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TERMINOLOGY

PARAMETRIC TEST: The test in which, the population constants like mean, std deviation, std error,

correlation coefficient, proportion etc. and data tend to follow one assumed or established distribution such as

normal, binomial, poisson etc..

NON PARAMETRIC TEST: the test in which no constant of a population is used. Data do not follow any

specific distribution and no assumption is made in these tests. E.g. to classify good, better and best we just

allocate arbitrary numbers or marks to each category.

HYPOTHESIS: It is a definite statement about the population parameters.

NULL HYPOTHESIS: (H0) states that no association exists between the two cross-tabulated variables in

the population, and therefore the variables are statistically independent. E.g. if we want to compare 2 methods

method A and method B for its superiority, and if the assumption is that both methods are equally good, then

this assumption is called as NULL HYPOTHESIS.5)

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS: (H1) proposes that the two variables are related in the population. If we

assume that from 2 methods, method A is superior than method B, then this assumption is called as

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS.

DEGREE OF FREEDOM: It denotes the extent of independence (freedom) enjoyed by a given set of

observed frequencies Suppose we are given a set of n observed frequencies which are subjected to k

independent constraints(restrictions) then, d.f. = (number of frequencies) (number of independent

constraints on them)

In other terms, df = (r 1)(c 1) where r = the number of rows c = the number of columns7)

CONTINGENCY TABLE: When the table is prepared by enumeration of qualitative data by entering the

actual frequencies, and if that table represents occurance of two sets of events, that table is called the

contingency table. It is also called as an association table.

This test is based on frequencies and not on the parameters like mean and standard deviation. The test is

used for testing the hypothesis and is not useful for any estimation. applied to a complex contingency table

with several classes and as such This test is an importantis a very useful test in research work. nonparametric test as no rigid assumptions are necessary in regard to the type of population, no need of parameter

values and relatively less mathematical details are involved.

ADHYAAY ACADEMY-8739921449

If degree of freedom = 2 : Distribution is L shaped with maximum ordinate at zero

If degree of freedom < 2 : Distribution L shaped with infinite ordinate at the origin.

APPLICATIONS OF A CHI- SQUARE TEST

1) Goodness of fit of distributions

2) test of independence of attributes

3) test of homogenity.

This test enables us to see how well does the assumed theoretical distribution (such as Binomial distribution,

Poisson distribution or Normal distribution) fit to observed data.

(f of e )2

X2 =

fe

here, fo = observed frequency fe = expected frequency

STEPS:

1. Null hypothesis (H0)- no association exist between two variables.

2. Calculate the expected frequencies and the observed frequencies:

Here ;

Expected frequencies (fe)

Observed frequencies (fo)

Expected frequency can be calculate by following formula- (see table-2)

fe

N

B1

B2

TOTAL

(A1B1)

(A1B2)

A1

A2

(A2B1)

(A2B2)

A2

TOTAL

B1

B2

N

ADHYAAY ACADEMY-8739921449

B2

TOTAL

A1

A1B1

N

A2

A2B1

N

A1B2

N

A2B2

N

A1

A2

TOTAL

B1

B2

N

4. (fo - fe)2

5. (fo - fe)2/ fe

(f of e )2

2=

6.

X

fe

7. Degree of freedome = (c-1)(r-1)

8. Table value at 5% significant level

If Conclusion if X2 calculated value > table value -Reject the H0

If Conclusion if X2 calculated value < table value- Accept the H0

C=

X2

N + X2

YATES CORRECTION

in the 2*2 contingency table, the expected frequencies are less than 5, then 0.5 will be substracted from each

observed frequency and adjust all frequency accordingly. And follow same procedure to get expected

frequency.

ADHYAAY ACADEMY-8739921449

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