who drop out of high school are morelikely to become

pregnant at young ages and more likely to become single parents (Snyder
&Sickmund, 2000). In 2007, the unemployment rate among those dropping out of
school was 11%, comparedwith 7% for those who graduated from high school but
did not attend college. The medianincome among dropouts who were employed full
time was only half that of high school
22. graduates. While the real income (income adjusted for inflation) of college
graduates hasincreased during the past 20 years, the real income of dropouts has
declined dramaticallyespecially in mattering community service (Snyder &
Sickmund, 2000).Census 2000 summary file 1-4-United States. (2002). These are
sobering statistics whencontrasted with the reality of a workplace that continues to
require increased literacy, moreeducation, enhanced technical skills, and the ability
to embark on careers that require lifelonglearning. Without the skills and training
that schooling should provide, those who do notcomplete their education face a
lifetime of limited opportunities or even possibly a life ofdelinquency and crime The
following data evaluation shows how certain risk factors affect achilds ability to
achieve high school graduation. Although 4-H programs are not directlyresponsible
for a childs academic career, Extension programs have a similar goal. The missionof
4-H Youth Development education is to create supportive environments for
culturally diverseyouth and adults to reach their fullest potential (Colorado 4-H
Youth Development Handbook,2003). Learning to identify proven risk factors in
their high school members is the first step indesigning successful 4-H programs to
meet the needs older youth. The ability to attain high scores on standardized
entrance exams does not guarantee highstudent performance in all areas of
academics. Aside from curriculum Economics courses areexamples of this
phenomenon. Student performance in Principles of Macroeconomics classes
isdependent on many factors. Natural ability needs to be supplemented with
motivation and effort.Recent studies have tried to determine the factors that are
attributed to high performance. For some students, getting accepted to a university
is only the first in an uphill battletoward a degree. Persevering long enough to
graduate can be just as challenging.

23. Data from the CHED revealed in 2000 that one in three Filipino drops out of
college.This is an increase from the 1960s when one in five discontinued his or her
studies. Even if your child has normal or above average intelligence, without a
desire ormotivation to succeed at school, it is unlikely that she will do well. There
are many reasons forchildren to have a lack of motivation, including parental
expectations that are set too high or toolow, social problems, including difficulties at
home or at school, and behavior problem(Delfrings, p.234) As suggested by
Rhefortore, 2007 to help a child develop a positive attitude andmotivation toward
working hard at school you should: Give your child praise and rewards for doing
something well or working hard toward a difficult or challenging problem. Help build
self confidence by avoiding frequent criticism and praising hard work. Communicate
with your child about school and ask her about her day to show that you are
interested. Help her to find something that she has a skill or special interest in,
such as music, sports, reading, etc., Help your child to understand that success has
a lot to do with how much time and effort you put into a task, and is not just about
how smart or strong she is. Children who believe this are more likely to take on
new challenges and work harder on difficult tasks. Set realistic goals and
expectations for your children and set up consequences for not meeting these
expectations and rewards or privileges for when she does. If your child is making
Cs, but is working hard at school and at doing her homework, then it may be
unreasonable to expect her to make the honour roll. You should instead reward and
praise her hard work and not punish her for not living up to your expectations.
There are many classroom modifications that can be put in place to help improve
schoolperformance, memory and attention, impulse control, organization, and self
esteem. You shoulddiscuss implementing these techniques with your childrens
teachers.

Improving memory and attention span:

o Seat the child in an area with the least amount of distractions, near the teacher if
possible. Consider using a study carrel, especially for independent work and keep
her work area uncluttered.
o Make instructions clear and unambiguous. o Keep oral instructions brief and
repeat them at least once.
o Consider providing written instructions and directions to supplement oral
instructions.
o Use visual aids.
o Break up instructions, assignments and homework into small steps.
o Improve reading comprehension by teaching her to underline key words or topics
with a highlighter.
o Improve listening comprehension by teaching her to take notes of key concepts.
o Provide special signals or cues to remind her to get back on task. Improving
organizational skills:
o Establish a daily checklist of assignments.
o Keep a special notebook in which she can record homework assignments, project
or report due dates, and test schedules.Improving productivity:
o Divide work sheets and assignments into sections.
o Reduce the amount of homework and written classwork, especially repetitive
assignments such as math problems and spelling words that she can do accurately.
o Vary the type of activities that she is doing. o Vary the way that material is
presented.
o Provide one on one instruction or small groups to introduce major concepts.
Improving performance:
o Provide extra time to complete assignments and tests.

o Consider providing oral testing instead of or in addition to written tests. o Remind


the student to slow down. o Give extra weight to the content of an assignment
when grading, and do not take off points for poor handwriting or minor spelling
errors.Protecting self esteem: o Avoid humiliating children who perform poorly in
front of the other children. o Give positive feedback when she stays on task, pays
attention or works hard at an assignment. o Find things that she has special
interest or strength in and encourage her to do these activities.
Improving behavior and impulse control:
o Provide special signals or cues when she is beginning to misbehave.
o Give clear expectations of what behaviors are expected in the classroom.
o Be consistent in your expectations and in the consequences for misbehavior.
Parents all want their children to succeed, and they play an essential role. Make and
maintain positive connections between parents, children, and teachers. Parental
involvement is a major factor in student success social interference of droppings
flexible to occur. Every family needs to create their own system for parental
involvement in schoolwork. Strive for balance between support and hovering;
between advocacy and over-managing.
Related Studies
Some studies indicate that a considerable proportion of college dropouts come
from low-income families. The U.S. Department of Education found that 41% of
low-income studentsenrolled in a four-year institution managed to graduate within
five years. For higher incomestudents, this jumps to 66%. Of the low income
students that did not return, 47% left in goodacademic standing (Victro,
unpublished Masters Thesis, Houston Texas 2004). Though research links financial
difficulties to dropout rates, there are a number of factorsthat account for why
students decide to leave school. Students tend to drop out because
theirexpectations of collegeacademically, socially, or bothdont match up with
the reality oncethey get there. They also suffer from lack of motivation, inadequate
preparation, and poor studyskills. The National Center for Education Statistics

indicates that dropout rates are particularlyhigh for African American and Hispanic
students. Other student populations at greater risk ofdropping out include those
who are the first in their family to attend college, those who havelimited English
proficiency, and nontraditional students such as returning adult students
(Victro,2004). As observed by Fitright (Dissertation, references services view,
Library Science, 2004)Few students who drop out eventually finish their education.
Those that do return to collegeusually dont do it immediately. About 12% of the
undergraduate population consists of re-entrystudents. These students are defined
as those over the age of 25. Many college studentsespecially dropoutsare
burdened with debt accumulated fromloans that could have been avoided or
minimized by choosing other education and trainingoptions. Debt from student
loans hurt those who never finish college. Most dropouts are left withbig debts and
mediocre job prospects. It is estimated that 40% of college students will leave
higher education without getting adegree, with 75% percent of these students
leaving within their first two years of college.Freshman class attrition rates are
typically greater than any other academic year and arecommonly as high as 2030%. These statistics show a need for colleges to do something aboutretention
rates. An alarming number of schools have no specific plan or goals in place to
improve studentretention and degree completion. Colleges tend to put the blame on
students, rather than onthemselves. College officials, when given lists of both
student and institution characteristics that might affect a students decision to drop
out, identified 13 student characteristics that they feltsignificantly contribute to
student attrition. In contrast, respondents identified only twoinstitution
characteristics as having a significant impact on attrition. It is quite troubling
thatcolleges are still inclined to hold students largely responsible for their retention,
whiledramatically minimizing the institutional role in this problem. When a student
drops out of college, everyone losesthe student, the college, and thegreater
society. College retention rates are important issues that impact not only colleges,
but ourcountry and its future competitiveness in the global economy. Students
academic readiness is a key factor in college retention. Students who are
wellprepared for college coursework are more likely to stay in school. Academic
help alone is notenough to keep many students in school. Students also need

individual support to feel connectedto the campus community. Helping students


succeed in the classroom is a very positive step, butif students feel isolated or feel
as if they dont fit in, they wont stay. Its important for collegesto offer programs
and services that integrate first-year students into the social fabric of thecollege
community, so that they feel a part of campus life from the very start of their
collegeexperience (Victro, 2004 pg. 44 46). Some schools are establishing
practices that appear to be highly effective in increasingstudent retention. These
include social integration practices, multicultural centres, new academicadvising
practices, and learning support practices. Student retention is everyones business
on acollege campus and a thoroughly integrated and coordinated approach needs to
be taken to assuresuccess. Many colleges have not yet made retention efforts a
high priority. Fewer than half (47%)of all college officials responding to an ACT
survey say they have established a goal for improved retention of first-year
students, and only a third (33%) say they have established a goalfor improved
degree completion. In addition, only around half (52%) say they have an
individualon staff that is responsible for coordinating retention strategies. As
conclude by Bert (2001) performance is product of socio-economic,
psychologicaland environmental factors. For the last 20 years, education in Pakistan
is growing as a profitableindustry with prime objective of maximizing profit by
delivering high quality education thatproduces well-educated, skilled, mannered
students according to needs and requirements of thedynamically growing market.
Thats why the scope of research is always there to find out whatare the factors
that affect the performance of the students in socially administered service.
Thereare two groups of students as generally perceived i.e. those who improve and
those who dontimprove. This study can contribute to find out the factors, which are
responsible for studentsinelastic behavior towards study along with identifying
those factors, which help a student tomake progress in his studies. This study
focuses on investigating the factors affectingperformance of 3rd and 4th year
college students equal to Europeans standard K-12 and K-14. Asurvey was
conducted to collect information and responses of students, regarding
factorsaffecting their performance in community service. All of the research reviews
in Latin Americasupport the hypothesis that student performance depends on

different socio-economic,psychological, environmental factors. The findings of


research studies focused that studentperformance is affected by different factors
such as learning abilities because new paradigmabout learning assumes that all
students can and should learn at higher levels but it should not beconsidered as
constraint because there are other factors like race, gender, sex that can affect
students performance. (Hansen, Joe B.2000). Some of the researchers even tried
to explain thelink between students achievements, economic circumstances and the
risk of becoming a drop-out that proved to be positive (Goldman, N., Haney, W.,
and Koffler, S., 2002). The study found out the relationship among teachers
attitude and students academicachievement in secondary school mathematics. The
study is an ex-post facto type, which adopteddescriptive survey design. Three
research questions were answered in the study. The subjects forthe study were one
thousand five hundred and forty two (1542) senior secondary twomathematics
students and one hundred and twenty three (123) mathematics teachers
selectedfrom two secondary schools from each of the six senatorial districts in the
South western part ofNigeria. Two research instruments were used for data
collection. The data were analyzed usingsimple frequency and percentages. The
findings revealed that there was good and positiveattitude of teachers towards the
teaching of mathematics in secondary schools in spite of theshortcomings that has
bedevilled the teaching profession and particularly in the teaching ofmathematics.
It is very important that teachers of mathematics should be adequately
remuneratedand well equipped and be psychologically prepared to teach the subject
in the secondary schools. Attitude as a concept is concerned with an individual way
of thinking, acting andbehaving. It has very serious implications for the learner, the
teacher, the immediate social groupwith which the individual learner relates and the
entire school system. Attitudes are formed as aresult of some kind of learning
experiences. They may also be learned simply by following theexample or opinion
of parent, teacher or friend. This is mimicry or imitation, which also has apart to
play in the teaching and learning situation. In this respect, the learner draws from
his teachers disposition to form his own attitude, which may likely affect his
learning outcomes(Olicer, 2005 pg. 24 45). In his observational theory, Bandura
(1971) demonstrated that behaviours are acquired bywatching another (the model,

teacher, parent, mentor, friend) that performs the behaviour. Themodel displays it
and the learner observes and tries to imitate it. Teachers are, invariably, rolemodels
whose behaviours are easily copied by students. What teachers like or dislike,
appreciateand how they feel about their learning or studies could have a significant
effect on their students.Unfortunately, however, many teachers seldom realize that
how they teach, how they behave andhow they interact with students can be more
paramount than what they teach. In a nutshell,teachers attitudes directly affect
students attitudes. Teachers attitudes are in turn, influenced bytheir culture and
belief system. Teachers attitudes towards their students in school must
befavourable enough to carry students along. European Journal of Social Sciences
Volume 11,Number 3 (2009) 365 When the learner exhibits the expected behaviour
or response, the value attacheddetermines very significantly the effectiveness of
the learning processes in any aspect ofeducation. Gangoli cited in Igwe (2002)
stipulates that for teaching and learning of science to beinteresting and stimulating,
there has to be motivation on the part of both the teacher and thelearner so as to
ensure the development of positive attitude and subsequently maximumacademic
achievement. It has been observed that teachers teach science in a way that
merelyrequires the pupils to listen, read and regurgitate. This depicts negative
attitude to teaching.Several research findings have confirmed the hypothesis that
teachers attitude either towards science or towards science teaching affect their
students achievement in and attitudes towardsscience. Okpala, (1985) found that
the effect of teachers attitude towards assessment practiceson students
achievement and their attitude towards Physics was positive. In the same
veinOnocha, (1985) reported in one of his findings that teachers attitude towards
science is asignificant predictor of pupils science achievement as well as their
attitude. Also Igwe (1985)showed that the effect of teachers attitudes to
mathematics was stronger on the studentsmathematical achievement than on their
attitudes. Chako (1981) reported in a study of teacherand student characteristics as
correlates of learning outcomes in mathematics that teachersattitude towards
teaching significantly predict students attitude as well as achievement
inMathematics. Also, Chidolue (1986) found that teachers attitude towards Biology
teaching isone of the major contributors towards explaining the variance in

students cognitiveachievement. In the same vein Odubunmi (1986) and Odunsi


(1988) confirmed that teachersattitude towards Integrated Science teaching affect
their students attitude to and achievement inthe subject while Ogunwuyi (2000)
found significant causal relationship between the teachersattitude and students
achievement in Integrated Science. Teachers attitude towards the teachingof
Mathematics plays a significant role in shaping the attitude of students towards the
learning ofMathematics. Ogunniyi (2000) found that students positive attitude
towards science could beenhanced by the following teacher-related factors:
Teachers enthusiasm,
Teachers resourcefulness and helpful behaviour,
Teachers thorough knowledge of the subject-matter quite interesting.
From Korlings (2001) the above we can say that the role of the teacher as
facilitator oflearning and the contributions to students achievement is enormous.
Bajah (2005) was of theopinion that the success of our science programme depends
greatly on the classroom teacher ashe is the one that translates all our thoughts
into action. It can be argued to some extent that thecharacteristics of the teachers
and their experiences and behaviours in the classrooms, contributeto the learning
environment of their students, which in turn will have an effect on
studentoutcomes. It is also important that we do not undermine the role of the
parents in affectingstudent learning. A common hypothesis with respect to the
relationship between teachers experience andstudent achievement is that students
taught by more experienced teachers achieve at a higherlevel, because their
teachers have mastered the content and acquired classroom managementskills to
deal with different types of classroom problems (Slavin, 2004; Evans, 2004;
Gibbons etal, 2004). Furthermore, more experienced teachers are considered to be
more able to concentrateon the most appropriate way to teach particular topics to
students who differ in their abilities,prior knowledge and backgrounds (Raudenbush
and Williams, 2001; Stringfield and Teddlie,2002). Ejiogu, (2003) was of the view
that in order to improve on any aspect of education, it istherefore imperative to
involve a well articulated teacher education programme that will preparethe teacher

for the leadership role they are expected to play. The nations overall development
isinextricably tied to its educational system. If we accept these views, then there is
the need tointroduce quality into the system. Most educationists believed that there
could be no meaningfulsocio economic development without the right type and
appropriate quality of education. Tobecome an educated (Research Library
European Journal of Social Sciences Volume 11, Number 3 2009) 366 person
requires the combination of several factors and processes. At thecenter of the
processes is the presence of an educator. The teacher is the most indispensable
factor in the effective administration of any education system. In his opinion
Ofofuena (2003)said that no matter what amount of resources we might put into
the nations education system,without properly prepared and motivated teachers,
we can never expect from the system. Theimportance of teacher in the meaningful
education at all levels is reflected in the Nationalinstitution.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the description of research design the population and sample
of thestudy, sampling procedure, research instrument, and the data gathering
techniques dataprocessing and statistical treatment of the data.
Research Design
This study used the descriptive type of research in determining the Factors related
to dropouts and performance of CWTS students in LSPU SPCC academic year
2010 - 2011. The possible solutions were obtained through a questionnaire as well
as interviews and observation made by the researcher. This study made the used of
College students enrolled in National Service Training Program Civic Welfare
Training Service as its respondents, the main sourceof data during the academic
year 2010 2011. They were selected by random order among thetotal number of
college students from different level the instrument used was a collaboration
ofinformation based on Seidl, William (2003). Community welfare scenarii: the
participants of community service. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN
1 87888 755. Some ofits modifications were undertaken to adapt on the
research problem and scope of the study.
Population and Sampling
The respondents of the study include sixty (60) college students enrolled in
NationalService Training Program Civic Welfare Training Service academic year
2010 2011. The random sampling as a sampling technique was utilized.
Research Instrument
A set of Questionnaire containing three (3) pages including a letter of request
wasprepared; it includes the personal profile: such as age, gender, year level,
course, average of therespondents. Three (3) major categories employed namely
attitude of students, teachersmethodologies, and schedule of CWTS to assess the
overall perception regarding the factorsrelated to CWTS program and the number of
drop outs in Civic Welfare Training Service. The respondents were oriented by the
researcher to make sure of the information andclarity of the given questionnaires.
Data Collection

The questionnaire undertook revisions and was addressed to the levels and group
virtuesof the respondents. The instruments distributed to the respondents on the
last week of January.After sometime, the questionnaire was gathered personally by
the researcher. It took one (1)week to retrieve the questionnaire for the needed
data in the study. In order to determine the related factors of drop outs; the
study used the following scalecomposed of five categories: 5 Strongly Agree 4
Agree 3 Uncertain 2 Disagree 1 Strongly Disagree After the questionnaire was
retrieved, coded, and tallied, it is followed by statisticalprocedures and then the
analysis and interpretation of data.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The data collected from the questionnaire are reviewed, tabulated, and coded for
analysis.The dependent and independent variables were coded and interpreted as
follows: Survey Questionnaire I. Profile of the Respondents 1. Age Legend: 16 1
17 2 18 3 19 4 20 and above 5 2. Gender Legend: Male 1 Female 23.
Course Legend: BSEd 1 BEEd 2 BSIE 3 BSHRM 4 AHRM 5 BSPsych 6
BSBio 7 BSTourism 8 BSBA 9 BSIT 10 BS info 11 BSECE 12 BSEE 13
AT 14 4. Year level Legend: First year 1 Second year 2 Third year 3 Fourth
year 4 5. General Average Legend: 1 1.00 1.50 2 1.51 2.00 3 2.99
2.50 4 2.69 3.00 5 3.99 5.00 Percentage distribution was utilized to
describe the related factors to CWTS program and regarding the number of drop
outs in CWTS variables in terms of age, gender, course, yearlevel, general average.
For the drop out related factors such as attitude of students, teachers
methodologies,and schedule. The researcher was utilized the mean and standard
deviation using a Likert scale, 5being the highest, denotes outstanding and 1
being the lowest, denotes poor. To find that if there is a relationship existing
between the independent and dependent variables, Pearson Product Moment of
Correlation Coefficient was used to tell how well two sets of continuous data
correlate to each other at 0.05 level of significance.

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS

This chapter presents the findings of the study in illustrative tables and analysis as
well as the interpretation based from the statistical treatment of the data.
Table 1
Distribution of Respondents According to Age
Age Frequency Percent 16 17 28 17 28 47 18 8 13 19 2 3 20 & above 5 8 TOTAL
60 100 As shown in Table 1 the distribution of respondents according to age. In a
clear view age17 outnumbered the rest with 28 or 47%; followed by 16 with 17 or
28%. On the other hand 8 or13 % of the total respondents are in the age of 18;
while the rest such as 20 & above has 5 or 8%and the least score goes to age 19
with 2 or 3%. This implies that the majority of the respondents subjected in the
study are in age 17 which is under adolescence period.
Table 2
Distribution of Respondents According to Gender
Gender Frequency Percent Male 17 28 female 43 72 TOTAL 60 100 As table 2
reveals the distribution according to gender it is obvious that femalerespondents
override the male with 43 out of 100 or 72% it justify that most enrolees in
CWTSprogram are female regardless of course and year level. Unlike the male who
has only 17 or28%.
Table 3
Distribution of Respondents According to Course Course Frequency Percent BSEd 8
13 BEEd 7 12 BSIE 3 5 BSHRM 7 12 BS Psycho 5 8 BS Bio 10 15 BS Tourism 5 8
BSBA 8 13 BSIT 2 3 BS Info 2 3 BSECE 1 2 BSEE 2 3 AT 1 2 TOTAL 60 100 In
respect to table 3 we can grasp that most enrolees are come from BS Bio with 10
or15%. Hence it can be noted that majority of drop outs comes from CAS
department it followsBSEd and BSBA (which is a new program of LSPU SPCC)
with 8 or 13%; BEEd and BSHRMare nest to the lead with 7 or 12%; BS Tourism
and BS Pscyho has 5 or 8%; 3 or 5% come fromBSIE; BSIT, BS info and BSEE has
2 or 3% and BSECE and AT has subdued to least with 1 or2%.

Table 4
Distribution of Respondents According to Year Level
Year Level Frequency Percent st 1 year 52 87 2nd year 3 5 rd 3 year 3 5 4th year 2
3 TOTAL 60 100 Table 4 shows the distribution according to the respondents level,
majority of it goes to1st year level with assurance that most freshmen thoroughly
enrol the NSTP program since theyare requiring to have a 3 units in this field;
followed by 2nd year and 3rd year level with 3 or 5%hence, the reasons behind are
lack of priority choices on NSTP (whether they choose CWTS orROTC) some says
their status is cross enrolled and still do not taking the prescribe units.(Kintaro,
200).
Table 5
Distribution of Respondents According to General Weighted Average
General Weighted Average Frequency Percent 1.0 1.5 18 30 1.51 - 2 6 10 2.99 2.5 12 20 2.6 - 3 19 32 3.9 - 5 3 5 TOTAL 60 100 Table 5 shows the distribution
with regards to their courses or career they had chosen. Itis lucid that most
respondents have an average of 2.6 3.0 with 19 or 32%; next grade ranges 1.0
1.5 with 18 or 30% it is obvious that one fourth of enrolees in CWTS perform in a
verysatisfactory level; 2.99 2.5 ranges the grade of 12 or 20 respondents; 6 or
10% stretch to 1.51 2.0 general weighted average; and lastly 3 or 5% of grade
ranges 3.9 5.0. The results imply that majority of the respondents befall the
weighted average from 3.0 2.6. this is supported by Ward (2010) that gaining 3
units in a such field do not necessarily fallout to a vey outstanding result. Hence,
capability of students dearly affects the learningconditions and the G.W.A. which is
not true score.

Table 6
Respondents Perception on Students Attitude as Factors Related to Drop Out

Indicators Standard Mean Remarks Deviation 1. Students are attentive in CWTS.


3.74 0.99 Agree 2. Students in CWTS follow the policies that made 3.75 0.98 Agree
by the coordinators. 3. students are accountable towards given tasks 3.45 0.87
Agree 4. Students of CWTS come to class early. 3.40 0.89 Uncertain 5. The
students act or follow their instructors if they 3.46 0.93 Agree meet their interest.
TOTAL 3.57 0.93 AgreeLegend:4.21 5.0 : Strongly Agree3.41 4.20 : Agree2.61
3.40 : Uncertain1.81 2.60 : Disagree1.0 1.80 : Strongly Disagree It appears
that in table 6 the respondents perception on how a students attitude has
arelationship related to drop out, moreover the second indicator has highest
weighted mean ( =3.75) that students in CWTS follow the policies made by the
coordinators and interpreted asAgree which seems the researcher positively
observed during data gathering procedure; and thetrough indicator is number 4
students of CWTS come to class early ( = 3.40) in which showsthe sluggishness
or tardiness of respondents during the class hours.
Table 7
Respondents Perception on Teachers Methodologies as Factors Related to
DropOut
Indicators Standard Mean Remarks Deviation 1. The instructors provide conducive
learning 3.35 0.87 Uncertain environment. 2. They assess the materials accordingly
(like test, 3.48 0.99 Agree community resources etc.) 3. Their teaching
methodologies are always 3.21 1.10 Uncertain sustainable to the needs of their
students. 4. The instructors discuss the lessons clearly. 3.38 0.97 Agree 5. The
instructors respect the ideas being held by 3.24 0.90 Uncertain their students.
TOTAL 3.33 0.97 UncertainLegend:4.21 5.0 : Strongly Agree3.41 4.20 :
Agree2.61 3.40 : Uncertain1.81 2.60 : Disagree1.0 1.80 : Strongly Disagree
Table 7 presents the respondents perception on teachers methodologies. The
instructorsprovide conducive learning environment having a mean of 3.35 and
interpreted as uncertain; theyassess the materials accordingly (like test, community
resources etc.) having a mean of 3.48;Their teaching methodologies are always
sustainable to the needs of their students with a mean of 3.21; The instructors

discuss the lessons clearly with a mean 3.38; The instructors respect theideas being
held by their students having a mean of 3.24.
Table 8
Respondents Perception on Programs Schedule as Factors Related to Drop Out
Indicators Standard Mean Remarks Deviation 1. The schedules are followed by the
students. 3.52 0.99 Agree 2. There is a need to change the schedule of class in
3.75 0.99 Agree CWTS. 3. Schedules strongly affect the behaviour of the 3.76 1.02
Agree students of CWTS. 4. All students of CWTS are accountable to their 3.29 1.00
Uncertain time management. Determining schedule of CWTS is rigid. 3.46 0.93
Agree TOTAL 3.56 0.99 AgreeLegend:4.21 5.0 : Strongly Agree3.41 4.20 :
Agree2.61 3.40 : Uncertain1.81 2.60 : Disagree1.0 1.80 : Strongly Disagree
Table 8 show the indicator the schedules are followed by the students ( = 3.52);
There isa need to change the schedule of class in CWTS ( = 3.75); Schedules
strongly affects thebehaviour of the students of CWTS ( = 3.76); All students of
CWTS are accountable to theirtime management ( = 3.29); Determining schedule
of CWTS is rigid ( = 3.46). This impliesthat schedule of the subject strongly affects
the respondents performance. As (Unel, 2003) reinforce that time strictly has
relationship on a person to put into act,maybe personal or disorganize
management.
Table 9
Correlation Between the Profile of the Respondents and Their Performance Variables
r - value p - value Interpretation Age .209 .020 Significant Gender .227 .011
Significant Course .124 .009 Significant Year level -.196 .029 SignificantLegend:p
>.05 - not significantp <.05 significant Table 9 shows the correlation between the
profile of the respondents and theirperformance during A.Y. 2010 2011. As we
notice all the variables for profile of therespondents are significant to their
academic performance, Age (p = 0.020), Gender (p = 0.011),
44. Course (p = 0.009), Year level (p = 0.029) since their p value is less than
0.05 level ofsignificance. The result implies that age, gender, the chosen course and

year level are determinants onhow a learner will perform academically. As reflected
by the study of Dacma (2003) studentperformance is affected by different factors
such as learning abilities because new paradigmabout learning assumes that all
students can and should learn at higher levels but it should not beconsidered as
constraint because there are other factors like race, gender, sex that can
affectstudents performance. (Hansen, Joe B.2000). Some of the researchers even
tried to explain thelink between students achievements, economic circumstances
and the risk of becoming a drop-out that proved to be positive (Goldman, N.,
Haney, W., and Koffler, S., 2002). Table 10 Correlation Between the Performance of
the Respondents and Factors - Related to CWTS Program Variables r - value p
value Interpretation Teachers .207 .115 Not Significant methodology Attitude .
296 .023 Significant Schedule .083 .527 Not significantLegend:p >.05 - not
significantp <.05 significant Table 10 shows the correlation between the
performance of the respondents and factors related to CWTS program and two
variables are exhibited to be not significant; teachersmethodologies (p = 0.115) &
schedule of the program with (p = 0.527). While attitude asperceived by the
respondents is significant to the performance since (p = 0.023) is less than the0.05
level of significance. As Coco (2004) supported that the mental pre - disposition is
thesummit on a person how perform and is strictly affecting the performance of
learners. Attitude as
45. a concept is concerned with an individual way of thinking, acting and behaving.
It has veryserious implications for the learner, the teacher, the immediate social
group with which theindividual learner relates and the entire school system.
Attitudes are formed as a result of somekind of learning experiences. They may
also be learned simply by following the example oropinion of parent, teacher or
friend. This is mimicry or imitation, which also has a part to play inthe teaching and
learning situation. In this respect, the learner draws from his teachersdisposition to
form his own attitude, which may likely affect his learning outcomes (Olicer,
2005pg. 24 45). In his observational theory, Bandura (1971) demonstrated that
behaviours areacquired by watching another (the model, teacher, parent, mentor,
friend) that performs thebehaviour. The model displays it and the learner observes
and tries to imitate it. Teachers are,invariably, role models whose behaviours are

easily copied by students. What teachers like ordislike, appreciate and how they
feel about their learning or studies could have a significanteffect on their students.
Unfortunately, however, many teachers seldom realize that how theyteach, how
they behave and how they interact with students can be more paramount than
whatthey teach. In a nutshell, teachers attitudes directly affect students attitudes.
Teachers attitudesare in turn, influenced by their culture and belief system.
Teachers attitudes towards theirstudents in school must be favourable enough to
carry students along. CHAPTER V SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions,
and recommendationsrelated to the factors related to drop out.
46. Summary This study aims to know the Factors related to drop outs and
performance of CWTSstudents in LSPU SPCC academic year 2010 - 2011.It
sought answers to the following questions. 11. What is the profile of the
respondents in terms of: 11.1 age; 11.2 gender; 11.3 course; 11.4 year level; and
11.5 general weighted average? 12. What is the level of performance of students
enrolled in CWTS during 2010 2011? 13. How do the respondents perceive the
factors related to the number of drop outs: 13.1 teachers methodologies; 13.2
attitude of students; and 13.3 schedule? 14. Is there a significant relationship
between the profile of the respondents and their performance? 15. Is there a
significant relationship between the performance of the respondents and factors
related to CWTS? 15.1 teachers methodologies; 15.2 attitude of students; and 15.3
Schedule?
47. Findings Majority of the respondents are in age of 17 with 28 or 47%; 43 or 72
are female; 10 or15% are taking BS Biology; and 52 or 87% are in 1st year level.
19 or 32% of the grade of the respondents ranges 2.6 3.0. Students attitude
(mean = 3.57) and Programs schedule (mean = 3.56) are interpreted asAgree.
While teachers methodologies (mean = 3.33) is interpreted as uncertain. The
person related factors resulted as significant to the level of performance
ofrespondents. The performance of the respondents is not significant to the CWTS
related variables.Conclusion 5. The hypothesis that There is no significant
relationship between the profile of the respondents and their performance is

Rejected. 6. The hypothesis that There is no significant relationship between the


performance of students and factors related to CWTS program is
AcceptedRecommendations 5. Teachers methodologies must utilized students
centred since CWTSs program has a vast number of learners. 6. Students must be
accountable on following the programs schedule and equip their own time
management.
48. 7. Institutions should promote collaborative training as early as possible so that
it will culminate the attitude of learners towards community service. 8. Researchers
must extend their scope on the performance of students in such area of learning,
especially in community subject. BIBLIOGRAPHYCensus 2000 summary file 1-4United States. (2002). U.S. Census Bureau, Washington D.C.Census 2000 summary
file 1-4 technical documentation. (2002). U.S. Census Bureau, Washington
D.C.Colorado 4-H youth development handbook. (2003). State 4-H Program Office,
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, C.O.The condition of education 2003, NCES
2003?067. (2003). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education
Statistics, Washington, D.C.Curtin, T.R., Ingels, S.J., Wu, S., & Heuer, R. (2002).
National education longitudinal study of 1988: Base-year to fourth follow-up data
file users manual (NCES 2002-323). Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics, Washington, D.C.Dropout data. (1999-2003). Colorado
Department of Education, Denver, C.O. Available at:
http://www.cde.state.co.usIngels, S.J., Curtin, T.R., Kaufman, P., Alt, M.N., and
Chen, X. (2002). Coming of Age in the 1990s: The Eighth-Grade Class of 1988 12
Years Later. (NCES 2002?321). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics, Washington D.C.Snyder, H. N., & Sickmund. M. (1995).
Juvenile offenders and victims: A national report. Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention, Washington,
D.C.www.researchlib.comwww.yahoo.comwww.google.ph.com
49. www.censusUS.comwww.indED.comwww.skills-measure.com APPENDIX A
Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus San Pablo CityDear
Respondents, GREETINGS! I am undertaking a research study entitled Factors
Related to CWTSprogram and the number of drop outs in CWTS Academic Year

2010. as a course requirementto my subject research. In view here of, I


respectfully choose you as one of my respondents toanswer the following questions
for the completion of study. Please provide me your honest response. Rest assures
that will be treated with utmostconfidentiality. Thank you for your
cooperation.Respectfully yours,Carandang, Elaine Rose P.The Researcher
50. APPENDIX BPART I : Profile of the respondentsDirection : Please fill-up the
needed information on the blank provided.Name:_____________________
(optional)Age:_______Gender: ___Course: ____________Year Level:
_________General weighted average or performance: _______PART II. The
Perception of the respondents Direction: Based on your observation, indicate your
response to the following regardingthe factors related to CWTS program and the
number of drop-outs of CWTS students by puttinga (/) mark according to the rating
scale provided. 5 ------------- Strongly Agree 4 ------------- Agree 3 ------------Uncertain 2 ------------- Disagree 1 ------------- Strongly Disagree A. Attitude of
students 5 4 3 2 1 6. Students are attentive in CWTS. 7. Students in CWTS follow
the policies that made by the
51. coordinators.8. students are accountable towards given tasks9. Students of
CWTS come to class early.10. The students act or follow their instructors if they
meet their interest.B. Teacher methodologies 5 4 3 2 1 1. The instructors provide
conducive learning environment. 2. They assess the materials accordingly (like test,
community resources etc.) 3. Their teaching methodologies are always sustainable
to the needs of their students. 4. The instructors discuss the lessons clearly. 5. The
instructors respect the ideas being held by their studentsC. Schedule 5 4 3 2 1 1.
The schedules are followed by the students. 2. The is a need to change the
schedule of class in CWTS. 3. Schedules strongly affects the behaviour of the
students of CWTS. 4. All students of CWTS are accountable to their time
management. 5. Determining schedule of CWTS is rigid Thank you for your
cooperation!