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UNIVERSIDADE

CATLICA PORTUGUESA
FACULDADE DE CINCIAS HUMANAS






Curso de Comunicao Social e Cultural



LNGUA INGLESA II








Selected Material

Ana Arago Morais
Helena Fonseca
Jane Duarte
Rita Freire Faria

Centro de Publicaes
2015/2016

1. Unidade curricular / Curricular Unit

Lngua Inglesa II/ English II

2. Designao do Ciclo de Estudos em que se insere a Unidade Curricular (com semestre e ano lectivo)
Study cycle to which the curricular unit belongs (with academic semester and school year)

Licenciatura em Comunicao Social e Cultural / 2. Semestre / 2015-2016


nd
BA in Media and Cultural Communication / 2 Semester / 2015-2016

3. Docente responsvel e respectiva carga lectiva na unidade curricular (nome completo)


Academic staff member responsible for the course and lecturing load in the curricular unit (full name)

Ana Arago Morais (90 horas)


Rita Faria (45 horas)
Jane Duarte (45 horas)
Helena Fonseca (45 horas)
5. Objectivos de aprendizagem (conhecimentos, aptides e competncias a desenvolver pelos estudantes)

Learning outcomes of the curricular unit

Objectives (B2.2 - independent speaker level 2 according to the Common European Framework):
1. To build on students existing knowledge of English, vocabulary, reading and writing skills.
2. To develop students presentation skills in English on a wide range of current affairs themes.
3. To further develop students ability to express opinions on a range of topics, including specific training in
the art of producing argumentative texts and to read articles concerned with contemporary problems.
4. To encourage students to use English both receptively and productively and to further extend their
command of relevant vocabulary.

Syllabus

The course will deal with a number of media and culture-related themes, including, in particular:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Current Affairs
War Reporting
Film
Advertising

Grammar:
5. Passive voice
6. Reported Speech
7. Conditionals (including mixed conditionals)

7. Metodologia de ensino (avaliao includa)


Teaching methodologies (including evaluation)

(1000 caracteres com espaos)

Ensino:
A communicative approach which involves the integration of different language skills will be used
throughout the course, so as to make authentic and meaningful communication the goal of classroom
activities. Learners are guided to make English language learning a process of creative construction
which involves trial and error as well as accuracy and proficiency. Exercises will include enhancing
students awareness towards the use of register in different formal and informal contexts in both written
and oral production.
Avaliao:
The system of evaluation used is continuous assessment. This is divided up as follows:

Grammar and Vocabulary Test: 25%


Speaking Test: 25%
Final Test: 40%
Classwork: 10%

8. Bibliografia principal
Main bibliography


O aluno dever adquirir / Students will be required to buy:
VINCE, Michael (2003), First Certificate Language Practice, Macmillan
Dicionrio monolingue Ingls - Ingls (edies advanced Cambridge ou Oxford) / An English-English
dictionary (any Cambridge or Oxford advanced editions)
Antologia de textos e materiais da disciplina de Lngua Inglesa I / The course anthology
Sugerem-se as seguintes fontes (no exclusivas) /Other sources include:
Canais de televiso em ingls, nomeadamente / English television channels, including:
CNN, Sky News, BBC World
Websites em ingls, tais como / Websites in English, such as:
www.bbc.co.uk
www.cnn.com
www.theguardian.co.uk
www.telegraph.co.uk
www.nytimes.com
www.washingtonpost.com
www.time.com
www.newsweek.com
Outros jornais e revistas de lngua inglesa, on-line e off-line / Other English language newspapers and
magazines, available both on and offline.

WAR REPORTING

KATE ADIE - A WOMAN REPORTER


Question: What is it like to be a woman reporter in a war zone?
Kate Adie: I never desired to go into war zones. I never had any thoughts about it. It sort of just happened as
part of the job. I don't find an advantage or disadvantage in being a woman when reporting. What little advantages
there might be in some instances are cancelled out by the basic lack of lavatories round the world for women. It
may seem trivial but when you're in a frontline unit with 2,000 men in the desert in Saudi Arabia which is flat and
has no sand dunes, no trees and no bushes, there were a number of practical difficulties to say the least. It's just
the little practical things that I find a problem. On the other hand, I find that if you work as a reporter, it's not just
war zones where you'll notice there are men in the majority. You go to a political conference, an economic summit,
a big sports event and it's still very much a man's world. So I don't find reporting in wars so different and, never
forget, (how could anybody) - and I think some people do - that in a war 50% of the population are women and
they are living through it. Just because many of them are not in the armed forces does not mean that they're not
experiencing the war as intensely and in some cases more so than men. War zones are full of women.
Question: Do you find that you are still shocked and angered by some of the events that you report
on or do you feel that you have become used to the pressure? What is your method of coping with such
situations?
Kate Adie. I certainly still am shocked, I'm horrified by some things I see, I'm moved by other things,, I'm
surprised, I'm amused, I'm overjoyed. I have all the range of emotions I hope that anyone would feel when you see
extraordinary events unfold in front of you. I don't think anybody can report well if they in any way begin to
abandon their sensitivity to what people undergo. You have to be somebody who understands what people's
emotions are. You have to be somebody who reacts to them. I don't think you can report very well if you're as
numb as a scone, if you're dead in your senses then you won't be able to report properly and fully what people are
going through. I don't think it happens to many. I think if you have to witness things they still strike you years into
the work, years into the job. They still strike you with great force. I stood on the deck of a cruise missile carrier
some weeks ago, for the first night of the attacks. It was terrifying. It was physically terrifying - a huge rocket
screaming out in front of us, just clouds away, in the dark, and the sense that it's a death-dealing weapon. It's
terrifying to contemplate. And then you've seen all the pictures of the refugees. If you don't react to that, if you
don't have your feelings about you, you shouldn't be reporting.
Question: As a journalist how difficult is it to report the truth during wartime? Is truth the first
casualty of war?
Kate Adie: That's the great saying. And it is a great saying because in itself it holds much truth. War is
fought not only with soldiers and with weapons, but with ideas, with words, with propaganda, with lies, with images,
with tales, with gossip, with deception. All these are part of the armoury of war and every side indulges in them every side. So a reporter knows that at the moment the dogs of war are unleashed, that their baying will drown a
lot of the straightforward cool words of facts. On top of that you have to remember that all countries throughout the
world, if they're attacked, expect their journalists to be as patriotic as they are. If they're not being attacked, if
they're attacking someone else, they will also expect loyalty. The readers of newspapers, the viewers of television,
the listeners to radio, will expect the reporters to be at least loyal, if not determinedly patriotic. If you're involved in
someone else's war at a distance then again there are still issues about support being positive. All of these are
very worrying for journalists. They all bring up huge questions of being less than truthful, of being the voice piece,
the mouthpiece of a government, of being the advocate of a certain number of people in uniform. It's very, very
difficult. On top of that, having examined your own conscience, which you must do regularly, you then have to
consider if your words in a war, even if they're true and honest, might not result in someone's death inadvertently
That's the biggest worry for journalists on a personal level. By saying, going down a road, I have seen a group of
soldiers heading for a village, you broadcast that and they are attacked by people who hear your broadcast and
had not realised they were coming down the road. You have to examine your conscience as a journalist during war
many more times than you would at other times and it's not easy and you have to work out a set of values and
principles that you stick to.

The Life of a War Correspondent Is Even Worse Than You Think


DASHIELL BENNETT, UL 10, 2013 2:24PM ET
Reporting from war zones has always been a dicey proposition, but the last few years of covering
conflicts have become a particularly dark and depressing time for journalists in conflicts. Two recent
articles on the subject paint a rather bleak picture of a profession where death is ever present and glory is
the only reward.
One is by Ed Ceaser in British GQ and another published just last week in Columbia Journalism
Review, is by Francesca Borri, an Italian freelancer covering the war Syria. Though they were
written independently by (and about) reporters from two countries with two different backgrounds, the
stories they tell are remarkably the same: The motivations for going into war zones, the dangers, the
shoddy treatment from their own bosses back home, and ultimately the conclusion that war reporting has
never been more dangerous or more thankless.
According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, 2012 was one of the worst years on record for
journalist killed in the line of duty. Most were in Syria, where working press have received almost no
protection, and according to one report (quoted in Caesar's story) have been deliberately sent into harm's
way (to make the other side look bad for killing unarmed reporters.)
Both articles recount the myriad reasons why journalists are no longer safe covering conflicts, and it
isn't just because the combatants have become more ruthless. (Veterans say the Bosnia war in the 1990s
changed the idea that journalists should be off-limits as targets.) Most media outlets can't afford full-time
war correspondents, so they rely on freelancers who make less money and receive no benefits like expense
accounts, security, or insurance. Because the pay is so poor, those freelancers are forced to take extra risks,
like not hiring a translator or staying in a cheaper hotel. As Borri writes: "If you happen to be seriously
wounded, there is a temptation to hope not to survive, because you cannot afford to be wounded."
New technology also means that anyone with a plane ticket and a phone can be a freelancer. ("War
tourism" has become a real phenomenon in Syria.) That means more competition for storiesand lower
wagesbut also more reporters who don't really know what they're doing. They take greater risks because
they don't know any better.
Yet, even veteran journalists keep going back because they're drawn to the big moment. They all
seem to agree that the glory and fame that come with a big story are usually stronger motivators than the
story itself. Reporters are told that they are crazy to be there, but then get rewarded (with actual journalism
awards) for inserting themselves into the "bang bang" of frontline dangers.
They also understand the perverse truth that conflicts like Syria get more attention back home when
the reporters themselves get hurt, or kidnapped, or even killed. No matter how many times they report on
battles and casualty figures, its the story of the reporter dodging bullets that grabs readers' attention. Caesar
even retells the (possible) urban legend of an editor telegramming a reporter to regretfully ask, "Why you
unshot."
One of the most talked about stories from the whole Syria war was the death of reporter Marie
Colvin and photographer Remi Ochlik. Their injured or kidnapped colleagues also make headlines back
home. Richard Engel's story of his own kidnapping is almost certainly his most talked about, and their are
many other reporters still hoping to be rescued. Even the post you're reading now is proof that it's personal
stories that drive interest in the larger conflict.
The most remarkable thing about war reporting is that anyone does it all, and that despite the sad
tales recounted here, it isn't going away. Even though Caesar's story reveals that one of the celebrated war
reporters of his generation, Sebastian Junger, has vowed never to cover a war again, most will go back.
Borri's essay is a litany of her own fears and the indignities suffered from colleagues, yet she doesn't seem

ready to give it up. Even as she laments that all her efforts may have been for nothing:
"The truth is, we are failures. Two years on, our readers barely remember where Damascus is, and
the world instinctively describes whats happening in Syria as that mayhem, because nobody
understands anything about Syriaonly blood, blood, blood."

Marie Colvin: 'Our mission is to report these horrors of war with


accuracy and without prejudice'
Marie Colvin, Wednesday 22 February 2012
.

Marie Colvin, who died in Homs, Syria, gives an


address during a service for war wounded at St
Bride's church, London.

Your Royal Highness, ladies and gentlemen, I am honoured and humbled to be speaking to you at this
service tonight to remember the journalists and their support staff who gave their lives to report from the
war zones of the 21st century. I have been a war correspondent for most of my professional life. It has
always been a hard calling. But the need for frontline, objective reporting has never been more
compelling.
Covering a war means going to places torn by chaos, destruction and death, and trying to bear witness. It
means trying to find the truth in a sandstorm of propaganda when armies, tribes or terrorists clash. And yes,
it means taking risks, not just for yourself but often for the people who work closely with you.
Despite all the videos you see from the Ministry of Defence or the Pentagon, and all the sanitised language
describing smart bombs and pinpoint strikes, the scene on the ground has remained remarkably the same for
hundreds of years. Craters. Burned houses. Mutilated bodies. Women weeping for children and husbands.
Men for their wives, mothers children.
Our mission is to report these horrors of war with accuracy and without prejudice. We always have to ask
ourselves whether the level of risk is worth the story. What is bravery, and what is bravado?
Journalists covering combat shoulder great responsibilities and face difficult choices. Sometimes they pay
the ultimate price. Tonight we honour the 49 journalists and support staff who were killed bringing the
news to our shores. We also remember journalists around the world who have been wounded, maimed or
kidnapped and held hostage for months. It has never been more dangerous to be a war correspondent,
because the journalist in the combat zone has become a prime target.
I lost my eye in an ambush in the Sri Lankan civil war. I had gone to the northern Tamil area from which

journalists were banned and found an unreported humanitarian disaster. As I was smuggled back across the
internal border, a soldier launched a grenade at me and the shrapnel sliced into my face and chest. He knew
what he was doing.
Just last week, I had a coffee in Afghanistan with a photographer friend, Joao Silva. We talked about the
terror one feels and must contain when patrolling on an embed with the armed forces through fields and
villages in Afghanistan putting one foot in front of the other, steeling yourself each step for the blast.
The expectation of that blast is the stuff of nightmares. Two days after our meeting, Joao stepped on a mine
and lost both legs at the knee.
yourselves now, is it worth the cost in lives, heartbreak, loss? Can we really make a difference?
I faced that question when I was injured. In fact one paper ran a headline saying, has Marie Colvin gone too
far this time? My answer then, and now, was that it is worth it.
Today in this church are friends, colleagues and families who know exactly what I am talking about, and
bear the cost of those experiences, as do their families and loved ones.
Today we must also remember how important it is that news organisations continue to invest in sending us
out at great cost, both financial and emotional, to cover stories.
We go to remote war zones to report what is happening. The public have a right to know what our
government, and our armed forces, are doing in our name. Our mission is to speak the truth to power. We
send home that first rough draft of history. We can and do make a difference in exposing the horrors of war
and especially the atrocities that befall civilians.
The history of our profession is one to be proud of. The first war correspondent in the modern era was
William Howard Russell of the Times, who was sent to cover the Crimean conflict when a British-led
coalition fought an invading Russian army.
Billy Russell, as the troops called him, created a firestorm of public indignation back home by revealing
inadequate equipment, scandalous treatment of the wounded, especially when they were repatriated does
this sound familiar? and an incompetent high command that led to the folly of the Charge of the Light
Brigade. It was a breakthrough in war reporting. Until then, wars were reported by junior officers who sent
back dispatches to newspapers. Billy Russell went to war with an open mind, a telescope, a notebook and a
bottle of brandy. I first went to war with a typewriter, and learned to tap out a telex tape. It could take days
to get from the front to a telephone or telex machine.
War reporting has changed greatly in just the last few years. Now we go to war with a satellite phone,
laptop, video camera and a flak jacket. I point my satellite phone to south southwest in Afghanistan, press a
button and I have filed.
In an age of 24/7 rolling news, blogs and Twitters, we are on constant call wherever we are. But war
reporting is still essentially the same someone has to go there and see what is happening. You can't get
that information without going to places where people are being shot at, and others are shooting at you. The
real difficulty is having enough faith in humanity to believe that enough people be they government,
military or the man on the street, will care when your file reaches the printed page, the website or the TV
screen.
We do have that faith because we believe we do make a difference. And we could not make that difference

or begin to do our job without the fixers, drivers and translators, who face the same risks and die in
appalling numbers. Today we honour them as much as the front line journalists who have died in pursuit of
the truth. They have kept the faith as we who remain must continue to do.
This is the text of a speech Marie Colvin gave at St Bride's church, Fleet Street, London on November 10,
2010

Citizen journalists: a new kind of war reporting


By Ombline LUCAS
In todays 24-7 satellite news cycle, citizen journalists have become indispensable
sources for breaking news from conflict zones. They often take great risks to expose
the realities of war. But what ethics govern this fast-growing field of journalism?
How is their work protected under the rules of war?
An airline employee living in Damascus, Fadiyah El Amin* has long dreamed of becoming a
journalist. "Unfortunately, life decided otherwise," she laments.
But when the Arab Spring uprisings spread to Syria in March 2011, the 25-year-old revived
her love for journalism by creating a Facebook group with four friends to try to report on
events more clearly.
"Because of the lack of information, nobody really knew what was happening, she says. The
best way to know the truth was to contact trustworthy people who lived in the hot spots of
the country."
This enterprising citizen journalist went on to become director of "Akhbar al-Shabab Surya," a
social media network that claims over 12,000 members, and which functions somewhat like a
participatory news agency: each member can publish available information, while others are
free to confirm or disprove the facts as presented.
An explosion in Aleppo? The event is reported, verified or disproved quickly online. A convoy
of Syrian troops spotted on the outskirts of Deraa? The information only has value if it is
validated by several members, El Amin says.
"There are some rules, El Amin says. Members must indicate what their source is: are they
witnesses or do they rely on things seen on social networks? Above all, we do not accept
opinions or commentaries, unless they provide additional information."
This is just one example of how grassroots social media news groups, bloggers, tweeters are
changing the shape of conflict reporting. In Syria, which has remained a perilous assignment
for all journalists, social media has played a major role with major global networks routinely
rebroadcast cell phone video footage posted by bloggers, activists and citizen journalists
representing all sides of the conflict.
This phenomenon raises difficult questions for professional journalists and media outlets, who
must judge whether information is credible. It also poses questions in terms of rules of war.
Do these emerging journalists deserve the protection, respect and support from international

media groups due to the importance of their reporting? Or does the quasi-activist nature of
some of their work muddy the water, undermining journalistic independence and making war
reporting more dangerous for all media workers?
For mainstream broadcasters such as Tania Mehanna, a reporter with the Lebanese
Broadcasting Corporation, online citizen journalism is sometimes given too much credibility by
networks eager for a scoop. They run great risk of being manipulated if they rely on footage
that they cannot verify.
On the other hand, these social media reporters are not only holding government troops and
armed groups accountable for their actions, but making mainstream, traditional media more
accountable as well. Things cannot be so easily ignored, she notes.
To make her point, she compares the media attention to civilian deaths during the current
Syrian conflict, to the scarce media coverage of a massacre in 1982 in the Syrian city of
Hama. This city was almost wiped out, completely destroyed, she said. But we didnt have
any reporting about that. Now because of the current violence, the media is talking about it,
but before that, no one outside knew about it.
But for conflict reporting to be effective, and get the attention it deserves, it must be credible.
This is why Akhbar al-Shabab Surya claims to strive for a more fact-based journalistic stance.
Meanwhile, the range of opinion and point-of-view on the conflict is diverse with progovernment and pro-revolution bloggers posting actively.
Do these emerging journalists deserve the protection, respect and support from international
media groups due to the importance of their reporting? Or does the quasi-activist nature of
some of their work muddy the water, undermining journalistic independence and making war
reporting more dangerous for all media workers?
For mainstream broadcasters such as Tania Mehanna, a reporter with the Lebanese
Broadcasting Corporation, online citizen journalism is sometimes given too much credibility by
networks eager for a scoop. They run great risk of being manipulated if they rely on footage
that they cannot verify.
On the other hand, these social media reporters are not only holding government troops and
armed groups accountable for their actions, but making mainstream, traditional media more
accountable as well. Things cannot be so easily ignored, she notes.
To make her point, she compares the media attention to civilian deaths during the current
Syrian conflict, to the scarce media coverage of a massacre in 1982 in the Syrian city of
Hama. This city was almost wiped out, completely destroyed, she said. But we didnt have
any reporting about that. Now because of the current violence, the media is talking about it,
but before that, no one outside knew about it.
But for conflict reporting to be effective, and get the attention it deserves, it must be credible.
This is why Akhbar al-Shabab Surya claims to strive for a more fact-based journalistic stance.
Meanwhile, the range of opinion and point-of-view on the conflict is diverse with progovernment and pro-revolution bloggers posting actively.
Other online bloggers and reporters see themselves as activists first and news providers
second. Indeed, the line between activism and journalism is sometimes thin.
Blogger Amer Al-Sadeq* crossed it unwittingly in 2009, when he saw someone being beaten
in the street. "Had I wanted to become a journalist, I would have contented myself with

10

recording the scene from my balcony, says Amer. But I went down. My camera was not
even on, I just wanted to help that person and for the police to stop the clubbing."
Since then, the Syrian revolt has raged on and Sadeq has given dozens of interviews to news
agencies around the world: Al Jazeera, France 24, BBC or CNN. "I consider myself to be more
of an activist than a journalist, says Sadeq, a founding member of the online Syrian
Revolution Coordinators Union. The result is sometimes the same, but an activist does not
just report facts: he takes concrete actions to change things."
While journalists debate the role of citizen journalists in reporting the news, their status in
terms of international humanitarian law (IHL) is fairly clear: they are protected as civilians as
long as they dont participate in hostilities. "International humanitarian law only distinguishes
between two categories of people: civilians and combatants, reminds Dorothea Krimitsas,
ICRCs deputy head of public relations in Geneva and manager of the organizations hotline for
journalists during conflict. Whether a journalist publishes in a national print media or
participates in social networks does not change his status: he is entitled to the protection
granted by IHL."
For his part, Sadeq has heard of IHL. But he doesnt appreciate theory. "Hundreds of citizen
journalists have been imprisoned, he says. One of them has even been killed under my
eyes." The activist regrets not getting direct assistance from international organizations. "We
should have received helmets, flak jackets and satellite phones. It's too late now."
Would the tragic fate of Bassel Al-Shehade, young director who came to train the citizen
journalists of Homs, and who was killed in May, have been different had their been greater
awareness and protection for citizen journalists? How about the others? According to
Reporters Without Borders, at least 33 journalists and citizen journalists have fallen since 15
March 2011, and one-third of them between May and June 2012.
As the nature of conflict has changed, so has the nature of war reporting. For some citizen
journalists, situations of conflict or extreme violence are rendering traditional notions of
journalism outdated Here, holding a pen is as dangerous as holding a gun," El Amin says.
*Not their real names


http://www.redcross.int/EN/mag/magazine2012_2/4-9_extra_1.html





11

Embedded journalism: A distorted view of war


'Embedding' journalists is now the standard method for reporting conflicts. But,
argues Patrick Cockburn, what makes a good story might not be the right story
Independent, Tuesday 23 November 2010
Embedded journalism earned itself a bad name in Iraq and Afghanistan. The phrase came to evoke an image of
the supposedly independent correspondent truckling to military mentors who spoon-feed him or her absurdly
optimistic information about the course of the war. To many, the embedded journalist is a grisly throwback to
First World War-style reporting, when appalling butchery in the trenches was presented as a series of
judiciously planned advances by British generals.
Many allegations against the system of "embedding" journalists, mainly with the American or British military,
are unfair. Accompanying armies in the field is usually the only way of finding out what they are doing or
think they are doing. Nor is there an obvious alternative way for correspondents to operate today. Given that
al-Qa'ida and the Taliban target foreign journalists as potential hostages, it is impossible to roam around Iraq
or Afghanistan without extreme danger.
It was not always so. When I first started writing articles in Northern Ireland in the early 1970s, it was
probably safer to be a journalist than anything else. I used to joke that newly formed paramilitary groups
appointed a press officer before they bought a gun. A few years later in Lebanon, militias gave journalists
letters allowing us to pass safely through their checkpoints. The Lebanese are a newspaper-reading people and
I used to hand out local newspapers as a friendly gesture to bored militiamen on guard duty. But it was also in
Lebanon, from 1984, that Iranian-backed groups started to kidnap journalists as an effective way to pressurise
governments and publicise the kidnappers' cause.
In these circumstances, over-reliance on "embedding" as the primary method of gathering information may
have been inevitable, but it produces a skewed picture of events. Journalists cannot help reflecting to some
degree the viewpoint of the soldiers they are accompanying. The very fact of being with an occupying army
means that the journalist is confined to a small and atypical segment of the political-military battlefield.
"Embedding" also puts limitations on location and movement. Iraq and Afghanistan are essentially guerrilla
wars, and the successful guerrilla commander will avoid fighting the enemy main force and instead attack
where his opponent is weak or has no troops at all. This means that the correspondent embedded with the
American or British military units is liable to miss or misinterpret crucial stages in the conflict.
Much of the British and American media reporting in Afghanistan since 2006 has been about skirmishing in
Taliban strongholds such as Helmand and Kandahar provinces in the south of the country. Problems are often
reduced to quasi-technical or tactical questions about coping with roadside bombs or lack of equipment. Until
recently, there was little reporting or explanation of how the Taliban had been able to extend their rule right up
to the outskirts of Kabul.
In late 2001, in the days just after the defeat of the Taliban, I was able to drive from Kabul to Kandahar
without hearing a shot fired. By last year, I could not move without risk beyond the last police station in the
south of the capital. A few miles down the road to Kandahar, Taliban motorcycle patrols were setting up
temporary roadblocks and checking all who came through.
This year, it is worse. The Taliban are trying, with a fair measure of success, to counter the allied offensive in
the south by spreading their rule in northern Afghanistan, taking control of much of Kunduz and Baghlan
provinces and cutting Nato's supply routes to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

12

Just before the war of 2001, I travelled though the Hindu Kush mountains from just north of Kabul through
Badakhshan province in north-east Afghanistan to Tajikistan. The journey took four days but there were no
Taliban, though they still held much of the rest of Afghanistan. I could not make the same journey today
because even in Badakhshan, overwhelmingly Tajik and supposedly anti-Taliban, the insurgents are beginning
to make inroads.
A danger of "embedding" is that it puts journalists in the wrong place at the wrong time. In November 2004,
the US Marines stormed the city of Fallujah, west of Baghdad, which had been seized by insurgents, The
troops were accompanied by almost all the Baghdad foreign press corps, at great risk to themselves. Their
accounts and pictures of the battle were compelling and the outcome was an undoubted victory for the US.
But reports of American success were misleading because the insurgents had used the concentration of US
forces around Fallujah to launch their own assault against the much larger city of Mosul in northern Iraq,
which they briefly captured. The Iraqi army and police fled, 30 police stations were occupied, and $40m-worth
of arms seized by the insurgents. Given that Mosul is Iraq's third-largest city, it was a stunning reversal for the
US-led forces, but it was virtually unreported since there were no American troops there and hence no
embedded journalists.
There is a more subtle disadvantage to "embedding": it leads reporters to see the Iraqi and Afghan conflicts
primarily in military terms, while the most important developments are political or, if they are military, may
have little to do with foreign forces. It has become an article of faith among many in the US that the American
military finally won the war in Iraq in 2007-08 because it adopted a new set of tactics and sent 30,000 extra
troop reinforcements known as "the surge". US troop casualties fell to nothing and Iraqi casualties dropped
from their previous horrendous levels. This explanation was deeply satisfying to American national selfconfidence and rescued the reputation of the US army. In the months before the 2008 presidential election, it
became impossible for any American politicians to suggest that the "surge" had not succeeded without
attracting accusations of lack of patriotism.
Yet the developments that ended the worst of the fighting in Iraq mostly had little to do with the US, which
was only one player in a complex battle. The attacks on the US military came almost entirely from Sunni Arab
insurgents , but by 2007, the Sunni were being heavily defeated by the predominantly Shia security forces and
militias and could no longer afford to go on fighting the Americans as well. Al-Qa'ida had overplayed its hand
by trying to take control of the whole Sunni community. The Sunni were being driven from Baghdad, which is
now an overwhelmingly Shia city. Facing the annihilation of their community, the Sunni insurgents switched
sides and allied themselves with the Americans. In this context it was possible for the US to send out penny
packets of troops into Sunni areas which were desperate for defenders against Shia death squads and al-Qa'ida
commanders demanding that they send their sons to fight.
But the same sort of tactics cannot be replicated in Afghanistan, where conditions were very different. Despite
this, until a few months ago, it had become the accepted wisdom of American opinion pages and television
talking heads that the US army had found an all-purpose formula for victory in its post-11 September wars.
The author of victory, the present US commander in Afghanistan, General David Petraeus, became America's
most popular, prestigious and unsackable military officer. The failure hitherto of "surge" tactics to work in
southern Afghanistan has begun to undermine this faith in the new strategy, but American and British policy is
still modelled on the "surge": foreign forces backed by Afghan troops will gain control on the ground; they
will then hold it and prevent the Taliban coming back; and, then, finally, they will hand over power to Afghan
soldiers, police and officials sent from Kabul.
It is unlikely ever to happen this way. As in Iraq, military actions on the ground in Afghanistan don't make
much sense separate from political developments. The Afghan government is notoriously crooked and is
regarded by most Afghans as a collection of racketeers. All the media reports of small unit actions whose
ultimate purpose is to install the rule of Kabul in southern Afghanistan make little sense since the government
is so feeble that it barely exists. In some 80 per cent of the country the state does not exist.

13

"The reality of the war in Afghanistan," one diplomat told me, "which embedded journalism never reveals, is
that 60 per cent of the Afghan government soldiers sent to Helmand or Kandahar desert as soon as they can.
They are mostly Tajiks terrified of being sent to the Pashtun south. They are taken from the training camps and
put on buses and the doors are locked before they are told where they are being posted." But it is these same
terrified soldiers, often not even speaking the language of local people, who are at the heart of Nato's plan for
victory in Afghanistan.
It is worth asking how well the Iraq and Afghanistan wars have been reported. Could the average newspaper
reader and television viewer gain an approximate idea of what was happening in both countries over the past
eight years?
War reporting is easy to do, but difficult to do well. Wars rouse such passions that editors and senior producers
in home offices seldom retain healthy journalistic scepticism. They develop oversimplified ideas about what
the story is, be it "hard-won victory" or "bloody stalemate". Viewers and readers expect drama from conflict
and think they know what it looks like. The first pictures from the wars in Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in
2003 were dominated by shots of great gouts of fire rising from missiles exploding in Baghdad and Kabul.
But this melodrama was deceptive, obscuring what had really happened. The most important fact about these
two wars was that, in their first, conventional warfare stage, they barely took place at all. Taliban fighters
faded away to their villages or moved across the border into Pakistan. In Iraq Saddam Hussein's most elite and
pampered units dissolved and went home as soon as they could.
It was very difficult to tell all this to news desks at the time. News organisations get geared up for war and feel
short-changed when told that not much is really happening. I had followed the retreating Taliban from Kabul
to Kandahar in 2001 and saw little fighting along the road. In a substantial city such as Ghazni there were half
a dozen Taliban dead, mostly killed in gunfights over ownership of government cars. In Iraq 18 months later,
there were plenty of burnt-out Iraqi army tanks on the roads but, when I looked inside, most had been
abandoned before they were destroyed by air strikes.
The US and British governments drew precisely the wrong lessons from the failure of the Taliban and the Iraqi
army to fight. In both cases, President Bush and Tony Blair had been warned that they were entering a
quagmire and instead they had apparently won easy victories. They arrogantly believed they were in control of
events while in fact they were only powerful players, who ought to have been paying attention to how Afghans,
Iraqis, Iranians, Syrians and Pakistanis were reacting to their actions. Their blindness is easy to criticise in
retrospect, but at the time, this sense of American omnipotence was shared by most of the US media.
In one respect I found Iraq easier to report than the Afghan war. In Britain the split was so deep over the war
that from the beginning, there were plenty of sceptics willing to believe that they were being lied to by the
government and that the venture was going badly. American correspondents had a more difficult time because
their home offices were still nervous of being seen as unpatriotic well into 2005. Three years later, American
correspondents on the ground were often appalled to see self-declared pundits on Iraq firmly claiming on their
own television channels or in newspapers that the "surge" was a famous victory. Iraqis were still dying in their
hundreds, but as soon as the US military ceased to suffer casualties, US television largely stopped reporting
Iraq.
The Iraq war may have been a "last hurrah" for the US media because so much of it has slimmed down or
gone out of business in the past few years. The British media have never put enough resources into reporting
either war to cover them properly. The BBC was the only television company to maintain a permanently
staffed office in Baghdad. Most newspapers covered it episodically. This was partly because reporting wars is
always very expensive and is particularly costly in Iraq and Afghanistan because of the need to pay security
companies. In some cases these realised that their job was to enable correspondents to get to the story with the
least possible danger, but others behaved like prison guards in their determination to keep correspondents safe.
I remember Robert Fisk and I receiving a text message from one distinguished and brave British correspondent
in another part of Baghdad regretting that he could not meet us at our hotel because his head of security had

14

decided that our proposed lunch was "not an operational necessity".


The dangers inevitable in covering Iraq had another effect. Much of the best reporting has been done by
experienced reporters who knew Iraq before 2004. After that, it became very difficult for young
correspondents to have any sort of "learning curve" because anybody hoping to "learn from their mistakes" in
Iraq was not going to live very long. Halfway through the Iraq war, one bureau chief lamented to me, saying:
"The only fairly safe place for me to send young reporters, who haven't been to Iraq before, is on 'embeds', but
then they drink up everything the army tells them and report it as fact." The best reporting in any single
publication during the height of the sectarian slaughter in Iraq in 2006-07 was in The New York Times, which
got round this dilemma by simply hiring experienced and highly regarded correspondents from other
newspapers. Even so, despite the risks, it was always possible to report Iraq and Afghanistan from outside the
embrace of the military, as was shown by extraordinarily brave people such as Ghaith Abdul-Ahad and Nir
Rosen, who risked their lives mixing with insurgents and militiamen.
I used to get a certain amount of undeserved applause at book festivals by being introduced as a writer "who
has never been embedded", as if I had been abstaining from unnatural vice. "Embedding" obviously leads to
bias, but many journalists are smart enough to rumble military propaganda and wishful thinking, and not to
regurgitate these in undiluted form. They know that Afghan villagers, interviewed in front of Afghan police or
US soldiers, are unlikely to say what they really think about either. Nevertheless, perhaps the most damaging
effect of "embedding" is to soften the brutality of any military occupation and underplay hostile local response
to it. Above all, the very fact of a correspondent being with an occupying army gives the impression that the
conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, countries which have endured 30 years of crisis and warfare, can be resolved
by force.

Australian film, Rewatching classic Australian films



The Year of Living Dangerously rewatched Linda Hunt is unforgettable

What a bold yet strangely sensible turn of casting by Peter Weir: hiring a
woman to play a man simply because she was the best fit for the part

The Guardian, Luke Buckmaster, Friday 9 January 2015 01.06 GMT

Australian cinema in 2014 delivered not one but two great performances from female actors playing
women who become men.
In the Spierig brothers madcap time travel movie Predestination, Sarah Snook turned heads in a role
that not only saw her play both genders but also offered a wild and saucy take on what might happen if
a person bumped into a version of themselves from the future. Del Herbert-Jane struck a more
melancholic note in director Sophie Hydes drama 52 Tuesdays, which focused on a daughters reaction
to her mothers journey to becoming a trans man.
But Peter Weirs 1982 film The Year of Living Dangerously, adapted by the director himself and
playwright David Williamson from Christopher Kochs bestselling novel, takes the cake for the most
startling gender-realigning performance in Australian cinema.
American actor Linda Hunt played Chinese-Australian dwarf Billy Kwan, a photographer who teams up
with newbie foreign correspondent Guy Hamilton (Mel Gibson) when he moves to Jakarta. Billy shows
him the ropes in a city where simmering danger (the film is set in the mid 1960s, during the overthrow
of President Sukarno) is about to boil over into violence and revolution.
Hunts performance isnt startling because of a body-related character arc. There is no physical

15

transformation for Billy, who has always been a man. Its startling because Hunts performance is so
good you never pause to doubt it.
What a bold (yet strangely sensible) turn of casting: Hunt, a woman, hired to play Billy, a man, because
she was simply the best fit for the part. Hunt stole the hearts and minds of audiences and wooed the
Academy, who awarded her an Oscar for best supporting actress.
Billy is stubborn and headstrong but needy in uncomfortable ways that the film gradually reveals. He
shares similarities with acidic protagonist Barbara Covette (Judi Dench) from director Richard Eyres
Notes on a Scandal, a loquacious narrator loyal to the point of being unnervingly possessive. Hunt
channels the demeanour of someone constantly trying to make sense of the environment around them,
propelled to pick it apart bit by bit: a world of big things and grand purposes, overpowering and
impenetrable.
There is a scene in which Billy looks up at a huge billboard-sized picture of Suharto and stands in awe,
as if wowed by the might of it. Hunts performance seems to exist in that moment: a constant struggle to
come to terms with forces outside the control of Billy, a proud, cunning little man forced into humility.
The Year of Living Dangerously charts his journey and those of several others with a sensibility both
subtle (utterly restrained, given the subject and setting) and unforgettable (the films images,
particularly Billys final scene and Guys trip to the airport in the last act, will stay with you).
It opens with Billy banging away on his typewriter, writing to Guy. Moments like this form a voiceover
that give the film a colourful, literary ooze, as if partly written by Billy himself. The commentary
functions like film noir narration (recalling the framing of 1944 classic Double Indemnity the
confession of a crooked insurance salesman to his boss), only more florid and a little less spiffy.
Most of us become children again when we enter the slums of Asia, Billy writes. Last night I watched
you walk back into childhood, with all its opposite intensities. Laughter and misery, the crazy and the
grim. Toy town and a city of fear.
As bold but strait-laced Hamilton a fish out of water rising to a challenge and slowly growing frazzled
and stressed Mel Gibson cuts a solid presence in the Tom Cruise ilk of a leading man. The films
emotions either bounce off or project on to him, without the actor needing to do much. Sigourney
Weaver plays his lover, and while the films poster depicts their embrace, its most memorable for other
things its mood, its sense of location and Hunts tour de force performance.
The Year of Living Dangerously was the first Australian film to be financed by an American studio
(MGM). While indisputably there is plenty Australian about it (including key characters and cast, the
crew, filming locations, government-granted tax incentives and financing for development and
marketing), the producers unprecedented wheeling and dealing with Hollywood ultimately led to an
existential question for the local industry: what does the term Australian film even mean?
That question hit a high water mark (or a moment of absurdity) in January 2014 when a blockbuster
studio movie, The Great Gatsby, won 13 Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts awards. It
was not only financed by Warner Bros and led by A-list Hollywood celebrities, but based on a book
widely regarded as one of the greatest and most quintessentially American novels.
The Year of Living Dangerously was a stepping stone to Hollywood for Weir, whose body of work
includes Picnic at Hanging Rock and The Last Wave. It was on the set of his first world war film Gallipoli
that he proposed the character of Guy Hamilton to Gibson. The director, one of our very greatest, has
made fine work since (including 1989s Dead Poets Society and 1998s The Truman Show) but never
returned to Australian stories.




16

CINEMA

17

Film awards season's main events


There are a huge num ber of organisations handing out awards in the runup to the Oscars
in late February, but w ho are they and w hy do they m atter? Here's our pick of the key
events taking place in the Hollyw ood prizegiving calendar.

ACADEM Y AW ARDS (THE OSCARS)
The Academy Awards, or Oscars as they are more commonly known, remain the most prestigious ofthe
world's film prizes.The annual ceremony has been held in Hollywood, the centre of US filmmaking, since
1929.
The winners are decided by more than 6,000 film professionals from all over the world, who are
members of the US Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Membership of the Academy is by
invitation, with Oscar winners automatically invited.
The original 13 categories for awards have expanded to more than 20, including best picture, director,
actor and actress, as well as prizes for screenplay (adapted and original), music, visual effects, sound
and make-up.

BRITISH ACADEM Y FILM AW ARDS (BAFTA)
The most significant film awards in the UK are handed out by the British Academy of Film and Television
Arts. The British Academy Film Awards, or Baftas, were previously awarded in a ceremony held some
time after the razzmatazz of the Oscars.
The 2001 shift to a date just after the Academy Award nominations - but ahead of the actual ceremony -
has dramatically boosted the Baftas' international profile.
Arguably the awards now influence the ultimate choice of Oscar voters. An increasing number of
Hollywood stars make the trip to the London ceremony, many of them hoping to give their films a final
push for Oscar glory. The first Baftas were given in 1948, in three categories, but the event has grown to
include 24 categories, with special categories for British film. The main awards are voted for by Bafta's
6,500-strong membership, the majority of whom are handpicked from within the film, television and
video games industries.

GOLDEN GLOBES
The Golden Globes are seen as a reliable indicator of which films will go on to Oscar glory. The
Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA), which presents the awards, has identified the bestpicture
Academy Award winner 12 times since 1990. The HFPA divides its best picture and main acting prizes
into separate drama and musical or comedy categories, thereby offering two Oscar contenders - but it is
the best drama winner that generally goes on to further success.
The first awards were given out in 1943 after the HFPA (then the Hollywood Foreign Correspondents
Association) was formed by eight Los Angeles-based overseas journalists, led by the correspondent for
the UK's Daily Mail.
The organisation now has more than 80 members, all international journalists, representing
55countries. Now in their 64th year, the annual awards - which also honour the global television
industry - are presented in Hollywood and broadcast live on US televison.

18

GUILD AW ARDS
The film awards season includes honours handed out by individual US unions representing film
professionals, which are often seen as accurate predictors of Oscar success.
The Directors Guild of America's annual feature film directing award, for example, is a near-perfect
indicator of the subsequent destination of the best director Academy Award.
Since the union, which represents almost 13,000 film and TV workers, began issuing annual awards in
1948, the Academy has only six times disagreed on the year's best director.
The Producers Guild of America introduced its Golden Laurel Awards in 1990. Eleven of the 17 winners
of its motion picture producing award have later scooped the best picture Oscar.
The Screen Actors Guild (SAG) Awards have been one of the major Hollywood events since their
introduction in 1995. About 120,000 union members drawn from the acting community in the US decide
the winners, from a shortlist chosen by 4,200 randomly selected members. Prizes for film and television
acting recognise both individuals and the entire casts.

CRITICS' AW ARDS
The many critics groups that hand out honours during film awards season often favour more
alternative, offbeat films, compared with the conservative works typically honoured by the Academy.
The key groups in the US include the National Society of Film Critics, made up of 55 writers across the
country, the Los Angeles Film Critics Association and the New York Film Critics Circle.
The London Film Critics' Circle, comprising more than 80 members, issues awards recognising British
and international film talent.
In recent years, the Broadcast Film Critics Association has aspired to usurp the status of the Golden
Globes, with a televised ceremony of the unashamedly populist Critics' Choice Awards.
Founded in 1995 the association is the largest film critics' organisation in the United States and Canada,
representing 199 television, radio and online critics.

INDEPENDENT SPIRIT AW ARDS
Founded in 1984, the Independent Spirit Awards are given to films made outside the traditional
Hollywood studio system.
The honours are awarded by Film Independent, a non-profit US organisation that promotes
independent film-making, based on the votes of more than 6,000 members.
The ceremony is traditionally held in Los Angeles the day before the Oscars, with the Independent Spirit
Awards seen as the alternative to the mainstream.
Although there is usually some crossover among nominees, it is rare to find major winners in common.

US NATIONAL BOARD OF REVIEW
The US National Board of Review issues the first major prizes of the film awards season in early
December. Alongside key acting and directing awards, the body also shortlists its 10 best films of the
year.
The organisation comprises film professionals, teachers, historians and students, and has no
commercial ties to the industry.

Story from BBC NEWS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/entertainment/6244543.st

19

Film festivals: which is top dog?


Cannes, which has announced its 2012 line-up, has some serious competition. As Tribeca
begins and ahead of Sundance London, our critics examine the big hitters on the film
festival circuit

The Guardian, Peter Bradshaw, Henry Barnes, Andrew Pulver, Catherine Shoard
Thursday 19 April 2012


It has been a quiet few months on the film festival front. The last two biggies, Sundance and Berlin, were
back in the depths of winter; but now things are suddenly getting interesting. Tribeca, the New York
trendoid-magnet, has just started, and Cannes, the swanky Cote d'Azur schmoozathon, has reared its
finely contoured head on the horizon. The UK is even getting in on the action, with the much-anticipated
arrival next week of Sundance London, an offshoot of Robert Redford's indie-maven event in Park City,
Utah.
Sundance London is an example of that industry buzzword "diffusion", whereby name events set up
franchises overseas. Tribeca has been doing it since 2009 in Qatar, co-organising the Doha film festival.
It's a byproduct of the digital age; festivals are powerful brands, and no longer seen as single-location
physical events. Sundance is following the NFL to the UK capital; American football has been played
there, on and off, since 1991. But whether Sundance London will discover that setting up shop in the O2
arena in Greenwich is not such a good idea remains to be seen; even free-floating global brands need to
make sure their physical dimension is both attractive and accessible.
Be that as it may, film festivals are asserting themselves ever more strongly; the competition between
them is increasing as they jostle for supremacy. It never stays still: some have forged ahead, some have
fallen behind, as the film world itself evolves and retrenches. You might judge them by the amount of
wet-from-the-lab premieres they get, or how many A-listers turn up to pad across the red carpet, or how
many deals get struck behind the scenes. So here, taking all that into account, is our assessment of the
ins and outs, the ups and downs, and the winners and losers of the festival circuit.
Andrew Pulver

Sundance
Robert Redford's indie showcase is still a mecca for credible film-makers eager for a leg-up. Its position
in the calendar (January) means that Sundance manages to both steal a march on the likes of Berlin and
SXSW and potentially nobbles itself when it comes to chances of Oscar success. A film must sustain 13
months of buzz if it is to start in Park City and triumph in Hollywood.
USP Arty dramas, spiky comedies, US-centric documentaries (the category with which Sundance has
lately enjoyed the greatest ratio of Academy Award success).
Audience Bona-fide directors to watch, buyers, US-centric press and minted yanks eager for a hol in
which the apres ski is seeing films and spotting slebs.
Glamour The winter sports backdrop lends a curiously hedonistic air, but the films themselves are
often screened in fairly small town venues, such as a gymnasium.
Credibility Still riding high on a reputation built on breaking major talent such as Kevin Smith, Robert
Rodriguez, Quentin Tarantino, Steve James, Paul Thomas Anderson, Steven Soderbergh, Darren

20

Aronofsky and Jim Jarmusch. And, even in middle age, still the hippest fest. But it needs to keep hitting
big winners out of the park or start branching out (cf Sundance London).
Anglophilia Tasteful but sporadic. Stephen Frears and James Marsh both had films here this year. But
it's a long way from home, in every sense.
Friend of Oscar Passionate, but prone to tiffs. In 2010, 15 Academy nods came from nine Sundance
films. But in 2011, though two documentary nominees were shown first in Utah, there was less love for
the fiction picks (Like Crazy, Tyrannosaur, Martha Marcy May Marlene).
Harvey or Haneke? The big fella would feel at home. But Haneke is too actually icy for these fluffy
peaks.
In three words You got ski(ll)s.
Catherine Shoard

Berlin
The more serious, less glamorous younger sibling of Venice, Berlinale brings the heft of the arthouse
with most of the glitz buffed off. If celebrities do arrive it is often to promote Project Worthy (Ralph
Fiennes with Coriolanus in 2011, Angelina Jolie with In The Land of Blood and Honey this year). Perhaps
the cold keeps the A-list away?
USP High-profile documentaries (Pina, The Cave of Forgotten Dreams and Marley in recent years).
Audience With venues spread across Berlin from its Potsdamer Platz hub, the festival does a great job
of opening up its programme to the whole city. You'll see queues of last-minute ticket hunters stretching
back from the booths in the Arkaden shopping centre, while information on upcoming events is
splashed liberally across the U-bahn. A truly democratic festival serving a public with a huge appetite
for film.
Glamour Not much. Certainly nothing to compete with the sparkle of a celeb-crammed Croisette on a
sunny day. Berlin is a fascinating city, but far from easy on the eye. And did we mention the weather?
Credibility High. Berlin's competition strands are varied and wide-roving. The talent campus, which
invites young film-makers from around the world to participate in a week's worth of workshops hosted
by that year's big names, is an indication of the festival's dedication to supporting new work at
grassroots level. The Shooting Stars event, which brings together young actors from across Europe "to
further future work opportunities"is well-meaning, if a little off the pace. The UK's representative this
year? Riz Ahmed.
Anglophilia The run of success in the early noughties for British (co-)productions by Patrice Chreau
(Intimacy, 2001), Paul Greengrass (Bloody Sunday, 2002) and Michael Winterbottom (In This World,
2003) has slowed recently. Brits tend to get a decent spot on the jury though Mike Leigh took the
head's chair this year, Tilda Swinton was 2009's bigwig, while Charlotte Rampling had the honour in
2006.
Friend of Oscar? Berlin's Bears awards are often ignored in LA, but the festival does occasionally foster
an Academy hit. The last 12 months have been good thanks to the success of Asghar Farhadi's A
Separation (best foreign language Oscar) and Wim Wenders' Pina, which also had its debut in Berlin,
and was nominated for best documentary.
Harvey or Haneke? Austerity, severity, humility Berlin likes Mike.
In three words? Intellectual with frostbite.
Henry Barnes

21

Cannes
Cannes dominates the European festival circuit. With a massively prestigious competition list, the Un
Certain Regard sidebar and the separately programmed Director's Fortnight and Critics' Week, it really
can hoover up the best of international cinema. And in the colossal rotunda at the back of the Palais
building, a gigantic, thriving market keeps the atmosphere feverish. There is a massive cop presence on
the streets to deter those who feel like nicking some bling from begowned and tuxedo-ed types on the
Croisette.
USP Cannes shrewdly balances upscale international cinema with intelligent and vaguely auteurist
Hollywood fare, finding space for blockbusters such as Pirates of the Caribbean out of competition. Also
showcases sensational re-releases of classic movies.
Audience The festival is not open to the public; everyone needs press or professional accreditation, but
tickets are made available to people who live in the town. A vast media army rolls up every year.
Glamour Every night the red carpet is packed with the Hollywood names adored by Cannes'
commercial sponsors chief among them L'Oral French telly stars and exotic Euro-celeb royalty
whose tans seem to have been obtained on Alpha Centauri. Until recently, the red-carpet steps were
flanked by a quasi-military kpi- wearing honour guard, but this has been quietly dropped: a rare
example of Cannes toning things down. Elton John and Harvey Weinstein often host A-list parties up the
coast in Antibes.
Credibility Still very high, although things took a dip in 2003, with a dismal lineup of films, which
included Vincent Gallo's hysterical The Brown Bunny. But the competition films, and the eventual Palme
d'Or, are widely and respectfully discussed and generally get shown around the world.
Anglophilia Reasonable. Cannes has given its top prize to six Brits: Carol Reed, Lindsay Anderson, Alan
Bridges, Roland Joffe, Mike Leigh and Ken Loach; seven if you count the US-born Richard Lester. It has a
soft spot for its favourite UK master, Loach, but infuriated Leigh by turning down Vera Drake in 2004.
(In high dudgeon, Leigh took it to Venice where it won the Golden Lion.)
Friend of Oscar? Not really: generally, Cannes is a cultural alternative to the Academy. This year's big
winner The Artist was unveiled in Cannes, and the Palme D'Or, Terrence Malick's The Tree Of Life, did
get some Oscar nominations, but the winners tend to be strictly non-Oscar, and the Academy's foreign
film picks are not usually influenced by Cannes.
Harvey or Haneke? To a remarkable degree, both: Harvey Weinstein is a big Cannes presence,
proclaiming his robust views on the quality of the films, and keeping a sharp eye out for acquisitions.
Michael Haneke has long been a revered master in Cannes, and his work exemplifies the difficult,
uncompromising work that finds a berth here.
In three words Cannes and will.
Peter Bradshaw

Venice
Not long ago, Venice vied with Cannes to be Europe's most glamorous, buzzy film event, but a quirk in
the calendar has seen its status erode. Toronto, with its audience of Hollywood power-players, tends to
get the big autumn premieres and awards contenders.
USP Classy international art film, new Italian cinema (in the Controcampo Italiano section). Last year
saw three big Brit hits: Shame, Wuthering Heights and Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy.

22

Audience Without a film market, most of the attendees dodging the mosquitos on the Venice Lido are
journalists. (Venice is starting a market this year, so expect a change.) There's a healthy attendance from
ticket-buying non-delegates.
Glamour Opening night at the Palazzo del Cinema is as flash a red-carpet event as you could find in
Europe. It didn't take much for last year's The Ides of March to tempt George Clooney from his Como
hideaway. Stars tend to like a photocall overlooking the water. But with few promotional events for non-
festival movies, there's nothing like Cannes' deluge of A-listers.
Credibility The Golden Lion is arguably as valued as the Palme d'Or, though perhaps not as
newsworthy: recent winners include Lust, Caution, The Wrestler and Sokurov's Faust. The career
Golden Lion is also a nod of serious substance: David Lynch, Hayao Miyazaki and John Woo have all been
honoured in the last decade.
Anglophilia: Last year's hat-trick was an exception, as Venice shares Cannes' slight snootiness to Brit
cinema.
Friend of Oscar? Of increasingly marginal influence. Though Venice is well positioned for the
Hollywood awards season, films with Oscar aspirations tend to opt for Toronto. Ides ended up
spluttering, while Tinker Tailor drew a blank.
Harvey or Haneke? Leans slightly towards the Harvey end of things. Though Venice programmes a lot
of unheralded art cinema, it's not exactly a breakout zone for any of it. Films that do best here are starry
art-lite extravaganzas perfect Weinstein material, in fact.
In three words Ciao, bello George!
Andrew Pulver

Toronto
In 1998, Variety wrote that Tiff was "second only to Cannes in terms of high-profile pics, stars and
market activity". A decade on and Time magazine went one better, reporting that Tiff had grown into
"the most influential film festival, period". Such ascendancy is ascribed to its remarkable track record
with Oscar tips, but it's also down to savvy sidebar programming, swanky new premises, increasingly
squeezed release windows that favour an autumn rather than summer debut for awards contenders,
plus an eagerness on the part of LA-types not to make a longer-haul flight than they need to.
USP Upmarket Hollywood, with especially enthusiastic cheerleading of Canadian film-makers (Sarah
Polley and Guy Maddin premiered here in 2011). The market is mushrooming, the punters are
enthusiastic yet dignified, and the films are guaranteed to be the ones you'll be discussing through to
next spring.
Audience The public can buy tickets in a complicatedly democratic system, but mostly attendees are
press, buyers and film-makers themselves. Outside Burbank, this is the place to catch the movies you'll
need to see ahead of awards season.
Glamour What Toronto lacks in picture postcard backdrops it makes up for with the sheer slew of A-
listers to be snapped next to a medium-height skyscraper.
Credibility The only major gong is the audience award it's testimony to the savviness of punters that
this tends to be something pretty classy. That the likes of Werner Herzog always open their movies here
doesn't hurt, either.
Anglophilia Pronounced, but skewed towards the glossy. The Deep Blue Sea was here last year, also

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semi-Brit flicks Salmon Fishing in the Yemen and Anonymous.


Friend of Oscar Bezzie mates. The King's Speech won the audience award in 2010. The Descendants,
Albert Nobbs, Moneyball and many other gong-magnets chose Tiff to kick off their campaigns in 2011.
In three words The midas touch.
Catherine Shoard

Also showing: the best of the rest


Edinburgh
Seems to have lost its way since an initiative to reposition it as a festival of "discovery", and to shift it
away from the August crowds at the fringe. In doing so, it's lost its USP: persuading big shots to turn up
in June has proved well-nigh impossible. Still, it remains a people's festival, full of students and local
cineastes, even if they have to trek out to the Fountain Park multiplex for screenings. These days,
Edinburgh's best face is shown in Scottish-interest event screenings, like the restored version of The
Man Who Would Be King, or this year's opener, Brave, from the Pixar team. Heavyweight premieres
though, are extremely thin on the ground. AP
As Edinburgh suffered, London gained. The strategy review that branded Edinburgh's festival one of
"discovery", designated London a "major international festival", with funding to match. Taking over two
massive cinemas and building a giant gantry in Leicester Square for the world premiere of Wes
Anderson's Fantastic Mr Fox in 2009 was a statement of ambition, and iIts exhaustive programming of
mainstream film ensures a good celebrity quotient, and it benefits from the scramble for Bafta votes that
begins in late autumn. Studios now compel their stars to visit London to woo support at private British
academy screenings, then pop across the road to LFF events. All this activity is in addition to London's
traditional practice of programming as many foreign films as possible, catering for and supported by the
capital's multiple immigrant communities. And now its principal sponsors, the BFI, have become British
cinema's lead agency, it can only get better.AP

San Sebastian
In the Basque region of Spain, the festival supports not just Spanish (Pedro Almodvar had his first
festival outing at San Sebastian) and Latin American but Basque cinema too. (It has its own Zinemira. he
city resembles a laid-back Rio. Festivalgoers turning up for movies at the modernist Kursaal Palace will
see surfers pad past to the beach. There aren't many important premieres, but discoveries are there to
be made. PB
"Keep Austin weird" say the T-shirts, and SXSW skews towards the off-kilter, with fanboy and genre
flicks finding an especially welcome berth, while choice picks from Sundance (from two months before)
ensure indie cred. Though headlines at SXSW are generally made in the music and interactive events
that run alongside, the film wing has ballooned in impact under artistic director Janet Pierson. Recent
debuts include Attack the Block, Kill List, Tiny Furniture and Natural Selection. But SXSW is defined by
discussion and inclusivity, panels and parties: the friendly vibe stretched to public and talent alike, with
a happy bleed between the two. CS
Not so much the little festival that could, but the one that does while the 0.1% watches. Tucked up in the
Colorado mountains, Telluride's clique of ber-cinephiles is drawn by its tendency to soft-launch an
Oscar-grabbing goodie (eg, The King's Speech, The Crying Game) before the competition (Toronto,
which starts a few days later) gets a sniff. The Davos of the film calendar where unspoken rules dictate

24

that all new films must be US premieres and that the line-up remains a secret until the chosen
arrive.Clean air, buzz films but the cheapest entry is $390. "The most happening art movie town in
America" (Roger Ebert) but it makes Cannes look democratic. HB

Tribeca
Conceived by Robert De Niro in the wake of 9/11, to draw investors back to lower Manhattan. It has
done the job the festival has generated around $725m in local economic activity over its 11 years but,
while local celebs are supportive and attendance continues to climb, it can't draw international talent.
Marvel's Avengers Assemble, the new Morgan Spurlock (Mansome) and indie darling Daryl Wein's Lola
Versus are premiering this year. That's a film about protecting New York, a film about finding love in
New York and a film made in New York. Tribeca's efforts to jump the nest include the Doha Tribeca film
festival - a collaboration between the non-profit and the Qatari state that launched Jean-Jacques
Annaud's Black Gold in November last year - and an online streaming service that makes festival films
available across the US. Their success could dictate how far De Niro and co can take Manhattan. HB


Why I Love Indie Movies And You Should Too
Marquel Plavan in Lifestyle on Nov 9, 2015
Think about the phenomenon of boutiques: theyre smaller, less well-known, and, most likely, much
more expensive than your average department or retail store. So, why do we feel more excited
when we enter or buy from a boutique, rather than a retail store? Well, because the things available
at boutiques are more uniquely designed and harder to find. Chances are, that dress you buy from a
boutique wont face any competition at a formal event or a night on the town.
The same sort of logic can be applied to movies. You might think all movies are the same, but in fact,
they arent. Sure, there are good movies and bad movies, action movies and romance movies,
fictional movies and documentaries, but theres only one specific sect of movies that can truly give
you that new-dress-straight-from-a-cute-corner-boutique feeling.
Behold the future of movie making: indie movies.
See, while most movies these days spend top dollar on special effects, costumes, and casting the
most famous actors (all the while letting their dialogue and storyline suffer), indie movies are
creating genius under their very noses. Because theyre made on such a small scale, all of the
success depends on the quality of the writing. Take the new Fast & Furious for example. Every line
out of Vin Diesels mouth was nothing short of corny and lame, but, hey, that car explosion was sick!
I dont know about anyone else, but walking out of movies like that give me a I just watched eight
hours of Greys Anatomy on Netflix and now I forgot what the sun looks like. Or what real pants are
like feeling.
Dont get me wrong, brain candy movies like that are fun on occasion, but they begin to feel like a
waste of time if theyre the only movies you ever watch. If you arent at least learning something
from a film (well, other than how far a car can be projected upwards when set on fire), then whats
the point? On the other hand, no one wants to spend all of their time watching countless

25

documentaries on how salt built America. There has to be some middle ground, right?
Thats where indie films come in. The thing that makes an indie film special is that it is uniquely born
out of the creative vision of a director (or team of directors), who most of the time, write, direct, and
produce the film all on their own. They shape the story, cast the characters, film with a low budget,
well, everything, and end up creating something truly beautiful and artistically brilliant.
Here are some indie films that I have found to be brilliant:

Love, Rosie

The Spectacular Now

The Grand Budapest Hotel (or any Wes Anderson film, for that matter)

(500) Days of Summer

Juno

If you can believe it, Mean Girls and Napoleon Dynamite are indie films

Still Alice

The Prestige

Chef

Life Partners

A Beautiful Mind

Testament of Youth

Silver Linings Playbook

Whats Eating Gilbert Grape

Now is Good

The Descendants

The Fighter

26

Conversations: Talking about Movies


Movie genres How many different kinds of movies can you write in English? Make a list in the box below.


Movie Genres

action


Look at the table below.
Movie Title
Ti

Titanic

Gladiator

C
Br

Place

Time

Actors
L

Leonardo DiCaprio

Casablanca

Humphrey Bogart

Bridget Joness Diary

R
Hu

Rene Zellweger and


Hugh Grant

in

1st century AD


Ask your partner questions to find the missing information:
1) Place Where is it set? Its set (in New York).
2) Time When is it set? Its set (in the 1950s).
3) Actors Whos in it? It stars (Brad Pitt).
Writing Practice:
Think of a great movie you have seen. Write a few sentences about it. Dont write the
movies title.
Read your movie description to your partner and see if he/ she can guess the movie

27

TALKING ABOUT MOVIES



1. Match the movie adjectives to their definitions



1. violent
A. very exciting
2. moving

B. terrible

3. complex

C. sad and emotional

4. gripping

D. fantastic

5. funny

E. makes us laugh

6. dreadful

F. f full of lots of different ideas

7. superb

G. l lots of fighting

2. Match these classic movies to their type



Cho

1. Apocalypse Now, Platoon, Wind Talkers


A. Comedies
2. Titanic, Gone with the Wind

B. Horror Movies

3. Mr. Bean, Robin Hood: Men in Tights C. Science Fiction


4. Notting Hill, Bridget Jones

D. Romantic Movies

5. I Indiana Jones, Crocodile Hunter

E. Adventure Movies

6. Red River, The Long Riders

F. Western

7. Terminator, Commando, Predator

G. Animated Films

8. Star Wars, Superman

H. Thrillers

9. Finding Nemo, Shrek

I. Romantic Comedies

10. Silence of the Lambs, Pulp Fiction

H. Action Movies

ice M atch



Copyright, 2007 www.esltower.com www.esl-galaxy.com

28

Connect the words for describing films to their antonyms:


Fu

funny

Fa

actual

original

pacey

mediocre

mainstream

independent

factual

contemporary

sentimental

obejctive

cliched

tedious

entertaining

plodding

uplifting

depressing

historical

fictional

tragic

Connect the words for describing films to their synonyms:


so-so

tragic

unoriginal

briliant

enjoyable

gripping

uplifting

inspirational

dull

film

movie

cliched

funny

entertaning

sad

average

exciting

comical

excellent

boring

http://www.esolcourses.com/content/topics/cinema/1/wordmatch.html

29

DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES


How would you describe your favorite actor or actress?

* Handsome

* Woody Allen

* Comely

* Marilyn Monroe

* Plain

* Roberto Benigni

* Overrated

* Anthony Hopkins

* Impeccable

* Judy Foster

* Boring

* Dustin Hoffman

* Extrovert

* Jim Carey

* Sophisticated

* Demi Moore

* Agile

* Arnold Schwarzeneger

* Sinister

* Sophia Loren

* Multi-talented

* Bruce Willis

* Beautiful

* Will Smith

* Absurd

* Meg Ryan

* Versatile

* Tom Hanks

* Ironic

* You choose!

* Glamorous

* You choose!

* Idiotic

* You choose!

30

CINEMA VOCABULARY

1. Match the types of films with the phrases that are most likely to describe them.
thriller romantic comedy

animated film

sci-fi film

horror film

costume drama

An all-action movie with great stunts and a real cliffhanger of an ending that will have you on the
edge of your seat.
Set on a star cruiser in the distant future, this film has great special effects.
A hilarious new film, about two unlikely lovers, which will have you laughing out loud.
Based on a novel by Jane Austen, this new adaptation by William Jones has been filmed on
location at Harewood House in Hampshire.
5.A fantastic new computer-generated cartoon, featuring the voice of Eddie Murphy as the donkey.
This new film will scare you to death.

2. Now match the words in italics in the descriptions to the definitions below.
1. exciting
2. not filmed in a studio
3. the story comes from(a novel)
4. dangerous action sequences like car chases or people falling from skyscrapers
5. amazing, impossible visual sequences, often created by computers
6. changing a novel to a film screenplay
7. where the story takes place
8. exciting end you want to know what happens

3. Use the words below to answer the questions.


latest release

credits

titles

soundtrack

trailer a multiplex the rushes screen test

1.What do you call the songs and background music to a film?


2.What do you call a big cinema with lots of screens?
3.What do you call the bit at the start of the film that tells you the name of the film, the actors and
director? And what do you call the words on the screen at the end that tell you who played who,
and who was the cameraman, set designer, etc.?
4.Which phrase means a new film?
5.Which word means a short film made to advertise a new film?
6. What do you call film before it is edited?
7. What do you call a short scene filmed to find out if the actor is good in a particular part?

31

4. What is the difference between the following?


1. A film and a movie
2. An arthouse film and a blockbuster
3. A co-star and an extra
4. A cameraman and a projectionist
5. The cinema and the pictures
6. The cast and casting
7. Action! and Cut!

5. When making a film, in which order do you do the things in the list?
*editing the film

* casting

*writing the screenplay

*releasing the film

* filming

* finding locations

Film reviews often use compound adjectives to describe films. Make compound adjectives
by matching words in A with words in B.
Example: action-packed
A
action
slow
spine
breath
hard
heart
far

B
moving
packed
warming
fetched
taking
chilling
hitting

6. Use compound adjectives from activity 5 to complete the film reviews below.
Beautiful People is a romantic melodrama. It lasts three hours, and has a ___________plot, which
gets a bit boring. However, the ____________performance by Tim Franks in the central role will
move you to tears. It also has a _________message about how we should deal with AIDS.
The Monster Movie is both a comedy and a horror film. It has a _______________ storyline, which
you just wont believe, but it also has some ________________ stunts, which look really dangerous.
It has a _______________ ending which is so scary you will cover your eyes.

7. Think of a film that you have seen recently, and answer the questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.

What was the name of the film?


What sort of film was it?
Who directed it? Who starred in it?
What was it based on?

32

5. Where was it set?


6. What was it about?
7. How would you describe the film, the performance of the actors, the stunts and special
effects?
8. Would you recommend it? Why?

8. Interview your partner about their film. Tell the class about your partners film.
9. Films Dictionary Quiz
1. Name three places where you see films.
2. What is the difference between a cartoon and an animated film?
3. What does captured on film mean?
4. What does filmic mean?
5. Whats a film noir?
6. If something is filmy, is it thin or thick?
7. Whats a roll of film?
8. Whats the difference between a director and a producer?
9. If something films over, what happens?
10.Find two meanings of film that have nothing to do with cinema and Hollywood.

This activity was compiled using the Macmillan English Advanced Learners Dictionary and CD Rom. To find
out more about using dictionaries go http://www.macmillandictionary.com .

33

A Guide to Classic Movie Genres and Styles


Great Examples of Classic Movies in Every Genre
By Laurie Boeder, About.com
While critics argue about the characteristics of every film genre, there are some generally
accepted categories and styles of classic films. Heres what to expect from movies made in
some of the classic film genres:
Film Noir
Meaning black movie in French, Hollywoods film noir period spanned the early 1940s to the
late 1950s. Visually, black and white film noir used stark shadows and moody, dimly lit scenes.
The plots combine crime, eroticism, and violence among deeply flawed men and women in
morally ambiguous situations. Often drawn from hardboiled crime fiction or depictions of
social problems such as gambling or alcoholism, great examples of film noir include Citizen
Kane and Sunset Boulevard.
Screwball Comedies
Named for a physics-defying baseball pitch, screwball comedies put likeable characters in
ridiculous situations, where they behave like screwballs: erratic and unpredictable. They rely
on contrast: rich vs. poor, brainy vs. dizzy, powerful vs. powerless, and above all, male vs.
female. The early screwball comedies often featured superficial rich people brought down to
earth by the more noble and sensible ideas of the common man. The best are marked by
smooth sophistication and witty dialogue on top of plain old physical comedy. Check out It
Happened One Night or Some Like it Hot.
Science Fiction and Fantasy
One of the most varied and enduringly popular genres, sci-fi and fantasy films sometimes hew
closely to the underpinnings of scientific reality, and are sometimes works of pure imagination.
Going back to one of the earliest silent films, A Trip to the Moon, the movies have explored
space and time travel, alternate universes and realities, the microscopic world, the terrors of
science run amok and the future of humanity on Earth and among the stars. Theyve brought
us mad scientists, alien invasions and monsters from Godzilla to the Stay Puft Marshmallow
Man. For a great early film, try The Time Machine or Forbidden Planet.
Epics and Sagas
Ambitious and costly movies, epics peaked in the 50s and 60s with films like Cleopatra and
Ben Hur. Epics span genres, and often tackle sprawling war time stories, great historical
events, or multi-generational family sagas. There are epic westerns, like Once Upon a Time in
the West, and epic biographies, such as The Private Life of Henry VIII. Made with enormous
casts and city-sized sets before digital effects rendered the need for actual people moot, most
of the great epics would be prohibitively expensive today, perhaps even the all-time box office
champ, Gone With the Wind.
B-Movies
The term B-movie started out as a very straightforward definition. The B movie was simply
the second half of a double bill at the theater or drive-in. Such films were made on a shoestring
with little-known stars, and were often cheesy teen melodramas, sci-fi, horror or monster
movies. In later years, the term has come to mean any low-budget, schlocky movie made with
B-list stars although many of them transcend the genre and are enjoyable, well-made films.



And some of them are so bad theyre laugh-out-loud funny. Try a good one, The Day the Earth
Stood Still or a bad one, The Horror of Party Beach.
Movie Musicals
At their peak in the 30s, 40s and 50s, movie musicals became popular when some of the first
talkies (Hollywood films made with sound) included musical numbers and dance routines.
Movie musical styles included Busby Berkeleys Gold Digger revues with scantily clad
showgirls, light romances with hoofers like Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers, as well as films of
musical comedies and dramas first staged in live theater. And of course, classic Disney
animated films are often musicals as well. Take a look at Fred and Ginger in Top Hat, Gene
Kellys effortless charm in Singin in the Rain or the animated Snow White.
Westerns
A quintessentially American art form, westerns tell the story of the sprawling American
frontier, with the iconic characters of the west: cowboys, gunslingers, bandits, ranchers,
tycoons, saloon-keepers, floozies, settlers, Indians and military men. They span every genre.
There are silent westerns like the Great Train Robbery, singing cowboys like Gene Autry,
musical westerns like Paint Your Wagon, western spoofs like Cat Ballou, and spaghetti
westerns made in Europe like Sergio Leones The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Early westerns
tended to idealize the settlement of the west, but as the popularity of the genre declined in the
70s, films took a more jaundiced view of the treatment of the American Indian and the
violence of the Old West.
Biographies
Often called biopics, these movies tell the stories of saints and sinners, inventors and
idealists, geniuses and generals, presidents and peasants -- the real-life figures who shaped
world history. Always told with a point of view, biographies often generate controversy, and
have been known to play fast and loose with the facts. Excellent classic biopics include: Yankee
Doodle Dandy, the life of George M. Cohan, Lawrence of Arabia and Sergeant York.

Film Study Guide

AUTEUR
French for "author". Used by critics writing for Cahiers du cinema and other journals to
indicate the figure, usually the director, who stamped a film with his/her own "personality".
Opposed to "metteurs en scene" who merely transcribed a work achieved in another
medium into film. The concept allowed critics to evaluate highly works of American genre
cinema that were otherwise dismissed in favor of the developing European art cinema
Jot down examples of
Auteurs ____________________________________________________________
Metteurs en scene ___________________________________________________

EDITING
The joining together of clips of film into a single filmstrip. The cut is a simple edit but there
are many other possible ways to transition from one shot to another. Some examples:
a) transitions
Editing also works to join shots together. There are many ways of effecting that transition,
some more evident than others. In the analytical tradition, editing serves to establish space
and lead the viewer to the most salient aspects of a scene. In the classical continuity style,
editing techniques avoid drawing attention to themselves.
b) crosscutting, aka parallel editing
Editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places,
usually simultaneously. The two actions are therefore linked, associating the characters
from both lines of action.
d) dissolve
A transition between two shots during which the first image gradually disappears while the
second image gradually appears; for a moment the two images blend in superimposition.
Dissolves can be used as a fairly straighforward editing device to link any two scenes, or in
more creative ways, for instance to suggest hallucinatory states
c) cut-in, cut away
An instantaneous shift from a distant framing to a closer view of some portion of the same
space, and vice versa
City of God (Cidade de Deus, dir. Fernando Meirelles, 2002) the opening scene of
City of God has been heralded as a brilliant use of jump cutting and cutting between
two different sets of action and incredibly technical editing at its best. Can you tell
why? Watch the scene:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoNATPsOsZk#t=77

FLASHBACK/ FLASHFORWARD
A jump backwards or forwards. With the use of flashback / flashforward the order of events
in the plot no longer matches the order of events in the story.
Citizen Kane (Orson Welles, 1941) is a famous film composed almost entirely of
flashbacks and flashforwards. The film timeline spans over 60 years, as it traces the life of
Charles Foster Kane from his childhood to his deathbed -- and on into the repercussions of
his actions on the people around him.
Some characters appear at several time periods in the film, usually being interviewed in
the present and appearing in the past as they tell the reporter of their memories of Kane.
For example, Joseph Cotten, who plays Kane's best friend, is shown as an old man in a
rest home (with the help of some heavy make-up) and as a young man working with Kane
in his newspaper.
Can you think of other films in which flashbacks and flashforwards are crucial for
events in the plot? _______________________________________________________

GENRES
Types of film recognized by audiences and/or producers, sometimes retrospectively.
These types are distinguished by narrative or stylistic conventions, or merely by their
discursive organization in influential criticism. Genres are made necessary by high volume
industrial production, for example in the mainstream cinema of the U.S.A and Japan.
Thriller/Detective film: The Maltese Falcon (John Huston, 1941)
Horror film: Bride of Frankestein (John Whale, 1935)
Western: The Searchers (John Ford, 1956)
Musical: Singin' in the Rain (Stanley Donen, 1952)
Can
you
think
of
more
__________________________________________

film

genres?

Have you seen the films in the examples provided? Can you think of more
examples?

MISE-EN-SCENE/ SETTING
All the things that are "put in the scene": the setting, the decor, the lighting, the costumes,
the performance etc. Narrative films often manipulate the elements of mise-en-scene, such
as decor, costume, and acting to intensify or undermine the ostensible significance of a
particular scene.
Example Marie Antoinette (dir. Sofia Coppola, 2006)

a) story / plot
The story refers to all the audience infers about the events that occur in the diegesis on the
basis of what they are shown by the plot -- the events that are directly presented in the
film. The order, duration, and setting of those events, as well as the relation between them,
all constitute elements of the plot. Story is always more extensive than plot even in the
most straightforward drama but certain genres, such as the film noir and the thriller,
manipulate the relationship of story and plot for dramatic purposes. A film such as
Memento (Christopher Nolan, 2000) forces its audience to continually reconstruct the story
told in a temporally convoluted plot.
Can
you
think
of
_________________________

other

examples

of

convoluted

plots?

b) scene / sequence A scene is a segment of a narrative film that usually takes


place in a single time and place, often with the same characters. Scene and
sequence can usually be used interchangeably, though the latter term can also refer
to a longer segment of film that does not obey the spatial and temporal unities of a
single scene. For example, a montage sequence that shows in a few shots a
process that occurs over a period of time.

c) shot (noun) A single stream of images, uninterrupted by editing.


What is the verb related to this noun? What does it mean? _____________________

CINEMATOGRAPHY
Elements at play in the construction of a shot. As the critics at Cahiers du cinma
maintained, the "how" is as important as the "what" in the cinema. The look of an image, its
balance of dark and light, the depth of the space in focus, the relation of background and
foreground, etc. all affect the reception of the image. For instance, the shimmering
Technicolor of a musical such as Singin' in the Rain (Stanley Donen, 1952) suggests an
out-of-this-world glamor and excitement.
Colour black and white or colour? Think of examples ___________________
Can you think of a film which has been shot in black and white on purpose? What is
the effect achieved? ______________________________________________________
a) Focus
Focus refers to the degree to which light rays coming from any particular part of an object
pass through the lens and reconverge at the same point on a frame of the film negative,
creating sharp outlines and distinct textures that match the original object.
This optical property of the cinema creates variations in depth of field (the distance through
which elements in an image are in sharp focus; the extent to which the space represented
is in focus) for example, a restricted depth of field keeps only one plane in sharp focus
(foreground sharp, background blurry).

Examples:
West Side Story (gym scene:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXNZFe63brY&list=RDkokbJvSEMUY)
Citizen Kane (watch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIz_xhYK2Mo )

b) Zoom shot
The zoom shot uses a lens with several elements that allows the filmmaker to change the
focal length of the lens (see telephoto shot) while the shot is in progress. We seem to
move toward or away from the subject, while the quality of the image changes from that of
a shorter to a longer lens, or vice versa.
Example Sunset Boulevard final scene (close-up)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOLypkY8LMc

c) Framing
In one sense, cinema is an art of selection. The edges of the image create a "frame" that
includes or excludes aspects of what occurs in front of the camera -- the "profilmic event".
The expressive qualities of framing include the angle of the camera to the object, the
aspect ratio of the projected image, the relationship between camera and object, and the
association of camera with character.
Example watch this scene from Woody Allens Manhattan. In which way does framing
explain the connection of the characters to the city of New York?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gHkLSi7oEuw

SOUND EDITING
Sound in the cinema does not necessarily match the image, nor does it have to be
continuous. The sound bridge is used to ease the transition between shots in the continuity
style. Sound can also be used to reintroduce events from earlier in the story:
Example Gone in the Wind final scene
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YYj0M19Ap34)
Soundtracks are used to heighten senses as can be fully experienced in this very famous
scene of Hitchcocks Psycho http://youtu.be/8VP5jEAP3K4
Extra reading: How do film-makers manipulate our emotions with music?, BBC Arts &
Culture (http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/0/24083243

FILM REVIEWS
A. FILM REVIEWS TERMS:
1. Blurbs When a quote from a review is used in an advertisement
(ex Better than the Matrix! I would see it again and again!)
2. Critic A professional who publishes his opinion on a particular movie/
play/book
(ex Roger Ebert, Richard Roeper, Leonard Maltin, Pauline Kael)
3. Mediocre Competent but not especially outstanding
(ex The film wasnt bad and it wasnt good either, it was just mediocre
4. Clich Something thats been used so many times that it no longer
surprises or interests the audience; overexposure
(ex In a scary movie, a black cat jumps out and scares the character, but
the real danger is RIGHT BEHIND HIM/HER!)
5. Character Driven When the characters in a fictional work develop over
the course of the story into people you care about
(ex Twilight is about vampires, but more importantly, its the relationship
between the characters that makes us care about the story)
6. High-Concept When the idea behind the story is interesting enough to
get people to see the movie without knowing anything else about it
(ex A young clownfish gets kidnapped and put into an aquarium and its up
to his father and a misfit group of fish to save him {Finding Nemo})
7. Plot What the story is about
(ex Kung Fu Panda is about a clumsy, overweight panda bear who
dreams of becoming the ultimate kung fu warrior, etc {note that a plot
summary is about a paragraph long})
8. Hype Using different techniques to get the audience excited about the
story
(ex Come see Coraline in amazing 3-D! Its like nothing youve ever seen
before!)
9. Out of Context When quotes are mixed up and changed around to give
thewords a different meaning
(ex The commercial says: Roger Ebert calls The Big Crazy Movie
BRILLIANT!
What Roger Ebert really said in his review was, The Big Crazy movie could
have been BRILLIANT if the acting wasnt so terrible.
10. Puns A clever play on words
(ex Waiting to Exhale will take your breath away!)
(ex Run to the theater to see Running Scared!)

11. Editorial rights When handing over a review to a publication, the editor
has the power to create a title and cut things out of the review
(ex YOU WROTE: This movie stunk. The editor changes it to: This movie
wasnt so good.)
12. Syndication When the same article is published in more than one
newspaper or publication.
(ex The Associated Press takes one article and sells it to 300
newspapers and 1000 websites across the country)
13. Ratings system When the critic uses a scale to show the degree of how
much they recommend the movie
(ex thumbs up or four stars)
14. Audience demographics When the critic recommends that only a
certain group of people should see, or not see, the film
(ex Kids will like Madagascar, but adults will get bored.
15. Critical bias When the critic cannot review the film fairly due to a
personal problem with something in the film
(ex I hated Jaws because Im afraid of sharks.)
16. Spoilers When a critic reveals secrets and plot points that could ruin the
surprise for the audience and lessen their enjoyment of the movie.
(ex In the end of The Big Crazy Movie, John the main
character dies) Note: DONT TELL SPOILERS!!!

B. FILM REVIEWS USUALLY INCLUDE:


A title (headline for the review, sometimes including a pun)
The names of the main actors and the names of their characters
A summary of the plot of the story (without giving away the ending or including
spoilers)
A possible theme (or moral) of the story
The audience demographic or who would like the movie
The critics opinion of the movie as a whole (include details thought interesting
or awful)
A score/rating system

C. READ THE FOLLOWING REVIEWS:


a.For each review 1 and 2, identify the each of the elements described above.
Does the review include any more elements?
b.Write down a list of relevant vocabulary from each of the reviews. Which
one includes more relevant and/or technical vocabulary?
c.Which review is more accurate? Which is more effective? Why?


Tom Hanks shines in masterfully directed 'Bridge of Spies' (A-)
Oct. 15, 2015 1:00pm
Nancy Churnin
The Dallas Morning News
Bridge of Spies is a tonic in polarized times.
It's based on the true story of James Donovan, a Brooklyn lawyer who took on the case of accused
Soviet spy Rudolf Abel in 1957. Director Steven Spielberg has crafted a complex film that makes you
question the drive to demonize adversaries and, even more, to break constitutional rules to pursue
punishment.
Played with self-deprecating charm by two-time Academy Award winner Tom Hanks, Donovan is a
regular guy with a loving family, who happens to be a good insurance lawyer. With the down-home
decency of a Frank Capra-esque hero, he succeeds more than he fails because he treats people as
human beings and appeals to others to do the same.
When he takes on the thankless task of defending Abel, everyone from his family to co-workers to
strangers staring at him balefully on the subway wants him to lose and let the guy die in an electric
chair. Instead, he develops a rapport with Abel, played with masterful understatement by Mark Rylance,
a three-time Tony Award winner and TV's Wolf Hall star.
Abel, studying Donovan carefully with searching eyes, tells the story of the "sticking man" he met in
his youth - a man whose response to getting beaten was to get up until his tormentors gave up hitting
him. Donovan's deliberation on whether to become a "sticking man" and a bridge between the troubled
waters that roil between hostile countries is the question that powers the film.
When an American is captured, the CIA asks Donovan to negotiate a prisoner swap for Abel in East
Berlin. The catch is that Donovan must go as a private citizen, keep his mission secret and figure out
how to do something he's never done. Complications multiply on arrival when he learns of an
American student also being held as a bargaining chip.
The script by Matt Charman and Ethan and Joel Coen compresses events and alters details for greater
dramatization, but stays true to the heart of this remarkable tale. Masterful cuts from Abel to American
pilot Francis Gary Powers (the appealing, boyish Austin Stowell), shot down over Soviet territory,
underscore the similarities between two men trying to serve their countries.
Authentic re-creations of the period, including duck-and-cover clips about a nuclear holocaust that
frightened young students, serve as a reminder of a time, not unlike our own, when the threat of terror
kept a steady and disturbing beat.

BRIDGE OF SPIES (A-)


Directed by Steven Spielberg. PG-13 (some violence andbrief, strong language). 135 mins.



Tom McCarthy's forensic look at a newspaper expos of child abuse by the Catholic
Church is as unshowy as it is gripping
The Telegraph, 28 January 2016
Robbie Collin
Spotlight is a journalism procedural thriller in which the thrills and procedure are one and
the same thing. The excitement comes from the joining of disparate dots: a stray comment
leads to a tentative telephone call, which leads in turn to a halting conversation in a coffee
shop. Some of these leads are yet more dots, while others are the lines that link them
and over the course of two hours, you watch the bigger picture gradually and methodically
take shape.
The picture in this case is the systematic concealment by the Catholic Church in Boston of
its decades-long, state-wide dealings with almost 100 paedophile priests and McCarthys
film, a serious Best Picture contender at this years Oscars and Baftas, follows four
reporters on the citys Globe newspaper who spent two years painstakingly pinning down
the story.
Both visually and verbally, Thomas McCarthys film is almost obstinately unshowy: Aaron
Sorkin would probably nod off during the prologue. But much like All The Presidents
Men which is, of course, a significant and unavoidable influence Spotlight finds a
thrilling and absorbing anti-glamour in journalistic spadework, and the tactile movement of
analogue information through filing cabinets and photocopiers.
Some scenes dont consist of much more than Michael Keaton and Mark Ruffalo
scratching their three-day stubble in a tatty basement office but actors like Keaton and
Ruffalo scratching three-day stubble is exactly what this kind of film should be all about.
Those
two
actors play
Walter
Robby
Robinson,
the
editor
of
the
Globes Spotlight investigations team and Mike Rezendes, its star reporter: their
colleagues are Sacha Pfeiffer, played by Rachel McAdams with a compelling, rabbity
alertness, and veteran hack Eric MacLeish, played by the theatre actor Brian dArcy James.
The different roles the foursome play in the gathering of evidence are carefully delineated.
Robby, a dyed-in-the-wool Bostonian, knows best how to navigate the forces of the
establishment the courts, law enforcement and church, all arcanely interconnected
while Pfeiffer and MacLeish knock doors, wheedling, charming and cajoling assistance
from members of the public.
In a superb, subtly realised sequence, McCarthy cuts between two of the teams interviews
with abuse victims. The crossing back and forth reveals the shared patterns of grooming,
but also the horrible specificity of every victims story.
When I first saw Spotlight at the Venice Film Festival last year, I couldnt resist picking
favourites from its capable cast. And it was Ruffalo who jumped out, all but literally: his
Rezendes is like a humanoid West Highland terrier, scampering into rooms to quickly get
the measure of them, ears pricked, nose twitching and wet. He gives a brilliantly calibrated
physical portrayal of a born investigator in one scene, when he arrives in a lawyers office,

he even scrutinises the chair in the foyer before warily taking a seat.
Awards voters must have been similarly charmed, because over the last few weeks its
Ruffalos name that has kept popping up on nominations lists (though McAdams has also
been nominated by the Academy, for Best Supporting Actress). But Ive since realised
that Spotlights great strength is in the way it defies being chopped up into component
parts to its core this is an ensemble movie, with characters who harmonise like the
ingredients in a satisfying meal.
Stanley Tucci, playing a lawyer whos building a class action against the Church, is like a
fiery mouthful of ginger: now you wouldnt want four courses of only ginger, but pair him
with Ruffalo and both actors add depth and savour to each others performances.
Keaton might be the prime example of this. He does far quieter work here than in Birdman,
only once breaking into that nervous, elbows-out quick-march that carried him through that
film. But Liev Schreiber also gives a wonderfully underplayed turn as the Globes new
editor, Marty Baron, an unmarried Jew from Florida and therefore the living definition of a
Boston outsider.
Marty reads a column about historic child abuse in the paper one weekend and asks why a
fuller inquiry into the subject has never been carried out. No-one can tell him, although the
reason is slowly unveiled as the film proceeds: on some dark and unspoken level, no-one
wanted to find out.
McCarthys needle-sharp screenplay, co-written with Josh Singer, wafts the mugginess of
moral compromise over the case, and the entire city by extension. If it takes a village to
raise a child, Tuccis lawyer points out, it takes a village to abuse one.
McCarthys early films marked him out as a craftsman of mature and thoughtful dramas
Richard Jenkins, who was Oscar-nominated for his performance in McCarthys 2007 film
The Visitor, has a talismanic voice-only role here as a vital source. After his misfiring Adam
Sandler comedy, The Cobbler, Spotlight almost qualifies as a comeback: either way, its a
significant step up.
Theres no tidy moral to take away here, which is, I think, entirely right: a story like this
shouldnt end in comfort. Instead, it leaves your skin prickling both at the despicable
business of secret-keeping, and the courage and resourcefulness that rivetingly overturns
it.

Hoop Dreams: Control Your Destiny



Twelve years ago, I was flipping through the channels and became frustrated that the only
thing on ESPN was curling. I finally got to a channel where a young looking man was talking
about his son playing basketball. I had stumbled on the film Hoop Dreams. Little did I know
how much that film would impact my life. For the next two and a half hours I became
mesmerized by the story of two families struggling to survive. I saw their triumphs and
failures, I witnessed their ups and downs but most of all I saw a story of their resilience and a
window into a world I had never known. I was taken aback by the aspect of WILL. I love
spelling that out in capital letters, will that is. It is the x factor. If you can inspire someone
with will, anything is possible. Hoop Dreams, starring Arthur Agee and William Gates did that
for me.

Many have come appreciate the film Hoop Dreams as one of the most poignant films of our
time. The film captures so many facets of the challenges of our society and offers hope to all. I
bought a copy of Hoop Dreams and every few years, Id welcome the opportunity to view the
film again. The will of both families and of both boys consistently reminded not to give up or
aim too high. A lesson I kept remembering.

Ten years later I stood silently at Tucson International Airport anticipating the moment.
Where was he? I was about to meet Arthur Agee, the star of Hoop Dreams. I had developed a
lesson plan (curriculum) for kids about the importance of education and how it affects the rest
of their lives. Remembering the impact Hoop Dreams has had on me over the years, I decided
to tie the film and its message into my curriculum. After delivering the lesson a couple of
times I found that many of the kids had responded rather well to the film, but I realized that
having one of the films stars come and speak to the kids would make the whole experience
that much more valuable for the students. Following up on this idea, I used the internet to find
contact information for Arthur Agee and I arranged for him to come to Tucson. When he
finally came off the plane I pointed and smiled, he smiled back and we introduced ourselves to
each other. It was like talking to an old friend I had just spoken with yesterday. Needless to
say Arthurs visit to Tucson went very well. He spoke to several groups of kids who had
previously participated in an abbreviated version of the curriculum. Two things struck me as I
watched Arthur speak. First, the ability to watch a film about someone and then meet them in
person has a strange affect on children. All of a sudden their willingness to learn is increased.
The second thing was even more amazing. Children who have seen Hoop Dreams immediately
trust Arthur. He doesnt have to prove himself, build a rapport, or develop a teacher-student
relationship to gain their trust. The film itself is enough. I feel all educators wish for that.

Last year during a subsequent trip to Tucson, Arthur and I and came to the conclusion that the
curriculum was something that could be done in all schools. I knew it was a good program,
but I thought trying to have it go national was a little ambitious. I suppose Arthurs WILL
prevailed once again. Theres a surprise.
Paul Cunningham, April, 2007

A World of its own


Many describe the world of movies as a world unto itself. Many stars, directors and producers
seem to invent an image for themselves overnight and once invented they can only survive
through the publicity and public interest they generate. A brief look through the archives of film
folklore indicates just how far people in the movies are prepared to go to get to keep an audience.
Appealing to the senses
The first film to come complete with appropriate smells was Behind the Great Wall (US 1959), a
wide-screen travelogue about China. Featuring the new wonder phenomenon of Aromarama, a
process which involved circulating the various scents through the cinemas ventilating system, the
film was premiered at the DeMille Theatre, New York, on 2 December 1959. It was accompanied
by a range of 72 smells including oranges, spices incense, smoke, burning tar and a barnyard of
geese.
Watching a film where it was shot
The premiere of The Incredible Mr. Limpet (US 1964) was held underwater. The story of a man
who was transformed into a fish, it was shown by Warner Bros on the ocean floor with the help of a
submerged screen at Weeki Wachi, Florida. An invited audience of 250 sat in a glass tank 6m
(20ft) below the surface.
An extravagant waste of time and money
To ensure the accuracy of his epic Cleopatra (US), released in 1934, Cecil B, DeMille dispatched a
team led by art director William Cameron Menzies to Egypt to study the colour of the Pyramids.
The trip cost $100,000. Menzies visited a total of 92 pyramids and reported back to DeMille that
the pyramids were indeed the colour expected sandy brown. What made the expedition all the
more pointless was that the film was made in black and white.
Making changes to screen partners
At less than 1.75cm (5ft 9in) tall, American screen hero Alan Ladd presented a problem to the
Hollywood studios. If his leading lady was tall, the studio countered the height difference either by
ordering a hold to be dug for her to stand in during romantic scenes or by building a small platform
for Ladd.
Feeling the part at all costs
When Austrian director Erich von Stroheim made The Merry-Go-Round (US 1923) he had the
guardsman extras dressed in pure silk underclothes monogrammed with the emblem of Austrias
Imperial Guard. Although the garments were not visible, von Stroheim maintained they helped the
actors to feel part of the Hapsburg dynasty.
Sounding right
Lauren Bacalls voice had to be dubbed for the singing scenes in To Have and Have Not (US 1944)
but because she had such a deep speaking voice, no suitable female singer could be found. The
problem was solved by using a male singer instead.
Having to be seen
Clara Bow, the It girl of Hollywood silent movies, had the fur of her two Chow dogs dyed to match
the colour of her own flaming red hair. The trio would ride around Hollywood in the actresss
sumptuous limousine, also painted red on her orders.
Reading Comprehension
1. Explain what was so fascinating about the premiere of Behind the Great Wall in 1959.
2. Describe in your own words why a hole had to be dug for Ladds leading lady to stand in?
3. Do you feel that the titles are appropriate for the situations described? Justify.
4. In your own opinion and based on the episodes you have just read, do you believe that
Hollywood needs to be so extravagant or is it simply too much?

Film Genres and Film Ratings

Film genres: Three main types are often used to categorize film genres; setting, mood, and
format.
The film's location is defined as the setting.
The emotional charge carried throughout the film is known as its mood.
The film may also be presented in a specific manner, it's the format.
Setting
Crime: places its character within the realm of criminal activity
Historical: taking place in the past amidst notable historical circumstances.
Science fiction: a setting or plot defined by the effects of speculative (not yet existing)
technology (i.e. future space travel, cyberpunk, time travel).
Sports: sporting events and locations pertaining to a given sport.
Teen: usually revolving around the usual conflicts of teenagers.
War: battlefields and locations pertaining to a time of war.
Westerns: wilderness on the verge of civilization, usually in the American West.
Mood
Action: generally involves a moral interplay between "good" and "bad" played out
through violence or physical force.
Adventure: involving danger, risk, and/or chance, often with a high degree of fantasy.
Comedy: intended to provoke laughter.
Drama: mainly focuses on character development, often in situations which are familiar
to a general audience.
Fantasy: speculative fiction outside reality (i.e. myth, legend).
Horror: intended to provoke fear in the audience.
Mystery: the progression from the unknown to the known by discovering and solving a
series of clues.
Romance: dwelling on the elements of romantic love.
Thrillers: intended to provoke excitement and/or nervous tension into audience.
Format
Live action: The most common format of films.
Animation: the rapid display of a sequence of 2-D artwork or model positions in order to
create an illusion of movement.
Biography - also known as "biopic", a format that tells the story of a true story of a
historic figure or an inspirational story about real people.
Documentary: when reality.is filmed
Musical: songs are sung by the characters and interwoven into the narrative.
Film Ratigns: motion picture rating systems:

ADVERTISING

TALKING ABOUT ADVERTISING




Text A:
Extract from the web site of the Advertising Federation of Australia

The advertising industry is good at celebrating creativity. And so it should be. Creative ideas are our stock
in trade. They are our competitive edge. But, in pursuing creativity, we should not lose sight of the fact
that advertising is a business tool that should be measured by its ability to contribute to the achievement
of business goals. The purpose of the AFA Advertising Effectiveness Awards is to recognise and reward
campaigns that have proven commercial outcomes.


Text B:
Statement by John Singleton, prominent Australian advertising executive

An advertisement is a paid-for piece of communication intended to influence or inform people.



Text C:
Extract from the book Media: An English Approach by Sean Monahan

Since advertising is a powerful, persuasive force in society, it is important for students to become aware of
how its language and visual symbolism seek to influence them. Advertising is the poetry of mass media,
offering many opportunities to enjoy the fertile playfulness of language. The (second) aim of the unit is to
have students working with advertisements in ways that will increase their understanding (and
enjoyment)
of the powers of word play, connotation and symbol.

Text D:

Quote from Dr James Twitchell in Smithsonian, April, 2000

Often advertising is not about keeping up with the Joneses, but about separating you from them. Thats
especially true of advertising directed at a particular group, such as adolescents or young adults. Its
called dog whistle advertising because it goes out at frequencies only dogs can hear.

Text E:

Extract from Concepts in Commerce by S Chapman, M Freak, and S Ross

Which current advertisement has most impressed you? What product is it advertising: soft drink, food,
clothes, a car or something else? Why did it impress you? You can probably answer these questions
without too much thought. This is because you have been influenced by advertising. Every day you are
exposed to hundreds of advertisements. Everywhere you look producers are trying to sell us things. In
Australia, businesses spend approximately $4 billion a year on all forms of advertising.
Advertising has been around for a long time. Your grandparents may have been influenced by this old
commercial. The style of advertisements may have changed over the years but their purpose remains the
same. Persuasive advertisements are used to entice the consumer into buying a particular product or
brand. One


brand will compete against a number of other brands. The advertiser hopes to sell more of the product
and increase the profits of the business.

Most advertisements are correct in what they say. Those advertisements that make false claims are
breaking the law and will be prohibited. However, what the advertisement does not tell us is often of more
interest to consumers.
As consumers we need to be aware of the power of advertising. The advertised product may not make us
more successful, glamorous, sexier, happier, healthier or wealthier!




Text F:

Extract from the book The Essence of Capitalism: The origins of our future, by Humphrey Macqueen

Mind control

For firms to expand by creating new markets, they had to colonise the minds of their domestic
populations . One prerequisite was to overcome peoples faith in thrift by advancing debt and
indulgence as virtues. The promotion of each branded commodity stimulated a generalized appeal to
want more. Buying a Chevrolet on hire purchase nourished the mentality in which it was right and
proper to enjoy more Cokes. The 1950s master of of Motivational Research, Dr Earnest Dichter,
advised:

In the promotion and advertising of many items, nothing is more important than to
encourage this tendency to greater inner freedom and to give moral permission to enjoy
life through the use of an item, whether it is good food, a speedboat, a radio set, or a
sports jacket.

To convince people to buy what they had never thought of needing, advertisers at first replaced
religious inhibition with secular guilt . Once customers felt the lack of something other than Jesus in
their lives, advertising could offer them redemption. In the 1920s, soap manufactures had funded a
Cleanliness Institute, which reinterpreted the maxim that cleanliness was next to godliness as meaning
that families should bathe more often than on Saturday. Listerine had been sold only to hospitals until
1926, when its owner diagnosed halitosis as a social disease. One of the founders of behaviourism, ex-
professor John Broadus Watson, joined the J Walter Thompson advertising agency where he advised a
campaign for Johnsons baby powder. In a 1925 lecture, he explained how he increased its sales by
making the mother who did not use it feel bad, that she was less of a mother, not really a good
mother.
Advertisers raided every school of psychology. Freuds lectures on Psychoanalysis, published in New
York in 1922, diffused the idea that humans were not wholly rational and so were amenable to
suggestion.
Had Freud analysed the good life as portrayed in corporate advertising, he would have recoiled from
its embrace of instant gratification Advertising has suffused every layer of consciousness with
encouragements to consume until we inhabit a super-saturated solution of purchase signals.
Advertisements alter consciousness, yet leave each generation believing that its appetites are natural.


IDEOLOGY

According to The Macquarie dictionary (1987, p. 867), ideology is the body of doctrine, myth and
symbols of a social movement, institution, class, or large group.

Consider the following statements about the texts you have read and discussed.
List each of the texts in the appropriate column next to each statement.
Be prepared to justify your choices to the class.

Texts which
Texts which do not
Texts which you
Statement
support this
statement

Advertising provides
consumers with
essential information
and therefore greater
choice.
Advertising is above
all a business, designed
to make money for
those who make the
advertisements and
those who have them
made.
Advertising is essential
to our society.
Advertising ensures
that we all enjoy a
higher standard of
living.
Advertising is designed
to convince us to buy
things we dont need.
Advertisers are
dishonest in the sense
that they offer us false
images of products.
Advertising has
replaced religion in our
society in offering us
hope for the future.
Advertising is exciting
and innovative.
Advertising is
dangerous.
Advertising is another
word for brain
washing.
Advertising gives
consumers power and
control.
Advertising is
something we need to
be informed about.

support the
statement

are unable to
place

Finding Culture and Creativity in Advertising


By Emily Study,SoC Website Reporter
(http://www.luc.edu/soc/homenews/cultureandcreativityinadvertising.shtml)
While some may think creativity can only be found in paintings and drawings, Assistant Professor
Pamela Morris found it somewhere else.
When I got into advertising, I found out that you can be creative in ideas and in business and you
can have a career of it, and you dont necessarily need to be the one drawing the pictures, said
Morris, who teaches advertising and integrated marketing in the School of Communication (SoC).
With nearly 20 years of experience in the advertising industry, Morris has worked at top agencies,
produced hundreds of television commercials and spent countless hours researching specific
topics in the advertising realm.
One of these topics the connection between a societys culture and its advertising images has
been a particular focus of Morris several research papers.
I like to understand how groups of people make meaning and why they behave and do the things
that they do, Morris said. In advertising, when you learn about a target audience, youre trying to
get inside their heads. Youre trying to learn everything about them so that you can somehow get your
message across to them.
Morris recently submitted a 38-page research paper investigating how different cultures illustrate
women on outdoor billboards. The paper, submitted to the Journal of Asian Communication, is
called, Comparing Portrayals of Beauty in Outdoor Advertisements Across Six Cultures: Bulgaria,
Hong Kong, Japan, Poland, South Korea and Turkey.
This past summer, Morris spent time traveling to each of these countries, researching the cultures
and analyzing their advertisements.
I took a bunch of pictures while I was over there very systematically; I walked up and down busy
streets in urban areas that were recommended to me by area experts, Morris said. I spent about
the same amount of time in each place, then I came back and I took all the images with women
and I started to code them in a content analysis.
In order to quantify her results and make meaning out of them, Morris analyzed whether the
advertisements showed only womens faces, their faces and some of their bodies, or if they
showed womens full bodies. In addition, Morris also noted whether the ads portrayed local or
foreign models, specifically Caucasian or Asian models.
Then, with the help of experts from each country, Morris translated the words on the
advertisements so she knew what products they were representing, and coded the ads so as to
find statistical differences among the images.
In this way, Morris was able to determine what beauty styles the advertisements portrayed
whether the women were classified as classic, sensual/sex kitten, cute girl-next-door, trendy,
models, decorative/ambiguous or women in occupations.
In Japan and South Korea, they are very heavy in being portrayed as decorative or ambiguous.
They also look very cute girl-next-door or classic, Morris said. Then in Bulgaria and Poland, the
women are never portrayed as decorative or ambiguous, but they are portrayed as sensual/sex
kitten.
Morris hypothesized and discovered that these portrayals of women are strongly connected to the
culture of each society where the advertisements are located. For example, in Japan and South
Korea, Morris said the culture is very patriarchal, which gives way to the cute or
decorative/ambiguous classifications of women in the countries advertisements. In Turkey, on the
other hand, Morris said there were hardly any women in advertisements, possibly because of the
Muslim population there.
Echoing the research she has done, Morris said she hopes students who take her classes
ultimately leave with a broader understanding of culture in the world.
I think that advertising is a real general major, because you have to study other cultures to
understand target audiences, you have to understand communication and you have to be creative.
You can apply those to anything you go into, she said.

BARTHES AND MYTHOLOGY


By Chris Barker Cultural Studies: theory and practice (pp 79, 80 abridged)
Roland Barthes argues that we can talk of two systems of signification: denotation and connotation.

Denotation is the descriptive and literal level of meaning shared by virtually all members
of a culture. Thus, pig denotes the concept of a useful pink farm animal with a snout and
curly tail, etc.

Connotation involves meanings that are generated by connecting signifiers to wider


cultural concepts. Here, meaning involves the association of signs with other cultural codes
of meaning. Thus, pig may connote nasty police officer or male chauvinist according to the
sub-codes or lexicons at work.

Connotation concerns meanings that multiply up from a given sign. Thus a single sign becomes
loaded with many meanings. The expressive value of connotation can arise from the cumulative
force of a sequence of signs. However, it more usually arises by comparison with absent alternatives.
Where connotations have become naturalized, that is, as accepted as normal and natural, they act
as conceptual maps of meaning by which to make sense of the world. These are myths.
Though myths are cultural constructions, they may appear to be pre-given universal truths
embedded in common sense. Myths are thus akin to the concept of ideology, which, it is argued,
works at the level of connotation. Indeed, Volosinov (1973) was to argue that the domain of
ideology corresponds to the field of signs. Where there are signs, so here is ideology.
For Barthes, myth is a second-order semiological system or metalanguage. It is a second language
that speaks about a first-level language.

Myth Today
In his essay Myth Today, Barthes gives an often quoted example of the work of signification, myth
and ideology. The example refers to the cover of the French magazine Paris Match, featuring a
young black soldier in French military uniform saluting the tricolour. His eyes are cast upward
towards the French flag. On the denotative level this can be read as a black soldier salutes the
French flag. However, the repertoire of cultural codes available to Barthes and his contemporaries
(which included French colonial history and their military involvement in Algiers) allowed them to
interpret the image in a more ideological way. For Barthes, the connotations of the images suggest
the loyalty of black French subjects to the French flag. In this way, the picture undermines criticism
of French imperial activity. As Barthes explains:

I am at the barbers and a copy of Paris Match


is offered to me. On the cover, a young Negro
in a French uniform is saluting, with his eyes
uplifted, probably fixed on the fold of the
tricolour. All this is the meaning of the picture.
But, whether naively or not, I see very well
what it signifies to me: that France is a great
Empire, that all her sons, without colour
discrimination, faithfully serve under the flag,
and that there is no better answer to
detractors of an alleged colonialism than the
zeal shown by this Negro in serving his socalled oppressors (Barthes, 1972: 125-6).

According to Barthes, myth and ideology work by naturalizing the contingent interpretations of
historically specific persons. That is, myth makes particular world views appear to be unchallengeable
because natural or God-given. Myth has the task of giving an historical intention a natural
justification and making contingency appear eternal (ibid.: 155). In another analysis, Barthes
describes a French language advert thus:
Here we have a Panzani advertisement:
some packets of pasta, a tin, a sachet, some
tomatoes, onions, peppers, a mushroom, all
emerging from a half-open string bag, in
yellows and greens on a red background
(Barthes, 1977: 33).

In his subsequent analysis, Barthes differentiates between


A linguistic code: the French language, the Panzani label;

A visual code: a half-open bag which lets the provisions spill out over the table.

He reads the visual code as a return from the market, with the overflowing supplies acting as a
signifier that implies freshness and domestic preparation. A second sign brings together the tomato,
the pepper and the tricoloured hues (yellow, green, red) of the poster (ibid.:34). This signifies Italy or
rather Italianicity of the image.)
Polysemic Signs
Instead of having one stable denotative meaning, signs are said by the later Barthes to be polysemic.
That is, signs carry many potential meanings. Consequently, texts can be interpreted in a number of
different ways. Meaning requires the active involvement of readers and the cultural competencies they
bring to bear on the text-image. It is the readers of texts who temporally fix meaning for particular
purposes. Thus, interpretation of texts depends on readers cultural repertoire and knowledge of
special codes. These are differentially distributed along the lines of class, gender, nationality, etc.

Stereotype: A fixed, commonly held notion or image of a person or group, based on an oversimplification of
some observed or imagined trait of behaviour or appearance.

What is a Stereotype?
Stereotypes are as old as human culture itself. They reflect ideas that groups of people hold about others who are
different from them.
A stereotype can be embedded in single word or phrase (such as, "jock" or "nerd"), an image, or a combination of
words and images. The image evoked is easily recognized and understood by others who share the same views.
Stereotypes can be either positive ("black men are good at basketball") or negative ("women are bad drivers"). But
most stereotypes tend to make us feel superior in some way to the person or group being stereotyped. Stereotypes
ignore the uniqueness of individuals by painting all members of a group with the same brush.
Stereotypes can appear in the media because of the biases of writers, directors, producers, reporters and editors. But
stereotypes can also be useful to the media because they provide a quick identity for a person or group that is easily
recognized by an audience. When deadlines loom, it's sometimes faster and easier to use a stereotype to characterize a
person or situation, than it is to provide a more complex explanation.

The Role of Stereotypes in the News
Although most journalists try to be objective and factual in reporting events, there is no such thing as a news story
without a point of view. Every news story is influenced by the attitudes and backgrounds of the reporters,
photographers and editors who select and edit the images and information they offer us.
Bias can be unintentional or deliberate, depending on the motives of news gatherers and the sources of information
they rely on.
Most reporters and editors are adults who, naturally, see the world from an adult's point of view.
They may also assume that their audiences are mostly adults who share similar views. Age-related bias may influence
how much importance they attach to issues concerning young people, and the angle they take on such issues.
Stereotypes can be a side effect of tight deadlines. Reporters for daily newspapers or news shows often have to
research, write and present a story in one working day. They may not have time to present several sides of an issue.
They may need a quick, convenient, pre-packaged image, and a stereotypical word or headline can provide that.
Because the news industry is under pressure to attract readers and viewers, it has to produce stories that are compelling,
short and easily understandable to a general audience. By using stereotypes, a complex issue involving people with
complex motives can be reduced to a simple conflict between "good guys" and "bad guys." This can happen when the

55

media try to make real events appear more dramatic, or when a situation needs to be explained in a 10-second sound
bite.
In the search for images and stories that will attract audiences, the media tend to focus on issues of crime, violence,
tragedy and disaster. (Check the local TV news to see how much coverage they give to what the police and fire
departments did today!) While car crashes and shootings are sure-fire attention grabbers, a steady diet of these images
can give us a distorted view of what goes on in the world. The negative slant of the news means that when young
people (and members of other minority groups) do appear in the headlines, it is most often in the context of crime,
drugs, violence, death, or some other alarming issue.

Youth Stereotyping and Its Impact
Stereotypes of a group of people can affect the way society views them, and change society's
expectations of them. With enough exposure to a stereotype, society may come to view it as
a reality rather than a chosen representation.
The media can be a powerful tool in creating or reinforcing stereotypes. An example is the
public perception that youth crime is on the rise, or out of control.
This impression has been created largely through media coverage of alarming stories about high school shootings,
property crimes, and incidents involving so-called youth gangs.
Statistics tell a different story. According to Statistics Canada, incidences of youth homicide have been on the decrease
for years. There were 30 youths accused of homicide in 2001 - the lowest level in over 30 years and 18 fewer than the
average of 48 over the past decade.
Between 1987 and 1997, the rate of youth charged with property offences, the most common kind of youth
crime, dropped steadily.
Prompted by sensational headlines, politicians and lobby groups have called for tougher measures to deal with young
offenders and to combat a perceived increase in youth crime. This despite the fact that young offenders already receive
stiffer jail sentences in certain cases than adults who commit similar crimes (Statistics Canada, 2000).
One youth from Montreal, aged 15, sums up the feelings of many teens: "Today's youths are intelligent but some
adults don't seem to think so. We are people too. Youths are discriminated against and that's not right. To get through
to young people, you have to listen to them, trust them, and respect them. The way I look and the music I listen to does
not make me a "bad" person. I am my own person." (Canada's Teens: Today, Yesterday, and Tomorrow)

56

ADVERTISING STANDARDS AUTHORITY ASA


When was the ASA established?
The ASA, the independent UK advertising watchdog, was established in 1962 by the
advertising industry in order to adjudicate on complaints about non-broadcast
advertising.
In November 2004, the communications regulator, Ofcom, contracted out day-to-day
responsibility for regulating TV and radio ads to the ASA.
What are the ASAs responsibilities?
The ASA is responsible for regulating the content of advertisements, sales promotions
and direct marketing in the UK. We make sure advertising standards are kept high by
administering the Advertising Codes. The ASA responds to concerns from members of
the public and industry about advertisements that may be misleading, harmful or
offensive. By independently administering the Advertising Codes we aim to maintain
consumer trust in advertising and a level-playing field amongst business.
What do the Codes cover?
The non-broadcast Advertising Code applies to advertisements across media including
newspapers, magazines, billboards, posters, leaflets, mailings, e-mails and texts.
The TV Advertising Standards Code applies to the content and scheduling of television
advertisements, and the content of text services and interactive TV.
The Radio Advertising Standards Code applies to radio advertisements.

Who are ASA Council?


ASA Council is the body that adjudicates on complaints about advertisements. They
make the final decision on whether ads breach the Codes. ASA Council is made up of
15 people, appointed by the ASA Chairman, with two-thirds of the members
independent of the advertising industry.
What are the ASAs powers?
Our primary sanction is to have advertisements that we judge to be in breach of
the Codes withdrawn and prevent them from appearing again. In the vast majority of
cases advertisers agree to withdraw their ads following an upheld ASA ruling. For nonbroadcast advertising, on the rare occasions that an advertiser refuses to comply with
an ASA ruling the CAP (Committee of Advertising Practice) impose further sanctions to
bring to bring them into line.


57

TED talk: social media, advertising and gender


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZR4LdnFGzPk#t=26

QUIZ
1. According to the professor, all of the following are examples of media EXCEPT
Television and radio
Publishing and games
Movies and cars
2. According to the professor psychographics
is a wildly popular and effective means of advertising
was invented in the United States in a show called "Mad Men"
is a type of detailed psychological profile of consumers that was invented in the 1960s
3. According to the professor, social media allows us to
lie about our age and connect to people with similar interests more easily
watch television without any of the commercials
escape the stress of everyday life
4. Using social media, people most easily can be grouped by
Age
Gender
Interests
5. The professor predicts that the domination of social media by women will result in
Businesses spending more money to research and reach male consumers
Changes in assumptions about genres and preferences
An increase in the number of movies with female stars
6. According to the professor, studying a person's preferences regarding entertainment
can
Explain why some people are more successful in business than others
Tell us a lot of information about their political beliefs and their health
Verify a persons level of education

58

Advertising Vocabulary Quiz


Fill in the blanks
1. Nicolas whispered to Christophe: "We're losing the account. Show the _________ the
special effects alone will make 'em buy the campaign."
A. circulation
B. clip
C. buzz
D. plug
E. product placement
2. We have to _____________________ the luxury angle. Let's try to associate this car with
the jet set.
A. jingle
B. announce
C. motto
D. slogan
E. hype
3. Famroy thinks we should reconsider avertising in Wired Magazine. He feels that their
____________________ is dropping.
A. circulation
B. clip
C. buzz
D. plug
E. product placement
4. "Put ________________________in the want ads." said Claire. "If we don't find a
copywriter soon, I'll be doing the writing!" Everyone in the room groaned.
A. a jingle
B. an announce
C. a motto
D. a slogan
E. a hype
5. "Do you think that Perrier is willing to foot the bill for _____________________ in
another Bond flic?" asked Delphine.
A. circulation
B. clip
C. buzz
D. plug
E. product placement


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6. Usually I like the music in Rehana's commercials, but I find her latest _________ to be
really irritating!" " I think that's the idea." replied Julien.
A. jingle
B. announce
C. motto
D. slogan
E. hype
7. "The Chanel campaign is really hot!" exclaimed Gwen. " There is a lot of
__________________on the streets about the new perfume.
A. circulation
B. clip
C. buzz
D. plug
E. product placement
8. Is IBM's long time one word ___________________________: "THINK!" still relevant in
today's world? How does it help or hinder the corporate culture?
A. jingle
B. announce
C. motto
D. slogan
E. hype
9. "The Black and Decker account is complaining. We've got to drum up some business." yelled
Pierre from the back room. "Why don't we ______________________ their tools with radio
spots at sporting events? That always works well." he concluded.
A. circulation
B. clip
C. buzz
D. plug
E. product placement
10. As a ______________________ in what sense does Coca Cola's "Things go better with
Coke!" function. In other words does it work for you and why?
A. jingle
B. announce
C. motto
D. slogan
E. hype

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Ideology & Advertising


Ideology a concept developed by Karl Marx to explore how ideas are diffused through and
(more usually) imposed on society by the controlling power. You should be familiar with this
concept, and that of hegemony.
When advertising is examined on an ideological basis (rather than simply deconstructing
advertisements or evaluating how the industry works) it can be viewed as corrupt, unethical, and
oppressive. Advertising is seen as the tool of the evil corporations and their globally dominant
brands. Advertising is responsible for our "Me! Me! More! More!" materialistic society,
continually creating and feeding consumer hunger. Ad agencies can be seen as cynical
exploiters who are quite happy to manipulate and mislead their fellow humans on a daily basis.
There are several general ideological aspects of the study and criticism of advertising:
1. Implied Behavioural Normalcy & Problem Reduction
If you don't have/do/look like this then you are aberrant, not normal, and you should be anxious
that you do not BELONG (Maslow). Implied behavioural normalcy is one technique for the top
down imposition of hegemonic norms (eg: shiny hair, clear spot AND wrinkle-free skin.
Once an advertisement has established that you deviate from Implied Behavioural Normalcy,
then the opportunity for Problem Reduction is presented. Key examples are personal hygiene
ads (mouthwash, deodorant, panty liners etc).

2. Market Consciousness
In the good old days, we had awareness of the process of manufacture, and how produce
arrived at the point of purchase for our consumption. Nowadays, this has been replaced by only
awareness of the point of exchange there are no reminders of our working life in advertising,
unless they focus on nostalgia (eg Jack Daniels), or idealistic representation. Therefore
advertising denies the existence of mass production, poor working conditions, child labour,
pollutant by-products, unecological distribution techniques etc.
It helps us ignore that profit is the result of the exploitation of labour and the artificial inflation of
product value. This is particularly important to large corporations who provide us with the end
product of cash crops such as Coffee, Chocolate or Tobacco and who exploit third world labour
and land for their profit and our supposed pleasure. Perhaps you should only buy coffee and
chocolate bearing the Fair Trade sticker? Those who support advertising say that it increases
market consciousness by providing us with extended consumer choice and product awareness.

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Advertising can be said to have an accumulative effect through the constant bombardment we
receive of exotic images of consumption and enjoyment. Few consumers have more than a
hazy concept of how products are made or where their components come from. Therefore we
have no real idea of the true cost of these artifacts, and are easily persuaded to pay the asking
price.

3. Individuals & Group


A lot of advertising may be considered paradoxical in that it appeals to us as individuals, to our
individual tastes and our desire to stand out from the crowd, by asking us to join a group. The
group being the owners of mass-produced items. A lot of advertising emphasises individuality
as being based on superiority "get ahead" "special","stand out", "unique", when the main benefit
they are stressing is membership of a club of owners. Sports shoes advertisements focus on
winners Adidas have run campaigns to suggest that wearers of their shoes go further and
faster than other runners. This is also true of wristwatch adverts, where the wearing of a
prestigious brand confers certain attributes on its owner. Therefore advertising promotes a
society of competitive individuals, who labour under the illusion that the possession of certain
consumer goods makes them better than their fellows.
4. Meaning Transfer
Most advertising is about linking a particular product or brand to a particular set of qualities or
benefits in the consumer's mind. This linkage is often achieved through juxtaposition the
simple imposition of the qualities on the product, in the hope that the consumer will make that
connection themselves. This is a process known as aestheticization, carried out through
similarity, metaphor and contiguity.
The second stage of meaning transfer is that the qualities will shift from the product to the
consumer once they have bought it. The consumer is therefore aestheticized too.
Basically, this means that we define who we are by what we own and advertising is the route
through which we gain a particular identity.
Remember that ownership has nothing to do with production these days. You may possess a
"beautifully handcrafted rocking chair" but all you did was hand over some $$$$. Anyone can do
that. In pre-mass-production times the owner of a beautifully handcrafted rocking chair might
well be supposed to have crafted it themself. Therefore, if you saw such a chair in someone's
front room, you would have attributed to them the qualities of skill, patience, taste, determination
etc.
http://www.mediaknowall.com/as_alevel/Advertising

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ADVERTISING VOCABULARY
1. What makes a good advertisement? Use some of the words below.
clever

interesting

shocking

informative

funny
sexy

powerful humorous
inspiring

eye-catching

2. Do you think that the advertising practices described below are acceptable?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Are there any other types of advertisement that you find offensive?
Using children in advertisements
Using nudity in advertisements
Promoting alcohol on TV
Comparing your products to your competitors products
An image flashed onto a screen very quickly so that people are affected without noticing it
(subliminal advertising)

3. Which of the following statements do you agree with?


1. People remember advertisements not products.
2. Advertising raises prices.
3. Advertising has a bad influence on children.
4. What do you understand by outdoor advertising? Give examples.
5. Pre- reading exercise
Before you read the article below, match these words to their definitions.
1. segments
2. soaring
3. mass market
4. TV slot

a. a place in television shedule


b. rising quickly
c. concerned with non-luxury goods that sell in large quantities
d. parts of a larger market or category of costumers

6.Complete this statement with the words above.


The cost of a prime- time........................is........................However, advertising on.......................is cheap.
Outdoor advertising is one of the fastest growing.........................................in the market.

7. Read the article and fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.
Outdoor advertising A breath of fresh air.
The world of outdoor advertising billboards, transport and street furniture (things like bus shelters and
public toilets) - is worth about $18 billion a year, just 6% of all the worlds spending on advertising. But
it is one of the fastest- growing ____________________________, having doubled its market share in

63

recent years. ___________________ advertisings appeal is growing as TV and print are losing theirs.
The
_________________________ costs of TV are prompting clients to consider alternatives. Dennis
Sullivan, boss of Portland Group, a media buyer, calls outdoor advertising the last true
____________________ medium. It is also cheap. In Britain, a 30- second prime- time TV
______________________

costs

over

60

000

($100

000);

placingan

ad

on

bus

______________________ for two weeks works out at about 90. Adding to its attractions has been a
revolution in the quality of outdoor displays. Famous architects are designing arty bus shelters and kiosks
with backlit displays. Backlighting, introduced in Europe by Decaux and More, and plastic poster skins
have vastly improved colour and contrast. Movement is possible too. Smirnoff used new multi-image
printing to make a spider, seen through a vodka bottle, appear to crawl up a mans back. And Disney
advertised its 101 Dalmatians video on bus shelters with the sound of puppies barking. This sort of
innovation has attracted a new class of _______________________. Recent data shows that in Britain,
alcohol and tobacco have seen replaced by entertainment, clothing and financial services as the big
outdoor advertisers, like carmakers, are using it in new ways. BMW ran a teasers campaign in Britain
exclusively on bus shelters. Particularly attractive to the new advertisers is street furniture, the fastest
growing segment of the outdoor market. It accounts for some 20% in Europe and about 5% in America.
From Economist
8. Post- reading exercise.
a. What do these numbers in the article refer to? 18, 6, 30, 60 000, 100 000, 90, 20, 5
b. Why has outdoor advertising becoming more involved in outdoor advertising?
c. Which industries are becoming more involved in outdoor advertising?

64

ADVERTISING TECHNIQUES

The following is a list of persuasive techniques that are often used to get us to buy
products:
Loaded words: words with strong associations such as home, family, dishonest and
wasteful.
Buzzwords: words that are popular and vague like pure and natural.
Transference: associating a symbol with a product such as the Golden Arches and
McDonalds.
Name Calling: comparing one product to another and saying it is weaker or inferior in
quality or taste.
Glittering Generality: using words that glitter or sparkle such as The candy bar tastes
better, looks better and is less expensive. Car companies do this a lot when comparing
their vehicles to another companys cars.
Testimonial: someone famous that people like and respect speaks for the product.
Bandwagon: the advertiser tries to make you feel like everyone else has the product
and if you dont have it too, youll be left out.
Repetition: they repeat an idea enough so that you think it must be true.
Flattery: they make you feel good for having the good sense to buy the product
Plain Folks: they say people just like you buy it
Authority: someone with authority tells you about the product
Snob Appeal: using this product means youre using the best product
Hidden Fears: they scare you into buying the product
Facts and Figures: saying things such as 9 out of 10 people prefer
Free and Bargain: using these words to attract you to buy the product
Urgency: making you feel like you need the product right away

65

Fill in the blanks with the correct advertising technique:




1. I eat this cereal every morning and Im an Olympic champion!________________

2. Only the smartest consumer will buy this product. _____________________________

3. Your child may be unsafe without a Carsafe car seat. __________________________

4. As a policeman, I see a lot of crime. Thats why I use Lockdown on my own
car.___________________

5. Look for the crown. Itll mean youre eating quality fast-food._________________

6. Kids love these treats. Theyll eat em up every time. Schools are serving these as
part of their lunch programs because all of the students really like the taste. My own
kids think theyre delicious and eat them like nothing else theyve ever
eaten.____________________________

7. All the cool kids in school will be wearing Hottie Jeans.________________________

8. Dont delay, you cant afford to be without this window cleaner. It will allow you to
see the world you have been missing. Hurry, buy it today!___________________________

9. 90% of my childs teachers agree that Hooked on Phonics really
worked!____________

10. The succulent taste of our butter fried chicken will make your mouth
water.__________

11. You wont find prices this low again. Our cars are being sold at such low prices
theyre practically free! ______________________________

TV & PRINT ADS


Watch three television commercials. For each commercial, write the product name and at
least one advertising technique that is used in the commercial. Next, state how they use
that technique by quoting the commercial or explaining what they are doing to use that
particular technique.
Collect a few print ads and explain the technique used by the producers.

66

ATTENTION-GETTING HOOKS AND TECHNICAL EFFECTS


IN ADVERTISING
Media employ specific techniques to construct believable stories. They hook our attention
through psychological devices and technical effects. The techniques are vast and many, but
some common ones are easily recognizable and are identified here. Remember, advertisers will
use many techniques not listed. Add to this list as needed.
COMMON ATTENTION-GETTING HOOKS:
Emotional Transfer is the process of generating emotions in order to transfer them to a
product. For example, a Coke ad shows happy, beautiful people but tells us nothing about the
product. The point is to make you feel good and to transfer that feeling to the brand or product.
This is the number one and most important process of media manipulation.
Sex sells, without exception.
Fear messages are directed at our insecurities, such as "no one will like you if you have
dandruff," or "bald people are losers." This is a very common technique and extra attention is
required to resist these messages.
Symbols are easily recognized elements from our culture that generate powerful emotions,
such as flags and crosses.
Humor is often used because it makes us feel good and is more memorable. Notice how the
majority of Super Bowl commercials are funny.
Hype, don't believe it. Be skeptical of exaggerated claims, such as "America's favorite burger."
Statements like these are meaningless and vague, but sound good.
Fitting In is a very common technique that tries to influence us by stating that if everyone else
is buying the product, so should you. This is often seen in beer commercials, which promotes a
"big lie" that everyone drinks (alcoholics are the main consumers of alcohol).
Wink-Wink: Media consumers have become so sophisticated and skeptical, advertisers often
self-reference their own techniques, even making fun of the fact that they are marketing to us.
They "wink" at us to let us know that they are in on the joke.
Cute. Children and animals always steal the show. "Family" and girl next door also fit this
category.

67

Fetish is typically used in car commercials. It deifies and anthropomorphizes inanimate


objects in order to make them into living, vital things of desire.
Vague Promises like "might," "maybe," and "could" are red herrings that divert our attention.
"Super Glue may heal cuts better than band-aids," sounds absurd, but you will often hear claims
as preposterous as this and it would still be true (because it can't be disproved).
Testimonials are statements by people explaining why certain products are great. Famous or
plain folk, or actors can do them. This is more powerful when someone we really like or respect
endorses a product (such as Tiger Woods or Michael Jordan).
Beautiful people are usually used to glamorize merchandise,especially unhealthy products
like alcohol, tobacco and junk food. Models and actors generally have rare body types, and
don't represent average people, but idealized notions of beauty that are constantly changing
(compare, for example, Marilyn Monroe's body to a contemporary actress or model).
Famous People such as Michael Jordan make products appealing and attractive through
association.
Ordinary People are people that might be like you or me. This is common in ads that stress
community or family, like Wal-Mart.
It's Easy. Simple solutions are often used to convince us that a product will solve our
problems, such as "bald spot hair spray will get you a date," or "doorknob disinfectant wipes
keep us healthy." Larger ideological messages are common as well, such as "cars enable us to
conquer nature."
Macho is generally used to appeal to males, but not exclusively. It demonstrates masculinity
and male stereotypes; these are common in military and tobacco ads.
Femininity is another gender stereotype used in a variety of ads, from teen make-up
commercials to alcohol ads.
Repetition is done to reiterate a sales pitch over and over again, like the phone ads that
repeatedly display and annunciate the phone number to access their service (for example the
Carrot Top ATT ads).
Big Lies are exaggerated promises that are impossible to deliver, such as, "This is America's
best all-whether vehicle" (also see hype). More subtle examples include "eating Sugar Corn
Flakes will make you as strong as an Olympian."
Exotic. This is the appeal of the other"; it could be a beach location, tribal person, something
strange or unknown. This is often meant to hook you through presenting something that is out of

68

the ordinary or beyond our everyday experience.


Flattery is used to make you feel good about you as a consumer and that you are making the
right choice when you chose a product. "Smart people like you always buy premium aquariums
when purchasing exotic fish"
Social Outcasts generally represents a put-down or demeaning comment about a competing
product or cultural group. This is not limited to ads, but is common in propaganda as well ("they
don't believe in God," etc.).
Free Lunch offers you something in addition to the product such as "buy one, get one free" or
tax cuts. Freebies constantly hook us, but there are always hidden costs. Rarely is a thing truly
free.
Surrealism. Commercial media employ some of the brightest minds of the media world and
often require cutting edge artists to keep their material fresh (e.g. MTV). Often, as a reflection of
how unreal the fantasy world of media is, you will see juxtapositions and dream-like imagery
that make no sense because the advertiser is trying to get your attention by presenting
something strange and different.
The Good Old Days. Images, fashion, film effects and music depicting specific eras or
subcultures are meant to appeal directly to the demographic represented in the ad (e.g. VW bus,
classic rock music, sepia tone effects).
Culture. Niche marketing is more common as advertisers hone their messages for specific
cultural groups. Latino-targeted ads, for instance, might have family scenes or specific uses of
language.

TECHNICAL EFFECTS:
Mise-en-scene (set and setting inside camera frame) creates cultural and ideological context.
Is the set a concert, a mansion, a shopping mall?
Camera angles enhance perspective, such as low angles that give the subject power.
Close-ups provide emphasis.
Sound effects animate products, giving them emotion.
Accessories enhance the product. What's being associated with the product, such as clothes,
props, models?
Lighting is used to draw your eye to certain details.

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Happy and attractive people are made-up and constructed to enhance the message. What
kinds of people are in the ad?
Music, popular songs and jingles create mnemonic devices to program or trigger your
memory (some songs are used for nostalgic reasons, while others are used to cross promote
products, i.e. cars and Moby's latest album).
Products are sold using three main emotions: fear, sex and humor. (See below for more
examples). Ads appeal to our emotions through emotional transfer and are rarely dependent on
intellectual analysis.
Special effects bring inanimate things to life and make them exciting. This is especially true
with children-targeted ads.
Editing is used to pace and generate excitement. Notice how military and video game ads
have very fast cuts, usually a scene change every second.

Copyright 2006 Antonio Lopez


www.world-bridger.com

70

Advertising and Product Marketing


Use the words in the word bank to fill in the missing words in the sentences
below
Word Bank:

regulate, confirm , produced , consume , share ,publicity, sponsor ,

compete, packaged, advertisement, advertise

1. You should always _________________________information you give over the


phone.
2. Governments in the UK and the United States __________________cigarette
advertising.
3. The ___________________________________of our product appears on all major
search engines today.
4. We need to get as much ______________________________________as possible
for our company, so that people will know about us.
5. Many large sport companies like Nike and Puma
___________________________sports
events.
6.Our ________________________________of the market is only two per cent.
7. Small companies find it difficult to ___________________________against large
multinationals.
8.The biscuits are ____________________________________ by machines.
9. Women ______________________________more chocolate on average than men.
10. Retailers often ______________a new product by putting it in the most eye-catching
places.
11. Chocolate is ________________ from cocoa bean.

Benetton chairman says latest campaign 'is even more shocking'


by Matthew Chapman, 19 September 2012, 9:25am
Benetton's chairman has claimed the issue of youth unemployment, which the clothing
brand is highlighting in its latest marketing initiative, is "even more shocking" than its
previous campaigns.

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United Colors of Benetton's new 'Unemployee Of The Year' activity, which includes a television
ad (above), seeks to contribute to tackling youth unemployment by funding 100 youth projects.
The campaign comes months after the brand's 'Unhate' campaign, which featured an image of
Pope Benedict XVI kissing Imam Sheikh Ahmed el-Tayeb, and is designed to fit in with its
tradition of raising awareness of socially delicate issues.
'Unhate' harked back to the brand's 1990s controversial advertising heyday, when its campaigns
featured an AIDS patient on his deathbed, a newborn baby still attached to its umbilical cord, a
black horse mounting a white one, and pictures of inmates on death row.
Speaking yesterday (18 September) at Benetton's Brompton Road store in London, Benetton
Group chairman Alessandro Benetton said the campaign was no less shocking in philosophy
than previous activity.
He said: "Today it appears a less strong image the important thing is it is a contemporary
argument, a contemporary issue.
"In reality, this campaign is even more shocking if we think of the implications 100 million
young minds that are running the risk of being lost is something we cannot afford."
The 100 million figure is based on International Labour Organization data for 2012, which shows
there are 75 million unemployed worldwide in the 15 to 24 age range, with a world youth
unemployment rate of 12.7%, and an estimated 100 million-plus in the 15 to 29 age range.
Youth unemployment is an acute problem in the brand's home market of Italy, where it stood at
36.2% in May, its highest level since 1992.
Benetton is aiming to "support youth to become actors of change against indifference and
stigma", by running a competition to launch 100 projects submitted and selected by young
unemployed people.
The competition will be run under the banner of the retailer's Unhate Foundation, which was set
up to coincide with the brand's 'Unhate' campaign at the end of 2011, to carry out projects that
supported the social aspirations of its campaigns.
Benetton's focus on youth in the current campaign comes after Gianluca Pastore, the worldwide
communication director of the Benetton Group, told Marketing that the brand wanted to "regain
the attention" of young consumers.
He said: "As with many brands with a long, successful history, we can't expect to be the most
popular for youngsters, so our core market now is much more 25 and above."
The Unhate Foundation is inviting unemployed people between the ages of 18 and 30 to submit
outlines of projects that will have a concrete social impact on their community.
Project ideas will be hosted on the Unhate Foundation website and voted for by the online
community, with the 100 most deserving projects receiving 5,000 in support from Benetton to
make the ideas a reality.
The 'Unemployee Of The Year' campaign will be supported by creative featuring portrait photos
of NEETs (Not in Education, Employment or Training) below the age of 30, which will be
featured in press and social media activity.
Benetton will release a film paying homage to four NEETs showing their fight to find a job while
"fighting for their dignity" against stigma.
The ads will be broadcast in more than 35 countries through digital media and a partnership
with MTV.
Alessandro Benetton believes marketing in recent years has "not done a good job" if the brand
keeps on being compared to fast fashion brands such as H&M and Zara.
He argues that the trend for buying an item of clothing cheaply and wearing it three times before
throwing it away "is not us", because the brand is focused on making high-end clothes that last.
He concluded: "Fast fashion is happening in every single sector I know, but discounting, low
prices and the consumption culture is not something we do".

72

NSPCC ADVERTISEMENT
Commentary
Although this image is, at first glance, upsetting, the full extent of its meaning is not
apparent until the reader has made sense of the verbal text. To this extent, the image is
very different from one which stands alone and is simply designed to shock and get
attention.
We register the fact that something has happened to this baby's eyes. There is a strong
interactive dimension in the image as a result of the way the baby is trying to touch the bandages
round her eyes with her hand, as if to comprehend what has happened to her. Her mouth is
slightly open as if she wants to express something. She appears in a way that suggests we could
communicate with her, if only we knew how and if only our message could be a hopeful one.
The bandages look old fashioned and home made; the image would have created a very different
effect if the scene had been a high-tech hospital room, full of monitoring apparatus, with the
baby on her back and with her face turned away. As readers, we are interpreting here what is
often called paralanguage. This is an umbrella term for those aspects of communication that
surround and support our verbal language in normal face-to-face encounters: for example body
position, gesture, physical proximity, clothing, touch, eye contact. This baby cannot
communicate with us, but the fact that she is pictured as if she could (or wants to) is an important
contribution to the overall effect of the image, because it makes us interactive partners in the
communication process, and we realise gradually, as we read the verbal message, that her
communicative potential has been forever impaired.
English speakers are used to reading text from left to right, working progressively
down the page. The verbal text in the box, top left, is therefore in prime reading position.
We realise that the baby is blind, and are told she will have a visual memory of only a
limited number of things. These appear to be friendly, loving items - her mother, her teddy.
But the tips of her father's fingers form a strange third element here. At this point, we
perhaps think the baby has had an accident, and her father's fingers were the last thing she
saw because he was trying to save her. At the same time, the phrase is oddly disturbing:
why 'tips', why not 'her father's hands' or 'her father's fingers'? Why not just 'her father'?
When we get to the text bottom right, the puzzling nature of this phrase is explained.
The text here is very sparse, paring down rather than embellishing in any sensational way
what has happened. The effect is to suggest restraint and control of emotion, even a certain
matter-of-factness on the part of the NSPCC: this is all-too-common an event, but one
where they are not sitting in judgement. What has happened is 'cruelty', and the horror of it
is certainly suggested by the phrase 'repeatedly jabbed'; but the baby's father had a
'momentary loss of control'. The text makes clear the horrific nature of his action while at
the same time not demonising him. This makes it more possible for us to relate to the
catastrophe: while we may not ourselves have done anything like this, we may well have
experienced 'a momentary loss of control' from which something serious might have
resulted. The visual text evokes our sense of protection, and the verbal text tells us how
close to home that protection might need to be. Our donation is that protection from the
worst aspect of our own human nature.
Angela Goddard, The Language of Advertising, 1998

73

LEUKAEMIA ADVERTISEMENT
Commentary
One strategy you may have employed is to look straight at the bottom of the page, to find
the source of the text. Given that this is possible, it is interesting how many readers decide
not to do this. Linguistic puzzles occur in many texts, from the crosswords and word-
searches in adult newspapers and magazines to the code-breaking exercises in children's
comics. This suggests that we find them pleasurable and interesting, and this is the reason
perhaps why, despite the seriousness of the subject matter, some of us prefer to 'test'
ourselves by trying to guess the blanks in this advert rather than looking straight at the
answer.
The blank in the first line could be filled by a variety of different types of taboo word:
for example, it could represent a swear word. However, by sentence 2 the choice has
narrowed: it is defined as a disease. Its serious nature is suggested by the word 'terrible' in
sentence 2 and the reference in sentence 4 to it as a major cause of death in children. By
sentence 6, we can define it further: a type of cancer.

The text itself never uses the word 'leukaemia', making it important for the reader to
find the details at the bottom of the page in order to check the 'answer'. In so doing, the
reader then registers the address for donations. The blank in the final line has extra
resonance. Not only does it represent the non-appearance of the term 'leukaemia' in the
same way as the other blanks in the text, it also represents the disappearance of the disease
itself: the word and the referent have become one.
In making us work to fill in the blanks, not only does the text engage us, it also forces us
to say the term 'leukaemia' over and over again. In reading the text and finding the answers,
the reader is therefore unwittingly challenging the taboo that the advert is concerned with.
Space was used in the advert you have just been reading in order to foreground the
idea of taboo and avoidance: the spaces mirror the fact that, so the text claims, the public
suppress discussion of serious illness. The space is drawing attention to what should be
present.
But space can refer to 'what should be present' in other ways, too. Because we know that
advertising costs a lot of money, we expect advertisers to use up all their allotted space in order
to get value for money. If they do not take this opportunity, we can perceive them to be selfeffacing, not wishing to intrude upon our time and attention. In this case, texts can get attention
by appearing to deny their own impact, and spaces can be read as a polite refusal to bully the
reader.
Homework:
Collect some adverts which use startling images in order to get attention. Describe in detail
how the images you have collected achieve their effect. Include consideration of the role of
paralanguage, where appropriate. Also estimate the extent to which these images work in
conjunction with any verbal text to convey messages.

Angela Goddard, The Language of Advertising, 1998

74

WRITING FILE

75

Common Errors

1.Subject Verb Agreement

The general rule: Singular subject requires a singular verb; plural subject requires a plural
verb.

The manager promotes the training courses to all employees.

But NOT

The manager promote the training courses to all employees.

Be careful with

(1) collective nouns such as group, crowd, team, which usually take a singular verb:

The team thinks that we should redesign the whole project.

(2) uncountable nouns such as advice, information, knowledge, experience, research which
usually take a singular verb:

Extensive industry experience is a prerequisite for all machinery operators.

(3) uncountable nouns such as staff, scissors, police which usually take a plural verb:

Our staff have a wide range of skills and experience.

(4) Certain noun phrases which contain lural forms but describe singular processes and
entities, such as setting goals, designing future paradigms, formulation of government
policies, law of diminishing returns take singular verbs:

Setting goals is the first step in the process of building a successful team.
The law of diminishing returns indicates that productivity will fall.

2.Articles a, an and the


The general rule

Use a before a word beginning with a consonant, or a vowel with a consonant sound:

a manager a strategy a university a European

Use an before words beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or words beginning with a silent h:
an appraisal an evaluation an increase an honour

76


Use the before an object that is considered unique or is being referred to specifically:
the moon, the sky, the chairperson, the meeting at 2pm

Be careful with

(1) omission of the when referring to general concepts:

Economic growth is an increase in real GDP that occurs over time

But NOT (The) economic growth is an increase in real GDP that occurs over time.

Firms and entrepreneurs run businesses to generate profits.

But NOT (The) firms and (the) entrepreneurs run businesses..


3. Verb Tense

The general rule: Academic discussions are usually written in the present tense.

There is a body of opinion which suggests that.
Evidence, therefore, indicates that
In all these cases, an argument is made that

However, some tasks may require a variety of tenses to be used, for example, when
reporting and commenting on research. To avoid mistakes, it may help if you ask yourself
the following questions as you write:

What was done? (past tense)
How was it done? (past tense)
What were the findings? (past tense)
What is the significance of this? (present tense)
What are the implications? (present/future tense)

A study by Jones (2007) demonstrated that Government funded anti-smoking campaigns in
the 1990s had a neglible impact on take up rates of young people during that period. In a 5
year study, Jones surveyed over 3000 people aged between 14-20 yearsHe found that
63% had taken up smoking or had continued to smoke even though theyWhen Jones
compared these figures to State Government health statistics he found thatThis indicates
clearly that such campaigns often fail to reach the targeted age groupTherefore, the
Government needs to rethink its current policyA campaign that specifically targets
primary school age children is perhaps a more effective approach to take over the long run.

77

4. Words commonly misused or confused


another / other
economy / economics / economic / economical
loss / lose
choice / choose / chose

5. Linking words


Linking words provide the framework for your writing. They are often referred to as the
threads or glue that hold your discussion together, that give your writing coherence
and cohesion. The common errors with linking words include misusing, overusing or
leaving them out altogether.

Linking words can be divided into 3 basic types:

AND linking words
First, furthermore, finally
Firstly, secondly, thirdly, etc.
Moreover
In addition
Accordingly
Therefore
As a result

OR linking words
In other words
Alternatively
On the other hand
Rather
Another possibility would be

BUT linking words
Conversely
On the contrary
In comparison
However
Although

(Adapted from Jordan, R.R.1980, Academic Writing Course, Collins, UK.)







78

TYPES OF FALLACIES

HASTY GENERALIZATION: Jumping to conclusions

STEREOTYPE: A form of hasty generalization, applied to people

OVERSIMPLIFICATION: Severe reduction of choices

RED HERRING: A statement that has no direct relevance to the topic

STATISTICS: False numbers prove nothing

VICE AND VIRTUE WORDS: The use of words that connote bad or good emotional
reactions in the reader



FUNDAMENTALS FOR LOGICAL ANALYSIS


1. Always remember never to say always and never (and all and none, and everyone and
nobody). Reasonable thinking should be reflected in reasonable language. All-inclusive
statements can rarely be proved. Qualify and specify.
2. Even if you are sure that one thing is the cause of another, it may not be the only cause. Be
careful not to oversimplify.
3. Suspicious words like undoubtedly and obviously are often followed by hasty
generalizations and oversimplifications.
4. Any opinion you have must be qualified and specified, and must be supported completely
with facts, examples, or personal experience.

79



Identify the fallacies in the following sentences (some may contain more than one):

1. Working conditions could be improved if women workers did not take so much time off for
sick leave.

2. The Vietnamese cannot govern themselves.

3. Of course Hawaii is about the healthiest spot in the world. Life expectancy there for men is
70.1 years, as compared with 68.2 years for men in the mainland.

4. Ban aerosol sprays or well all die of skin cancer!

5. Scientific fiction books are not worth the time it takes to read them

6. Happy families make happy children.

7. Whats wrong with this country? Just one thing. There are 11.5 million women who started
but never finished high school.

8. Since September 11th the world has been feeling scared.

9. Do you want your sons and daughters to fall victim to this Communist conspiracy? Or die in
the hands of this menace?

10. To begin with, we should bear in mind that murderers and terrorists are everywhere. They
are part of our days, part of our lives, because they are always killing.

11. Some people may say murderers and terrorists have no right to live after what they did. But
when they say this, they are forgetting the law of Jesus Christ.

12. Naturally, when we fight against something bad, we are fighting for something better, and
by executing murderers and terrorists we are building peace.

80

WRITING A COMMENTARY
SUGGESTIONS
There are no hard and fast rules about writing a commentary and by looking in
various articles you will soon discover that different genres attract different
commentary styles. Try and read one or two commentaries before you write your
own.
Once you have chosen your article read through it once to get the feel of it and then
read it again with greater attention to detail and to the lines or arguments or
viewpoints being expressed.
Your own commentary should have:

A summary of the subject content


An indication of the stand or approach taken by the writer
A highlight of the main points of argument presented and/or conclusions reached

This part is largely descriptive


Then you should proceed to express your own views on the article. Indicate:

Why you chose this article


What you consider to be the strengths and weaknesses of the article
What your view is of the subject especially consider how the subject is relevant or not
relevant to the region or to your own jurisdiction.

Try and use your own words for the commentary rather than quoting large chunks
from the article. If you do quote from the article you MUST indicate the quote and its
page reference.

81

GRAMMAR FILE

82

REPORTED SPEECH

Direct Speech

Reported Speech

Present Simple
He speaks
Present continuous
He is speaking
Past Simple
He spoke
Present Perfect
He has spoken
PAST perfect
He had spoken
Future
shall/ will
Imperative
Speak!

Past Simple
He spoke
Past Continuous
He was speaking

Past Perfect
He had spoken
Past Perfect
He had spoken
Conditional
should/ would
To-infinitive
To speak


MODAL VERBS
can
may
might
could
would
should
ought to
must
need

could
might
might
could
would
should
ought to
must
need


OTHER WORDS
here
this/ these
now
today
tonight
tomorrow
yesterday
next week
ago

there
that / those
then
that day
that night
the next day, the following day
the day before
the following week
before

83

REPHRASING: REPORTED SPEECH


1.-Do you collect old LPs?
He asked me............................................................................................................
2.- It would be a good idea to keep all those old records.
He said that..............................................................................................................
3.- Pop music will be available on the Internet
She said that............................................................................................................
4.- What time is the match? asked Maria.
Maria asked ............................................................................................................
5.- Go and catch some fish, said Kim
Kim told....................................................................................................................
6.- My house has been burgled, said Nina.
Nina said.................................................................................................................
7.- Did he score the winning goal? asked Noel
Noel asked..............................................................................................................
8.- Ill cut down some branches,said Natalia.
Natalia said..............................................................................................................
9.- I think the barbecue will be fun, said Vince.
Vince said that.........................................................................................................
10.- Where did Hannah go on holiday?, asked Beth
Beth asked...............................................................................................................
11.- Smuggling is a serious crime
He said that..............................................................................................................
12.- Ive never stolen from a local shop.
She said the interviewers........................................................................................
13.- I left my car unlocked last night

He said that.............................................................................................................
14.- Two boys are vandalising a car over there.
She said that...........................................................................................................
15.- Well ask you some more questions tomorrow.
They said that..........................................................................................................
16.- Im not going to walk home alone tonight.
She said she............................................................................................................
17.- They may have insurance.
He said they.............................................................................................................
18.- They said it was OK to borrow a car to get home.
It is ........................................................................................................................
19.- They said that it depended on who you were stealing from.
It depends...............................................................................................................
20.- He said that someone had stolen his car the week before.
Someone................................................................................................................
21.- He said that he had never been so angry.
I .............................................................................................................................
22.- They said that the credit card company would pay anyway.
The credit................................................................................................................
23.- She said that shed never stolen an old lady.
I...............................................................................................................................
24.- Is everything alright?
She asked.............................................................................
25 .Why didnt you phone me last week?
She asked him.........................................................................................................

85

CONDITIONALS

Conditional 0 Situations that are ALWAYS TRUE if something happens.
Ex: If I am late, my father takes me to school.
We have dinner if he comes to town.

P
resent
S
imple
(if clause + ,) + Present Simple (result
clause)

First Conditional used for REAL or POSSIBLE situations. These situations take place if a
certain condition is met.
Ex: If it rains, we will stay at home.
He will arrive late unless he hurries up.
Peter will buy a new car, if he gets his raise.

Present Simple (if clause) + Future (result


clause)

Second Conditional used for unreal IMPOSSIBLE or IMPROBABLE situations.

Ex: If he studied more, he would pass the exam.


I would lower taxes if I were the President.
They would buy anew house if they had more money.

Past simple (if clause + ,) + would + verb (result


clause)

Third Conditional used to express a hypothetical result to a PAST given situation.
Ex: If he had known that, he would have decided differently.
Jane would have found a new job if she had stayed in Boston.


Past Perfect + , (if clause) + would have
+ Past Participle (result

clause)

86

Conditionals

Write the verbs in the correct form.
1. I would meet you myself if I __________ (not have) to work.
2. Unless you pay up right now, Im afraid I ________ (be) forced to kill you.
3. What _________ (you do) if you saw a ghost?
4. If he had taken his hat off, everyone ____________ (see) he was completely bald.
5. If you ________ (need) a hand, give me a call.
6. How ______ (I know) if I __________ (pass) the exam? Ill ring you and tell you.
7. What would you do if it _______________ (rain) on your wedding day?
8. If she _____________ (come)I will call you.
9. If I eat peanut butter I____________ (get) sick.
10. What will you do if you _______________ (fail) the history exam?
11. If they had not ______________ (take) the car I would have driven you.
12. If it _____________ (snow) will you still drive to the coast?
13. He would have ______________ (go) with you if you had asked him.
14. If I _____________ (win) a million dollars I would buy my own airplane.
15. If I _____________ (forget) her birthday Andrea gets upset.
16. Jacob will pick you up at school if it ______________ (rain).

Rewrite the sentences so they have the same meaning, beginning as suggested.
1. My advice is not to buy things over the Internet.
If I were you ____________________________________________________________
2. The newspaper only printed the story because they were sure of their facts.
If they _________________________________________________________________
3. Were they to offer me the job, I would turn it down.
If _____________________________________________________________________
4. If anyone needs me, Ill be at home all afternoon.
If I ___________________________________________________________________

87


CONDITIONALS


1. I didnt send them a postcard, because I didnt know their new address
If I _____________________________________________________________________________________________
2. She doesn't understand because you haven't explained the situation to her.
If you _________________________________________________________________________________________
3.I never eat seafood because I get sick.
When __________________________________________________________________________________________
4.We didn't pick you up at the station because you didn't phone us.
If you________________________________________________________________________________________
5. The government won't win the elections unless they create employment.
If the government __________________________________________________________________________
6.I'll buy a new computer provided that I get a rise in salary.
If my salary__________________________________________________________________________________
7. We haven't got any eggs, so we can't bake a cake.
If we ___________________________________________________________________________________________
8.I didn't rent that apartment because it was too small.
If ______________________________________________________________________________________________
9 He was too slow to win the race.
If he___________________________________________________________________________________________
10 I won't go to Madeira unless I find a friend to come with me.
If I ____________________________________________________________________________________________
11 She will understand you provided that you don't speak too fast.
If you ________________________________________________________________________________________
12. He won't come for a drink because he's got work to do.
If he __________________________________________________________________________________________
13. They lost the game because of the coach who arrived late!
If____________________________________________________________________________________________
14. I didnt go to Helens party because she didnt invite me.
If Helen ______________________________________________________________________________________
15. I probably dont like cheese because Im allergic to it.
If I _____________________________________________________________________________________________

88

PASSIVE VOICE


SIMPLE PRESENT ..................................PRESENT TO BE + P. P.

PAST SIMPLE ................................................PAST TO BE + P.P.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS ................ PRESENT TO BE +BEING + P.P.

PAST CONTINOUS .......................... PAST TO BE + BEING + P.P.

PRESENT PERFECT .....................PRESENT TO HAVE+ BEEN + P.P.

PAST PERFECT ................................... PAST TO HAVE + BEEN + P.P.

FUTURE ............................................. ............ WILL BE + P.P.
GOING TO BE + P.P.

89

PASSIVE VOICE
1. Mother cooked dinner.
___________________________________________________________________
2. Mr. Smith offered her a valuable ring on her birthday.
___________________________________________________________________
3. The School Director will give other details.
___________________________________________________________________
4. Your teacher will ask you some difficult questions.
___________________________________________________________________
5. The surgeon is operating his patients in room A .
___________________________________________________________________
6. The war has destroyed all their hopes.
___________________________________________________________________
7. Everybody may drink that pure water.
___________________________________________________________________
8. She has taken the newspaper to her room.
___________________________________________________________________
9. They told the new students where to sit.
___________________________________________________________________
10. We should encourage our students to use the dictionary.
___________________________________________________________________
11. The government may alter the tax rates.
___________________________________________________________________
12. Someone gave out the news on the radio this morning.
___________________________________________________________________
13. Everybody has pointed out my mistakes to me.
___________________________________________________________________
14. They have promised Mary a new opportunity.
___________________________________________________________________
15. Why didnt they offer me the job?
___________________________________________________________________
16. Everybody calls young executives yuppies.
___________________________________________________________________
17. He has been appointed number one in the list by his employer.
___________________________________________________________________
18. Jane has been interviewed by a smartly dressed lady.
___________________________________________________________________
19. Jack should be told about the dangers of smoking.
___________________________________________________________________
20. Did anyone encourage them to emigrate?
___________________________________________________________________

90

GRAMMAR PRACTICE Reported Speech & Passive Voice



1. He should have checked it.
It___________________________________________________________________

2. Many people admired your last book.
Your last book
____________________________________________________________________
3. Someone must give him a prize.
He ____________________________________________________________________
4. Mrs. Smith is handing out the exam papers.
The exam papers
____________________________________________________________________

5. He is sweeping the floor.
The floor ____________________________________________________________________________
6. People should claim that administration is too slow.
Administration _______________________________________________________

7. Nobody will report about it.
It __________________________________________________________________

8. Tom will ask someone to develop these photos.
Tom ________________________________________________________________

9. It is understood that he is willing to meet her.
He __________________________________________________________________
10. Nobody expected me to act that way.
I ___________________________________________________________________
11. "Would you like to spend the weekend with us?"
They ______________________________________________________________________________________

11. Could you open the window, please?"
She ________________________________________________________________

12. "Go to bed immediately!"
Mary's mother ________________________________________________________
13. Make sure you dont take the A20 in the rush hour, Tim, said Jack.
Jack warned __________________________________________________________
14. Me? No, I didnt take Sue s calculator, said Bob.
Bob denied ___________________________________________________________
15. Dont forget to buy some milk, Andy, said Clare.
Clare ________________________________________________________________

91



REPHRASING MIXED
1. They dont know the school rules.
The headmaster said ............................................................................................................................
2. He would be ashamed to have to repeat the examination.
He would be ashamed if .....................................................................................................................
3. Someone must teach those teenagers how to behave.
Those teenagers .....................................................................................................................................
4. We have completed our task.
They said ...................................................................................................................................................
5. Society should offer them rewarding jobs.
They ............................................................................................................................................................
6. If he doesnt know the manager, he wont get the job.
She said ......................................................................................................................................................
7. Your girlfriend will never forgive you if you dont apologise.
Unless .........................................................................................................................................................
8. Weve just invited her to the party.
She ...............................................................................................................................................................
9. Although he is determined, he wont succeed.
In spite of his ...........................................................................................................................................
10. Screen violence can change childrens behaviour.
Childrens behaviour ............................................................................................................................
11. They are illegal immigrants. They are not treated in hospitals for free.
If ....................................................................................................................................................................
12. They have promised him a pay rise.
He .................................................................................................................................................................
13. My husband had told me about the stolen car.
I .....................................................................................................................................................................
14. In spite of doing well at school, Sarah couldnt find a job.
Although ........... .......................................................................................................................................
15. Dont be so submissive!
She advised me .....................................................................................................................................

92