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Two Decades of Household Income Trends

in Chicago Community Areas


By

James Lewis
Rob Paral

Chicago Community Income Trends

Background
The following report provides analysis and context for newly computed median incomes of
Chicagos 77 community areas, developed from new American Community Survey data
covering the years 2010 through 2014.1 The Census Bureaus American Community Survey
provides the most up-to-date income data available for small local areas by combining the most
recent Census survey data with similar data from the previous four years to create rolling
average figures.

Citywide Trends
New data on Chicago median incomes for the 2010-2014 period shows a small decline in real
household income from $48,044 to $47,831 from the 2009-2013 5-year period.
Chicagos median household income is about 13% lower than it was fifteen years ago in 1999.
Scanning the past 45 years, Chicagos real median household income was in the upper $40,000s
from 1969 through 1989 before rising to nearly $55,000 in the 1990s. Since then, median
income has retreated to around $48,000 reported for the periods ending in 2012, 2013 and
2014.
Median Household Income in Chicago
1969
1979
1989
1999
2008200920102012
2013
2014
$48,321 $46,559 $48,502 $54,899 $48,884 $48,044 $47,831
Source: U.S. Census Bureau; all dollar amounts adjusted for inflation to 2014 dollars.

Chicagos Neighborhood Income Gaps Have Increased


Over the last four decades, Chicago has experienced increasing economic distance between its
poorest and most affluent neighborhoods.
The largest amount of change occurred between 1969 and 1989, when the ratio of median
incomes of the poorest 10% to the most affluent 10% nearly doubled, from 2.6 to 4.8. This was
driven by the deepening poverty of many neighborhoods caused by industrial change, and the
increasing concentration of poverty. Both local and national economic growth during the 1990s
that lowered unemployment and grew jobs resulted in a narrowing of the ratio by the end of
the 1990s to 3.5.

American Community Survey data is reported for census tracts. Jim Lewis aggregated tract-level data and
calculated a median income amount for each of Chicagos 77 community areas.

Rob Paral and Associates page 1

Chicago Community Income Trends


The broad decline in median incomes across Chicago neighborhoods during the 2000s reported
here has resulted in a widening of the ratio, back to affluent neighborhoods having nearly 4
times the median income of the poorest ones. That step backwards was driven by the
combination of higher-income neighborhoods recovering strongly from the Recession while, as
noted above, so many of the lowest-income ones continued to decline. In real terms, the
poorest 10 neighborhoods had 13% lower median income in 2014 than they had in 1999.
In another sense, the gap is even wider. Insofar as the statistic median income is a measure of
the center point of a neighborhoods income distribution, it does not fully capture the value of
the highest end of its highest income bracket. Thus in terms of total income, the gap would be
far wider than the 3.9:1 ratio calculated here. Because extremely high-income households may
not affect the median income of an area, places like Forest Glen have higher median income
than Lincoln Park or Near North side, in spite of those latter neighborhoods housing the highest
earners in Chicago. Neighborhoods with consistently high median incomes such as Forest Glen,
Beverly, Mount Greenwood, North Center, and Edison Park house large numbers of uppermiddle class households that raise the median, but lack the million dollar incomes of the Loop,
Near North and Lincoln Park.

Ratio of Income of Wealthiest to Poorest Communities in Chicago


1969
1979
1989
1999
2014
Average income of
$73,804
$72,924 $78,556
$85,555
$84,158
wealthiest 10% of
communities
Average income of
$28,497
$23,746 $16,428
$24,596
$21,635
poorest 10% of
communities
Ratio wealthiest to
2.6
3.1
4.8
3.5
3.9
poorest
All dollar amounts adjusted for inflation to 2014 dollars.

Rob Paral and Associates page 2

Chicago Community Income Trends

Three Patterns of Community Area Income Change


Considering data over the past two decades, we can observe that Chicago communities fit into
three broad categories: places that have experienced a continual slide in income, places that
have had consistent gains, and places that gained during the 1990s, but then declined.

Rob Paral and Associates page 3

Chicago Community Income Trends


Areas with Steady Declines
While not the very poorest neighborhoods in Chicago, twelve neighborhoods have declined
steadily in median income over the past two decades. Most of these experienced modest real
declines of around 6% during the 1990s, when most of the rest of Chicago was growing, and
followed this with substantial declines of over 20% in the most recent decade, fuelled by the
Recession. Many of these communities are areas where deindustrialization took place, or
where manufacturing workers had lived, and/or are not on the path of upscale housing
development that has buoyed other lower-income communities.
12 Community Areas with Steady Income DECLINES Over Two Decades
Community Area

Median
Household
Income 1989

Median
Household
Income 1999

Median
Household
Income 20102014

%
Change
1989 to
1999

%
Change
1999 to
20102014
45. Avalon Park
$63,847
$63,028
$44,574
-1.3% -29.3%
46. South Chicago
$42,120
$40,194
$29,452
-4.6% -26.7%
48. Calumet Heights
$70,513
$65,845
$52,393
-6.6% -20.4%
50. Pullman
$46,864
$44,013
$38,175
-6.1% -13.3%
51. South Deering
$52,618
$49,447
$33,496
-6.0% -32.3%
53. West Pullman
$58,457
$57,533
$34,031
-1.6% -40.8%
57. Archer Heights
$58,462
$56,045
$42,055
-4.1% -25.0%
63. Gage Park
$54,899
$51,826
$37,773
-5.6% -27.1%
67. West Englewood
$40,777
$37,940
$26,858
-7.0% -29.2%
71. Auburn Gresham
$50,800
$48,664
$29,999
-4.2% -38.4%
73. Washington Heights
$62,759
$61,403
$40,553
-2.2% -34.0%
76. O'Hare
$65,647
$61,888
$43,259
-5.7% -30.1%
Source: Rob Paral and Associates based on U.S. Census Bureau data; all dollar amounts adjusted for
inflation to 2014 dollars.

Rob Paral and Associates page 4

Chicago Community Income Trends


Areas with Steady Gains
Most of the neighborhoods that had consistent gains have been strongly affected by
gentrification patterns where young professionals have moved into neighborhoods that had
previously been immigrant or bedroom, Lincoln Square, Logan Square and North Center, or into
the more affluent neighborhoods surrounding downtown, north, west and east which have
been dominated by loft conversions and construction of new high rises for owner and renter.
Owing to upscale conversion from industrial to residential use and pricing out of former low
income residents, the Near West and Near South side communities show extraordinary
increases in median income.
The exceptions to this pattern are Oakland, Washington Park, Woodlawn, and Grand Boulevard,
which started at very low levels and where significant loss of very low income people has
coupled with some increases of more middle income persons to create net gains in median
income.

12 Community Areas with Steady Income GAINS Over Two Decades


Community Area

Median
Household
Income 1989

Median
Household
Income 1999

Median
Household
Income 20102014

%
Change
1989 to
1999

%
Change
1999 to
20102014

04. Lincoln Square


$48,581
$58,130
$62,076
19.7%
6.8%
05. North Center
$53,371
$73,565
$90,279
37.8%
22.7%
08. Near North Side
$71,338
$82,169
$82,169
15.2%
0.0%
22. Logan Square
$41,647
$51,516
$56,115
23.7%
8.9%
24. West Town
$35,473
$55,311
$69,962
55.9%
26.5%
28. Near West Side
$17,217
$42,054
$70,307 144.3%
67.2%
33. Near South Side
$12,547
$48,793
$74,175 288.9%
52.0%
36. Oakland
$9,346
$15,264
$24,815
63.3%
62.6%
38. Grand Boulevard
$13,178
$20,152
$30,347
52.9%
50.6%
40. Washington Park
$15,496
$21,547
$22,059
39.1%
2.4%
42. Woodlawn
$25,227
$25,962
$26,452
2.9%
1.9%
74. Mount Greenwood
$74,181
$81,717
$87,851
10.2%
7.5%
Source: Rob Paral and Associates based on U.S. Census Bureau data; all dollar amounts adjusted for
inflation to 2014 dollars.

Rob Paral and Associates page 5

Chicago Community Income Trends


Areas with Gains Followed by Declines
But the pattern of Chicago economic change is dominated by the 53 neighborhoods whose
median income rose during the 1990s and has declined since. These neighborhoods span much
of the south and northwest portions of the city, showing recent income declines for a number
of reasons. These include unemployment owing to industrial/occupation change exacerbated
by the Recession and global economic change, lack of amenities or proximity to development
valued by developers and the higher income residents who would move in, population
transitions that have replaced higher earners with low income immigrants, and aging persons
who remain in place, but whose income shifts from wages to social security and/or pensions.
53 Community Areas with GAIN THEN DECLINE Over Two Decades
Community Area

01.
02.
03.
06.
07.
09.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
23.
25.
26.
27.
29.
30.
31.
32.

Rogers Park
West Ridge
Uptown
Lake View
Lincoln Park
Edison Park
Norwood Park
Jefferson Park
Forest Glen
North Park
Albany Park
Portage Park
Irving Park
Dunning
Montclare
Belmont Cragin
Hermosa
Avondale
Humboldt Park
Austin
West Garfield Park
East Garfield Park
North Lawndale
South Lawndale
Lower West Side
Loop

Median
Household
Income 1989

Median
Household
Income 1999

$44,078
$57,920
$36,349
$58,774
$75,638
$75,677
$72,409
$65,359
$94,465
$64,531
$50,317
$59,399
$53,140
$65,510
$61,099
$55,139
$49,304
$49,273
$36,952
$45,876
$27,850
$22,281
$23,181
$41,050
$37,935
$89,128

$44,917
$58,479
$45,949
$76,583
$97,522
$81,134
$75,902
$70,555
$97,033
$69,941
$57,864
$64,126
$59,749
$70,167
$66,285
$61,343
$54,237
$52,130
$40,832
$47,846
$32,863
$34,419
$26,070
$45,937
$39,460
$92,569

Median
%
%
Household Change Change
Income 2010- 1989 to 1999 to
2014
1999
20102014
$37,779
$47,941
$44,229
$75,730
$87,694
$79,342
$70,578
$62,021
$84,347
$52,283
$52,666
$54,773
$48,758
$60,945
$41,387
$43,103
$37,327
$44,388
$32,303
$31,289
$25,362
$22,103
$23,107
$31,229
$35,103
$88,756

1.9%
1.0%
26.4%
30.3%
28.9%
7.2%
4.8%
7.9%
2.7%
8.4%
15.0%
8.0%
12.4%
7.1%
8.5%
11.3%
10.0%
5.8%
10.5%
4.3%
18.0%
54.5%
12.5%
11.9%
4.0%
3.9%

-15.9%
-18.0%
-3.7%
-1.1%
-10.1%
-2.2%
-7.0%
-12.1%
-13.1%
-25.2%
-9.0%
-14.6%
-18.4%
-13.1%
-37.6%
-29.7%
-31.2%
-14.9%
-20.9%
-34.6%
-22.8%
-35.8%
-11.4%
-32.0%
-11.0%
-4.1%

Rob Paral and Associates page 6

Chicago Community Income Trends


34. Armour Square
35. Douglas
37. Fuller Park
39. Kenwood
41. Hyde Park
43. South Shore
44. Chatham
47. Burnside
49. Roseland
52. East Side
54. Riverdale
55. Hegewisch
56. Garfield Ridge
58. Brighton Park
59. McKinley Park
60. Bridgeport
61. New City
62. West Elsdon
64. Clearing
65. West Lawn
66. Chicago Lawn
68. Englewood
69. Greater Grand
Crossing
70. Ashburn
72. Beverly
75. Morgan Park
77. Edgewater

$24,925
$23,961
$15,325
$42,061
$51,067
$37,056
$44,274
$47,847
$52,744
$50,916
$11,804
$57,726
$60,592
$47,573
$49,081
$46,208
$36,224
$57,016
$62,231
$64,328
$47,499
$24,422
$34,170

$32,344
$35,299
$26,170
$52,038
$51,155
$39,439
$45,967
$49,448
$54,347
$56,461
$18,730
$62,062
$64,580
$51,516
$51,182
$50,507
$36,453
$64,401
$64,718
$66,827
$51,144
$26,941
$39,678

$23,590
$32,389
$16,569
$39,593
$48,643
$26,865
$33,849
$25,430
$37,957
$43,629
$14,579
$49,907
$61,669
$35,667
$42,371
$41,707
$30,716
$44,876
$60,222
$48,793
$32,601
$18,744
$25,950

29.8%
47.3%
70.8%
23.7%
0.2%
6.4%
3.8%
3.3%
3.0%
10.9%
58.7%
7.5%
6.6%
8.3%
4.3%
9.3%
0.6%
13.0%
4.0%
3.9%
7.7%
10.3%
16.1%

-27.1%
-8.2%
-36.7%
-23.9%
-4.9%
-31.9%
-26.4%
-48.6%
-30.2%
-22.7%
-22.2%
-19.6%
-4.5%
-30.8%
-17.2%
-17.4%
-15.7%
-30.3%
-6.9%
-27.0%
-36.3%
-30.4%
-34.6%

$72,269
$90,203
$66,993
$46,180

$76,230
$94,978
$75,520
$50,835

$65,200
$91,239
$61,223
$44,429

5.5%
5.3%
12.7%
10.1%

-14.5%
-3.9%
-18.9%
-12.6%

Source: Rob Paral and Associates based on U.S. Census Bureau data; all dollar amounts adjusted for inflation to 2014 dollars.

Chicagos Most Distressed Places


The losses in income taking place in many Chicago community areas can be characterized in
two ways between 1999 and 2010-2014:
1) neighborhoods with predominantly low-income residents (median income below $30,000)
that still suffered high percentage losses of income (greater than 30% decline), and;
2) neighborhoods starting at somewhat higher levels (median income over $30,000 but less
than $45,000) where the absolute amount of income lost was significant (more than 30%
decline).

Rob Paral and Associates page 7

Chicago Community Income Trends


Low Income with High
Percentage Decline

Seven Chicago communities had


income declines exceeding 30%
over the last decade and have
median incomes below
$30,000. All of them are
predominantly AfricanAmerican communities on
Chicagos south and west sides.

Community Areas with Household Income Below $30,000,


with Greater than 30% Decline since 1999

37.
68.
27.
47.
69.
43.
71.

Community Area
Fuller Park
Englewood
East Garfield Park
Burnside
Greater Grand Crossing
South Shore
Auburn Gresham

Median
Household
income
1999
$26,170
$26,941
$34,419
$49,448
$39,678
$39,439
$48,664

Median
Household
income
2010-2014
$16,569
$18,744
$22,103
$25,430
$25,950
$26,865
$29,999

1999 to
2010-2014
# Change
-$9,600
-$8,198
-$12,316
-$24,018
-$13,728
-$12,574
-$18,665

1999 to
2010-2014
% Change
-36.7%
-30.4%
-35.8%
-48.6%
-34.6%
-31.9%
-38.4%

Source: Rob Paral and Associates based on U.S. Census Bureau data; all dollar amounts adjusted for inflation to 2014 dollars.

Rob Paral and Associates page 8

Chicago Community Income Trends


Somewhat Higher Income with High Absolute
Decline

Another 12 communities have median


incomes up to $45,000, but also suffered
losses of 30% or more. Because they started
at higher median incomes, their actual dollar
losses in many cases exceeded the actual
dollar losses of the poorer communities.
These communities tend to be mixed
white/Latino areas and somewhat higher
income African American.

Community Areas with Household Income $30,000-$45,000, with Greater than 30% Decline since 1999
Community Area
Median HH Iincome
Median HH income
1999 to 2010-14 1999 to 2010-2014
1999
2010-14
# Change
% Change
30.
18.
20.
25.
49.
51.
53.
58.
62.
66.
73.
76.

South Lawndale
Montclare
Hermosa
Austin
Roseland
South Deering
West Pullman
Brighton Park
West Elsdon
Chicago Lawn
Washington Heights
O'Hare

$45,937
$66,285
$54,237
$47,846
$54,347
$49,447
$57,533
$51,516
$64,401
$51,144
$61,403
$61,888

$31,229
$41,387
$37,327
$31,289
$37,957
$33,496
$34,031
$35,667
$44,876
$32,601
$40,553
$43,259

-$14,708
-$24,899
-$16,910
-$16,558
-$16,390
-$15,951
-$23,501
-$15,849
-$19,525
-$18,543
-$20,850
-$18,628

-32.0%
-37.6%
-31.2%
-34.6%
-30.2%
-32.3%
-40.8%
-30.8%
-30.3%
-36.3%
-34.0%
-30.1%

Source: Rob Paral and Associates based on U.S. Census Bureau data; all dollar amounts adjusted for inflation to 2014 dollars.

Rob Paral and Associates page 9

Chicago Community Income Trends


Highest Dollar Losses Since 1999
Sorted another way, the ranking of communities suffering the greatest dollar losses over the decade are as
follows:

Community Areas with Highest Dollar Losses since 1999


Community Area
Change in
Percent Change in
Income from Income from 1999
1999 to 2010to 2010-2014
2014
18. Montclare
-$24,899
-37.6%
47. Burnside
-$24,018
-48.6%
53. West Pullman
-$23,501
-40.8%
73. Washington Heights
-$20,850
-34.0%
62. West Elsdon
-$19,525
-30.3%
71. Auburn Gresham
-$18,665
-38.4%
76. O'Hare
-$18,628
-30.1%
66. Chicago Lawn
-$18,543
-36.3%
45. Avalon Park
-$18,454
-29.3%
19. Belmont Cragin
-$18,240
-29.7%
65. West Lawn
-$18,034
-27.0%
13. North Park
-$17,658
-25.2%
20. Hermosa
-$16,910
-31.2%
25. Austin
-$16,558
-34.6%
49. Roseland
-$16,390
-30.2%
51. South Deering
-$15,951
-32.3%
58. Brighton Park
-$15,849
-30.8%
Source: Rob Paral and Associates based on U.S. Census Bureau data;
all dollar amounts adjusted for inflation to 2014 dollars.

Rob Paral and Associates page 10

Chicago Community Income Trends

Notes on Data Sources


Sources
Data are derived from the 1990 and 2000 decennial censuses and from the 2010-2014 American
Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau.
Time periods
Data from the 1990 and 2000 censuses represent the prior year, i.e., year 2000 census data on income
is reported for 1999 because survey respondents are asked about their income in the previous
calendar year.
Inflation adjustment
Inflation adjustment factors for this report were derived from the Census Bureaus annual Income and
Poverty reports.

Acknowledgements
Sam Tomko-Jones and Claudia Chi assisted with data preparation of this report.

Rob Paral and Associates page 11

Chicago Community Income Trends

Appendix: Household Income Data for Chicago Community Areas


Median Household Income Adjusted to 2014 Dollars
Community Area

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010-14

01. Rogers Park

$48,252

$42,308

$44,078

$44,917

$37,779

02. West Ridge

$69,354

$62,327

$57,920

$58,479

$47,941

03. Uptown

$34,049

$32,784

$36,349

$45,949

$44,229

04. Lincoln Square

$52,570

$47,974

$48,581

$58,130

$62,076

05. North Center

$49,823

$47,721

$53,371

$73,565

$90,279

06. Lake View

$44,837

$48,351

$58,774

$76,583

$75,730

07. Lincoln Park

$42,216

$55,143

$75,638

$97,522

$87,694

08. Near North Side

$46,522

$56,600

$71,338

$82,169

$82,169

09. Edison Park

$69,240

$71,203

$75,677

$81,134

$79,342

10. Norwood Park

$72,975

$72,283

$72,409

$75,902

$70,578

11. Jefferson Park

$64,020

$63,456

$65,359

$70,555

$62,021

12. Forest Glen

$88,086

$85,830

$94,465

$97,033

$84,347

13. North Park

$70,622

$66,405

$64,531

$69,941

$52,283

14. Albany Park

$53,358

$50,271

$50,317

$57,864

$52,666

15. Portage Park

$59,611

$57,002

$59,399

$64,126

$54,773

16. Irving Park

$53,860

$50,572

$53,140

$59,749

$48,758

17. Dunning

$65,185

$63,842

$65,510

$70,167

$60,945

18. Montclare

$61,051

$59,981

$61,099

$66,285

$41,387

19. Belmont Cragin

$56,368

$55,554

$55,139

$61,343

$43,103

20. Hermosa

$53,546

$49,940

$49,304

$54,237

$37,327

21. Avondale

$50,457

$46,574

$49,273

$52,130

$44,388

22. Logan Square

$47,230

$39,685

$41,647

$51,516

$56,115

23. Humboldt Park

$47,436

$37,193

$36,952

$40,832

$32,303

24. West Town

$37,984

$33,380

$35,473

$55,311

$69,962

25. Austin

$52,119

$44,109

$45,876

$47,846

$31,289

26. West Garfield Park

$38,538

$29,376

$27,850

$32,863

$25,362

27. East Garfield Park

$30,205

$24,279

$22,281

$34,419

$22,103

28. Near West Side

$27,293

$18,498

$17,217

$42,054

$70,307

29. North Lawndale

$36,333

$27,675

$23,181

$26,070

$23,107

30. South Lawndale

$44,414

$45,205

$41,050

$45,937

$31,229

31. Lower West Side

$42,136

$37,832

$37,935

$39,460

$35,103

32. Loop

$49,200

$35,577

$89,128

$92,569

$88,756

33. Near South Side

$22,650

$18,513

$12,547

$48,793

$74,175

34. Armour Square

$33,929

$31,262

$24,925

$32,344

$23,590

35. Douglas

$33,038

$26,391

$23,961

$35,299

$32,389

36. Oakland

$21,171

$14,271

$9,346

$15,264

$24,815

37. Fuller Park

$33,489

$23,619

$15,325

$26,170

$16,569

Rob Paral and Associates page 12

Chicago Community Income Trends


38. Grand Boulevard

$24,329

$16,508

$13,178

$20,152

$30,347

39. Kenwood

$35,408

$37,169

$42,061

$52,038

$39,593

40. Washington Park

$29,035

$20,056

$15,496

$21,547

$22,059

41. Hyde Park

$47,447

$46,096

$51,067

$51,155

$48,643

42. Woodlawn

$31,559

$22,901

$25,227

$25,962

$26,452

43. South Shore

$47,773

$41,523

$37,056

$39,439

$26,865

44. Chatham

$53,129

$47,502

$44,274

$45,967

$33,849

45. Avalon Park

$65,688

$64,734

$63,847

$63,028

$44,574

46. South Chicago

$49,503

$53,080

$42,120

$40,194

$29,452

47. Burnside

$51,239

$60,647

$47,847

$49,448

$25,430

48. Calumet Heights

$72,067

$75,436

$70,513

$65,845

$52,393

49. Roseland

$56,790

$56,415

$52,744

$54,347

$37,957

50. Pullman

$53,489

$57,638

$46,864

$44,013

$38,175

51. South Deering

$60,120

$59,917

$52,618

$49,447

$33,496

52. East Side

$61,764

$65,863

$50,916

$56,461

$43,629

53. West Pullman

$60,422

$61,125

$58,457

$57,533

$34,031

55. Hegewisch

$61,313

$66,499

$57,726

$62,062

$49,907

56. Garfield Ridge

$68,543

$67,552

$60,592

$64,580

$61,669

57. Archer Heights

$62,850

$59,920

$58,462

$56,045

$42,055

58. Brighton Park

$52,141

$48,141

$47,573

$51,516

$35,667

59. McKinley Park

$53,010

$49,051

$49,081

$51,182

$42,371

60. Bridgeport

$48,492

$44,526

$46,208

$50,507

$41,707

61. New City

$47,950

$38,991

$36,224

$36,453

$30,716

62. West Elsdon

$65,517

$61,913

$57,016

$64,401

$44,876

63. Gage Park

$57,338

$55,155

$54,899

$51,826

$37,773

64. Clearing

$67,139

$66,961

$62,231

$64,718

$60,222

65. West Lawn

$65,682

$67,451

$64,328

$66,827

$48,793

66. Chicago Lawn

$55,003

$52,018

$47,499

$51,144

$32,601

67. West Englewood

$49,189

$40,312

$40,777

$37,940

$26,858

68. Englewood

$37,333

$27,885

$24,422

$26,941

$18,744

69. Greater Grand Crossing

$43,244

$36,247

$34,170

$39,678

$25,950

70. Ashburn

$76,864

$77,870

$72,269

$76,230

$65,200

71. Auburn Gresham

$55,277

$56,579

$50,800

$48,664

$29,999

72. Beverly

$79,754

$78,597

$90,203

$94,978

$91,239

73. Washington Heights

$64,814

$66,070

$62,759

$61,403

$40,553

74. Mount Greenwood

$70,776

$66,931

$74,181

$81,717

$87,851

75. Morgan Park

$65,888

$64,597

$66,993

$75,520

$61,223

$0

$64,341

$65,647

$61,888

$43,259

76. O'Hare
77. Edgewater

$49,269

$42,059

$46,180

$50,835

$44,429

CHICAGO

$48,321

$46,559

$48,502

$54,899

$47,831

Rob Paral and Associates page 13