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RAINFALL INDUCED LANDSLIDES IN KAGUUCHI AREA, OOTY, THE NILGIRIS DISTRICT

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

KARTHIKKUMAR K

SARAVANAN S

SATHISH KUMAR R

SHANKAR PR

01110111039

01110111090

01110111091

01110111096

In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree

of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

in

CIVIL ENGINEERING

the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING in CIVIL ENGINEERING BHARATHIDASAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ANNA UNIVERSITY,

BHARATHIDASAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

ANNA UNIVERSITY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI-620024

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600025

APRIL 2014

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ANNA UNIVERSITY : CHENNAI 600 025

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “RAINFALL INDUCED LANDSLIDES IN KAGUUCHI AREA, OOTY, THE NILGIRIS DISTRICTis the bonafide work of “KATHIKKUMAR M (01110111039), SARAVANAN S (011101111090), SATHISH KUMAR R (01110111091), SHANKAR PR (01110111096) who carried out the project work under my supervision.

Dr.R.ILANGOVAN

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

Department of Civil Engineering

Bharathidasan Institute of Technology

Anna university- Tiruchirappalli.

Examined on:

INTERNAL EXAMINER

Mr.N.ILAVARASAN

ASST.PROFESSOR

Department of Civil Engineering

Bharathidasan Institute of Technology

Anna university- Tiruchirappalli.

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

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DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the work entitled “RAINFALL INDUCED LANDSLIDES IN KAGUUCHI AREA, OOTY, THE NILGIRIS DISTRICTis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree B.E. Civil Engineering, to Bharathidasan Institute of Technology, Anna University , Tiruchirappalli, is a record of our own work carried out by us during the academic year 2013 2014 under the supervision and guidance of Assistant Professor, Mr.N.ILAVARASAN, Department of Civil Engineering, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli. The extent and source of information are derived from the existing literature and have been indicated through dissertation at the appropriate places. The matter embodied in this work is original and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree or diploma, either in this or any other University.

KARTHIKKUMAR M(01110111039)

SATHISH KUMAR R(01110111091)

SARAVANAN S(01110111090)

SHANKAR PR(01110111096)

I certify that the declaration made above by the candidates is true.

Mr.N.ILAVARASAN, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli.

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ACNOWLEDGEMENT

We wish to thank our honourable HOD Dr. R. ILANGOVAN, Department of Civil Engineering, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli, for providing us opportunity to do our project work.

We wish to thank Project coordinator Dr. G. VENKATESAN, Associate professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli for giving his golden guidance.

We express our hearty gratitude to our project guide Mr. N. ILAVARASAN, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli for giving his valuable guidance.

We wish to express our gratitude to the officials and other staff members of our department who rendered their help during the period of our project work. Last but not least we wish to avail ourselves of this opportunity, express a sense of gratitude and love to our friends and our beloved parents for their manual support, strength, and help for everything.

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ABSTRACT

Kaguuchi is known as one of the most landslide prone areas in Nilgiri district,

Tamil

Nadu.

The

area

has

been

constantly

hit

by

landslide

hazards

since1990’s.This project provides an insight in to the mechanism of rainfall-

induced landslide in the Kaguuchi area. The rainfall patterns prior to the

occurrences of three selected case studies were first analyzed. The results

showed that daily rainfall could not be used for predicting the landslides in

Kaguuchi. The landslide predictions should incorporate the rainfalls of long

durations .i.e. 3 to 30 days prior to the landslides. The numerical simulation on

a selected case study demonstrated that both the matric suction and factor of

safety decreased steadily over time until they reached the lowest values on the

day of landslide occurrence. Based on 5 historical rainfall induced landslides

that had occurred in the area, three rainfall thresholds were developed as

attempts to predict the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslide. The rainfall

intensityduration threshold developed based on the local rainfall conditions

provided

a

reasonably

good

prediction

to

the

landslide

occurrence.

The

cumulative 3-day versus 30-dayrainfall threshold chart was capable of giving

the most reliable prediction with the limiting threshold line for major landslide

yielded a reliability of 97.5%.

Keywords: Landslide Prediction, Arc-GIS, Nilgiri Platue, AMC.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

ABSTRACT

V

LIST OF TABLES

IX

LIST OF FIGURES

X

LIST OF SYMBOLS

XI

1.

INTRODUCTION

1

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

1

1.2 SCOPE OF STUDY

2

1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT

3

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

3

1.5 ORIENTATION OF THESIS

3

1.6 PROJECT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

4

2.

LITERATURE REVIEW

5

2.1 GENERAL

5

2.2 LANDSLIDE PROBLEM IN

5

NILGIRIS

2.3 FACTORS CAUSING LANDSLIDE

6

2.4 MECHANISM OF RAINFALL

7

INDUCED LANDSLIDES

vi

 

2.5 EMPRICAL RAINFALL THREHOLD FOR PREDICTING LANDSLIDES

 

8

3.

STUDY AREA

15

3.1

ADMINISTRATIVE DETAILS

15

3.2 SEASONAL CONDITION AND RAINFALL

 

15

3.3 RAINFALL AND CLIMATE

16

3.4 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND SOIL TYPES 17

3.5 LANDSLIDE PROFILE

 

17

4.

METHODOLOGY

25

4.1 INTRODUCTION

25

4.2 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

25

4.3 DATA COLLECTION

27

4.4 RAINFALL PATTERN ANALYSIS

36

4.5 NUMERICAL SIMULATION

37

4.6 DEVELOPMENTOF RAINFALL THRESHOLD CHART

38

4.7 VERIFICATION

 

38

5.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

39

5.1 INTRODUCTION

39

5.2 OVERVIEW OF THE LANDSLIDE CASES IN KAGUUCHI

 

39

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5.3 IMPORTANCE OF CORRELATING LANDSLIDE OCCURENCES IN KAGUUCHI WITH RAINFALL

40

5.4 GEOLOGICAL PROFILE AND SOIL PROPERTIES

42

5.5 RAINFALL PATTERN ANALYSIS FOR SELECTED CASE STUDIES

43

5.6 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A SELECTED CASE STUDY

45

5.7 EMPRICAL RAINFALL THRESHOLD CHART

46

5.8 DISCUSSIONS

49

6.

CONCLUSION

52

REFERENCES

53

viii

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE

TITLE

PAGE NO

4.1

Land Use capability classification map

31

4.2

Assessment of Surface Runoff Potential

32

4.3

Month-wise cumulative runoff for 2008

33

4.4

Month-wise cumulative runoff for 2009

34

4.5

Major Historical Landslides in Nilgiris

36

4.6

Soil properties data of Kaguuchi slope

37

5.1

Typical Soil Properties at Kaguuchi

42

5.2

Typical infiltration rate of different type

of soil at Kaguuchi

43

5.3

Verification results of the proposed

Cumulative 3-day Rainfall-

Cumulative

49

30-day Rainfall (E 3 -E 30 ) Threshold chart

ix

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE

TITLE

PAGE NO

1.1

Location of Kaguuchi Area, Ooty,

1

The Nilgiris

2.1

An Overview of Mechanism of Rainfall-

7

Induced Landslide

2.2

Cumulative 3-day and previous 15-day Rainfall

11

Threshold (CT) (Chleborad, 2000, 2003).

3.1

Land Use Pattern map of Kaguuchi Village

21

3.2

Soil Map of Kaguuchi Village

22

3.3

Geology Map of Kaguuchi Village

23

3.4

Geomorphology Map of Kaguuchi Village

24

4.1

Research Framework Methodology

26

4.2

Location of nearest Rain Gauge Station

27

for Study Area

4.3

Monthly Runoff for 2008

35

4.4

Monthly Runoff for 2009

35

5.1

Daily Rainfall Chart for Oct 2008

40

5.2

Correlation between Monthly and Moving

41

average Rainfall for 2008

5.3

Annual Rainfall over Kaguuchi area from

44

2001-2010

5.4

Changes of Factor of Safety(FOS) Over Time

46

5.5

Cummulative 30 day Rainfall Chart

48

x

LIST OF SYMBOLS/ABBREVIATIONS

(E 30 N)

(E 3 E 30 )

Cumulative30-dayrainfall Number of rainy day threshold chart

Cumulative3-dayrainfallCumulative30-dayrainfallthreshold

chart

D Duration of the rainfall event (h)

K Empirical parameter (typical valuerangebetween0.8and0.9)

FOS

(ID) 3

MAP

AMC

I Rainfall intensity, mm/h

φ b

c

σ'

φ'

α

Factor of Safety

IntensityDurationof3-dayrainfall threshold chart

Mean Annual Precipitation

Antecedent Moisture Condition

Angle of frictional resistance Effective cohesion Effective normal stress Effective friction angle

Intercept

K sat

Τ f

Β

γ

σ s

Saturated permeability Shear stress at failure

Slope of the power lowcurve Soil unit weight

Suction stress

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