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# Denavit-Hartenberg Practice Laboratory

During this laboratory each engineering team will analysis motion in and then develop
the full kinematic model for the 4-Axis cylindrical robot and the 5-Axis indirect-drive
articulating robot in our laboratory. To achieve this goal, each person will be required to
develop the frame skeletons, link-parameter tables, Ai matrices and forward kinematic
solutions (in the most efficient form) for both of these machines.
As an add on, try to develop the inverse kinematic solution for the 4-Axis cylindrical
robot.
Some Thoughts on D-H Modeling:
performing physical verifications of each Ai matrix as well as the completed forward
kinematic solution (Tno). When these proposed solutions are examined, do they appear to
Could they be implemented in the controllers to drive the robots? How and where would
they be used? What modifications would be needed?
As you review your inclass work, analyze and explain each step that is being performed
consider the acceptability of the procedure and the accuracy of the methods used.

## The D-H Modeling Rules:

1) Locate & Label the Joint Axes: Z0 to Zn-1
2) Establish the Base Frame. Set Base Origin anywhere on the Z0 axis. Choose X0
and Y0 conveniently and to form a right hand frame.
Repeat Steps 3 to 5 for i= 1 through n-1:
3) Locate the origin Oi where the common normal to Zi-1 and Zi intersects Zi. If Zi
intersects Zi-1 locate Oi at this intersection. If Zi-1 and Zi are parallel, locate Oi
at Joint i+1
4) Establish Xi along the common normal between Zi-1 and Zi through Oi, or in the
direction Normal to the plane Zi-1 Zi if these axes intersect
5) Establish Yi to form a right hand system
if i < n-1 repeat 3 to 5
_______________________________________________________________
6) Establish the End-Effector (n) frame: OnXnYnZn. Assuming the n-th joint is
revolute, set kn = a along the direction Zn-1. Establish the origin On conveniently
along Zn, at center of gripper or tool tip. Set jn = o in the direction of gripper
closure (opening) and set in = n such that n=oxa. Note if tool is not a simple
gripper, set Xn and Yn conveniently to form a right hand frame.
7)

## Create a table of Link parameters:

qi as angle about Zi-1 between Xs

## di as distance along Zi-1

qi as angle about Xi between Zs
ai as distance along Xi

## Form HTM matrices A , A , A by substituting q, d, q and a into the general

1 2
n
model
n
Form T = A *A **A
9)
0
1 2
n
8)

## Denavit Hartenberg Modeling Issues

1. Find and identify all Joint Axes, both revolute and prismatic.
2. Assign ZI-1 to each of these axes starting with Joint 1 as Z0.
3. Examine Model and REASON out a best Kinematic Home.
Best Kinematic Home is for Revolute Joints where XI-1 and XI are Parallel -(not an issue for Prismatic Joints!)
4. If it is possible, Rotate about ZI-1s to align XIs.
5. Follow the Algorthimic steps to complete all model frames.
6. Note: in a perfect model, the Number of Frames is number of Joints + 1 (0 to n).
However, more frames may be needed to account for fixed angles and/or lengths.
7. Once complete Frame Skeleton is constructed, develop a Link Parameter (LP)
Table. Each row represents the transformations between consecutive Frames in the
model: 001, 1-2, etc.
8. Build AI Matrices from the information contained in each row of the LP Table.
9. Build Forward Kinematic Solution: A1*A2* *An. Note, consider the angular issues
due to parallel joint axes during construction.

## Doing the D-H Model of Robotic Linkages

1. Locate the Joint Axes These become the Z0, Z1, Zn-1 directions
2. Determine Kinematic Home this is critically important for Revolute Joint, not
so important for Prismatic Joints
3. Work through with Ois and Xis Remembering that Xi is perpendicular to and
intersecting Zi-1
-- this allows for measurable Is and Is (so we may need Dummy Frames)
4. Add Yis to form right hand systems this is critically important for prismatic
joints
5. Build Link Parameter Table as you go check that they make sense
6. Build Ais as you go do a physical verification to see if they make sense,
-- remember that the Ais are the Transformations from Frame 0 to 1, 1 to 2,
and ending with n-1 to n
7. Build the Forward Kinematic Solution (FKS) = A1 * * An
write as a Table and perform Physical Verification