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Project Guide Stationary

MAN Diesel & Turbo


86224 Augsburg, Germany
Phone +49 821 322-0
Fax +49 821 322-3382
marineengines-de@mandieselturbo.com
www.mandieselturbo.com

Four-stroke diesel engines compliant with emission limits World Bank

All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational
purposes only and is especially not guaranteed in any way. Depending on the
subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to
changes and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This
will depend on the particular characteristics of each individual project, especially
specific site and operational conditions. CopyrightMAN Diesel & Turbo.
D2366511EN Printed in Germany GKM-AUG-05130.5

32/40
Project Guide Stationary
Four-stroke diesel engines
compliant with emission limits World Bank

2366xxx_PRJ_32-40.indd 4

MAN Diesel & Turbo

MAN Diesel & Turbo a member of the MAN Group

03.05.2013 10:42:47

Titelseite 32-40.fm

32/40
Project Guide Stationary
Four-stroke diesel engines
compliant with emission limits World Bank

Status

Version

Checked

Date

Checked

Date

05.2013

1.5

Utjesinovic

2013-05-03

Franz

2013-05-06

All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational purposes only and is
especially not guaranteed in any way.
Depending on the subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to changes
and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This will depend on the particular
characteristics of each individual project, especially specific site and operational conditions.
If this document is delivered in another language than English and doubts arise concerning the translation, the English text shall prevail.
In addition, always contact MAN Diesel & Turbo at early project stage to ensure that the latest information is transferred and the latest status of project tools is used.

MAN Diesel & Turbo


86224 Augsburg, Germany
Phone +49 821 322-0
Fax +49 821 322-3382
powerplant-aug@mandieselturbo.com

MAN Diesel & Turbo


Reproduction permitted provided source is given.

Titelseite 32-40.fm

www.mandieselturbo.com

Table of contents
1

Introduction ....................................................................................... 1 - 1
1.1

Four stroke diesel and gas engine programme for stationary engines.................................. 1 - 3

1.2

Engine description 32/40.......................................................................................................... 1 - 5

Engine and operation ........................................................................ 2 - 1


2.1

Approved applications.............................................................................................................. 2 - 3

2.2

Engine design............................................................................................................................ 2 - 5

PG_Power_32-40IVZ.fm

2.3

2.2.1

Engine cross section............................................................................................. 2 - 5

2.2.2

Engine designations Design parameters............................................................. 2 - 7

2.2.3

Turbocharger assignment ..................................................................................... 2 - 9

2.2.4

Engine main dimensions, weights and views ....................................................... 2 - 11

2.2.5

Engine equipment for various applications .......................................................... 2 - 13

Ratings (outputs) and speeds ................................................................................................ 2 - 17


2.3.1

Standard engine ratings ...................................................................................... 2 - 17

2.3.2

Engine ratings (output) for different applications .................................................. 2 - 18

2.3.3

Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment


installations in exhaust gas line and resulting installation demands ...................... 2 - 21

2.3.4

Speeds ............................................................................................................... 2 - 25

2.3.5

Speed adjusting range ........................................................................................ 2 - 27

2.4

Starting conditions GenSet..................................................................................................... 2 - 29

2.5

Low load operation ................................................................................................................. 2 - 31

2.6

Load application GenSet Preheated engine........................................................................ 2 - 33

2.7

Load application Cold engine (only emergency case)........................................................ 2 - 36

2.8

Engine operation under arctic conditions.............................................................................. 2 - 37

2.9

Engine load reduction............................................................................................................. 2 - 41

2.10

Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure ......................................................... 2 - 43

2.11

GenSet operation..................................................................................................................... 2 - 45
2.11.1

Operating range for GenSets .............................................................................. 2 - 45

2.11.2

Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations ...................................... 2 - 47

2.11.3

Alternator Reverse power protection ................................................................ 2 - 49

2.11.4

Earthing measures of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators .......... 2 - 51

32/40

Table of contents - 1

2.13

2.14

2.15

2.16

Fuel oil; lube oil; starting air/control air consumption.......................................................... 2 - 53


2.12.1

Fuel oil consumption for emission standard: World Bank 1998


and World Bank 2007/2008................................................................................ 2 - 53

2.12.2

Lube oil consumption.......................................................................................... 2 - 57

2.12.3

Starting air/control air consumption .................................................................... 2 - 58

2.12.4

Recalculation of liquid fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions ........ 2 - 59

2.12.5

Aging .................................................................................................................. 2 - 61

Planning data for emission standard: World Bank 1998....................................................... 2 - 63


2.13.1

Nominal values for cooler specification Iginition pressure 190 bar..................... 2 - 63

2.13.2

Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data


Iginition pressure 190 bar.................................................................................... 2 - 65

2.13.3

Load specific values at ISO conditions Iginition pressure 190 bar ..................... 2 - 66

2.13.4

Nominal values for cooler specification Iginition pressure 205 bar..................... 2 - 68

2.13.5

Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data


Iginition pressure 205 bar.................................................................................... 2 - 70

2.13.6

Load specific values at ISO conditions Iginition pressure 205 bar ..................... 2 - 71

Planning data for emission standard: World Bank 2007/2008 ............................................. 2 - 73


2.14.1

Nominal values for cooler specification (1,460 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2) ....... 2 - 73

2.14.2

Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data


(1,460 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2) ...................................................................... 2 - 75

2.14.3

Load specific values at ISO conditions (1,460 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)........ 2 - 77

2.14.4

Nominal values for cooler specification (1,600 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2) ....... 2 - 79

2.14.5

Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data


(1,600 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2) ...................................................................... 2 - 81

2.14.6

Load specific values at ISO conditions (1,600 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)........ 2 - 83

Planning data .......................................................................................................................... 2 - 85


2.15.1

Filling volumes and flow resistances .................................................................... 2 - 85

2.15.2

Operating/service temperatures and pressures ................................................... 2 - 86

2.15.3

Internal media systems ....................................................................................... 2 - 89

2.15.4

Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger.................................................. 2 - 93

Emissions ................................................................................................................................ 2 - 95
2.16.1

2.17

Emission limits World Bank ................................................................................. 2 - 95

2.16.2

Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines............... 2 - 97

2.16.3

Recalculation of NOx emission for stationary applications ................................... 2 - 99

Noise...................................................................................................................................... 2 - 101
2.17.1

Airborne noise................................................................................................... 2 - 101

2.17.2

Intake noise ...................................................................................................... 2 - 103

2.17.3

Exhaust gas noise............................................................................................. 2 - 105

Table of contents - 2

32/40

PG_Power_32-40IVZ.fm

2.12

2.18

2.18.1

Torsional vibrations ........................................................................................... 2 - 107

2.18.2

Static torque fluctuation .................................................................................... 2 - 109

2.19

Arrangement of attached pumps ......................................................................................... 2 - 111

2.20

Foundation for GenSets ........................................................................................................ 2 - 113

Engine automation ............................................................................ 3 - 1


3.1

SaCoSone system overview....................................................................................................... 3 - 3

3.2

Power supply and distribution ................................................................................................. 3 - 7

3.3

Operation................................................................................................................................... 3 - 9

3.4

Functionality ........................................................................................................................... 3 - 11

3.5

Interfaces ................................................................................................................................ 3 - 13

3.6

Technical data......................................................................................................................... 3 - 15

3.7

Installation requirements ....................................................................................................... 3 - 17

Specification for engine supplies ..................................................... 4 - 1


4.1

4.2

PG_Power_32-40IVZ.fm

Vibration ................................................................................................................................ 2 - 107

Explanatory notes for operating supplies Diesel engines.................................................... 4 - 3


4.1.1

Lubricating oil ....................................................................................................... 4 - 3

4.1.2

Fuel ...................................................................................................................... 4 - 3

4.1.3

Engine cooling water............................................................................................. 4 - 4

4.1.4

Intake air............................................................................................................... 4 - 4

Explanatory notes for biofuel ................................................................................................... 4 - 5


4.2.1

Operation with biofuel ........................................................................................... 4 - 5

4.2.2

Requirements on plant side .................................................................................. 4 - 5

4.2.3

Requirements on engine ....................................................................................... 4 - 6

4.3

Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40)


for operation with MGO/MDO and biofuels (stationary) .......................................................... 4 - 7

4.4

Lubricating oil (SAE 40) Specification for heavy fuel operation (HFO) (stationary) .......... 4 - 11

4.5

Specification for gas oil/diesel oil (MGO) .............................................................................. 4 - 15

4.6

Specification for biofuel ......................................................................................................... 4 - 17

4.7

Specification for diesel oil (MDO)........................................................................................... 4 - 19

4.8

Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)..................................................................................... 4 - 21

32/40

Table of contents - 3

Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram) ....................................................................... 4 - 33

4.10

Quality of raw-water in cooling tower operation


(additive and circulating water) ............................................................................................. 4 - 35

4.11

Specification for engine cooling water .................................................................................. 4 - 37

4.12

Cooling water inspecting........................................................................................................ 4 - 45

4.13

Cooling water system cleaning .............................................................................................. 4 - 47

4.14

Quality of water used in exhaust gas boiler plants ............................................................... 4 - 49

4.15

Specification for intake air (combustion air)......................................................................... 4 - 51

Engine supply systems ..................................................................... 5 - 1


5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

Basic principles for pipe selection........................................................................................... 5 - 3


5.1.1

Engine pipe connections and dimensions ............................................................. 5 - 3

5.1.2

Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels ........................................ 5 - 5

Lube oil system ......................................................................................................................... 5 - 9


5.2.1

Lube oil system diagram ....................................................................................... 5 - 9

5.2.2

Lube oil system description................................................................................. 5 - 15

5.2.3

Prelubrication/postlubrication.............................................................................. 5 - 23

5.2.4

Lube oil outlets ................................................................................................... 5 - 25

5.2.5

Lube oil service tank ........................................................................................... 5 - 29

5.2.6

Pressure control valve......................................................................................... 5 - 33

5.2.7

Lube oil filter ....................................................................................................... 5 - 35

5.2.8

Crankcase vent and tank vent............................................................................. 5 - 37

Water systems ........................................................................................................................ 5 - 39


5.3.1

Cooling water system diagram............................................................................ 5 - 39

5.3.2

Cooling water collecting and supply system........................................................ 5 - 49

5.3.3

Miscellaneous items............................................................................................ 5 - 51

5.3.4

Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by a ultrasonic device ................ 5 - 53

5.3.5

Turbine washing device, HFO-operation ............................................................. 5 - 55

5.3.6

Nozzle cooling system ........................................................................................ 5 - 57

5.3.7

Nozzle cooling water module .............................................................................. 5 - 61

5.3.8

Preheating module.............................................................................................. 5 - 65

Fuel system ............................................................................................................................. 5 - 67


5.4.1

Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system ........................................................... 5 - 67

5.4.2

Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines .................................... 5 - 71

5.4.3

Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system................................................................. 5 - 75

5.4.4

Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system ..................................................................... 5 - 79

Table of contents - 4

32/40

PG_Power_32-40IVZ.fm

4.9

5.5

Compressed air system .......................................................................................................... 5 - 91


5.5.1

Starting air system .............................................................................................. 5 - 91

5.5.2

Starting air vessels, compressors........................................................................ 5 - 97

5.5.3

Jet Assist ............................................................................................................ 5 - 99

5.6

Engine room ventilation and combustion air....................................................................... 5 - 101

5.7

Exhaust gas system.............................................................................................................. 5 - 103


5.7.1

General information........................................................................................... 5 - 103

5.7.2

Components and assemblies............................................................................ 5 - 105

Engine room planning ....................................................................... 6 - 1


6.0.1

Major spare parts.................................................................................................. 6 - 3

Annex ................................................................................................. 7 - 1
7.1

Safety instructions and necessary safety measures .............................................................. 7 - 3


7.1.1

General................................................................................................................. 7 - 3

7.1.2

Safety equipment/measures provided by plant-side .............................................. 7 - 4

7.2

Programme for works test ....................................................................................................... 7 - 7

7.3

Engine running-in ..................................................................................................................... 7 - 9

7.4

Definitions ............................................................................................................................... 7 - 13

7.5

Symbols................................................................................................................................... 7 - 17

7.6

Preservation, packaging, storage .......................................................................................... 7 - 21

7.7

7.6.1

General information............................................................................................. 7 - 21

7.6.2

Storage location and duration ............................................................................. 7 - 22

7.6.3

Follow-up preservation when preservation period is exceeded............................ 7 - 23

7.6.4

Removal of corrosion protection ......................................................................... 7 - 24

Engine colour .......................................................................................................................... 7 - 25

PG_Power_32-40IVZ.fm

Index ......................................................................................................... I

32/40

Table of contents - 5

PG_Power_32-40IVZ.fm

Table of contents - 6

32/40

======

Introduction

Kapiteltitel 1 AA.fm

Page 1 - 1

Page 1 - 2

Kapiteltitel 1 AA.fm

Introduction
1.1 Four stroke diesel and gas engine programme for stationary engines

0101-0201PA.fm

1.1

Four stroke diesel and gas engine programme for stationary


engines

Figure 1-1

MAN Diesel & Turbo liquid fuel GenSets

Figure 1-2

MAN Diesel & Turbo gas fuel and df GenSets

iJ_`

32/40DF, 32/44CR, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

Page 1 - 3

Introduction

0101-0201PA.fm

1.1 Four stroke diesel and gas engine programme for stationary engines

Page 1 - 4

32/40DF, 32/44CR, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

L-BC

Introduction
1.2 Engine description 32/40

1.2

Engine description 32/40

General
With an electrical power output range of 4.3 to
8.7 MWe, the 32/40 engine is ideal for small- and
medium-sized applications. The well proven
320 mm bore classic is in operation around the
world day in, day out. The interacting of all important parts results in low wear rates and long
maintenance intervals.
Marine main engines
The engines output is limited to 110 % of rated
output for engines driving a alternator. Overload
above 100 % permitted briefly to prevent a frequency drop during sudden load application.

The 32/40 engine can be operated with HFO (up


to 700 cSt/50 C, RMK700), MDO (DMB) and
MGO (DMA, DMZ) according ISO8217-2010.
Stepped piston
The stepped piston and the fire ring prevent bore
polishing of the cylinder liner, helping to reduce operating costs by keeping the consumption of lubricating oil consistently low. Chromium ceramic
coating of the first piston ring and highly resistant
ceramic particles in the ring surface result in low
wear on the ring and liner, ensuring extremely long
intervals between maintenance.
MAN Diesel & Turbo turbocharging system
Industry leading constant pressure turbocharging
system using state-of-the-art MAN Diesel & Turbo
turbochargers with long bearing overhaul intervals. High efficiency at full and part loads results in
substantial air surplus and thorough combustion
without residues and with low thermal stress on
the combustion chamber components.

The exhaust valves are designed with armoured,


water-cooled seats that keep valve temperatures
down. Rotors on the exhaust valve shaft provide
rotation by exhaust gas, which results in the cleaning effect of the valve seat area. The inlet valves are
equipped with rotocaps for low wear rates and
long maintenance intervals.

The 32/40 features hydraulic tools for the fitting


and removal of all major bolted connections. Access covers in the cylinder crankcase are generously sized, which simplifies maintenance work.
The engine displays minimal wear and tear and
has long maintenance intervals for all power train
components.
Cylinder liner
The precision machined cylinder liner and separate cooling water collar rest on top of the engine
frame and offer high resistance to external deformation. This supports optimum piston performance and ensures a long service life.
Electronics
The 32/40 is equipped with the latest generation
of the proven MAN Diesel & Turbo engine management system, SaCoSone. This system is tested
at the factory together with the engine, making fine
tuning and functional testing easier and smoother
when the power unit is commissioned.
SaCoSone offers:

Cylinder head
0102-0000PB.fm

Valves

Service friendly design

Fuels

The cylinder head features optimised combustion


chamber geometry for improved injection spray
atomisation. This ensures balanced air/fuel mix-

B-BD

ture, reduces combustion residue, soot formation


and improves fuel economy. High resistance to fatigue, effective heat removal and preventing excessive ignition pressures results in outstanding
component reliability and a long service life.

Integrated self-diagnosis functions


Maximum reliability and availability
Simple use and diagnosis

32/40

Page 1 - 5

Introduction
1.2 Engine description 32/40

Quick exchange of modules (plug in)


Trouble-free and time-saving commissioning
Low exhaust emissions
As with all MAN Diesel & Turbo engines, 32/40 engines comply with World Bank guidelines for exhaust emissions. Even lower NOX emissions can
be achieved to fulfil worldwide emission standards
for specific plants.

0102-0000PB.fm

For example, engines can be equipped with


MANs advanced selective catalytic reduction
(SCR) technology. The more thorough the combustion, the lower the particle emissions. MAN
Diesel & Turbos highly efficient engines produce
particle emission rates well below the World Bank
guidelines, provided that fuel with low ash content
is used.

Page 1 - 6

32/40

B-BD

======

Engine and operation

Kapiteltitel 2 AA.fm

Page 2 - 1

Page 2 - 2

Kapiteltitel 2 AA.fm

Engine and operation


2.1 Approved applications

2.1

Approved applications

The 32/40 was designed for stationary applications and its suitability has been proven through
extensive factory tests for following applications:

Base load GenSet (grid parallel operation, island operation)

Note!

0200-0000PB.fm

The engine is not designed for operation in


hazardous areas. It has to be ensured by the
power stations own systems, that the atmoshere of the power house is monitored and
in case of detecting a gas-containing atmosphere the engine will be stopped immediately.

^J_a

32/40

Page 2 - 3

Engine and operation

0200-0000PB.fm

2.1 Approved applications

Page 2 - 4

32/40

A-BD

Engine and operation

0201-0000PB.fm

2.2.1 Engine cross section

2.2

Engine design

2.2.1

Engine cross section

Figure 2-1

A-BD

Cross section, view on coupling side Engine L32/40

32/40

Page 2 - 5

Engine and operation


2.2.1 Engine cross section

Cross section, view on coupling side Engine V32/40


0201-0000PB.fm

Figure 2-2

Page 2 - 6

32/40

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.2.2 Engine designations Design parameters

2.2.2

Engine designations Design parameters

Example to declare engine designations

12V32/40
Piston stroke [cm]
Cylinder bore [cm]
V=Vee engine, L= in-line engine
Cylinder number

Parameter

Value

Unit

9,
12, 14, 16, 18

Cylinder bore

320

mm

Piston stroke

400

Number of cylinders

Swept volume of each cylinder

32.17

dm3

Compression ratio (WB 1998)

14.5

Compression ratio (WB 2007/2008)

15.2

Distance between cylinder centres

L = 530

mm

Distance between cylinder centres

V = 630

Vee engine, vee angle

45

Crankshaft diameter at journal, in-line engine

L = 290

mm

Crankshaft diameter at journal, vee engine

V = 320

Crankshaft diameter at crank pin, vee engine

V = 290

Design parameters engine 32/40

0201-0200PB.fm

Table 2-1

B-BD

32/40

Page 2 - 7

Engine and operation

0201-0200PB.fm

2.2.2 Engine designations Design parameters

Page 2 - 8

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.2.3 Turbocharger assignment

2.2.3

Turbocharger assignment

32/40
No. of cylinders

Stationary, WB 1998

Stationary, WB 2007/2008

500 kW/cyl.
720 or 750 rpm

500 kW/cyl.
720 or 750 rpm

9L

NR34/S

NR34/S

12V

NR29/S

NR29/S

14V

NR29/S

NR29/S

16V

NR34/S

NR34/S

18V

NR34/S

NR34/S

Table 2-2

Turbocharger assignment

0202-0200PB.fm

Above mentioned turbocharger assignments are


only for guidance and may vary due to projectspecific reasons.

^J_a

32/40

Page 2 - 9

Engine and operation

0202-0200PB.fm

2.2.3 Turbocharger assignment

Page 2 - 10

32/40

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.2.4 Engine main dimensions, weights and views

2.2.4

Engine main dimensions, weights and views

Engine L32/40

L32/40

B
C

Figure 2-3

Main dimensions Engine L32/40

Legend
Engine

mm
9L32/40

7,215

4,100

11,315

Weight
tons

5,125

2,715

82

0202-0201PB.fm

All weights and dimensions apply only to dry engines without a flywheel and are for guidance only.

_J_a

32/40

Page 2 - 11

Engine and operation


2.2.4 Engine main dimensions, weights and views

Engine V32/40

V32/40

A
Figure 2-4

Main dimensions Engine V32/40

Legend
Engine

mm

Weight
tons

12V32/40

6,475

4,215

10,690

4,795

3,370

98

14V32/40

7,105

4,215

11,320

4,795

3,370

112

16V32/40

7,670

4,450

12,120

5,240

3,500

131

18V32/40

8,300

4,450

12,750

5,240

3,500

139

0202-0201PB.fm

All weights and dimensions apply only to dry engines without a flywheel and are for guidance only.

Page 2 - 12

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.2.5 Engine equipment for various applications

2.2.5

Engine equipment for various applications

Device/measure, (figure pos.)

Stationary engines,
WB1

Stationary engines,
WB2

Charge air blow-off for ignition pressure limitation (flap 2)

Two-stage charge air cooler

Charge air preheating by LT shut-off

CHATCO (Charge air temperature control)

Jet assist (acceleration of the turbocharger)

VIT (Variable Injection Timing)

Slow turn

Oil mist detector

Splash oil monitoring

Main bearing temperature monitoring

Valve seat lubrication

Sealing oil

Compressor wheel cooling

Attached HT cooling water pump

Attached LT cooling water pump

Attached lubrication oil pump

X = required, O = optional
Engine equipment

0201-0300PB.fm

Table 2-3

_J_a

32/40

Page 2 - 13

Engine and operation


2.2.5 Engine equipment for various applications

Engine equipment for various applications General description

Charge air blow-off for ignition pressure limitation (see


"Figure 2-5: Overview flaps" flap 2)
If engines are operated at full load at low intake
temperature, the high air density leads to the danger of excessive charge air pressure and, conse-

Overview flaps

Two-stage charge air cooler


The two-stage charge air cooler consists of two
stages which differ in the temperature level of the
connected water circuits. The charge air is first
cooled by the HT circuit (high temperature stage of
the charge air cooler, engine) and then further
cooled down by the LT circuit (low temperature
stage of the charge air cooler, lube oil cooler).

Charge air preheating by LT shut-off (integrated in CHATCO)


Charge air preheating by LT shut off (by means of
the CHATCO control valve) is as well used in the
load range from 0 % up to 20 % to reduce exhaust
gas discoloration. Higher charge air temperatures
are achieved by shut off the LT stage of the twostage charge air cooler. Depending on engine type
there is a delay in time of about 15 to 25 minutes,
till the positive effect can be noticed, because pre-

Page 2 - 14

viously remaining LT-water in the LT stage needs to


be heated up by the charge air.

CHATCO (Charge Air Temperature Control)


The charge air temperature control CHATCO
serves to prevent accumulation of condensed water in the charge air pipe. In this connection, the
charge air temperature is, depending on the intake
air temperature, controlled in such a way that, assuming a constant relative air humidity of 80 %,
the temperature in the charge air pipe does not fall
below the condensation temperature.
Integrated in the functionality of CHATCO is
Charge air preheating by LT shut-off.

Jet assist (acceleration of the turbocharger)


This equipment is used where special demands
exist regarding fast acceleration and/or load application. In such cases, compressed air from the

32/40

B-BD

0201-0300PB.fm

Figure 2-5

quently, much too high ignition pressure. In order


to avoid such conditions, part of the charge air is
withdrawn downstream (flap 2, cold blow-off) of
the charge air cooler and blown-off.

Engine and operation


2.2.5 Engine equipment for various applications

starting air vessels is reduced to a pressure of approx. 4 bar before being passed into the compressor casing of the turbocharger to be admitted to
the compressor wheel via inclined bored passages. In this way, additional air is supplied to the
compressor which in turn is accelerated, thereby
increasing the charge air pressure. Operation of
the accelerating system is initiated by a control,
and limited to a fixed load range.

VIT (Variable Injection Timing)


For some engine types with conventional injection
a VIT is available allowing a shifting of injection
start. A shifting in the direction of advanced injection is supposed to increase the ignition pressure
and thus reduces fuel consumption. Shifting in the
direction of retarded injection helps to reduce
NOx emissions.

Main bearing temperature monitoring


As an important part of the safety system the temperatures of the crankshaft main bearings are
measured just underneath the bearing shells in the
bearing caps. This is carried out using oil-tight resistance temperature sensors.

Valve seat lubrication


For operation with MGO (Class DMA or Class
DMZ) an additional lubrication equipment is provided to lubricate the inlet valve seats. The oil supply is fed dropwise into the inlet channels.
This is necessary due to reduced residue formation compared to HFO operation and thereby reduced damping effect between the sealing
surfaces of the inlet valves (as result of the low sulphur content of MGO).

Slow turn

Sealing oil

Engines, which are equipped with slow turn, are


automatically turned prior to engine start, with the
turning process being monitored by the engine
control. If the engine does not reach the expected
number of crankshaft revolutions (2.5 revolutions)
within a specified period of time, or in case the
slow-turn time is shorter than the programmed
minimum slow-turn time, an error message is issued. This error message serves as an indication
that there is liquid (oil, water, fuel) in the combustion chamber. If the slow-turn manoeuvre is completed successfully, the engine is started
automatically.

While longterm operation (more than 72 h within


14 days) with MGO (Class DMA or Class DMZ)
seal oil avoids effectively contamination of lube oil
by means of separation of fuel and lube oil side
within the conventional fuel injection pumps (not
needed for CR injection system).

Oil mist detector

Compressor wheel cooling


The high-pressure version (as a rule of thumb
pressure ratio approx. 1 : 4.5 and higher ) of the
turbochargers requires compressor wheel cooling. This water cooling is integrated in the bearing
casing and lowers the temperature in the relevant
areas of the compressor.

Bearing damage, piston seizure and blow-by in


combustion chamber leads to increased oil mist
formation. As a part of the safety system the oil
mist detector monitors the oil mist concentration
in crankcase to indicate these failures at an early
stage.

0201-0300PB.fm

Splash oil monitoring system


The splash-oil monitoring system is a constituent
part of the safety system. Sensors are used to
monitor the temperature of each individual drive
unit (or pair of drive at V-engines) indirectly via
splash oil.

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32/40

Page 2 - 15

Engine and operation

0201-0300PB.fm

2.2.5 Engine equipment for various applications

Page 2 - 16

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.3.1 Standard engine ratings

2.3

Ratings (outputs) and speeds

2.3.1

Standard engine ratings

PISO, Standard: ISO-Standard-Output (as specified in DIN ISO 3046-1)


500 kw/cyl., 720 or 750 rpm
Engine type

Engine rating (kW)


720 rpm or 750 rpm
kW mech.

kW elec.

9L32/40

4,500

4,365

12V32/40

6,000

5,820

14V32/40

7,000

6,790

16V32/40

8,000

7,760

18V32/40

9,000

8,730

Note!
Nominal alternator efficiency L-type: 97.3 %, V-type: 97.0%.
Table 2-4

Engine ratings 32/40

Definition of engine rating


General definition of diesel engine rating (according to ISO 15550: 2002; ISO 3046-1: 2002)
Reference Conditions (according to: ISO 3046-1: 2002;
ISO 15550: 2002)
Air temperature Tr

K/C

298/25

Air pressure pr

kPa

100

30

K/C

316/43

Relative humidity r
Charge air temperature1)
Table 2-5

Standard reference conditions

1) Specified

0201-0306PB.fm

reference charge air temperature corresponds to


a mean value for all cylinder numbers that will be achieved
with 25 C LT cooling water temperature before charge air
cooler (according to ISO).

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32/40

Page 2 - 17

Engine and operation


2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications

2.3.2

Engine ratings (output) for different applications

PISO, Application: Available output under ISO-conditions dependent on application

Notes

Max. allowed speed reduction


at maximum torque1)

Fuel stop power (blocking)

Available output in percentage


from ISO-standard-output

P Application

Kind of application

Grid parallel operation

100

110

2)

Island operation

100

110

2)

Electricity generation

Table 2-6

Available outputs/related reference conditions 32/40

1) Maximum

torque given by available output and nominal speed.


According to DIN ISO 8528-1 load > 100 % of the rated engine output is permissible only for a short time to provide additional engine power for governing purpose only (e.g. transient load conditions and suddenly applied load). This additional
power shall not be used for the supply of electrical consumers.

0201-0306PB.fm

2)

Page 2 - 18

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications

P Operating: Available rating (output) under local conditions and dependent on application
Dependent on local conditions or special application demands a further load reduction of P Application, ISO
might be needed.
1. No de-rating necessary, provided the conditions listed in the respective column
(see "Table 2-7: De-rating Limits of ambient conditions") are met:
No de-rating up to
stated reference conditions (Tropic), see 1.
45 C

Air temperature before turbocharger


Ambient pressure

De-rating needed according to formula, see 2.


45 C < tx 60 C

1,000 mbar

1,000 mbar > px 900 mbar

38 C

Cooling water temperature


inlet charge air cooler (LT
stage)

38 C < tcx 43 C

De-rating needed
accord. to special calculation, see 3.
> 60 C
900 mbar
> 43 C

Negative intake pressure


before compressor

20 mbar1)

20 mbar > p Air before


1)
compressor 40 mbar

< 40 mbar1)

Exhaust gas back pressure


after turbocharger

30 mbar1)

30 mbar < p Exhaust after


1)
turbine 60 mbar

> 60 mbar1)

Table 2-7
1)

De-rating Limits of ambient conditions

Below/above atmospheric pressure.

2. De-rating due to ambient conditions and negative intake pressure before compressor or exhaust gas
back pressure after turbocharger.
Pr

m = m
1.2
0.7
q ~
q ~
= ------- ------------------- ----------------------
273 +
273 +
~

0.7
315
308 l r 1.2
= --------- ----------------------------- ----------------------
955
273 +
273 +
1
= 0.7 1 ------- 1

1

Correction factor for power [-]


Mechanical efficiency [-]
k
Ratio of indicated power [-]
pra
Substitute reference for total barometric pressure
=955 [mbar]
Ambient total air pressure at site [mbar]
px
m

0201-0306PB.fm

i.e. Px Pr

_J_a

Nominal output acc. to table engine ratings [kW]

Px
Output at site [kW]
tcx
Cooling water temperature inlet charge air cooler at
site [C]
Ambient air temperature before turbocharger at site
tx
[C]
Substitute reference for charge air cooling water
Tcra
temperature = 315 [K]
Substitute reference for ambient air temperature =
Tra
308 [K]
O
Increased exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger leads to a de-rating, calculated as increased air
temperature before turbocharger [K]:
O = (p Exhaust after turbine [mbar] 30 [mbar]) x 0.25 [K/mbar];with
O0
U
Increased negative intake pressure before compressor leads to a de-rating, calculated as increased air temperature before turbocharger [K]:
U = (20 [mbar] p Air before compressor [mbar] ) x 0.25 [K/mbar];
with U 0

32/40

Page 2 - 19

Engine and operation


2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications

3. De-rating due to special conditions or demands. Please contact MAN Diesel & Turbo:

If limits of ambient conditions mentioned in "Table 2-7: De-rating Limits of ambient conditions" are exceeded. A special calculation is necessary.

If higher requirements for the emission level exist. For the allowed requirements see "Section: Exhaust
gas emission".

If special requirements of the plant for heat recovery exist.


If special requirements on media temperatures of the engine exist.

0201-0306PB.fm

If any requirements of MAN Diesel & Turbo mentioned in the project guide cannot be kept.

Page 2 - 20

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.3.3 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment installations in exhaust gas line

2.3.3

Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment


installations in exhaust gas line and resulting installation demands

If the recommended exhaust gas back pressure as stated in "Section: "Planning data" "Operating/service
temperatures and pressures" cannot be kept due to exhaust gas after treatment installations following items

need to be considered.

Exhaustgas back pressure after turbocharger


Operating pressure pexh, standard

0 ... 30 mbar

Operating pressure pexh, range with increase of fuel consumption

30 ... 60 mbar

Operating pressure pexh, where a customized engine matching is needed

> 60 mbar

Intake air pressure after turbocharger


Operating pressure pintake, standard

0 ... 20 mbar

Operating pressure pintake, range with increase of fuel consumption

20 ... 40 mbar

Operating pressure pintake, where a customized engine matching is needed

< 40 mbar

Sum of the exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger and the absolute value of the intake air pressure before
turbocharger
Operating pressure pexh + Abs(pintake), standard

0 ... 50 mbar

Operating pressure pexh + Abs(pintake), range with increase of fuel consumption

50 ... 100 mbar

Operating pressure pexh + Abs(pintake), where a customized engine matching is needed

> 100 mbar

Maximum exhaust gas pressure drop - layout

Shipyard and supplier of equipment in exhaust gas line have to ensure that pressure drop pexh over
entire exhaust gas piping incl. pipe work, scrubber, boiler, silencer, etc. must stay below stated standard operating pressure at all operating conditions.

Hereby it is recommended to consider an additional 10 mbar for consideration of aging and possible
fouling/staining of the components over lifetime.

Possible counter measures could be a proper dimensioning of the entire flow path including all installed components or even the installation of an exhaust gas blower if necessary.

At the same time the pressure drop pintake in the intake air path must be kept below stated standard
operating pressure at all operating conditions and including aging over lifetime.

If either pexh or pintake exceeds the stated standard values and even the stated values for an increased fuel oil consumption a customized engine matching becomes mandatory which will likely result in increased sfoc. For significant overruns in pressure losses even a reduction in the rated power
output may become necessary.

0201-0303bAA2.fm

In case the performance of the engine is claimed (e.g. for excessive sfoc or exhaust gas temperature),

it must be possible to install pressure sensors directly after turbine outlet and directly before compressor inlet to prove that the engine is not the root cause for poor performance.

C-BD

Page 2 - 21

Engine and operation


2.3.3 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment installations in exhaust gas line

Bypass for emergency operation

It needs to be evaluated if the chosen exhaust gas after treatment installation demands a bypass for
emergency operation.

For scrubber a bypass is mandatory to ensure emergency operation of the engine in case the scrubber is blocked or damaged in such a way that the exhaust path is physically blocked or the exhaust
flow cannot be directed through the scrubber for any other reason.

The bypass needs to be dimensioned for the same pressure drop as the main installation that is bypassed otherwise the engine would operated on a differing operating point with negative influence
on the performance, e.g. a lower value of the pressure drop may result in too high turbocharger
speeds.

Single streaming per engine recommended/Multi streaming to be evaluated project specific

In general each engine must be equipped with a separate exhaust gas line as single streaming installation. This will prevent reciprocal influencing of the engines as e.g. exhaust gas backflow into an engine out of operation or within an engine running at very low load (negative pressure drop over the
cylinder can cause exhaust gas back flow into intake manifold during valve overlap).

In case a multi-streaming solution is realized (i.e. only one combined scrubber for multiple engines)

this needs to be stated on early project stage. Hereby air/exhaust gas tight flaps need to be provided
to safeguard engines out of operation. A specific layout of e.g. sealing air mass flow will be necessary
and also a power management may become necessary in order to prevent operation of several engines at very high loads while others are running on extremely low load. A detailed analysis as HAZOP
study and risk analysis by the yard becomes mandatory.

Engine to be protected from backflow of media out of exhaust gas after treatment installation

A backflow of e.g. urea, scrubbing water, condensate or even rain from the exhaust gas after treatment installation towards the engine must be prevented under all operating conditions and circumstances, including engine or equipment shutdown and maintenance/repair work.

Turbine cleaning

Both wet and dry turbine cleaning must be possible without causing malfunctions or performance

deterioration of the exhaust system incl. any installed components such as boiler, scrubber, silencer,
etc.

White exhaust plume by water condensation

A visible white exhaust plume must be avoided even if it is not harmful for the environment. Especially

for scrubber counter measures as a reheating of the exhaust gas after scrubber or/and a demister to
catch any condensed water droplets to be taken.

The design of the exhaust system including exhaust gas after treatment installation has to make sure

that the exhaust flow has sufficient velocity in order not to sink down directly onboard the vessel or
near to the plant. At the same time the exhaust pressure drop must not exceed the limiting value.

Vibrations

There must be a sufficient decoupling of vibrations between engine and exhaust gas system incl. ex-

Page 2 - 22

0201-0303bAA2.fm

haust gas after treatment installation, e.g. by compensators.

C-BD

Engine and operation


2.3.3 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment installations in exhaust gas line

Electronic data exchange between engine and exhaust gas after treatment installation.

0201-0303bAA2.fm

A specification is necessary about all engine and exhaust gas parameters that have to be provided from
the engine as input for exhaust gas after treatment installation and vice versa.

C-BD

Page 2 - 23

Engine and operation

0201-0303bAA2.fm

2.3.3 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment installations in exhaust gas line

Page 2 - 24

C-BD

Engine and operation


2.3.4 Speeds

2.3.4

Speeds
-

Unit

Rated speed

rpm

720

750

Mean piston speed

m/s

9.6

10.0

Ignition speed (starting device deactivated)

rpm

L-engine: 60

Engine running
(activation of alarm- and safety system)

300

Speed set point Deactivation prelubrication pump


(engines with attached lube oil pump)

400

Speed set point Deactivation external cooling water pump


(engines with attached cooling water pump)

500

Minimum engine operating speed


(100% of nominal speed)

720

Highest engine operating speed1)

750
773

Alarm overspeed (110 % of nominal speed)

792

825

Auto shutdown overspeed (115 % of nominal speed)


via control module/alarm

828

863

see "Section 2.3.5: Speed adjusting range,

Speed adjusting range

page 2-27"

Alternator frequency for GenSet


Number of pole pairs
Table 2-8

60

50

Engine speeds and related main data

concession may possibly be restricted, see "Figure 2-15: Permissible frequency deviations and corresponding max. output".

0201-0304PB.fm

1) This

Hz

^J_a

32/40

Page 2 - 25

Engine and operation

0201-0304PB.fm

2.3.4 Speeds

Page 2 - 26

32/40

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.3.5 Speed adjusting range

2.3.5

Speed adjusting range

The following specification represents the standard settings. For special applications, deviating
settings may be necessary.

Electronic governors

Drive

Maximum
speed at full
load

Maximum
speed at idle
running

Minimum
speed

With load sharing via speed


droop by PMS (power management system)
or

5%

100 % (+0,5 %)

105 % (+0,5 %)

60 %

Isochronous operation

0%

100 % (+0,5 %)

100 % (+0,5 %)

60 %

GenSets/"diesel-electric plants"

Speed adjusting range Electronic governors

0202-0400AA2.fm

Table 2-9

Speed
droop

B-BD

Page 2 - 27

Engine and operation

0202-0400AA2.fm

2.3.5 Speed adjusting range

Page 2 - 28

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.4 Starting conditions GenSet

2.4

Starting conditions GenSet

In multiple-engine plants with GenSet-operation


and load regulation by a power management system, the availability of engines not in operation is
an important aspect.
The following data and conditions are of relevance:

Engine start-up time until synchronization


Load application times
Requirements on engine and plant installation for
"Stand-by Operation" capability

Engine
Attached lube oil pump
Plant
Prelubrication pump with low pressure before
engine
(0.3 bar < p oil before engine < 0.6 bar)

Note!
Oil pressure > 0.3 bar to be ensured also for
lube oil temperature up to 80 C.

Preheating HT cooling water system (60 90 C)

Preheating lube oil system (> 40 C)


Power management system with supervision of
stand-by times engines

Note!

0201-0400PB.fm

Statements are relevant for non arctic conditions. For arctic conditions consider relevant
sections and clarify undefined details with
MAN Diesel & Turbo.

^J_a

32/40

Page 2 - 29

Engine and operation


2.4 Starting conditions GenSet

Engine Starting
Conditions

From Stand-By Mode

After Stand-Still
("Normal Start")

< 1 minute

> 2 minutes

Start up time until load application


General notes
-

Maximum stand-by time

7 days
Supervised by power management system plant.
(For longer stand-by periods in special
cases contact MAN Diesel & Turbo.)
Stand-by mode only possible after engine
has been started with normal starting procedure and has been in operation.
Required engine conditions
Start-blocking active

No

No

Start-blocking of engine leads to withdraw


of stand-by operation.
Slow turn

No

Yes

Preheated and pre-lubricated

Yes

Yes

Permanent

Permanent

Required system conditions


Lube oil system
Prelubrication period
Prelubrication pressure before engine

0.3 bar < p oil before engine < 0.6 bar

Preheating temperature before engine

0.3 bar < p oil before engine < 0.6 bar

> 40 C

> 40 C

60 90 C

60 90 C

HT cooling water
Preheating temperature before engine
Fuel system
For MDO operation

Supply pumps in operation or with starting command to engine

For HFO operation

Supply and booster pumps in operation, fuel preheated to operating viscosity.


(In case of permanent stand-by, a periodical exchange of the circulating HFO
has to be ensured to avoid cracking of the fuel. This can be done by releasing a
certain amount of circulating HFO into the day tank and substituting it with
"fresh" fuel from the dark).

Required starting conditions for GenSets


0201-0400PB.fm

Table 2-10

Page 2 - 30

32/40

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.5 Low load operation

2.5

Low load operation


formation see "Figure 2-6: Time limits for low load op-

Denition
Generally the following load conditions are differentiated:

Overload (for regulation):

> 100 % of full load output

Full load:

100 % of full load output

Part load:

< 100 % of full load output

Low load:

< 25 % of full load output

Correlations
The ideal operating conditions for the engine prevail under even loading at 60 % to 90 % of the full
load output. Engine control and rating of all systems are based on the full load output.
In the idling mode or during low load engine operation, combustion in the cylinders is not ideal. Deposits may form in the combustion chamber,
which result in a higher soot emission and an increase of cylinder contamination.
Moreover, in low load operation and during manoeuvring of ships, the cooling water temperatures cannot be regulated optimally high for all
load conditions which, however, is of particular importance during operation on heavy fuel oil.
Better conditions
Optimization of low load operation is obtained by
cutoff of the LT stage of the charge air cooler or
perfusion of the LT stage with HT water if HT or LT
switching is available for this engine type.
For common rail engines mostly this is not necessary because optimized combustion is realized by
an electronically controlled fuel injection system.
HT: High temperature
LT: Low temperature
0206-0000AA2.fm

Operation with HFO (RM-grade fuel)

eration (on the left), duration of relieving operation (on


the right)", the engine must, after a phase of part

load operation, either be switched over to diesel


operation or be operated at high load (> 70 % of
full load output) for a certain period of time in order
to reduce the deposits in the cylinder and exhaust
gas turbocharger again.
In case the engine is to be operated at low load for
a period exceeding (see "Figure 2-6: Time limits for

low load operation (on the left), duration of relieving operation (on the right)"), the engine is to be switched
over to diesel oil operation beforehand.

Be aware, that after 500 hours continuous heavy


fuel oil operation at low load in the range 20 % to
25 % of the full engine output a new running in of
the engine is needed (see "Section 7.3: Engine running-in, page 7-9"). For continuous heavy fuel oil operation at low load in the range < 25 % of the full
engine output, coordination with MAN Diesel &
Turbo is absolutely necessary.
Operation with diesel fuel MGO (DMA, DMZ) and MDO
(DMB)
For low load operation on diesel fuel oil, the following rules apply:

A continuous operation below 20 % of full load


has to be avoided, if possible.
Note!
Should this be absolutely necessary, MAN
Diesel & Turbo has to be consulted for special arrangements .

A no-load operation, especially at nominal

speed (alternator operation) is only permitted


for a maximum period of one hour.

No limitations are required for loads above 20 % of


full load, as long as the specied operating data of
the engine will not be exceeded.

Because of the afore mentioned reasons, low load


operation < 25 % of full load output on heavy fuel
oil is subjected to certain limitations. For further in-

_J_a

Page 2 - 31

Engine and operation


2.5 Low load operation

Operation with gas


The 51/60DF engine always is started in liquid fuel
mode. The switch over to gas operation mode
takes place at loads 15 % of engine full load. Regarding low load operation there are no restrictions at these engine loads.

Figure 2-6

Time limits for low load operation (on the left), duration of relieving operation (on the right)

* In general the time limits in HFO operation are valid for all HFO-qualities that are in accordance to the stated specification. In
rare cases using HFO-qualitiy with a high ignition delay in combination with a high content of coke residuals it may be
needed to raise the complete limit curve for HFO-operation from a load level from 20 % to 30 % load.

ation for maximum 40 hours, than output has to


be increased.

Legend
P

Full load output [%]

Line b (duration of relieving operation):

Operating period [h]

Operate the engine for approx. 1.2 hours at not


less than 70 % of full load output to burn away the
deposits that have formed.

Explanations
New running in needed after > 500 hours low load
operation (see "Section 7.3: Engine running-in, page
7-9").
Note!
Acceleration time from present output to 70 %
of full load output not less than 15 minutes.

Example
0206-0000AA2.fm

Line a (time limits for low load operation):


At 10 % of full load output, HFO operation is permissible for maximum 19 hours, MGO/MDO oper-

Page 2 - 32

_J_a

Engine and operation


2.6 Load application GenSet Preheated engine

2.6

Load application GenSet Preheated engine

In the case of highly supercharged engines, load


application is limited. This is due to the fact that
the charge-air pressure build-up is delayed by the
turbocharger run-up. Besides, a slow load application promotes uniform heating of the engine.

"Figure 2-7: Start up times until load application from


stand-by mode; engines preheated and prelubricated"
shows the shortest time to run up the engines
from stand-by mode (preheated and prelubricated).

"Figure 2-8: Start up times until load application in normal


starting mode (not in stand-by mode); engines preheated"
shows the shortest time to run up the engines in
normal starting mode, with the needed time for
start up lube oil system + prelubrication of the engines.

"Figure 2-9: Load application for GenSets; engines preheated and prelubricated, synchronization speed reached"

times for continuously loading the engine and load


application within three load steps.

"Figure 2-10: Load application for GenSets; engines preheated and prelubricated, synchronization speed
reached Only emergency case" shows the shortest

possible load application time for continuously


loading in case of emergency. MAN Diesel & Turbo
can not guarantee the invisibility of the exhaust
gas under these circumstances.
To limit the effort regarding regulating the media
circuits, also to ensure an uniform heat input it always should be aimed for longer load application
times by taking into account the realistic requirements of the specific plant.
All questions regarding the dynamic behaviour
should be clarified in close cooperation between
the customer and MAN Diesel & Turbo at an early
project stage.

shows the maximum allowable load application


Engine speed [%]
100

80

60

40

20

0208-0300PB.fm

Figure 2-7

^J_a

20 ... 40s
Run up

10 ... 20s
Synchronization

Time [sec]

Start up times until load application from stand-by mode; engines preheated and prelubricated

32/40

Page 2 - 33

Engine and operation


2.6 Load application GenSet Preheated engine

Engines in stand-by mode can be started with Normal Starting Procedure at any time.
Engine speed [%]
100

80

60

40

20

s
10

s
60
W
Prelubrication

30
s
^turn

Slow

20 ... 40s
Run up

10 ... 20s
Synchronization

Time [sec]

Start up times until load application in normal starting mode (not in stand-by mode); engines preheated

0208-0300PB.fm

Figure 2-8

Page 2 - 34

32/40

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.6 Load application GenSet Preheated engine

Figure 2-9

Load application for GenSets; engines preheated and prelubricated, synchronization speed reached

Engine
load [%]

2nly emergency case (visible exhaust gas likely)

100
90
80

Emergency loading
(with / without Jet-assist)

70
60
50
40
30
20

Valid only for preheated engines:


Lube oil temperature > 40&
Cooling water temperature > 60&

10
0
0208-0300PB.fm

20

40

60

80

100

Time [sec]
Figure 2-10

^J_a

Load application for GenSets; engines preheated and prelubricated, synchronization speed reached Only
emergency case

32/40

Page 2 - 35

Engine and operation


2.7 Load application Cold engine (only emergency case)

2.7

Load application Cold engine (only emergency case)

In case of emergency, it is possible to start the


cold engine provided the required media temperatures are present: lube oil > 20 C, cooling water
> 20 C

The engine is prelubricated.


The engine is started and accelerated up to
100 % engine speed within 1 3 minutes.

Loading the engine gradually up to 30 % engine load within 5 minutes.

Warming up the engine: lube oil temperature


> 40 C, cooling water temperature > 60 C.

The necessary time span for this process depends


on the actual media temperatures and the specific
design of the plant. After these prescribed media
temperatures are reached the engine can be loaded regularly up to 100 % engine load according to

Figure 2-11

Page 2 - 36

0208-0300PB.fm

"Figure 2-9: Load application for GenSets; engines preheated and prelubricated, synchronization speed
reached".

Load application for GenSets, emergency case; cold engines

32/40

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.8 Engine operation under arctic conditions

2.8

Engine operation under arctic conditions

Arctic condition is defined as:

Engine equipment

Air intake temperatures of the engine below +5 C.

SaCoS/SaCoSone

If engines operate under arctic conditions (intermittently or permanently), the engine equipment
and plant installation have to meet special design
features and requirements. They depend on the
possible minimum air intake temperature of the
engine and the specification of the fuel used.

SaCoS/SaCoSone equipment is suitable to be

Minimum air intake temperature of the engine, tx:

Category A
+5 C > tx 15 C

Category B
15 C > tx 35 C

Category C

stored at minimum temperatures of 15 C.

In case these conditions cannot be met, protective measures against climatic influences
have to be taken for the following electronic
components:
- EDS Databox APC620
- TFT-touchscreen display
- Emergency switch module BD5937
These components have to be stored at places, where the temperature is above 15 C.

A minimum operating temperature of

+5 C
has to be ensured. The use of an optional electric heating is recommended.

tx 35 C
Special engine design requirements

Charge air blow-off according to categories A,


B or C.

If arctic fuel (with very low lubricating properties)

Alternators
Alternator operation is possible according to suppliers specification.

is used, the following actions are required:

Plant installation

- The maximum allowable fuel temperatures


have to be kept.

Intake air conditioning

- Fuel injection pump


Only in case of conventional fuel injection
system, dependent on engine type installation and activation of sealing oil system may
be necessary, because low viscosity of the
fuel can cause an increased leakage and the
lube oil will possibly being contaminated.
- Fuel injection valve

Air intake of the engine and power house/en-

gine room ventilation have to be two different


systems to ensure that the power house/engine room temperature is not too low caused
by the ambient air temperature.

It is necessary to ensure that the charge air


cooler cannot freeze when the engine is out of
operation (and the cold air is at the air inlet
side).

0205-0000PA.fm

Nozzle cooling has to be switched off to


avoid corrosion caused by temperatures below the dew point.
- Inlet valve lubrication
Has to be activated to avoid an increased
wear of the inlet valves.

^J_a

32/40, 32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

Page 2 - 37

Engine and operation


2.8 Engine operation under arctic conditions

Gas engines

- Category C

- An air intake temperature +5 C has to be


ensured by preheating.

> An air intake temperature 35 C has to


be ensured by preheating.

- In addition, the maximum ambient temperature has to be considered since the engine
control can only compensate a limited temperature range.

> Additionally the charge air before the cylinder is preheated by the HT circuit of the
charge air cooler (LT circuit closed).

Example:
Maximum ambient temperature .... +35 C
Temperature compensation
by engine.......................................... 20 K
> An air intake temperature of +15 C
(35 C 20 K = 15 C) has to be ensured by preheating.

Dual-fuel engines
- Category A, B
No additional actions are necessary. The
charge air before the cylinder is preheated
by the HT circuit of the charge air cooler (LT
circuit closed).
- Category C
> An air intake temperature 35 C has to
be ensured by preheating.
> Additionally the charge air before the cylinder is preheated by the HT circuit of the
charge air cooler (LT circuit closed).
> In special cases the change-over point
for the change from diesel operation to
dual-fuel mode (gas mode) has to be
shifted to a higher load.

Diesel engines

An increasing proportion of antifreeze decreases


the specific heat capacity of the engine cooling
water, which worsened the heat dissipation from
the engine and will lead to higher component temperatures.
The antifreeze concentration of the engine cooling
water systems (HT and NT) within the engine room
respectively power house is therefore limited to a
maximum concentration of 40 % glycol. For systems that require more than 40 % glycol in the
cooling water an intermediate heat exchanger with
a low terminal temperature difference should be
provided, which separates the external cooling
water system from the internal system (engine
cooling water).

Instruction for minimum admissible fuel temperature


In general the minimum viscosity before engine
of 1.9 cSt must not be undershoot.

The fuel specific characteristic values pour

point and cold filter plugging point have to be


observed to ensure pumpability respectively filterability of the fuel oil.

Fuel temperatures of approximately minus

10 C and less are to be avoided, due to temporarily embrittlement of seals used in the engines fuel oil system and as a result their
possibly loss of function.

0205-0000PA.fm

- Category A, B
No additional actions are necessary. The
charge air before the cylinder is preheated
by the HT circuit of the charge air cooler (LT
circuit closed).

Maximum permissible antifreeze concentration (ethylene


glycol) in the engine cooling water

Page 2 - 38

32/40, 32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.8 Engine operation under arctic conditions

Minimum power house/engine room temperature

Note!

Ventilation of power house/engine room

A preheating of the lube oil has to be ensured.


If the plant is not equipped with a lube oil separator (e. g. plants only operating on MGO) alternative equipment for preheating of the lube
oil must be provided.

The air of the power house/engine room ventilation must not be too cold (preheating is necessary) to avoid the freezing of the liquids in the
power house/engine room systems.

Minimum powerhouse/engine room temperature for design +5 C

Coolant and lube oil systems

For plants taken out of operation and cooled


down below temperatures of +5 C additional
special measures are needed in this case
contact MAN Diesel & Turbo.

- HT and lube oil system has to be preheated


for each individual engine, see "Section: En-

gine and operation Starting conditions".

- Design requirements for the preheater of HT


systems:
> Category A
Standard preheater
> Category B
50 % increased capacity of the preheater
> Category C
100 % increased capacity of the preheater
- If a concentration of anti-freezing agents of
> 50 % in the cooling water systems is
needed, contact MAN Diesel &
Turbo for approval.
- For information regarding engine cooling
water see "Section 4: Specification for engine
supplies, page 4-1".

Insulation
The design of the insulation of the piping systems and other plant parts (tanks, heat exchanger etc.) has to be modified and designed
for the special requirements of arctic conditions.

0205-0000PA.fm

Heat tracing
To support the restart procedures in cold condition (e. g. after unmanned survival mode during winter), it is recommended to install a heat
tracing system in the piping to the engine.

^J_a

32/40, 32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

Page 2 - 39

Engine and operation

0205-0000PA.fm

2.8 Engine operation under arctic conditions

Page 2 - 40

32/40, 32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.9 Engine load reduction

2.9

Engine load reduction

Sudden load shedding

Recommended load reduction/stopping the engine

For the sudden load shedding from 100 % to 0 %


PNominal several requirements from the classification
societies regarding the dynamic and permanent
change of engine speed have to be fulfilled.

Before final engine stop the engine has to be operated for a minimum of 1 min at idling speed.

A sudden load shedding represents a rather exceptional situation e. g. opening of the diesel-electric plants alternator switch during high load.
Before final engine stop the engine has to be operated for a minimum of 1 min at idling speed.
After a sudden load shedding it has to be ensured
that system circuits remain in operation after final
engine stop for a minimum of 15 min. to dissipate
the residual engine heat.

0208-0500AA2.fm

In case of a sudden load shedding and related


compressor surging, please check the proper
function of the turbo charger silencer filter mat.

Figure 2-12

J-BC

Run-down cooling
In order to dissipate the residual engine heat,
the system circuits should be kept in operation
after final engine stop for a minimum of 15 min.

"Figure 2-12: Engine ramping down, generally" shows

the shortest possible times for continuously ramping down the engine and a sudden load shedding.

To limit the effort regarding regulating the media


circuits, also to ensure an uniform heat dissipation
it always should be aimed for longer ramping
down times by taking into account the realistic requirements of the specific plant.

Engine ramping down, generally

Page 2 - 41

Engine and operation

0208-0500AA2.fm

2.9 Engine load reduction

Page 2 - 42

J-BC

Engine and operation


2.10 Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure

2.10

Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure

Requirements for the power management system/propeller control

Therefore the power management system/propeller control has to meet following requirements:

In case of a load reduction request due to predefined abnormal engine parameter (e.g. high exhaust gas temperature, high turbine speed, high
lube oil temperature) the power output (load) must
be at least ramped down as fast as possible to
60 %.

After a maximum of 5 seconds after occurrence of the load reduction signal the load must
be reduced for at least 5 %.

Then, within a maximum period of 30 sec the


load must be reduced for at least 35 %.

The prohibited range shown in "Figure 2-13:


Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure"
has to be avoided.

Engine
load [%]
Load reduction signal / request

min. 5%

prohibited range
60%

max. 60%
max. 5 sec
max. 35 sec

Time [sec]
Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure

0207-0500AA2.fm

Figure 2-13

gJ_`

Page 2 - 43

Engine and operation

0207-0500AA2.fm

2.10 Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure

Page 2 - 44

J-BC

Engine and operation

0208-0100AA2.fm

2.11 GenSet operation

2.11

GenSet operation

2.11.1

Operating range for GenSets

Figure 2-14

fJ_a

Operating range for GenSets

Page 2 - 45

Engine and operation


2.11 GenSet operation

MCR
Maximum continuous rating.

Range I
Operating range for continuous service.

Range II
No continuous operation allowed. Maximum
operating time less than 2 minutes.

Range III
According to DIN ISO 8528-1 load > 100 % of
the rated output is permissible only for a short
time to provide additional engine power for
governing purposes only (e.g. transient load
conditions and suddenly applied load). This additional power shall not be used for the supply
of electrical consumers.
IMO certification for engines with operating range for
electric propulsion
Test cycle type E2 will be applied for the engines
certification for compliance with the NOx limits according to NOx technical code.
IMO certification for engines with operating range for
auxiliary GenSet

0208-0100AA2.fm

Test cycle type D2 will be applied for the engines


certification for compliance with the NOx limits according to NOx technical code.

Page 2 - 46

fJ_a

Engine and operation


2.11.2 Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations

2.11.2

Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations

General

Limiting parameters

Generating sets, which are integrated in an electricity supply system, are subjected to the frequency uctuations of the mains. Depending on the
severity of the frequency uctuations, output and
operation respectively have to be restricted.

Max. torque

Frequency adjustment range


According to DIN ISO 8528-5: 1997-11, operating
limits of > 2.5 % are specied for the lower and upper frequency adjustment range.
Operating range
Depending on the prevailing local ambient conditions, a certain maximum continuous rating will be
available.

0208-0400AA2.fm

In the output/speed and frequency diagrams, a


range has specically been marked with No continuous operation allowed in this area. Operation
in this range is only permissible for a short period
of time, i. e. for less than 2 minutes. In special cases, a continuous rating is permissible if the standard frequency is exceeded by more than 3 %.

Figure 2-15
^J_`

In case the frequency decreases, the available


output is limited by the maximum permissible
torque of the generating set.

Max. speed for continuous rating


An increase in frequency, resulting in a speed that
is higher than the maximum speed admissible for
continuous operation, is only permissible for a
short period of time, i. e. for less than 2 minutes.
For engine-specic information see "Section: Engine
and operation Ratings (output) and speeds" of the specic engine.
Overload
According to DIN ISO 8528-1 load > 100 % of the
rated engine output is permissible only for a short
time to provide additional engine power for governing purpose only (e. g. transient load conditions and suddenly applied load). This additional
power shall not be used for the supply of electrical
consumers.

Permissible frequency deviations and corresponding max. output


Page 2 - 47

Engine and operation

0208-0400AA2.fm

2.11.2 Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations

Page 2 - 48

^J_`

Engine and operation


2.11.3 Alternator Reverse power protection

2.11.3

Alternator Reverse power protection

Demand for reverse power protection

Adjusting the reverse power protection relay

For each alternator (arranged for parallel operation) a reverse power protection device has to be
provided because if a stopped combustion engine
(fuel admission at zero) is being turned it can
cause, due to poor lubrication, excessive wear on
the engines bearings. This is also a classifications
requirement.

The necessary power to drive an unfired diesel or


gas engine at nominal speed cannot exceed the
power which is necessary to overcome the internal
friction of the engine. This power is called motoring
power. The setting of the reverse-power relay
should be, as stated in the classification rules,
50 % of the motoring power. To avoid false tripping of the alternator circuit breaker a time delay
has to be implemented. A reverse power >> 6 %
mostly indicates serious disturbances in the generator operation.

Definition of reverse power


If an alternator, coupled to a combustion engine, is
no longer driven by this engine, but is supplied
with propulsive power by the connected electric
grid and operates as an electric motor instead of
working as an alternator, this is called reverse
power. The speed of a reverse power driven engine is accordingly to the grid frequency and the
rated engine speed.
Examples for possible reverse power

Due to lack of fuel the combustion engine no


longer drives the alternator, which is still connected to the mains.

This facts are summarized in the "Table 2-11: Adjusting the reverse power relay".
Admissible reverse
power Pel [%]
Pel < 3
3 Pel < 8
Pel 8
Table 2-11

q=~===
=~~==
~=xz
30
3 to 10
No delay

Adjusting the reverse power relay

Stopping of the combustion engine while the


driven alternator is still connected to the electric
grid.

On ships with electric drive the propeller can

also drive the electric traction motor and this in


turn drives the alternator and the alternator
drives the connected combustion engine.

Sudden frequency increase, e. g. because of a

0208-1000AA2.fm

load decrease in an isolated electrical system


-> if the combustion engine is operated at low
load (e. g. just after synchronising).

_J_a

Page 2 - 49

Engine and operation

0208-1000AA2.fm

2.11.3 Alternator Reverse power protection

Page 2 - 50

_J_a

Engine and operation


2.11.4 Earthing measures of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators

2.11.4

Earthing measures of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators

General

Measures to be taken on the alternator

The use of electrical equipment on diesel engines


requires precautions to be taken for protection
against shock current and for equipotential bonding. These not only serve as shock protection but
also for functional protection of electric and electronic devices (EMC protection, device protection
in case of welding, etc.).

Because of slight magnetic unbalances and ring


excitations, shaft voltages, i. e. voltages between
the two shaft ends, are generated in electrical machines. In the case of considerable values (e. g.
> 0.3 V), there is the risk that bearing damage occurs due to current transfers. For this reason, at
least the bearing that is not located on the drive
end is insulated on alternators approx. > 1 MW.
For verification, the voltage available at the shaft
voltage) is measured while the alternator is running
and excited. With proper insulation, a voltage can
be measured. In order to protect the prime mover
and to divert electrostatic charging, an earthing
brush is often fitted on the coupling side.
Observation of the required measures is the alternator manufacturers responsibility.
Consequences of inadequate bearing
insulation on the alternator, and insulation check

Threaded bores M12, 20 mm deep, marked with


the earthing symbol have been provided in the engine foot on both ends of the engines.

In case the bearing insulation is inadequate, e. g.,


if the bearing insulation was short-circuit by a
measuring lead (PT100, vibration sensor), leakage
currents may occur, which result in the destruction
of the bearings. One possibility to check the insulation with the machine at standstill (prior to coupling the alternator to the engine; this, however, is
only possible in the case of single-bearing alternators) would be to raise the alternator rotor (insulated, in the crane) on the coupling side, and to
measure the insulation by means of the Megger
test against earth (in this connection, the max.
voltage permitted by the alternator manufacturer is
to be observed!).

It has to be ensured that earthing is carried out immediately after engine set-up! (If this cannot be accomplished any other way, at least provisional
earthing is to be effected right at the beginning.)

If the shaft voltage of the alternator at rated speed


and rated voltage is known (e. g. from the test
record of the alternator acceptance test), it is also
possible to carry out a comparative measurement.

Figure 2-16

Earthing connection on engine

Earthing connections on the engine

0208-1100MBQcrK2.fm

If the measured shaft voltage is lower than the result of the earlier measurement (test record), the
alternator manufacturer should be consulted.

L-BB

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR

Page 2 - 51

Engine and operation


2.11.4 Earthing measures of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators

Earthing conductor
The nominal cross section of the earthing conductor (equipotential bonding conductor) has to be
selected in accordance with DIN VDE 0100, part
540 (up to 1000 V) or DIN VDE 0141 (in excess of
1 KV).
Generally, the following applies:
The protective conductor to be assigned to the
largest main conductor is to be taken as a basis
for sizing the cross sections of the equipotential
bonding conductors.
Flexible conductors have to be used for the connection of resiliently mounted engines.
Execution of earthing
On vessels, earthing must be done by the shipyard
during assembly on board.
Earthing strips are not included in the MAN
Diesel & Turbo scope of supply.
Additional information regarding the use of welding
equipment

0208-1100MBQcrK2.fm

In order to prevent damage on electrical components, it is imperative to earth welding equipment


close to the welding area, i. e., the distance between the welding electrode and the earthing connection should not exceed 10 m.

Page 2 - 52

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR

L-BB

Engine and operation


2.12.1 Fuel oil consumption for emission standard: World Bank 1998 and World Bank 2007/2008

2.12

Fuel oil; lube oil; starting air/control air consumption

2.12.1

Fuel oil consumption for emission standard: World Bank 1998


and World Bank 2007/2008

Engine 32/40 GenSet, World Bank 1998 (ignition pressure 190 bar)
500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm
% Load

L32/40

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) with


HFO/MDO without
attached pumps2) 3)
Table 2-12

V32/40

1001)

85

75

50

25

1001)

85

75

50

25

185

183

183

192

215

183

181

181

190

213

Fuel oil consumption 32/40 GenSet

1)

Warranted fuel consumption at 100 % MCR.


Values under reference conditions, see "Table 2-18: Reference conditions 32/40". Tolerance +5 %.
Note! The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3) NO emissions according to World Bank 1998.
x
2)

Engine 32/40 GenSet, World Bank 1998 (ignition pressure 205 bar)
500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm
% Load

L32/40

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh)


with HFO/MDO
without attached
pumps2) 3)
Table 2-13

V32/40

1001)

85

75

50

25

1001)

85

75

50

25

182

181

181.5

191

214

180

179

179.5

189

212

Fuel oil consumption 32/40 GenSet

1) Warranted

fuel consumption at 100 % MCR.


under reference conditions, see "Table 2-18: Reference conditions 32/40". Tolerance +5 %.
Note! The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3) NO emissions according to World Bank 2007/2008.
x

0209-0000PB.fm

2) Values

B-BD

32/40

Page 2 - 53

Engine and operation


2.12.1 Fuel oil consumption for emission standard: World Bank 1998 and World Bank 2007/2008

Engine 32/40 GenSet, World Bank 2007/2008 (1,600 mg/Nm3 NOx)


500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm
% Load

L32/40

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) with


HFO/MDO without
attached pumps2) 3)
Table 2-14

V32/40

1001)

85

75

50

25

1001)

85

75

50

25

186

185

189

196

207

184

183

187

194

205

Fuel oil consumption 32/40 GenSet

1)

Warranted fuel consumption at 100 % MCR.


under reference conditions, see "Table 2-18: Reference conditions 32/40". Tolerance +5 %.
Note! The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3) NO emissions according to World Bank 1998.
x
2) Values

Engine 32/40 GenSet, World Bank 2007/2008 (1,460 mg/Nm3 NOx)


500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm
% Load

L32/40

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh)


with HFO/MDO
without attached
pumps2) 3)
Table 2-15

V32/40

1001)

85

75

50

25

1001)

85

75

50

25

189

188

192

199

210

187

186

190

197

208

Fuel oil consumption 32/40 GenSet

1)

Warranted fuel consumption at 100 % MCR.


Values under reference conditions, see "Table 2-18: Reference conditions 32/40". Tolerance +5 %.
Note! The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3) NO emissions according to World Bank 2007/2008.
x

2)

0209-0000PB.fm

Nm3 corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at 0 C and 101.32 kPa

Page 2 - 54

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.12.1 Fuel oil consumption for emission standard: World Bank 1998 and World Bank 2007/2008

Additions to fuel consumption (g/kWh)


% Load

100

85

75

50

25

For each attached cooling water pump

+1.0

+1.5

+1.5

+2.0

+4.0

For all attached lube oil pumps

+2.0

+2.5

+3.0

+4.0

+8.0

For operation with MGO

+2.0

For exhaust gas back pressure after turbine > 30 mbar

Every additional 1 mbar (0.1 kPa) backpressure addition of


0.05 g/kWh to be calculated

In case a charge air blow-off device is installed


Table 2-16

Please consult MAN Diesel & Turbo

Additions to fuel consumption

Fuel oil consumption at idle running (kg/h)


No. of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

Speed 720/750 rpm

67

90

104

120

134

Table 2-17

Fuel oil consumption at idle running

Reference conditions (according to ISO 3046-1: 2002;


ISO 15550:2002)
Air temperature before turbocharger tr

25

Ambient pressure pr

bar

Relative humidity r

30

Engine type specific reference


charge air temperature before
cylinder tbar1)

43

kJ/kg

42,700

Net calorific value NCV


Table 2-18

Specified reference charge air temperature corresponds to


a mean value for all cylinder numbers that will be achieved
with 25 C LT cooling water temperature before charge air
cooler (according to ISO).

0209-0000PB.fm

1)

Reference conditions 32/40

B-BD

32/40

Page 2 - 55

Engine and operation

0209-0000PB.fm

2.12.1 Fuel oil consumption for emission standard: World Bank 1998 and World Bank 2007/2008

Page 2 - 56

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.12.2 Lube oil consumption

2.12.2

Lube oil consumption

Engine 32/40
500 kW/cyl.; 720 or 750 rpm
Specific lube oil consumption . . . . . 0.6 g/kWh
Total lube oil consumption [kg/h]1)
No. of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

Speed 720/750 rpm

2.7

3.6

4.2

4.8

5.4

Table 2-19
1) Tolerance

Total lube oil consumption


for warranty +20 %.

Note!

0209-0200PB.fm

As a matter of principle, the lubricating oil consumption is to be stated as total lubricating oil
consumption related to the tabulated ISO full
load output ("Section 2.3: Ratings (outputs) and
speeds, page 2-17").

B-BD

32/40

Page 2 - 57

Engine and operation


2.12.3 Starting air/control air consumption

2.12.3

Starting air/control air consumption

Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

litre

289

386

450

515

579

Nm 2)

1.45

1.80

2.05

2.25

2.50

Air consumption per Jet Assist activation3)

2.95

3.75

3.75

5.95

5.95

Air consumption per slow turn


manoeuvre1) 4)

2.90

3.60

4.10

4.50

5.00

Swept volume of engine


Air consumption per start1)

Table 2-20

Starting air consumption 32/40

1) The

0209-0200PB.fm

air consumption per starting manoeuvre/slow turn activation depends on the inertia moment of the unit. The stated air
consumption refers only to the engine. For the GenSets an higher air consumption needs to be considered (approx. 50 %
increased).
2)
Nm corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at 0 C and 101.32 kPa.
3)
The above-mentioned air consumption per Jet Assist activation is valid for a jet duration of 5 seconds. The jet duration may
vary between 3 sec and 10 sec, depending on the loading (average jet duration 5 sec).
4)
Required for plants with Power Management System demanding automatic engine start. The air consumption per slow turn
activation depends on the inertia moment of the unit. This value does not include the needed air consumption for the automically activated engine start after end of the slow turn manoeuvre.

Page 2 - 58

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.12.4 Recalculation of liquid fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions

2.12.4

Recalculation of liquid fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions

In accordance to ISO-Standard ISO 3046-1:2002 Reciprocating internal combustion engines Performance,

Part 1: Declarations of power, fuel and lubricating oil consumptions, and test methods Additional requirements for engines for general use MAN Diesel & Turbo specifies for liquid fuel the method for recalculation of fuel con-

sumption dependent on ambient conditions for single-stage turbocharged engines as follows:

1 0.0006 t x tr 0.0004 tbax tbar 0.07 pr p x


The formula is valid within the following limits:
+ Ambient air temperature

5 C 55 C

+ Charge air temperature before cylinder

25 C 75 C

+ Ambient air pressure

0.885 bar 1.030 bar

bx br

br

bx

Fuel consumption factor

tbar

Engine type specific reference charge air temperature before cylinder


see "Table: Reference conditions" in "Section: Fuel oil; lube oil; starting air/control air consumption".

Legend

^====~=

[g/kWh]

br

bx

Ambient air temperature

[C]

tr

tx

Charge air temperature before cylinder

[C]

tbar

tbax

Ambient air pressure

[bar]

pr

px

Specific fuel consumption

Example
Reference values:
br = 200 g/kWh, tr = 25 C, tbar = 40 C, pr = 1.0 bar
At Site:
tx = 45 C, tbax = 50 C, px = 0.9 bar

0209-0300AA2.fm

= 1+ 0.0006 (45 25) + 0.0004 (50 40) + 0.07 (1.0 0.9) = 1.023
bx = x br = 1.023 x 200 = 204.6 g/kWh

D-BD

Page 2 - 59

Engine and operation

0209-0300AA2.fm

2.12.4 Recalculation of liquid fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions

Page 2 - 60

D-BD

Engine and operation


2.12.5 Aging

2.12.5

Aging
Aging curve - 32/40

2,00

early maintenance every 10000 or 30000 operating hrs


late maintenance every 15000 or 40000 operating hrs

Increase of fuel consumption [%]

1,75

1,50

1,25

1,00

0,75

0,50

0,25
Note: The projected increase of fuel consumption, shown on the graph has to be seen as a standard. As this will be influenced by several basic conditions, e.g. care
and maintenance of the engine and its supply systems (fuel, lube oil, pressurized air) as well as fuel, lube oil and intake air quality. An addition to the shown value of
up to 1% absolute shall be regarded as contractually admissible and without any consequences for MAN Diesel and Turbo.

0,00
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Operating hours [ x 1000 h]

Figure 2-17

Influence from total engine running time and service intervals on fuel oil consumption

The fuel oil consumption will increase over the running time of the engine. Proper service can reduce
or eliminate this increase. For dependencies see

0209-0400MB2.fm

"Figure 2-17: Influence from total engine running time and


service intervals on fuel oil consumption".

eJ_`

32/40

Page 2 - 61

Engine and operation

0209-0400MB2.fm

2.12.5 Aging

Page 2 - 62

32/40

eJ_`

Engine and operation


2.13.1 Nominal values for cooler specification Iginition pressure 190 bar

2.13

Planning data for emission standard: World Bank 1998

2.13.1

Nominal values for cooler specification Iginition pressure 190 bar

World Bank 1998, 500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm


Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

8,000

9,000

Reference conditions: ISO


Air temperature

25

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler


(LT stage)

25

Air pressure

bar

Relative humidity

30

Engine output

kW

Speed

rpm

4,500

6,000

7,000
720 or 750

Heat to be dissipated1)
Cooling water (C.W.) cylinder

kW

598

786

930

1,051

1,196

Charge air cooler; cooling water HT

895

1,257

1,411

1,639

1,789

Charge air cooler; cooling water LT

584

740

888

1,018

1,167

Lube oil (L.O.) cooler2)

524

692

815

924

1,047

Cooling water fuel nozzles

18

23

27

31

35

Heat radiation engine

202

269

314

359

404

54

72

84

96

108

LT circuit (lube oil + charge air cooler LT stage)

85

114

140

148

170

Lube oil (4 bar before engine)

130

150

160

170

180

Cooling water fuel nozzles

1.6

2.4

2.8

3.2

191

191

Flow rates3)
HT circuit (cylinder + charge air cooler HT
stage)

m3/h

Pumps
a) Engine driven pumps

0210-0000PB.fm

HT circuit cooling water (4.5 bar)

70

140

LT circuit cooling water (4.5 bar)

140

225

Lube oil (8.0bar) for application with constant


speed

141

Table 2-21

B-BD

m/h

162

191

Nominal values for cooler specification 32/40 (1 of 2)

32/40

Page 2 - 63

Engine and operation


2.13.1 Nominal values for cooler specification Iginition pressure 190 bar

Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

54

72

84

96

108

b) External pumps4)
HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar)

m/h

LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar)


Lube oil (8.0 bar)

Depending on plant design


130 + z

150 + z

160 + z

170 + z

180 + z

Cooling water fuel nozzles (3.0 bar)

1.6

2.0

2.4

2.8

3.2

MGO/MDO supply pump (p 7.0 bar)

3.1

4.2

4.9

5.6

6.3

HFO supply pump (p 7.0 bar)

1.6

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.2

HFO circulating pump (p 7.0 bar)

3.1

4.2

4.9

5.6

6.3

Note!
You will find further planning datas for the listed subjects in the corresponding sections.
- Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see "Paragraph: H-001/Preheater, page 5-45".
- Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see "Paragraph: H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine, page
5-15" and "Paragraph: H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant, page 5-15".
- Capacities of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see "Section 5.2.3: Prelubrication/postlubrication, page 5-23".
- Capacities of preheating/postcooling pumps see "Paragraph: H-001/Preheater, page 5-45".
Table 2-21

Nominal values for cooler specification 32/40 (2 of 2)

1) Tolerance:

+10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.


separator heat (30 kJ/kWh can be considered in general).
3) Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4) Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the pump manufacturer.
z = flushing oil of the automatic filter.
2) Without

0210-0000PB.fm

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

Page 2 - 64

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.13.2 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data Iginition pressure 190 bar

2.13.2

Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data


Iginition pressure 190 bar

World Bank 1998, 500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm


Reference conditions: ISO
Air temperature

25

Cooling water temperature before charge air


cooler (LT stage)

25

Air pressure

bar

Relative humidity

30

Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

4,500

6,000

7,000

8,000

9,000

Engine output

kW

Speed

rpm

720 or 750

90

Temperature basis
HT cooling water engine outlet1)
LT cooling water air cooler inlet

25

Lube oil engine inlet

55

Cooling water fuel nozzles - inlet

60

Air data
Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler
outlet

42

40

42

41

42

m3/h

29,000

38,400

45,100

51,200

57,900

Mass flow

t/h

32

42.6

49.7

56.8

63.9

Charge air pressure (absolute)

bar

4.04

4.02

4.04

4.02

4.04

m/h

61,600

82,100

95,800

109,500

123,200

m3/h

55,900

74,200

86,900

99,000

111,700

Mass flow

t/h

32.8

43.7

51.0

58.3

65.6

Temperature at turbine outlet

320

318

320

318

320

Heat content (190 C)

kW

1,265

1,665

1,970

2,225

2,530

Air flow rate2)

Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine)


(t2 t1 = 10 C)
Exhaust gas data3)

0210-0000PB.fm

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger outlet)4)

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after


turbocharger
Table 2-22

B-BD

mbar

< 30

Air and exhaust gas data 32/40

32/40

Page 2 - 65

Engine and operation


2.13.3 Load specific values at ISO conditions Iginition pressure 190 bar

1)

HT cooling water flow first through water jacket and cylinder head, then through HT stage charge air cooler.
Under above mentioned reference conditions.
3)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.
4)
Under below mentioned temperature at turbine outlet and pressure according above mentioned reference conditions.
2)

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

2.13.3

Load specific values at ISO conditions Iginition pressure 190 bar

World Bank 1998, 500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm


Engine output

100

85

75

50

kW/cyl

500

425

375

250

Reference conditions: ISO


Air temperature

25

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage)

25

Air pressure

bar

Relative humidity

30

rpm

720 or 750

Engine speed
Heat to be dissipated1)
Cooling water (C.W.) cylinder

kJ/kWh

478

477

484

555

Charge air cooler; cooling water HT2)

716

605

498

185

Charge air cooler; cooling water LT2)

467

456

441

419

Lube oil (L.O.) cooler3)

419

462

505

693

Cooling water fuel nozzles

14

Heat radiation engine

162

175

185

230

205
42.4

179
38.9

159
36.3

108
30.8

kg/kWh

7.10

7.35

7.37

7.40

bar

4.04

3.45

3.03

2.05

Air data
Temperature of charge air
after compressor
at charge air cooler outlet
Air flow rate

Charge air pressure (absolute)

Load specific values at ISO conditions 32/40 (1 of 2)


0210-0000PB.fm

Table 2-23

Page 2 - 66

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.13.3 Load specific values at ISO conditions Iginition pressure 190 bar

Engine output

100

85

75

50

kW/cyl

500

425

375

250

kg/kWh

7.29

7.54

7.56

7.60

320

302

310

330

kJ/kWh

1,012

899

966

1,139

mbar

< 30

Exhaust gas data4)


Mass flow
Temperature at turbine outlet
Heat content (190 C)
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger

Tolerances refer to 100 % load.


Table 2-23

Load specific values at ISO conditions 32/40 (2 of 2)

1) Tolerance:

+10 % for rating coolers, 15 % for heat recovery.


values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 18V32/40.
3) Without separator heat (30 kJ/kWh can be considered in general).
4) Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
2) The

0210-0000PB.fm

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

B-BD

32/40

Page 2 - 67

Engine and operation


2.13.4 Nominal values for cooler specification Iginition pressure 205 bar

2.13.4

Nominal values for cooler specification Iginition pressure 205 bar

World Bank 1998, 500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm


Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

8,000

9,000

Reference conditions: ISO


Air temperature

25

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler


(LT stage)

25

Air pressure

bar

Relative humidity

30

Engine output

kW

Speed

rpm

4,500

6,000

7,000
720 or 750

Heat to be dissipated1)
Cooling water (C.W.) cylinder

kW

525

689

816

921

1,049

Charge air cooler; cooling water HT

825

1,164

1,303

1,515

1,650

Charge air cooler; cooling water LT

582

741

886

1,018

1,164

Lube oil (L.O.) cooler2)

486

642

756

858

973

Cooling water fuel nozzles

18

23

27

31

35

Heat radiation engine

200

266

310

355

399

54

72

84

96

108

LT circuit (lube oil + charge air cooler LT stage)

85

114

140

148

170

Lube oil (4 bar before engine)

130

150

160

170

180

Cooling water fuel nozzles

1.6

2.4

2.8

3.2

191

191

Flow rates3)
HT circuit (cylinder + charge air cooler HT
stage)

m3/h

Pumps
a) Engine driven pumps
HT circuit cooling water (4.5 bar)

70

140

LT circuit cooling water (4.5 bar)

140

225

Lube oil (8.0bar) for application with constant


speed

141

162

191

Nominal values for cooler specification 32/40 (1 of 2)


0210-0000PB.fm

Table 2-24

m/h

Page 2 - 68

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.13.4 Nominal values for cooler specification Iginition pressure 205 bar

Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

54

72

84

96

108

b) External pumps4)
HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar)

m/h

LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar)


Lube oil (8.0 bar)

Depending on plant design


130 + z

150 + z

160 + z

170 + z

180 + z

Cooling water fuel nozzles (3.0 bar)

1.6

2.0

2.4

2.8

3.2

MGO/MDO supply pump (p 7.0 bar)

3.1

4.2

4.9

5.6

6.3

HFO supply pump (p 7.0 bar)

1.6

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.2

HFO circulating pump (p 7.0 bar)

3.1

4.2

4.9

5.6

6.3

Note!
You will find further planning datas for the listed subjects in the corresponding sections.
- Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see "Paragraph: H-001/Preheater, page 5-45".
- Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see "Paragraph: H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine, page
5-15" and "Paragraph: H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant, page 5-15".
- Capacities of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see "Section 5.2.3: Prelubrication/postlubrication, page 5-23".
- Capacities of preheating/postcooling pumps see "Paragraph: H-001/Preheater, page 5-45".
Table 2-24

Nominal values for cooler specification 32/40 (2 of 2)

1) Tolerance:

+10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.


separator heat (30 kJ/kWh can be considered in general).
3) Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4) Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the pump manufacturer.
z = flushing oil of the automatic filter.
2) Without

0210-0000PB.fm

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

B-BD

32/40

Page 2 - 69

Engine and operation


2.13.5 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data Iginition pressure 205 bar

2.13.5

Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data


Iginition pressure 205 bar

World Bank 1998, 500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm


Reference conditions: ISO
Air temperature

25

Cooling water temperature before charge air


cooler (LT stage)

25

Air pressure

bar

Relative humidity

30

Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

4,500

6,000

7,000

8,000

9,000

Engine output

kW

Speed

rpm

720 or 750

90

Temperature basis
HT cooling water engine outlet1)
LT cooling water air cooler inlet

25

Lube oil engine inlet

55

Cooling water fuel nozzles - inlet

60

Air data
Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler
outlet

44

41

44

42

44

m3/h

28,800

38,100

44,800

50,900

57,600

Mass flow

t/h

31.6

42.2

49.2

56.2

63.3

Charge air pressure (absolute)

bar

4.01

3.99

4.00

3.99

4.01

m/h

61,000

81,100

94,600

108,300

121,700

m3/h

56,100

74,500

87,200

99,300

112,200

Mass flow

t/h

32.5

43.3

50.5

57.7

65.0

Temperature at turbine outlet

328

326

328

326

328

Heat content (190 C)

kW

1,330

1,750

2,070

2,340

2,660

Air flow rate2)

Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine)


(t2 t1 = 10 C)
Exhaust gas data3)

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after


turbocharger
Table 2-25

Page 2 - 70

mbar

< 30

0210-0000PB.fm

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger outlet)4)

Air and exhaust gas data 32/40

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.13.6 Load specific values at ISO conditions Iginition pressure 205 bar

1)

HT cooling water flow first through water jacket and cylinder head, then through HT stage charge air cooler.
Under above mentioned reference conditions.
3)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.
4)
Under below mentioned temperature at turbine outlet and pressure according above mentioned reference conditions.
2)

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

2.13.6

Load specific values at ISO conditions Iginition pressure 205 bar

World Bank 1998, 500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm


Engine output

100

85

75

50

kW/cyl

500

425

375

250

Reference conditions: ISO


Air temperature

25

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage)

25

Air pressure

bar

Relative humidity

30

rpm

720 or 750

Engine speed
Heat to be dissipated1)
Cooling water (C.W.) cylinder

kJ/kWh

420

437

466

572

Charge air cooler; cooling water HT2)

660

547

465

161

Charge air cooler; cooling water LT2)

465

448

431

404

Lube oil (L.O.) cooler3)

389

428

479

655

Cooling water fuel nozzles

14

Heat radiation engine

160

170

180

210

200
43.7

174
39.6

157
36.8

105
31.0

kg/kWh

7.03

7.18

7.18

7.20

bar

4.01

3.47

3.05

2.04

Air data
Temperature of charge air
after compressor
at charge air cooler outlet
Air flow rate

Charge air pressure (absolute)

Load specific values at ISO conditions 32/40 (1 of 2)

0210-0000PB.fm

Table 2-26

B-BD

32/40

Page 2 - 71

Engine and operation


2.13.6 Load specific values at ISO conditions Iginition pressure 205 bar

Engine output

100

85

75

50

kW/cyl

500

425

375

250

kg/kWh

7.22

7.37

7.37

7.40

328

327

339

393

kJ/kWh

1,065

1,082

1,176

1,622

mbar

< 30

Exhaust gas data4)


Mass flow
Temperature at turbine outlet
Heat content (190 C)
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger

Tolerances refer to 100 % load.


Table 2-26

Load specific values at ISO conditions 32/40 (2 of 2)

1) Tolerance:

+10 % for rating coolers, 15 % for heat recovery.


values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 18V32/40.
3) Without separator heat (30 kJ/kWh can be considered in general).
4) Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
2) The

0210-0000PB.fm

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

Page 2 - 72

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.14.1 Nominal values for cooler specification (1,460 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

2.14

Planning data for emission standard: World Bank 2007/2008

2.14.1

Nominal values for cooler specification (1,460 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

World Bank 2007/2008, 500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm,


Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

8,000

9,000

Reference conditions: ISO


Air temperature

25

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler


(LT stage)

25

Air pressure

bar

Relative humidity

30

Engine output

kW

Speed

rpm

4,500

6,000

7,000
720 or 750

Heat to be dissipated1)
Cooling water (C.W.) cylinder

kW

608

799

946

1,068

1,216

Charge air cooler; cooling water HT

964

1,352

1,520

1,765

1,927

Charge air cooler; cooling water LT

596

754

906

1,038

1,192

Lube oil (L.O.) cooler2)

507

670

789

894

1,014

Cooling water fuel nozzles

18

23

27

31

35

Heat radiation engine

172

230

268

306

344

54

72

84

96

108

LT circuit (lube oil + charge air cooler LT stage)

85

114

140

148

170

Lube oil (4 bar before engine)

130

150

160

170

180

Cooling water fuel nozzles

1.6

2.4

2.8

3.2

191

191

Flow rates3)
HT circuit (cylinder + charge air cooler HT
stage)

m3/h

Pumps
a) Engine driven pumps

0210-0000PB.fm

HT circuit cooling water (4.5 bar)

70

140

LT circuit cooling water (4.5 bar)

140

225

Lube oil (8.0bar) for application with constant


speed

141

Table 2-27

B-BD

m/h

162

191

Nominal values for cooler specification 32/40 (1 of 2)

32/40

Page 2 - 73

Engine and operation


2.14.1 Nominal values for cooler specification (1,460 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

54

72

84

96

108

b) External pumps4)
HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar)

m/h

LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar)


Lube oil (8.0 bar)

Depending on plant design


130 + z

150 + z

160 + z

170 + z

180 + z

Cooling water fuel nozzles (3.0 bar)

1.6

2.0

2.4

2.8

3.2

MGO/MDO supply pump (p 7.0 bar)

3.1

4.2

4.9

5.6

6.3

HFO supply pump (p 7.0 bar)

1.6

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.2

HFO circulating pump (p 7.0 bar)

3.1

4.2

4.9

5.6

6.3

Note!
You will find further planning datas for the listed subjects in the corresponding sections.
- Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see "Paragraph: H-001/Preheater, page 5-45".
- Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see "Paragraph: H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine, page
5-15" and "Paragraph: H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant, page 5-15".
- Capacities of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see "Section 5.2.3: Prelubrication/postlubrication, page 5-23".
- Capacities of preheating/postcooling pumps see "Paragraph: H-001/Preheater, page 5-45".
Table 2-27

Nominal values for cooler specification 32/40 (2 of 2)

1) Tolerance:

+10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.


separator heat (30 kJ/kWh can be considered in general).
3) Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4) Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the pump manufacturer.
z = flushing oil of the automatic filter.
2) Without

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

0210-0000PB.fm

Nm3 corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at 0 C and 101.32 kPa.

Page 2 - 74

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.14.2 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data (1,460 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

2.14.2

Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data


(1,460 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

World Bank 2007/2008, 500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm


Reference conditions: ISO
Air temperature

25

Cooling water temperature before charge air


cooler (LT stage)

25

Air pressure

bar

Relative humidity

30

Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

4,500

6,000

7,000

8,000

9,000

Engine output

kW

Speed

rpm

720 or 750

90

Temperature basis
HT cooling water engine outlet1)
LT cooling water air cooler inlet

25

Lube oil engine inlet

55

Cooling water fuel nozzles - inlet

60

Air data
Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler
outlet

43

41

43

41

43

m3/h

29,000

38,400

45,100

51,200

58,000

Mass flow

t/h

32

42.6

49.7

56.8

63.9

Charge air pressure (absolute)

bar

4.10

4.08

4.10

4.08

4.10

m/h

52,500

70,200

81,700

93,300

104,900

m3/h

56,400

75,100

87,900

100,100

113,000

Mass flow

t/h

32.8

43.8

51.1

58.4

65.7

Temperature at turbine outlet

326

324

326

324

326

Heat content (190 C)

kW

1,330

1,750

2,070

2,340

2,660

Air flow rate2)

Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine)


(t2 t1 = 10 C)
Exhaust gas data3)

0210-0000PB.fm

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger outlet)4)

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after


turbocharger
Table 2-28

B-BD

mbar

< 30

Air and exhaust gas data 32/40

32/40

Page 2 - 75

Engine and operation


2.14.2 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data (1,460 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

1)

HT cooling water flow first through water jacket and cylinder head, then through HT stage charge air cooler.
Under above mentioned reference conditions.
3)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.
4)
Under below mentioned temperature at turbine outlet and pressure according above mentioned reference conditions.
2)

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

0210-0000PB.fm

Nm3 corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at 0 C and 101.32 kPa.

Page 2 - 76

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.14.3 Load specific values at ISO conditions (1,460 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

2.14.3

Load specific values at ISO conditions (1,460 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

World Bank 2007/2008, 500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm


Engine output

100

85

75

50

kW/cyl

500

425

375

250

Reference conditions: ISO


Air temperature

25

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage)

25

Air pressure

bar

Relative humidity

30

rpm

720 or 750

Engine speed
Heat to be dissipated1)
Cooling water (C.W.) cylinder

kJ/kWh

486

494

522

621

Charge air cooler; cooling water HT

771

675

570

268

Charge air cooler; cooling water LT2)

477

463

440

413

Lube oil (L.O.) cooler3)

406

463

502

666

2)

Cooling water fuel nozzles

14

Heat radiation engine

138

175

201

247

214
42.7

191
39.0

171
36.1

120
30.6

kg/kWh

7.10

7.27

7.22

7.24

bar

4.10

3.54

3.09

2.10

Air data
Temperature of charge air
after compressor
at charge air cooler outlet
Air flow rate

Charge air pressure (absolute)

Load specific values at ISO conditions 32/40 (1 of 2)

0210-0000PB.fm

Table 2-29

B-BD

32/40

Page 2 - 77

Engine and operation


2.14.3 Load specific values at ISO conditions (1,460 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

Engine output

100

85

75

50

kW/cyl

500

425

375

250

kg/kWh

7.30

7.46

7.42

7.45

326

319

335

375

kJ/kWh

1,063

1,029

1,157

1,486

mbar

< 30

Exhaust gas data4)


Mass flow
Temperature at turbine outlet
Heat content (190 C)
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger

Tolerances refer to 100 % load.


Table 2-29

Load specific values at ISO conditions 32/40 (2 of 2)

1) Tolerance:

+10 % for rating coolers, 15 % for heat recovery.


values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 18V32/40.
3) Without separator heat (30 kJ/kWh can be considered in general).
4) Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
2) The

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

0210-0000PB.fm

Nm3 corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at 0 C and 101.32 kPa.

Page 2 - 78

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.14.4 Nominal values for cooler specification (1,600 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

2.14.4

Nominal values for cooler specification (1,600 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

World Bank 2007/2008, 500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm


Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

8,000

9,000

Reference conditions: ISO


Air temperature

25

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler


(LT stage)

25

Air pressure

bar

Relative humidity

30

Engine output

kW

Speed

rpm

4,500

6,000

7,000
720 or 750

Heat to be dissipated1)
Cooling water (C.W.) cylinder

kW

606

797

943

1,065

1,212

Charge air cooler; cooling water HT

939

1,317

1,481

1,720

1,879

Charge air cooler; cooling water LT

584

739

888

1,017

1,168

Lube oil (L.O.) cooler2)

506

669

787

893

1,012

Cooling water fuel nozzles

18

23

27

31

35

Heat radiation engine

172

230

268

306

344

54

72

84

96

108

LT circuit (lube oil + charge air cooler LT stage)

85

114

140

148

170

Lube oil (4 bar before engine)

130

150

160

170

180

Cooling water fuel nozzles

1.6

2.4

2.8

3.2

191

191

Flow rates3)
HT circuit (cylinder + charge air cooler HT
stage)

m3/h

Pumps
a) Engine driven pumps
HT circuit cooling water (4.5 bar)

70

140

LT circuit cooling water (4.5 bar)

140

225

Lube oil (8.0bar) for application with constant


speed

141

162

191

Nominal values for cooler specification 32/40 (1 of 2)

0210-0000PB.fm

Table 2-30

m/h

B-BD

32/40

Page 2 - 79

Engine and operation


2.14.4 Nominal values for cooler specification (1,600 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

54

72

84

96

108

b) External pumps4)
HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar)

m/h

LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar)


Lube oil (8.0 bar)

Depending on plant design


130 + z

150 + z

160 + z

170 + z

180 + z

Cooling water fuel nozzles (3.0 bar)

1.6

2.0

2.4

2.8

3.2

MGO/MDO supply pump (p 7.0 bar)

3.1

4.2

4.9

5.6

6.3

HFO supply pump (p 7.0 bar)

1.6

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.2

HFO circulating pump (p 7.0 bar)

3.1

4.2

4.9

5.6

6.3

Note!
You will find further planning datas for the listed subjects in the corresponding sections.
- Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see "Paragraph: H-001/Preheater, page 5-45".
- Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see "Paragraph: H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine, page
5-15" and "Paragraph: H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant, page 5-15".
- Capacities of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see "Section 5.2.3: Prelubrication/postlubrication, page 5-23".
- Capacities of preheating/postcooling pumps see "Paragraph: H-001/Preheater, page 5-45".
Table 2-30

Nominal values for cooler specification 32/40 (2 of 2)

1) Tolerance:

+10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.


separator heat (30 kJ/kWh can be considered in general).
3) Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4) Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the pump manufacturer.
z = flushing oil of the automatic filter.
2) Without

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

0210-0000PB.fm

Nm3 corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at 0 C and 101.32 kPa.

Page 2 - 80

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.14.5 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data (1,600 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

2.14.5

Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data


(1,600 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

World Bank 2007/2008, 500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm


Reference conditions: ISO
Air temperature

25

Cooling water temperature before charge air


cooler (LT stage)

25

Air pressure

bar

Relative humidity

30

Number of cylinders

9L

12V

14V

16V

18V

4,500

6,000

7,000

8,000

9,000

Engine output

kW

Speed

rpm

720 or 750

90

Temperature basis
HT cooling water engine outlet1)
LT cooling water air cooler inlet

25

Lube oil engine inlet

55

Cooling water fuel nozzles - inlet

60

Air data
Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler
outlet

42

40

42

41

42

m3/h

28,600

37,800

44,400

50,500

57,100

Mass flow

t/h

31.5

42

49

56

63

Charge air pressure (absolute)

bar

4.09

4.08

4.09

4.08

4.09

m/h

52,500

70,200

81,700

93,300

104,900

m3/h

55,200

73,500

85,700

97,800

110,200

Mass flow

t/h

32.4

43.2

50.3

57.5

64.7

Temperature at turbine outlet

320

319

320

319

320

Heat content (190 C)

kW

1,260

1,655

1,960

2,210

2,515

Air flow rate2)

Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine)


(t2 t1 = 10 C)
Exhaust gas data3)

0210-0000PB.fm

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger outlet)4)

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after


turbocharger
Table 2-31

B-BD

mbar

< 30

Air and exhaust gas data 32/40

32/40

Page 2 - 81

Engine and operation


2.14.5 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data (1,600 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

1)

HT cooling water flow first through water jacket and cylinder head, then through HT stage charge air cooler.
Under above mentioned reference conditions.
3)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.
4)
Under below mentioned temperature at turbine outlet and pressure according above mentioned reference conditions.
2)

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

0210-0000PB.fm

Nm3 corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at 0 C and 101.32 kPa.

Page 2 - 82

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.14.6 Load specific values at ISO conditions (1,600 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

2.14.6

Load specific values at ISO conditions (1,600 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

World Bank 2007/2008, 500 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 750 rpm


Engine output

100

85

75

50

kW/cyl

500

425

375

250

Reference conditions: ISO


Air temperature

25

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage)

25

Air pressure

bar

Relative humidity

30

rpm

720 or 750

Engine speed
Heat to be dissipated1)
Cooling water (C.W.) cylinder

kJ/kWh

485

493

520

620

Charge air cooler; cooling water HT

752

652

539

242

Charge air cooler; cooling water LT2)

467

452

425

401

Lube oil (L.O.) cooler3)

405

462

501

665

2)

Cooling water fuel nozzles

14

Heat radiation engine

138

175

201

247

212
42.3

189
38.5

168
35.6

117
30.4

kg/kWh

7.00

7.12

7.02

7.04

bar

4.09

3.54

3.08

2.10

Air data
Temperature of charge air
after compressor
at charge air cooler outlet
Air flow rate

Charge air pressure (absolute)

Load specific values at ISO conditions 32/40 (1 of 2)

0210-0000PB.fm

Table 2-32

B-BD

32/40

Page 2 - 83

Engine and operation


2.14.6 Load specific values at ISO conditions (1,600 mg NOx / Nm @ 15 % O2)

Engine output

100

85

75

50

kW/cyl

500

425

375

250

kg/kWh

7.19

7.31

7.22

7.24

320

318

335

375

kJ/kWh

1,006

1,005

1,122

1,444

mbar

< 30

Exhaust gas data4)


Mass flow
Temperature at turbine outlet
Heat content (190 C)
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger

Tolerances refer to 100 % load.


Table 2-32

Load specific values at ISO conditions 32/40 (2 of 2)

1) Tolerance:

+10 % for rating coolers, 15 % for heat recovery.


values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 18V32/40.
3) Without separator heat (30 kJ/kWh can be considered in general).
4) Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
2) The

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

0210-0000PB.fm

Nm3 corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at 0 C and 101.32 kPa.

Page 2 - 84

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.15.1 Filling volumes and flow resistances

2.15

Planning data

2.15.1

Filling volumes and flow resistances

Water and oil volume of engine


No. of cylinders
Cooling water approx.

litres

12

14

16

18

300

420

480

540

600

Lube oil
Table 2-33

Dry oil sump


Water and oil volume of engine

Service tanks

Installation
height 1)

Minimum effective capacity

No. of cylinders
Cooling water cylinder
Lube oil
in double bottom 2)
in double bottom 3)
Run-down lubrication for
engine 4)
Table 2-34

12

6 ... 9

0.5

4.5
7.5

6.0
9.5

min. 14

3.0

3.5

14

16

18

7.0
11.0

8.0
12.0

9.0
13.5

5.5

6.0

4.5

0.7

Service tanks capacity

1) Installation

height refers to tank bottom and crankshaft centre line.


Marine engines with attached lube oil pump.
3) Marine engines with free-standing lube oil pump; capacity of the run-down lube oil tank included.
4) Required for marine main engine with free-standing lube oil pump only.
2)

Flow resistance
Charge air cooler (HT stage)

0.25 per cooler

Charge air cooler (LT stage)

0.30 per cooler

Cylinder (HT cooling water, independent from the


cylinder number because of parallel circuit)
Fuel nozzles (Nozzle cooling water)
Table 2-35

0210-0000PB.fm

bar

0.30 0.40
1.5

Flow resistance

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

B-BD

32/40

Page 2 - 85

Engine and operation


2.15.2 Operating/service temperatures and pressures

2.15.2

Operating/service temperatures and pressures

Operating temperatures1
Air

Air before compressor

Charge Air

Charge air before cylinder

Coolant

Engine coolant after engine

5 C, max. 45 C1)
43...63 C2)
90 C3), max. 95 C

Engine coolant preheated before start


Coolant before charge air cooler LT stage
Coolant nozzle cooling
Lubricating oil

Lubricating oil before engine/before turbocharger

MGO (DMA, DMZ) and MDO (DMB) according ISO 82172010

63...68 C, alarm/stop at 70 C

40 C
45 C and viscosity before
engine: minimum 1.9 cSt, maximum 14 cSt4)
150 C and viscosity before
engine: minimum 1.9 cSt, maximum 14 cSt, recommended: 12
14 cSt4)

HFO according ISO 8217-2010

75 C

Preheating (HFO in day tank)


Table 2-36

32 C, load reduction at 38 C1)


55...60 C

Lubricating oil preheated before start


Fuel

60 C

Operating temperatures

1) In

accordance with power definition. A reduction in power is required at higher temperatures/lower pressures.
Aim for a higher value in conditions of high air humidity (to reduce condensate amount).
3) Regulated temperature.
4)
See "Section 4.9: Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram), page 4-33".

2)

Note!

0210-0000PB.fm

Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.

Valid for nominal output and nominal speed.

Page 2 - 86

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.15.2 Operating/service temperatures and pressures

Operating pressures1
Intake Air

Air before turbocharger (negative pressure)

Starting air/Control air

Starting air

Cylinder

min. approx. 15, max.


30 bar

Pilot air

8, min. 5.5 bar

Nominal ignition pressure, combustion chamber


WB 1998
WB 2007/2008

190 or 205 bar


190 bar

Safety valve (opening pressure)


Crankcase

max. 20 mbar

247 bar

Crankcase pressure

max. 3 mbar

Crankcase pressure (with suction)


Safety valve (opening pressure)

Vacuum, max. 2.5 mbar


50...70 mbar
max. 30 mbar1)

Exhaust

Exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger (static)

Coolant

Engine coolant and charge air cooler HT

3...4 bar

Nozzle coolant (for HFO operation only)

2...5 bar

Charge air cooler LT

2...4 bar

Lubricating oil

Lubrication oil Prelubrication before engine


Lubricating oil before engine

4...5 bar

Lubricating oil before turbocharger


Fuel

0.3...0.6 bar2)

Fuel before engine

1.3...1.7 bar
6...8 bar

Fuel before engine in case of black out

min. 0.6 bar

Differential pressure (engine feed/engine return)

1 bar

Fuel return, at engine outlet

2 bar

Maximum pressure fluctuation in front of engine


Fuel injection valve (Opening pressure)
Fuel injection valve (Opening pressure for new springs)

0.5 bar
360 + 10 bar
380 bar

Note!
Variations of the mandatory values can affect the operation of the engine negative and may cause rating reduction
of the engine
Table 2-37

Operating pressures

1) At

0210-0000PB.fm

a total exhaust gas back pressure of the designed exhaust gas line of more than 30 mbar the available engine performance needs to be recalculated.
2) Note! Oil pressure > 0.3 bar must be ensured also for lube oil temperatures up to 80 C

Valid for nominal output and nominal speed.

B-BD

32/40

Page 2 - 87

Engine and operation


2.15.2 Operating/service temperatures and pressures

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Exhaust gas back pressure

0210-0000PB.fm

An increased exhaust gas back pressure (static,


> 30 mbar) raises the temperature level of the engine and will be considered when calculating a required derating by adding 2.5 K to the ambient air
temperature for every 10 mbar of the increased
exhaust gas back pressure after turbine.

Page 2 - 88

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.15.3 Internal media systems

2.15.3

Internal media systems

0210-0000PB.fm

Fuel oil system

Figure 2-18

B-BD

Fuel oil system

32/40

Page 2 - 89

Engine and operation


2.15.3 Internal media systems

Figure 2-19

Page 2 - 90

0210-0000PB.fm

Lube oil system

Lube oil system

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.15.3 Internal media systems

0210-0000PB.fm

Water system

Figure 2-20

B-BD

Water system

32/40

Page 2 - 91

Engine and operation


2.15.3 Internal media systems

Figure 2-21

Page 2 - 92

0210-0000PB.fm

Pressure air system

Pressure air system

32/40

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.15.4 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger

2.15.4

Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger

As described under the "Section: Engine supply


systems Crankcase vent and tank vent it is needed

to ventilate the engine crankcase and the turbocharger. For layout of the ventilation system following statement should serve as a guide:
Due to normal blow by of the piston ring package
small amounts of gases of the combustion chamber get into the crankcase and carry along oil dust.

The amount of crankcase vent gases is approx.


0.1 % of the engines air flow rate.

The temperature of the crankcase vent gases is

approx. 5 K higher than the oil temperature at


the engines oil inlet.

The density of crankcase vent gases is


1.0 kg/m (assumption for calculation).

Sealing air of the turbocharger additionally needs


to be vented.

The amount of turbocharger sealing air is approx. 0.2 % of the engines air flow rate.

The temperature of turbocharger sealing air is

approx. 5 K higher than the oil temperature at


the engines oil inlet.

The density of turbocharger sealing air is

0210-0100PA.fm

1.0 kg/m (assumption for calculation).

_J_a

32/40, 32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 51/60DF, 51/60G

Page 2 - 93

Engine and operation

0210-0100PA.fm

2.15.4 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger

Page 2 - 94

32/40, 32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 51/60DF, 51/60G

_J_a

Engine and operation

0206-0601PA.fm

2.16.1 Emission limits World Bank

2.16

Emissions

2.16.1

Emission limits World Bank

Figure 2-22

_J_a

Emissions World Bank

32/40, 48/60B

Page 2 - 95

Engine and operation

0206-0601PA.fm

2.16.1 Emission limits World Bank

Page 2 - 96

32/40, 48/60B

B-BD

Engine and operation


2.16.2 Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines

2.16.2

Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines

The exhaust gas is composed of numerous constituents which are formed either from the combustion air, the fuel and lube oil used or see "Table

2-38: Exhaust gas constituents for liquid fuel (only for


guidance)" which are chemical reaction products

formed during the combustion process. Only

Main exhaust gas constituents

some of these are to be considered as harmful


substances.
For the typical exhaust gas composition of a MAN
Diesel & Turbo four-stroke engine without any exhaust gas treatment devices see "Table 2-38: Exhaust gas constituents for liquid fuel (only for guidance)".

approx. [% by volume]

approx. [g/kWh]

Nitrogen N2

74.0 76.0

5,020 5,160

Oxygen O2

11.6 13.2

900 1,030

Carbon dioxide CO2

5.2 5.8

560 620

Steam H2O

5.9 8.6

260 370

0.9

75

> 99.75

7,000

approx. [% by volume]

approx. [g/kWh]

Sulphur oxides SOx1)

0.07

10.0

Nitrogen oxides NOx2)

0.07 0.15

8.0 16.0

0.006 0.011

0.4 0.8

0.1 0.04

0.4 1.2

< 0.25

26

approx. [mg/Nm3]

approx. [g/kWh]

Inert gases Ar, Ne, He...


Total
Additional gaseous exhaust gas
constituents considered as pollutants

Carbon monoxide CO3)


Hydrocarbons HC4)
Total
Additionally suspended exhaust gas
constituents, PM5)

operating on
6)

operating on
7)

6)

MGO

HFO

MGO

HFO7)

Soot (elemental carbon)8)

50

50

0.3

0.3

Fuel ash

40

0.03

0.25

Lube oil ash

0.02

0.04

Note!

0211-0200MA2.fm

At rated power and without exhaust gas treatment.


Table 2-38

Exhaust gas constituents for liquid fuel (only for guidance)

1)

SOx according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 6C, with a sulphur content in the fuel oil of 2.5 % by weight.

2)

NOx according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 7E, total NOx emission calculated as NO2.

J-BC

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 2 - 97

Engine and operation


2.16.2 Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines

3)

CO according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 10.


HC according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 25 A.
5) PM according to VDI-2066, EN-13284, ISO-9096 or US EPA method 17; in-stack filtration.
6) Marine gas oil DM-A grade with an ash content of the fuel oil of 0.01 % and an ash content of the lube oil of 1.5 %.
7)
Heavy fuel oil RM-B grade with an ash content of the fuel oil of 0.1 % and an ash content of the lube oil of 4.0 %.
8)
Pure soot, without ash or any other particle-borne constituents.
4)

Carbon dioxide CO2

Hydrocarbons HC

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a product of combustion


of all fossil fuels.

The hydrocarbons (HC) contained in the exhaust


gas are composed of a multitude of various organic compounds as a result of incomplete combustion.

Among all internal combustion engines the diesel


engine has the lowest specific CO2 emission
based on the same fuel quality, due to its superior
efficiency.
Sulphur oxides SOx
Sulphur oxides (SOx) are formed by the combustion of the sulphur contained in the fuel.
Among all systems the diesel process results in
the lowest specific SOx emission based on the
same fuel quality, due to its superior efficiency.

Due to the efficient combustion process, the HC


content of exhaust gas of MAN Diesel & Turbo
four-stroke diesel engines is at a very low level.
Particulate matter PM
Particulate matter (PM) consists of soot (elemental
carbon) and ash.

Nitrogen oxides NOx (NO + NO2)


The high temperatures prevailing in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine
causes the chemical reaction of nitrogen (contained in the combustion air as well as in some fuel
grades) and oxygen (contained in the combustion
air) to nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Carbon monoxide CO
Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed during incomplete combustion.

0211-0200MA2.fm

In MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke diesel engines,


optimisation of mixture formation and turbocharging process successfully reduces the CO content
of the exhaust gas to a very low level.

Page 2 - 98

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

J-BC

Engine and operation


2.16.3 Recalculation of NOx emission for stationary applications

2.16.3

Recalculation of NOx emission for stationary applications

Engine specific NOx-Emissions depend on the engine adjustment, engine output, media temperatures and the fuel used. These will be calculated
project specific.
For conversion from at site conditions to reference
conditions and vice versa the following formula is
used. Only the conditions stated in the formula
may vary.
(R&D Report, 100.6240.7166, Peters 2003.02.24)

NOx r = NOx x *

e 17.5* ( H ar H ax )
1 0.005 * (t bax t bar )

The formula is valid within the following limits:


Charge air temperature before cylinder:

25 C 75 C

NOx r , NOx x:

refer always to the same engine load

Legend
Nitrogen oxides
Charge air temperature
before cylinder
Absolute air humidity

^====
~=

[mg/Nm3@15%O2]

NOx r

NOx x

[C]

tbar

tbax

[kg water/kg dry air]

Har

Hax

"Figure 2-23: NOx concentration according to absolute air


humidity" shows the influence of the absolute air

0209-0300PA.fm

humidity to the NOx-Emissions at constant charge


air temperature before cylinder.

A-BD

32/40, 32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

Page 2 - 99

Engine and operation


2.16.3 Recalculation of NOx emission for stationary applications

NOx
concentration
[%]

max. water content


of atmosphere (1 bar)

100
90

charge air temperature before cylinder = constant

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

0,01

0,02

0,03

0,04

0,05

0,06

0,07

0,08

0,09

0,1

Absolute air humidity of charge air [kg water / kg dry air]


Figure 2-23

NOx concentration according to absolute air humidity

Example
Reference values:
NOx r = 1,460 mg/Nm3@15%O2, tbar = 42 C, Har = 0.011 kg/kg
At Site:
tbax = 47 C, Hax = 0.016 kg/kg

NO xx NO xr *

1 0.005 * (t bax t bar )

e 17.5* ( H ar H ax )

1,460 *

1 0.005 * (47 42)

e 17.5* ( 0.01 1 0.0 16 )

0209-0300PA.fm

1,371 mg / Nm @ 15%O 2

Page 2 - 100

32/40, 32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.17.1 Airborne noise

2.17

Noise

2.17.1

Airborne noise

Engine L32/40
Output 500 kW/cyl., speed = 720/750 rpm
Sound pressure level Lp
min: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . approx. 102 dB(A)
max: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . approx. 108 dB(A)

Measuring points
A total of 19 measuring points at 1m distance
from the engine surface distributed evenly
around the engine according to ISO 6798. The
noise at the exhaust outlet is not included.

Octave level diagram


In the octave level diagram below the minimum
and maximum octave levels of all measuring
points have been linked by graphs. The data
will change, depending on the acoustical properties of the environment.

110

sound pressure level Lp [dB]


ref: 20 Pa

105
100
95
min
max

90
85
80
75

0212-0000MB2.fm

70

16

31,5

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

8000

min

73

85

92

95

95

95

96

95

93

87

sum A
102

max

90

100

105

105

104

106

105

105

103

99

108

1/1 octave band frequency [Hz]

Figure 2-24

^J_a

Octave level diagram L32/40 Sound pressure level Lp Airborne noise

32/40

Page 2 - 101

Engine and operation


2.17.1 Airborne noise

Engine V32/40
Output 500 kW/cyl., speed = 720/750 rpm
Sound pressure level Lp
min: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . approx. 104 dB(A)
max: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . approx. 108 dB(A)

Measuring points
A total of 19 measuring points at 1m distance
from the engine surface distributed evenly
around the engine according to ISO 6798. The
noise at the exhaust outlet is not included.

Octave level diagram


In the octave level diagram below the minimum
and maximum octave levels of all measuring
points have been linked by graphs. The data
will change, depending on the acoustical properties of the environment.
110

sound pressure level Lp [dB]


ref: 20 Pa

105
100
95
min
max

90
85
80
75
70

16

31,5

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

8000

min

73

83

90

94

93

93

92

92

90

82

sum A
104

max

91

103

103

104

101

103

104

100

104

97

108

1/1 octave band frequency [Hz]

Octave level diagram V32/40 Sound pressure level Lp Airborne noise

0212-0000MB2.fm

Figure 2-25

Page 2 - 102

32/40

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.17.2 Intake noise

2.17.2

Intake noise

Engine L32/40
approx. 139 dB(A)

Sound power level Lw:

Octave level diagram

The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced intake noise in the intake pipe is approx.
139 dB(A) at rated output. The octave level of
the sound power is shown in the diagram below.

This data is required and valid only for ducted air


intake systems. The data is not valid if the standard air filter silencer is attached to the turbocharger.
145
140

sound power level Lw [dB]


ref: 10exp -12 W

135
130
125

Lw
120
115
110
105
100
Lw

16

31,5

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

8000

sum A

115

120

117

112

110

116

115

120

137

130

139

1/1 octave band frequency [Hz]

Octave level diagram L32/40 Sound power level Lw Unsilenced intake noise

0212-0200MB2.fm

Figure 2-26

^J_a

32/40

Page 2 - 103

Engine and operation


2.17.2 Intake noise

Engine V32/40
Sound power level Lw:

approx. 139 dB(A)

Octave level diagram

The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced intake noise in the intake pipe is approx.
139 dB(A) at rated output. The octave level of
the sound power is shown in the diagram below.

This data is required and valid only for ducted air


intake systems. The data is not valid if the standard air filter silencer is attached to the turbocharger.
145
140

sound power level Lw [dB]


ref: 10exp -12 W

135
130
125

Lw
120
115
110
105
100
Lw

16

31,5

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

8000

sum A

115

120

117

112

110

116

115

120

137

130

139

1/1 octave band frequency [Hz]

Octave level diagram V32/40 Sound power level Lw Unsilenced intake noise

0212-0200MB2.fm

Figure 2-27

Page 2 - 104

32/40

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.17.3 Exhaust gas noise

2.17.3

Exhaust gas noise

Engine L32/40
Sound power level Lw:

approx. 142 dB(A)

Octave level diagram

The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced exhaust noise in the exhaust pipe is approx.
142 dB(A) at rated output. The octave level of
the sound power is shown in the diagram below.

.
160

sound power level Lw [dB]


ref: 10exp -12 W

155

150

145

Lw
140

135

130

125
Lw

16

31,5

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

8000

sum A

137

154

156

151

138

136

135

134

132

131

142

1/1 octave band frequency [Hz]

Octave level diagram L32/40 Sound power level Lw Unsilenced exhaust noise

0212-0300MB2.fm

Figure 2-28

^J_a

32/40

Page 2 - 105

Engine and operation


2.17.3 Exhaust gas noise

Engine V32/40
Sound power level Lw:

approx. 142 dB(A)

Octave level diagram

The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced exhaust noise in the exhaust pipe is approx.
142 dB(A) at rated output. The octave level of
the sound power is shown in the diagram below.

.
160

sound power level Lw [dB]


ref: 10exp -12 W

155

150

145
Lw
140

135

130

125
Lw

16

31,5

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

8000

sum A

139

150

152

149

138

136

135

134

132

131

142

1/1 octave band frequency [Hz]

Octave level diagram V32/40 Sound power level Lw Unsilenced exhaust noise

0212-0300MB2.fm

Figure 2-29

Page 2 - 106

32/40

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.18.1 Torsional vibrations

2.18

Vibration

2.18.1

Torsional vibrations

Data required for torsional vibration calculation


MAN Diesel & Turbo calculates the torsional vibrations behaviour for each individual engine plant of
their supply to determine the location and severity
of resonance points. If necessary, appropriate
measures will be taken to avoid excessive stresses
due to torsional vibration. These investigations
cover the ideal normal operation of the engine (all
cylinders are firing equally) as well as the simulated
emergency operation (misfiring of the cylinder exerting the greatest influence on vibrations, acting
against compression). Besides the natural frequencies and the modes also the dynamic response will be calculated, normally under
consideration of the 1st to 24th harmonic of the gas
and mass forces of the engine.
If necessary, a torsional vibration calculation will be
worked out which can be submitted for approval
to a legal authority.
To carry out the torsional vibration calculation following particulars and/or documents are required.

through resonance (Nm)

Permissible shock torque for short-term loads


(Nm)

Permanently permissible alternating torque

(Nm) including influencing factors (frequency,


temperature, mean torque)

Permanently permissible power loss (W) including influencing factors (frequency, temperature)

Dynamic torsional stiffness (Nm/rad) including

influencing factors (load, frequency, temperature), if applicable

Relative damping () including influencing factors (load, frequency, temperature), if applicable

Moment of inertia (kgm) for all parts of the coupling

Dynamic stiffness in radial, axial and angular direction

Permissible relative motions in radial, axial and


angular direction, permanent and maximum

General

Type of propulsion (GenSet)

Alternator

Maximum power consumption of the driven

Drawing of the alternator shaft with all lengths

machines

Rated output, rated speed


Kind of engine load
Kind of mounting of the engine (can influence
the determination of the flexible coupling)

Moment of inertia of the parts mounted to the


shaft (kgm)

Electrical output (kVA) including power factor


cos and efficiency

Or mechanical output (kW)


Complex synchronizing coefficients for idling

Flexible coupling

Make, size and type


Rated torque (Nm)
Possible application factor
Maximum speed (rpm)

^J_a

and diameters

Alternatively, torsional stiffness (Nm/rad)

Engine

0201-0802Pdf+g.fm

Permissible maximum torque for passing

and full load in dependence on frequency, reference torque

Island or parallel mode


Load profile (e.g. load steps)
Frequency fluctuation of the electric grid

32/40, 32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

Page 2 - 107

Engine and operation

0201-0802Pdf+g.fm

2.18.1 Torsional vibrations

Page 2 - 108

32/40, 32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.18.2 Static torque fluctuation

2.18.2

Static torque fluctuation

General
The static torque fluctuation is the summationtaking into account the correct phase-angles of
the torques acting at all cranks around the crankshaft axis. These torques are created by the gas
and mass forces acting at the crankpins, with the
crank radius being used as the lever see "Paragraph: Static torque fluctuation and exciting frquencies" in
this section. An absolutely rigid crankshaft is assumed. The values Tmax and Tmin listed in the tables represent a measure for the reaction forces
occurring at the foundation of the engine see "Figure 2-30: Static torque fluctuation". The static values
listed in the table below in each individual case a
dynamic magnification which is dependent upon
the characteristics of the foundation (design and
material thicknesses in way of the foundation, type
of chocking).
The reaction forces generated by the torque fluctuation are the most important excitations transmitted into the foundation in the case of a rigidly or
semi-resiliently mounted engine. Their frequency is
dependent upon speed and cylinder number, and
is also listed in the table of the examples.

Static torque fluctuation

FD L z

Tmax Tmin
2

Number of cylinders

Distance between foundation bolts

0215-030aAA2.fm

In order to avoid local vibration excitations in the


vessel, it must be ensured that the natural frequencies of important part structures (e. g. panels,
bulkheads, tank walls and decks, equipment and
its foundation, pipe systems) have a sufficient
safety margin (if possible 30 %) in relation to this
main excitation frequency.

Figure 2-30

A-BD

Page 2 - 109

Engine and operation

0215-030aAA2.fm

2.18.2 Static torque fluctuation

Page 2 - 110

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.19 Arrangement of attached pumps

2.19

Arrangement of attached pumps

0217-0000MB2.fm

Engine L32/40

Figure 2-31

A-BD

Attached pumps Engine L32/40

32/40

Page 2 - 111

Engine and operation


2.19 Arrangement of attached pumps

Figure 2-32

Page 2 - 112

0217-0000MB2.fm

Engine V32/40

Attached pumps Engine V32/40

32/40

A-BD

Engine and operation


2.20 Foundation for GenSets

2.20

Foundation for GenSets

The GenSet is located on a single plate concrete


foundation, which is build onto the ground.
Prior to any detailed planning a soil investigation
has to be executed and further processing have to
be in accordance with the results of the soil investigation and the engine manufacturers recommendation.
The soil conditions below the foundation plate
shall have a minimum soil bearing capacity of
200 kN/m and shall be in a well packed condition,
so that less settlements will happen.
At site areas with a lower soil bearing capacity additional measures have to be done to increase the
soil bearing capacity. This could be for example
piling or soil exchange
The concrete foundation plate shall be built with a
minimum concrete strength of 28 N/mm and

ribbed reinforcement steel bars with a quality not


lower than 400 N/mm. The pouring of the concrete has to be done without any interruption. Immediately after the pouring the curing of the
concrete has to be started in accordance to the
applicable international standards.
After settling and grouting of the GenSet onto the
finished concrete foundation the concrete surfaces shall be painted with an oil resistant painting.
In site areas with an earthquake risk up to a horizontal design ground acceleration of 0.2 g (acceleration due to gravity g = 9.81 m/s) no special
anchoring of the GenSet onto the foundation is
needed. In this cases the foundation design will in
accordance to the guideline drawings (see "Table
2-39: Guideline drawings for GenSet foundation").

Guideline drawings for GenSet foundation


12V32/40

18V32/40

Foundation plate

B11.72600-0158

B11.72600-0161

Formwork drawing

B11.72626-0682

B11.72626-0688

Reinforcement drawing

B11.72626-0683

B11.72626-0689

Table 2-39

Guideline drawings for GenSet foundation

0402-0102PBdf.fm

For horizontal design ground accelerations >0.2 g


and =0.4 g a separate calculation have to be
done. The GenSet has basically anchored to the
foundation plate.

A-BD

32/40, 32/40DF

Page 2 - 113

Engine and operation


2.20 Foundation for GenSets

Figure 2-33

Page 2 - 114

0402-0102PBdf.fm

12V32/40

Example: Foundation plate 12V32/40 1

32/40, 32/40DF

A-BD

Engine and operation

0402-0102PBdf.fm

2.20 Foundation for GenSets

Figure 2-34

A-BD

Example: Foundation plate 12V32/40 2

32/40, 32/40DF

Page 2 - 115

Engine and operation


2.20 Foundation for GenSets

Figure 2-35

Page 2 - 116

0402-0102PBdf.fm

18V32/40

Example: Foundation plate 18V32/40 1

32/40, 32/40DF

A-BD

Engine and operation

0402-0102PBdf.fm

2.20 Foundation for GenSets

Figure 2-36

A-BD

Example: Foundation plate 18V32/40 2

32/40, 32/40DF

Page 2 - 117

Engine and operation


2.20 Foundation for GenSets

Note!
All dimensions have to be checked along with
the final drawing of the engine manufacturer
and the actual situation at site.
All dimensions on the drawing are final and metrical units according to ISO 1000.
- All measurements shown on the drawing are
in millimetre (mm).
- Elevations
meter (m).

and

co-ordinates

are

in

Tolerances:

8 mm

Surface levelness

1 mm/m

Tilting of anchor bolts or pipes

Attention!
The concrete Surface has to be painted with oil
resistant paint.

- The area where the foundation frame is to


be grouted must not be painted.

B) Anchor bolts, sleeves, holes, pipes, etc. if not


noted otherwise:
Horizontal distance to reference line

The surface tensile strength of the concrete surface has to be minimum 1.5 N/mm2.

- The area between the grouting strips must


be painted before the DG-Set is brought into
its final position.

A) Concrete
General in Longitudinal direction

The concrete of the foundation plate has to be


poured without interruption. The pouring of the
concrete has to be in accordance with applicable
national and international standards.
(The highest level shall prevail) and has to be started immediately after pouring of the concrete.

- The grouting strips also have to be painted


after satisfactory hardening time.

3 mm

12V32/40

3 mm/m

18V32/40

Weight (ton)

Horizontal distance to reference line

Engine

56.0

82.0

Tilting of anchor bolts or pipes

Alternator

34.0

32.5

To avoid transmission of vibrations from the


GenSet to the building structure, a gap all around
the foundation plate (40 mm) has to be provided.

Flywheel + coupling

4.0

4.5

Foundation frame +
oil content

15.0

21.3

Other things

2.0

2.4

Dry weight +3%

~109.2

~142.7

Max. operating weight


+3%

~114.3

~147.0

For execution of the foundation plate the design


(formwork, reinforcement, etc.) of the responsible
civil engineer is binding.
Electrical grounding of the foundation plate has to
be in accordance with the engine manufacturers
instructions.

Table 2-40

Weights for a typical GenSet

Embedded parts are not supplied by engine manufacturer unless otherwise noted. Embedments to
be placed and checked according to the drawing.
They shall be secured safely against shifting.

Page 2 - 118

32/40, 32/40DF

0402-0102PBdf.fm

Prior to any formwork and concrete pouring it has


to be verified that all dimensions are in accordance
with the drawing issued for construction.

A-BD

======

Engine automation

Kapiteltitel 3 M2.fm

Page 3 - 1

Page 3 - 2

Kapiteltitel 3 M2.fm

Engine automation
3.1 SaCoSone system overview

3.1

Figure 3-1

SaCoSone system overview

SaCoSone system overview

0301-0000MB2.fm

Legend
1

Control Unit

Local Operating Panel

System Bus

Interface Cabinet

Remote Operating Panel (optional)

The monitoring and safety system SaCoSone


serves for complete engine operation, alarming
and control. All sensors and operating devices are
wired to the engine-attached units. The wire connection of the plant is done by means of an Interface Cabinet.

L-BA

During engine installation, only the bus connections and the power supply and safety related cables between the Control Unit and the
Interface/Auxiliary Cabinet are to be laid, as well as
connections to external modules and parts on
site.

32/40

Page 3 - 3

Engine automation
3.1 SaCoSone system overview

The SaCoSone design is based on high reliable and


approved components as well as modules specially designed for installation on medium speed
engines. The used components are harmonised to
an homogeneously system.
The system has already been tested and parameterised in the factory.
SaCoSone Control Unit
The Control Unit is attached to the engine cushioned against any vibration. It includes two identical, highly integrated Control Modules: One for
safety functions and the other one for engine control, speed control and alarming.

Local Operating Panel


The engine is equipped with a Local Operating
Panel cushioned against any vibration. This panel
is equipped with one or two TFT displays for visualisation of all engine's operating and measuring
data. At the Local Operating Panel, the engine can
be fully operated. Additional hardwired switches
are available for relevant functions.
Propulsion engines are equipped with a backup
display as shown on top of the local panel. Generator engines are not equipped with this backup
display.

The modules work independently of each other


and collect engine measuring data by means of
separate sensors.

Figure 3-3

SaCoSone Control Unit

0301-0000MB2.fm

Figure 3-2

Local Operating Panel

Page 3 - 4

32/40

L-BA

Engine automation
3.1 SaCoSone system overview

Interface Cabinet

Remote Operating Panel (optional)

The Interface Cabinet is the interface between the


engine electronics and the plant control. It is the
central connecting point for electric power supply
to the engine from the plant/vessels power distribution.

The Remote Operating Panel serves for engine


operation from a control room. The Remote Operating Panel has the same functionality as the Local
Operating Panel.

Besides, it connects the engine control system


with the power management, the propulsion control system and other periphery parts.

From this operating device it is possible to transfer


the engine operation functions to a superior automatic system ( control system, power management).

The supply of the SaCoSone subsystems is done


by the Interface Cabinet.

In plants with Integrated Automation Systems


(IAS), this panel can be replaced by IAS.

The Interface Cabinet also includes the starter for


the engine-attached cylinder lube oil pump, the
valve seat lube oil pump and the temperature control valves.

The panel can be delivered as loose supply for installation in the control room desk or integra-ted in
the front door of the Interface Cabinet.

Figure 3-5

Remote Operating Panel (optional)

VIT Cabinet

Interface Cabinet

0301-0000MB2.fm

Figure 3-4

The L32/40 is equipped with VIT (variable injection


timing) which reduces emissions during part load
operation. The VIT changes the point of injection
depending on load or fuel rack position. Injection
timing is adjusted by advancing or retarding the
point of injection by turning the injection shaft.

L-BA

32/40

Page 3 - 5

Engine automation
3.1 SaCoSone system overview

SaCoSone System Bus


The SaCoSone system bus connects all system
modules. This redundant field bus system provides the basis of data exchange between the
modules and allows the takeover of redundant
measuring values from other modules in case of a
sensor failure.

SaCoSone System Bus

0301-0000MB2.fm

Figure 3-6

SaCoSone is connected to the plant by the Gateway Module. This module is equipped with decentral input and output channels as well as with
different interfaces for connection to the plant/ship
automation, the Remote Operating Panel and the
online service.

Page 3 - 6

32/40

L-BA

Engine automation
3.2 Power supply and distribution

3.2

Power supply and distribution

The plant has to provide electric power for the automation and monitoring system. In general an uninterruptible 24 V DC power supply is required for
SaCoSone.
An uniterruptible power supply for the speed governor must also be provided. In case of electronic

For supply of the electronic fuel actuator


(EM80/EM300) an uninterruptible 230 V AC distribution must be provided.

Supply diagram for engines equipped with PGA-EG or PGG-EG

0302-0000MB2.fm

Figure 3-7

speed governor with mechanical backup (PGAEG or PGG-EG) an uninterruptible 24 V DC power


supply is required.

B-AJ

32/40

Page 3 - 7

Engine automation
3.2 Power supply and distribution

Figure 3-8

Supply diagram for engines equipped with EM80/EM300

Required power supplies


Voltage

Consumer

Notes

24 V DC

SaCoSone

All SaCoSone components in the Interface Cabinet and on the engine.

230 V 50/60 Hz

SaCoSone Interface Cabinet Temperature control valves, cabinet illumination, socket, anticondensation heater.

440 V 50/60 Hz

Consumers on engine

Required power supplies


0302-0000MB2.fm

Table 3-1

Power supply for consumers on engine (e. g. cylinder lubricator.

Page 3 - 8

32/40

B-AJ

Engine automation
3.3 Operation

3.3

Operation

Control Station Changeover


The operation and control can be done from both
operating panels. Selection and activation of the
control stations is possible at the Local Operating
Panel. The operating rights can be handed over
from the Remote Operating Panel to another Remote Operating Panel or to an external automatic
system. A handshake is therefore necessary. For
applications with Integrated Automation Systems
(IAS) also the functionality of the Remote Operating Panel can be taken over by an external control
system.

Figure 3-9

Control station changeover

0303-0000PA.fm

On the screen displays, all the measuring points


acquired by means of SaCoSone can be shown in
clearly arranged drawings and figures. It is not
necessary to install additional speed indicators
separately.

B-BD

32/40, 32/40DF, 32/40G, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

Page 3 - 9

Engine automation
3.3 Operation

Speed setting
In case of operating with one of the SaCoSone panels, the engine speed setting is carried out manually by a decrease/increase switch button. If the
operation is controlled by an external system, the
speed setting can be done either by means of binary contacts (e.g. for synchronisation) or by an
active 4 20 mA analogue signal alternatively. The
signal type for this is to be defined in the project
planning period.
Operating modes
For alternator applications:

Droop (5-percent speed increase between


nominal load and no load)

0303-0000PA.fm

Details regarding special operating modes on request.

Page 3 - 10

32/40, 32/40DF, 32/40G, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

B-BD

Engine automation
3.4 Functionality

3.4

Functionality

Safety functions

Emergency stop

The safety system monitors all operating data of


the engine and initiates the required actions, i. e.
load reduction or engine shutdown, in case any
limit values are exceeded. The safety system is
separated into Control Module and Gateway Module. The Control Module supervises the engine,
while the Gateway Module examines all functions
relevant for the security of the connected plant
components.

Emergency stop is an engine shutdown initiated


by an operators manual action, like pressing an
emergency stop button.

The system is designed to ensure that all functions


are achieved in accordance with the classification
societies' requirements for marine main engines.

Overspeed protection

The safety system directly influences the emergency shut-down and the speed control.
In addition to the provisions made to permit the internal initiation of demands, binary and analogue
channels have been provided for the initiation of
safety functions by external systems.

Load reduction
After the exceeding of certain parameters the classification societies demand a load reduction to
60%. The safety system supervises these parameters and requests a load reduction, if necessary.
The load reduction has to be carried out by an external system (IAS, PMS, PCS). For safety reasons, SaCoSone will not reduce the load by itself.

Auto shutdown

0304-0000MB2.fm

Auto shutdown is an engine shutdown initiated by


any automatic supervision of either engine internal
parameters or above mentioned external control
systems. If an engine shutdown is triggered by the
safety system, the emergency stop signal has an
immediate effect on the emergency shut-down
device, and the speed control. At the same time
the emergency stop is triggered, SaCoSone issues
a signal resulting in the alternator switch to be
opened.

G-BC

Engine shutdown
If an engine shutdown is triggered by the safety
system, the emergency stop signal has an immediate effect on the emergency shut-down device
and the speed control.
The engine speed is monitored in both Control
Modules independently. In case of overspeed
each Control Module actuates the shutdown device via a separate hardware channel.

Override
During operation, safety actions can be suppressed by the override function for the most parameters. The override has to be activated
preventively. The scope of parameters prepared
for override are different and depend to the chosen
classification society. The availability of the override function depends on the application.
Alarming
The alarm function of SaCoSone supervises all
necessary parameters and generates alarms to indicate discrepancies when required. The alarm
functions are likewise separated into Control Module and Gateway Module. In the Gateway Module
the supervision of the connected external systems
takes place. The alarm functions are processed in
an area completely independent of the safety system area in the Gateway Module.
Self-monitoring
SaCoSone carries out independent self-monitoring functions. Thus, for example, the connected
sensors are checked constantly for function and
wire break. In case of a fault, SaCoSone reports
the occurred malfunctions in single system components via system alarms.

32/40

Page 3 - 11

Engine automation
3.4 Functionality

Speed control
The engine speed control is realised by software
functions of the Control Module/Alarm and the Injection Modules. Engine speed and crankshaft
turn angle indication is carried out by means of redundant pick ups at the gear drive.

Load distribution Multi-engine and Master/Slave Plants


With electronic governors, the load distribution is
carried out by speed droop, isochronous by load
sharing lines or by Master/Slave Operation.

Load limit curves


Start fuel limiter
Charge-air pressure dependent fuel limiter
Torque limiter
Jump-rate limiter
Note!
In case of controllable pitch propeller (CPP)
units with combinator mode the combinator
curves must be sent to MAN Diesel & Turbo for
assessment in the design stage. If load control
systems of the CPP-supplier are used, the load
control curve is to be sent to MAN Diesel &
Turbo, in order to check whether it is below the
load limit curve of the engine.
Control
SaCoSone controls all engine-internal functions,
as well as external components, for example:

Start/stop sequences
Request of lube oil and cooling water pumps
Monitoring of the prelubrication and post-cooling period

Monitoring of the acceleration period


Control station switch-over

0304-0000MB2.fm

Switch-over from local operation in the engine


room to remote control from the engine control
room.

Page 3 - 12

32/40

G-BC

Engine automation
3.5 Interfaces

3.5

Interfaces

Data Bus Interface (Machinery alarm system)

Others

This interface serves for data exchange to ship


alarm systems, integrated automation systems
(IAS) or superior power plant operating systems.

In addition, interfaces to auxiliary systems are


available, such as to:

The interface is actuated with MODBUS protocol


and is available in one of the following types:

Serial

interface
(MODBUS
RTU)
RS422/RS485, Standard 5 wire with electrical
isolation (cable length <= 100 m)

Nozzle cooling module


HT preheating unit
Electric driven pumps for lube oil and
HT preheating

Clutches

Ethernet interface (MODBUS over TCP)

Gearbox

Only if the ethernet interface is used, the transfer


of data can be handled with timestamps from SaCoSone.

Propulsion control system

The status messages, alarms and safety actions,


which are generated in the system, can be transferred.
All measuring values acquired by SaCoSone are
available for transfer.
Alternator control
Hardwired interface, used for example of synchronisation, load indication, etc.

On request additional hard wired interfaces can be


provided for special applications.
Cables Scope of supply
The bus cables between engine and interface are
scope of the MAN Diesel & Turbo supply.
The control cables and power cables are not included in the scope of the MAN Diesel & Turbo
supply. This cabling has to be carried out by the
customer.

Power management
Hardwired interface, for remote start/stop, load
setting, etc.
control system

0305-0000MB2.fm

Standardised hardwired interface including all signals for control and safety actions between SaCoSone and the control system.

G-BC

32/40

Page 3 - 13

Engine automation

0305-0000MB2.fm

3.5 Interfaces

Page 3 - 14

32/40

G-BC

Engine automation
3.6 Technical data

3.6

Technical data

Interface Cabinet

VIT Cabinet

Design

Design

Floor-standing cabinet

Cabinet for bulkhead mounting

Cable entries from below through cabinet base

Accessible by front doors

Accessible by front doors

Doors with locks

Doors with locks

Opening angle: 90

Opening angle: 90

MAN Diesel & Turbo Standard colour light grey

MAN Diesel & Turbo Standard colour light grey


(RAL7035)

(RAL7035)

Weight: 15 kg

Weight: approx. 300 kg

Dimensions: 600 x 600 x 350 mm

Dimensions: 1200 x 2100 x 400 mm*

width x height x depth (including base)

* width x height x depth (including base)

Degree of protection: IP54

Degree of protection: IP54

Environmental Conditions

Environmental Conditions

Ambient air temperature: 0 C to +55 C

Ambient air temperature: 0 C to +55 C

Relative humidity: < 96 %

Relative humidity: < 96 %

Vibrations: < 0.7 g

Vibrations: < 0.7 g


Remote Operating Panel (optional)

Design
Panel for control desk installation with 3 m ca-

ble to terminal bar for installation inside control


desk

Front colour: white aluminium (RAL9006)


Weight: 15 kg
Dimensions: 370 x 480 x 150 mm
width x height x depth (including base)
Degree of protection: IP23
Environmental Conditions
Ambient air temperature: 0 C to +55 C
0306-0000MB2.fm

Relative humidity: < 96 %


Vibrations: < 0.7 g

C-AI

32/40

Page 3 - 15

Engine automation
3.6 Technical data

Electrical own consumption


Consumer

Supply system

Notes

Pn

Ub

(kVA)

(V)

(Hz)

SaCoSone

0.8

24

DC

+/

40 A

Power supply from ship battery distribution (two line


redundant power supply)

SaCoSone Interface
Cabinet

0.45

400 440

50/60

6A

Power supply for consumers


on engine

SaCoSone temperature
controllers

0.07*

230

50/60

10 A

Cabinet illumination, socket,


anticondensation heater
*temperature controller incl.
regulating valve drive, for
each temperature control
system

Fuse/
Starter
by yard

Electrical own consumption

0306-0000MB2.fm

Table 3-2

Phase

Page 3 - 16

32/40

C-AI

Engine automation
3.7 Installation requirements

3.7

Installation requirements

Location
The Interface Cabinet is designed for installation in
non-hazardous areas.
The maximum cable length between the engine
and the Interface Cabinet is 60 meters.
The cabinet must be installed at a location suitable
for service inspection.
Do not install the cabinet close to heat-generating
devices.
In case of installation at walls, the distance between cabinet and wall has to be at least 100 mm
in order to allow air convection.
Regarding the installation in engine rooms, the
cabinet should be supplied with fresh air by the
engine room ventilation through a dedicated ventilation air pipe near the engine.
Note!
If the restrictions for ambient temperature can
not be kept, the cabinet must be ordered with
an optional air condition system.
Ambient air conditions
For restrictions of ambient conditions, please refer
to the "Section 3.6: Technical data, page 3-15".
Cabling

0307-0000MB2.fm

The interconnection cables between the engine


and the Interface Cabinet have to be installed according to the rules of electromagnetic compatibility. Control cables and power cables have to be
routed in separate cable ducts.
The cables for the connection of sensors and actuators which are not mounted on the engine are
not included in the scope of MAN Diesel & Turbo
supply. Shielded cables must be used for the cabling of sensors. For electrical noise protection, an
electric ground connection must be made from
the cabinet to the hull of the ship.

C-AI

All cabling between the Interface Cabinet and the


controlled device is scope of yard supply.
The cabinets is equipped with spring loaded terminal clamps. All wiring to external systems should
be carried out without conductor sleeves.
The redundant CAN cables are MAN Diesel &
Turbo scope of supply. If the customer provides
these cables, the cable must have a characteristic
impedance of 120 ..
Connection

max. cable
length

Cables between engine and Interface Cabinet

60 m

MODBUS cable between Interface


Cabinet and ship alarm system

100 m

Cable between Interface Cabinet


and Remote Operating Panel

100 m

Table 3-3

Maximum cable length

Installation Works
During the installation period the yard has to protect the cabinet against water, dust and fire. It is
not allowed to do any welding near the cabinets.
The cabinets have to be fixed to the floor by
screws.
If it is inevitable to do welding near the cabinet, the
cabinet and panels have to be protected against
heat, electric current and electromagnetic influences. To guarantee protection against current, all
of the cabling must be disconnected from the affected components.
The installation of additional components inside
the cabinets is only allowed after approval by the
responsible project manager of MAN Diesel &
Turbo only.

32/40

Page 3 - 17

Engine automation

0307-0000MB2.fm

3.7 Installation requirements

Page 3 - 18

32/40

C-AI

======

Specification for engine supplies

Kapiteltitel 4 AA.fm

Page 4 - 1

Page 4 - 2

Kapiteltitel 4 AA.fm

p~===
4.1.1 Lubricating oil

4.1

Explanatory notes for operating supplies Diesel engines

Temperatures and pressures stated in "Section:


Planning data" must be considered.

4.1.1

Lubricating oil

Main fuel

Lube oil type

Viscosity
class

Doped (HD) + additives

SAE 40

12 mg KOH/g

MGO (class DMA or MDZ)

12

20 mg KOH/g

MDO (ISO-F-DMB)

12

20 mg KOH/g

30

40 mg KOH/g

Gas (+MDO/MGO for ignition


only)

HFO
Table 4-1

Medium-alkaline + additives

Depends on
sulphur content

Main fuel/lube oil type

Selection of the lubricating oil must be in accordance with the relevant sections.

Engine operation MGO (DMA, DMZ) according to ISO


8217-2010, viscosity 2 cst at 40 C

The lubricating oil must always match the worst


fuel oil quality.

A) Short-term operation, max. 72 hours

A base number (BN) that is too low is critical due


to the risk of corrosion.
A base number that is too high , could lead to deposits/sedimentation.

4.1.2

Fuel

The engine is designed for operation with HFO,


MDO (DMB) and MGO (DMA, DMZ) according to
ISO8217-2010 of the qualities quoted in the relevant sections.
Additional requirements for HFO before engine:

Water content before engine: max. 0.2 %


Al + Si content before engine: max 15 mg/kg
0203-0000AA2.fm

Base No. (BN)

The following notes concerning this must always be observed:

B-BD

Engines that are normally operated with heavy fuel, can also be operated with MGO (DMA, DMZ)
for short periods.
Boundary conditions:

Fuel in accordance with MGO (DMA, DMZ) and


a viscosity of 2 cSt at 40 C

MGO-operation maximum 72 hours within a

two week period (cumulative with distribution


as required)

Fuel oil cooler switched on and fuel oil temper-

ature before engine 45 C. In general the minimum viscosity before engine of 1.9 cSt must
not be undershoot!

B) Long-term (> 72h) or continuous operation


For long-term (> 72h) or continuous operation with
MGO (DMA, DMZ), viscosity 2 cst at 40 C, special engine- and plant-related planning prerequisites must be set and special actions are
necessary during operation.

Page 4 - 3

p~===
4.1.3 Engine cooling water

Following features are required on engine side:

Inlet valve lubrication with possibility to be


turned off and on manually

In case of conventional injection system, injection pumps with sealing oil system, which can
be activated and cut off manually, are necessary

Following features are required on plant side:

Layout of fuel system to be adapted for low-viscosity fuel (capacity and design of fuel supply
and booster pump)

Cooler layout in fuel system for a fuel oil tem-

perature before engine of 45 C (min. permissible viscosity before engine 1.9 cSt)

Nozzle cooling system with possibility to be


turned off and on during engine operation

Boundary conditions for operation:

Fuel in accordance with MGO (DMA, DMZ) and


a viscosity of 2 cSt at 40 C

Fuel oil cooler activated and fuel oil temperature

before engine 45 C. In general the minimum


viscosity before engine of 1.9 cSt must not be
undershoot!

Inlet valve lubrication turned on


In case of conventional injection system, sealing oil of injection pumps activated

Nozzle cooling system switched off


Continuous operation with MGO (DMA, DMZ):

Lube oil for diesel operation (BN10-BN16) has


to be used

Operation with heavy fuel oil of a low sulphur content


of < 1.5 %
Previous experience with stationary engines using
heavy fuel of a sulphur content of < 1 % or even
0.2 % does not show any restriction in the utilisation of these fuels, provided that the combustion
properties are not affected negatively.

If it is intended to run continuously with low sulphur-containing heavy fuel, lube oil with a low BN
(BN30) has to be used. This is needed, in spite of
experiences that engines have been proven to be
very robust regarding to the continuous usage of
the standard lubrication oil (BN40) for this purpose.
Instruction for minimum admissible fuel temperature

In general the minimum viscosity before engine


of 1.9 cSt must not be undershoot

The fuel specific characteristic values pour

point and cold filter plugging point have to be


observed to ensure pumpability respectively filterability of the fuel oil

Fuel temperatures of approximately minus

10 C and less have to be avoided, due to temporarily embrittlement of seals used in the engines fuel oil system and as a result their
possibly loss of function

4.1.3

Engine cooling water

The quality of the engine cooling water required in


relevant section has to be ensured.
Nozzle cooling system activation
Kind of fuel

activated

MGO (DMA, DMZ)

no, see "Paragraph: Fuel,

page 4-3"

MDO (DMB)

no

HFO

yes

Table 4-2

4.1.4

Nozzle cooling system activation

Intake air

The quality of the intake air as stated in the relevant sections has to be ensured.

Page 4 - 4

0203-0000AA2.fm

This may well change if in the future new methods


are developed to produce low sulphur-containing
heavy fuels.

B-BD

p~===
4.2.1 Operation with biofuel

4.2

Explanatory notes for biofuel

4.2.1

Operation with biofuel

Contact MAN Diesel & Turbo at an early stage of


project.

4.2.2

Requirements on plant side


Therefore the standard layout of fuel oil system for
HFO-operation has to be modified concerning following aspects:

Biofuel has to be divided into 3 categories:


Category 1 transesterified biofuel
For example:
Biodiesel (FAME)
Esterified biofuel is comparable to MDO (ISO-FDMB/ISO-F-DMC), therefore standard layout of
fuel oil system for MDO-operation to be used.
Category 2 not transesterified biofuel and pour point
below 20 C
J s~=

J p====~==~=~
~=~==~=K

J o~J=
Not transesterified biofuel with pour point below
20 C is comparable to HFO (ISO-F-RM), therefore standard layout of fuel oil system for HFO-operation to be used.
Category 3 not transesterified biofuel and pour point
above 20 C
For example:
J m~=
J p~
J ^~=~
J c=~

1001-0109MP.fm

J ebJMOR===~===J
=~=Z[===K
f= = = ~= ~= ~=
======J
~====K
J i~=====~=~=
===K

For example:

Caution:
Not transesterified biofuel with a pour point above
20 C carries a risk of flocculation and may clog up
pipes and filters unless special precautions are taken.

A-BA

J f= ~= = ~= = = = =
= = = = = =
====K

J q=====
~= = = MKMNM= = ~= =
=~==MKMPQ=K
Additionally:
J c=====~==~
E= = = ~~= ~= ~=
FK
J ^====~====
~=N==OK=
a=========J
= ~= = = = = = ~
=======~=N
=O=~==~=====~J
===~=~=====
==K

32/40, 48/60B

Page 4 - 5

p~===
4.2.3 Requirements on engine

4.2.3

Requirements on engine

f===~=~=~=
~==K

c= = ~= ~= = = =
==~==~=E==
~===~=NI===~J
=O======~J
~I===~=P=~==
=~~FK

f=~=~K
k====~====~J
=O=~=PK

`~=~=~===RR `
===~K
Please be aware

a= = = ~= = = I=
~==~==~====~
=~=E===~==~==
~= = ~= = J
FK

^=~=======J
~W
O Lt=~=====E
===FK

b= ~= = = = = ~
===~==W
b==POLQMI=~==
RMMtL`K=~==J=
QJ==E=QULSM_FW
J i`s

PU=jgL=m==M=B

J i`s

PS=jgL=m==R=B

J i`s

PR=jgL=m==NM=B=

J i`s

PT=jgL=m==M=B

J i`s

PS=jgL=m==OIR=B

J i`s

PR=jgL=m==R=B

Page 4 - 6

32/40, 48/60B

1001-0109MP.fm

b==QULSM_I=~=
NMRM tL`KW

A-BA

Specification for engine supplies


4.3 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with MGO/MDO and biofuels (stationary)

4.3

Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40)


for operation with MGO/MDO and biofuels (stationary)

General
The specific output achieved by modern diesel engines combined with the use of fuels that satisfy
the quality requirements more and more frequently
increase the demands on the performance of the
lubricating oil which must therefore be carefully selected.
Doped lubricating oils (HD oils) have a proven
track record as lubricants for the drive, cylinder,
turbocharger, and for cooling the piston. Doped
lubricating oils contain additives that among other
things ensure dirt absorption capability, engine
cleaning, and neutralisation of acidic combustion
products.
To fulfil strict requirements for lubricating oil in stationary operation, MAN Diesel & Turbo offers a lubricating oil based on selected additive
Properties/characteristics
Make-up
Low-temperature behaviour, still
flowable

Insoluble n-heptane

Table 4-3

The base oil (doped lubricating oil = base oil + additives) must have a narrow distillation range and
be refined using modern methods. If it contains
paraffins, they must not impair the thermal stability
or oxidation stability.
The base oil must comply with the following limit
values, particularly in terms of its resistance to
ageing.

Ideally paraffin based

ASTM D 2500

15

ASTM D 92

> 200

ASTM D 482

< 0.02

ASTM D 189

< 0.50

MAN ageing oven1)

Weight %

ASTM D 4055
or DIN 51592

Weight %

MAN Diesel &


Turbo test

<

0.2

<

Precipitation of resins or asphalt-like ageing products must not be identifiable.

Base oils Target values

Works' own method.

0401-0000PA2.fm

1)

Base oil

Limit value

Evaporation loss
Spot test (filter paper)

Specifications

Test method

Coke residue (according to Conradson)


Ageing tendency following 100
hours of heating up to 135 C

Only lubricating oils approved by MAN Diesel &


Turbo may be used.

Unit

Flash point (Cleveland)


Ash content (oxide ash)

techniques, which guarantees an optimum performance also under the most adverse conditions:
PrimeServ Lube

B-BD

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

Page 4 - 7

Specification for engine supplies


4.3 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with MGO/MDO and biofuels (stationary)

Compounded lubricating oils (HD oils)

Additional requirements

The base oil to which the additives have been added (doped lubricating oil) must have the following
properties:

The lubricating oil must not contain viscosity index


improver. Fresh oil must not contain water or other
contaminants.

Additives

Lubricating oil selection

The ash must be soft. If this prerequisite is not


met, it is likely the rate of deposition in the combustion chamber will be higher, particularly at the
outlet valves and at the turbocharger inlet housing.
Hard additive ash promotes pitting of the valve
seats, and causes valve burn-out, it also increases
mechanical wear of the cylinder liners.
Additives must not increase the rate, at which the
filter elements in the active or used condition are
blocked.
Washing ability
The washing ability must be high enough to prevent the accumulation of tar and coke residue as
a result of fuel combustion.
Dispersion capability
The selected dispersibility must be such that commercially-available lubricating oil cleaning systems
can remove harmful contaminants from the oil
used, i.e. the oil must possess good filtering properties and separability.
Neutralisation capability
The neutralisation capability (ASTM D2896) must
be high enough to neutralise the acidic products
produced during combustion. The reaction time of
the additive must be harmonised with the process
in the combustion chamber.
Evaporation tendency
The evaporation tendency must be as low as possible as otherwise the oil consumption will be adversely affected.

Page 4 - 8

Engine

SAE class

16/24, 21/31, 27/38, 28/32S, 32/40,

40

32/44, 40/54, 48/60, 58/64, 51/60DF


Table 4-4

Viscosity (SAE class) of lubricating oils

Doped oil quality


We recommend doped lubricating oils (HD oils)
according to international specifications MIL-L
2104 or API-CD with a base number of BN
10 16 mg KOH/g. Military specification O-278
lubricating oils can be used.
The operating conditions of the engine and the
quality of the fuel determine the additive fractions
the lubricating oil should contain. If marine diesel
oil is used, which has a high sulphur content of 1.5
up to 2.0 weight %, a base number of appr. 20
should be selected. However, the operating results that ensure the most efficient engine operation ultimately determine the additive content.

Cylinder lubricating oil


In engines with separate cylinder lubrication systems, the pistons and cylinder liners are supplied
with lubricating oil via a separate lubricating oil
pump. The quantity of lubricating oil is set at the
factory according to the quality of the fuel to be
used and the anticipated operating conditions.
Use a lubricating oil for the cylinder and lubricating
circuit as specified above.

Speed governor
Multigrade oil 5W40 should ideally be used in mechanical-hydraulic controllers with a separate oil
sump. If this oil is not available when filling, 15W40
oil can be used instead in exceptional cases. In
this case, it makes no difference whether synthetic
or mineral-based oils are used.

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

B-BD

0401-0000PA2.fm

The additives must be dissolved in the oil, and


their composition must ensure that as little ash as
possible remains after combustion.

Specification for engine supplies


4.3 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with MGO/MDO and biofuels (stationary)

The military specification for these oils is O-236.


Experience with the drive engine L27/38 has
shown that the operating temperature of the
Woodward controller UG10MAS and corresponding actuator for UG723+ can reach temperatures
higher than 93 C. In these cases, we recommend
using synthetic oil such as Castrol Alphasyn
HG150. Engines supplied after March 2005 are already filled with this oil.

Lubricating oil additives


The use of other additives with the lubricating oil,
or the mixing of different brands (oils by different
manufacturers), is not permitted as this may impair
the performance of the existing additives which
have been carefully harmonised with each another, and also specially tailored to the base oil.

Temporary operation with gas oil


Due to current and future emission regulations,
heavy fuel oil cannot be used in designated regions. Low-sulphur diesel fuel must be used in
these regions instead.
If the engine is operated with low-sulphur diesel
fuel for less than 1000 h, a lubricating oil which is
suitable for HFO operation (BN 30 55 mg
KOH/g) can be used during this period.

As an alternative to the PrimeServLube, lubricating


oils from other manufacturers may also be used,
provided that they are approved by MAN Diesel &
Turbo for this particular application.

If the engine is operated provisionally with low-sulphur diesel fuel for more than 1000 h and is subsequently operated once again with HFO, a
lubricating oil with a BN of 20 must be used. If the
BN 20 lubricating oil from the same manufacturer
as the lubricating oil is used for HFO operation with
higher BN (40 or 50), an oil change will not be required when effecting the changeover. It will be
sufficient to use BN 20 oil when replenishing the
used lubricating oil.

Most mineral oil companies are in close regular


contact with engine manufacturers, and can
therefore provide information on which oil in their
specific product range has been approved by the
engine manufacturer for the particular application.
Irrespective of the above, the lubricating oil manufacturers are in any case responsible for the quality
and characteristics of their products. If you have
any questions, we will be happy to provide you
with further information.

If you wish to operate the engine with HFO once


again, it will be necessary to change over in good
time to lubricating oil with a higher BN (30 55). If
the lubricating oil with higher BN is by the same
manufacturer as the BN 20 lubricating oil, the
changeover can also be effected without an oil
change. In doing so, the lubricating oil with higher
BN (30 55) must be used to replenish the used
lubricating oil roughly 2 weeks prior to resuming
HFO operation.

Selection of lubricating oils/warranty

The list of the currently approved lubricating oils is


available under "www.mandieselturbo.com/documentation/lubrication" (Table LO Diesel).
Oil during operation

0401-0000PA2.fm

cleaned using suitable equipment (e. g. a separator or filter).

There are no prescribed oil change intervals for


MAN Diesel & Turbo medium speed engines. The
oil properties must be regularly analysed. The oil
can be used for as long as the oil properties remain within the defined limit values (see "Table 4-5:
Limit values for used lubricating oil"). An oil sample
must be analysed every 1 3 months (see maintenance schedule). An oil sample must be analysed
every 1 3 months (see maintenance schedule).
The quality of the oil can only be maintained if it is

B-BD

Tests
We can analyse lubricating oil for customers at our
laboratory. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.
Note!
Improper handling of operating fluids
If operating fluids are improperly handled, this
can pose a danger to health, safety and the environment. The relevant safety information by
the supplier of operating fluids must be observed.

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

Page 4 - 9

Specification for engine supplies


4.3 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with MGO/MDO and biofuels (stationary)

Limit value
Viscosity at 40 C

110

220 mm2/s

Procedure
ISO 3104 or ASTM D445

Base number (BN)

min. 50 % of fresh oil

ISO 3771

Flash Point (PM)

at least 185 C

ISO 2719

Water content

max. 0.2 % (max. 0.5 % for a brief periods)

ISO 3733 or ASTM D 1744

n-heptane insoluble

max. 1.5 %

DIN 51592 or IP 316

Metal content

depends on engine type and operating conditions

Guide value only

Fe

max. 50 ppm

Cr

max. 10 ppm

Cu

max. 15 ppm

Pb

max. 20 ppm

Sn

max. 10 ppm

Al

max. 20 ppm

When operating with


biofuels:

max. 12 %

FT-IR

biofuel fraction
Limit values for used lubricating oil

0401-0000PA2.fm

Table 4-5

Page 4 - 10

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

B-BD

p~===
4.4 Lubricating oil (SAE 40) Specification for heavy fuel operation (HFO) (stationary)

4.4

Lubricating oil (SAE 40) Specification for heavy fuel operation


(HFO) (stationary)

General
The specific output achieved by modern diesel engines combined with the use of fuels that satisfy
the quality requirements more and more frequently
increase the demands on the performance of the
lubricating oil which must therefore be carefully selected.
Medium alkalinity lubricating oils have a proven
track record as lubricants for the moving parts and
turbocharger cylinder and for cooling the pistons.
Lubricating oils of medium alkalinity contain additives that, in addition to other properties, ensure a
higher neutralization reserve than with fully compounded engine oils (HD oils).
International specifications do not exist for medium alkalinity lubricating oils. A test operation is
therefore necessary for a corresponding long period in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Properties/characteristics
Make-up
Low-temperature behaviour, still flowable

Coke residue (according to Conradson)


Ageing tendency following 100 hours of
heating up to 135 C
Insoluble n-heptane

0401-0000Phfo2.fm

Table 4-6
1)

Specifications

Base oil
The base oil (doped lubricating oil = base oil + additives) must have a narrow distillation range and
be refined using modern methods. If it contains
paraffins, they must not impair the thermal stability
or oxidation stability.
The base oil must comply with the limit values (see
"Table 4-6: Base oils Target values"), particularly in
terms of its resistance to ageing.

Test method

Limit value

Ideally paraffin based

ASTM D 2500

15

ASTM D 92

> 200

ASTM D 482

< 0.02

ASTM D 189

< 0.50

MAN ageing
oven1)

Weight
%

ASTM D 4055
or
DIN 51592

< 0.2

<2

MAN Diesel &


Turbo test

Precipitation of resins or asphalt-like ageing products must not be identifiable.

Weight
%

Evaporation loss
Spot test (filter paper)

Only lubricating oils approved by MAN Diesel &


Turbo may be used.

Unit

Flash point (Cleveland)


Ash content (oxidised ash)

To fulfil strict requirements for lubricating oil in stationary operation, MAN Diesel & Turbo offers a lubricating oil based on selected additive
techniques, which guarantees an optimum performance also under the most adverse conditions:
PrimeServ Lube.

Base oils Target values

Works' own method.

E-BC

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

Page 4 - 11

p~===
4.4 Lubricating oil (SAE 40) Specification for heavy fuel operation (HFO) (stationary)

Medium alkalinity lubricating oil

Evaporation tendency

The prepared oil (base oil with additives) must


have the following properties:

The evaporation tendency must be as low as possible as otherwise the oil consumption will be adversely affected.

Additives
The additives must be dissolved in the oil and their
composition must ensure that as little ash as possible is left over, even if the engine is provisionally
operated with distillate oil.
The ash must be soft. If this prerequisite is not
met, it is likely the rate of deposition in the combustion chamber will be higher, particularly at the
exhaust valves and at the turbocharger inlet casing. Hard additive ash promotes pitting of the valve
seats and causes the valves to burn out, it also increases mechanical wear of the cylinder liners.
Additives must not increase the rate at which the
filter elements in the active or used condition are
blocked.
Washing ability
The washing ability must be high enough to prevent the accumulation of tar and coke residue as
a result of fuel combustion. The lubricating oil must
not absorb the deposits produced by the fuel.
Dispersion capability
The selected dispersibility must be such that commercially-available lubricating oil cleaning systems
can remove harmful contaminants from the oil
used, i. e. the oil must possess good filtering properties and separability.

Additional requirements
The lubricating oil must not contain viscosity index
improver. Fresh oil must not contain water or other
contaminants.
Lube oil selection
Engine

SAE
class

16/24, 21/31, 27/38, 28/32S, 32/40,

40

32/44, 40/54, 48/60, 58/64, 51/60DF


Table 4-7

Viscosity (SAE class) of lubricating oils

Neutralisation properties (BN)


Lubricating oils with medium alkalinity and a range
of neutralisation capabilities (BN) are available on
the market. According to current knowledge, a relationship can be established between the anticipated operating conditions and the BN number
(see "Table 4-8: Base number to be used for various operating conditions"). However, the operating results
are still the overriding factor in determining which
BN number produces the most efficient engine
operation.

Neutralisation capability
The neutralisation capability (ASTM D2896) must
be high enough to neutralise the acidic products
produced during combustion. The reaction time of
the additive must be harmonised with the process
in the combustion chamber.

Page 4 - 12

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

0401-0000Phfo2.fm

For tips on selecting the base number see "Table


4-8: Base number to be used for various operating conditions".

E-BC

p~===
4.4 Lubricating oil (SAE 40) Specification for heavy fuel operation (HFO) (stationary)

Approx. BN of fresh
oil (mg KOH/g oil)

Engines/operating conditions

20

Marine diesel oil (MDO) with a lower quality and high sulphur content or heavy fuel oil with a sulphur
content of less than 0.5 %.

30

Generally 23/30H and 28/32H. 23/30A, 28/32A and 28/32S under normal operating conditions.
For engines 16/24, 21/31, 27/38, 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60 as well as 58/64 and 51/60DF
with exclusive HFO operation only with sulphur content < 1.5 %.

40

With unfavourable operating conditions 23/30A, 28/32A and 28/32S and also where corresponding requirements in relation to the oil service life and washing ability exist.
In general 16/24, 21/31, 27/38, 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60 as well as 58/64 and 51/60DF with
exclusive HFO operation providing the sulphur content is greater than 1.5 %.

50
Table 4-8

32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60 and 58/64, if the oil service life or engine cleanliness is insufficient
with a BN number of 40 (high sulphur content of fuel, extremely low lubricating oil consumption).
Base number to be used for various operating conditions

Operation with low-sulphur fuel


To comply with the emissions regulations, the sulphur content of fuels used nowadays varies. Fuels
with a low-sulphur content must be used in environmentally-sensitive areas (SECA). Fuels with a
high sulphur content may be used outside SECA
zones. In this case, the BN number of the lubricating oil selected must satisfy the requirements for
operation using fuel with a high-sulphur content. A
lubricating oil with low BN number may only be selected if fuel with a low-sulphur content is used exclusively during operation. However, the results
obtained in practise that demonstrate the most efficient engine operation are the factor that ultimately decides which additive fraction is
permitted.

Cylinder lubricating oil


In engines with separate cylinder lubrication, the
pistons and cylinder liners are supplied with lubricating oil via a separate lubricating oil pump. The
quantity of lubricating oil is set at the factory according to the quality of the fuel to be used and the
anticipated operating conditions. Use a lubricating
oil for the cylinder and lubricating circuit as specified above.

0401-0000Phfo2.fm

Speed governor
Multigrade oil 5W40 should ideally be used in mechanical-hydraulic controllers with a separate oil
sump, unless the technical documentation for the
speed governor specifies otherwise. If this oil is not

E-BC

available when filling, 15W40 oil may be used instead in exceptional cases. In this case, it makes
no difference whether synthetic or mineral-based
oils are used. The military specification for these
oils is O-236. Experience with the drive engine
L27/38 has shown that the operating temperature
of the Woodward controller UG10MAS and corresponding actuator for UG723 + can reach temperatures higher than 93 C. In these cases, we
recommend using synthetic oil such as Castrol Alphasyn HG150. The engines supplied after March
2005 are already filled with this oil.

Lubricating oil additives


The use of other additives with the lubricating oil,
or the mixing of different brands (oils by different
manufacturers), is not permitted as this may impair
the performance of the existing additives which
have been carefully harmonised with each another
and also specifically tailored to the base oil.

Selection of lubricating oils/warranty


As an alternative to the PrimeServLube, lubricating
oils from other manufacturers may also be used,
provided that they are approved by MAN Diesel &
Turbo for this particular application.
Most mineral oil companies are in close regular
contact with engine manufacturers, and can
therefore provide information on which oil in their
specific product range has been approved by the
engine manufacturer for the particular application.
Irrespective of the above, the lubricating oil manu-

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

Page 4 - 13

p~===
4.4 Lubricating oil (SAE 40) Specification for heavy fuel operation (HFO) (stationary)

facturers are in any case responsible for the quality


and characteristics of their products. If you have
any questions, we will be happy to provide you
with further information.

If the engine is operated with low-sulphur diesel


fuel for less than 1,000 h, a lubricating oil which is
suitable for HFO operation (BN 30 55 mg
KOH/g) can be used during this period.

The list of the currently approved lubricating oils is


available under "www.mandieselturbo.com/documentation/lubrication" (Table LO HFO).

If the engine is operated provisionally with low-sulphur diesel fuel for more than 1,000 h and is subsequently operated once again with HFO, a
lubricating oil with a BN of 20 must be used. If the
BN 20 lubricating oil by the same manufacturer as
the lubricating oil used for HFO operation with
higher BN (40 or 50), an oil change will not be required when effecting the changeover. It will be
sufficient to use BN 20 oil when replenishing the
used lubricating oil.

Oil during operation


There are no prescribed oil change intervals for
MAN Diesel & Turbo medium speed engines. The
oil properties must be regularly analysed. The oil
can be used for as long as the oil properties remain within the defined limit values (see "Table 4-9:
Limit values for used lubricating oil"). An oil sample
must be analysed every 1 3 months (see maintenance schedule). The quality of the oil can only be
maintained if it is cleaned using suitable equipment (e.g. a separator or filter).

Temporary operation with gas oil


Due to current and future emission regulations,
heavy fuel oil cannot be used in designated regions. Low-sulphur diesel fuel must be used in
these regions instead.

If you wish to operate the engine with HFO once


again, it will be necessary to change over in good
time to a lubricating oil with a higher BN (30 55).
If the lubricating oil with higher BN is by the same
manufacturer as the BN 20 lubricating oil, the
changeover can also be effected without an oil
change. In doing so, the lubricating oil with higher
BN (30 55) must be used to replenish the used
lubricating oil roughly 2 weeks prior to resuming
HFO operation.

Limit value
Viscosity at 40 C
Base number (BN)
Flash point (PM)
Water content

110

Guide value only


Fe
Cr
Cu
Pb
Sn
Al

ISO 3771

at least 185 C

ISO 2719

max. 0.2 % (max. 0.5 % for brief periods)

ISO 3733 or ASTM D 1744

max. 1.5 %

DIN 51592 or IP 316

Depends on engine type and operating conditions

max. 50 ppm
max. 10 ppm
max. 15 ppm
max. 20 ppm
max. 10 ppm
max. 20 ppm

Limit values for used lubricating oil


0401-0000Phfo2.fm

Table 4-9

ISO 3104 or ASTM D 445

at least 50 % of fresh oil

n-heptane insoluble
Metal content

220 mm2/s

Procedure

Tests
We can analyse heavy fuel oil for customers at our
laboratory. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.

Page 4 - 14

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

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p~===
4.5 Specification for gas oil/diesel oil (MGO)

4.5

Specification for gas oil/diesel oil (MGO)

Diesel oil

Other designations
Gas oil, marine gas oil (MGO), diesel oil
Gas oil is a crude oil medium distillate and must
therefore not contain any residual materials.
Military specification
Diesel oils that satisfy specification F-75 or F-76
may be used.
Specification
The suitability of the fuel depends on whether it
has the properties defined in this specification
(based on its composition in the as-delivered
state).
The DIN EN 590 and ISO 8217-2010 (Class DMA
or Class DMZ) and standards have been extensively used as the basis when defining these properties. The properties correspond to the test
procedures stated.
Properties

Unit

Density at 15 C
Kinematic viscosity at 40 C
Filterability1)
in summer and
in winter

Test procedure

Typical value

kg/m

ISO 3675

820.0
890.0

mm2/s (cSt)

ISO 3104

2
6.0

DIN EN 116

0
12

Flash point in closed cup

60

Sediment content (extraction method)

weight %

ISO 3735

0.01

Water content

volume %

ISO 3733

0.05

Sulphur content

weight %

ISO 8754

1.5

ISO 6245

0.01

ISO CD 10370

0.10

IP 570

<2

Ash
Coke residue (MCR)
0409-0000AA2.fm

ISO 2719

Hydrogen sulphide
Table 4-10

E-BB

mg/kg

Diesel fuel (MGO) Properties that must be complied with (1 of 2)

Page 4 - 15

p~===
4.5 Specification for gas oil/diesel oil (MGO)

Properties

Unit

Test procedure

Typical value

Total acid number

mg KOH/g

ASTM D664

< 0.5

Oxidation stability

g/m3

ISO 12205

< 25

ISO 12156-1

< 520

Cetane number or cetane index

ISO 5165

40

Copper strip test

ISO 2160

British Standard BS MA 100-1987

M1

ASTM D 975

1D/2D

Lubricity
(wear scar diameter)

Other specifications:

Table 4-10

Diesel fuel (MGO) Properties that must be complied with (2 of 2)

1) The

process for determining the filterability in accordance with DIN EN 116 is similar to the process for determining the cloud
point in accordance with ISO 3015.

Additional information

Use of diesel oil


If distillate intended for use as heating oil is used
with stationary engines instead of diesel oil (EL
heating oil according to DIN 51603 or Fuel no. 1 or
no. 2 according to ASTM D 396), the ignition behaviour, stability and behaviour at low temperatures must be ensured; in other words the
requirements for the filterability and cetane
number must be satisfied.

Viscosity
To ensure sufficient lubrication, a minimum viscosity must be ensured at the fuel delivery pump. The
maximum temperature required to ensure that a
viscosity of more than 1.9 mm2/s is maintained
upstream of the fuel delivery pump depends on
the viscosity of the fuel. In any case the temperature of the fuel upstream of the injection pump
must not exceed 45 C.

their lubricity is sufficient. This is the case if the lubricity as specified in ISO 12156-1 does not exceed 520 m.
You can ensure that these conditions will be met
by using motor vehicle diesel fuel in accordance
with EN 590 as this characteristic value is an integral part of the specification.
Improper handling of fuels
If fuels are improperly handled, this can pose a
danger to health, safety and the environment. The
relevant safety information by the fuel supplier
must be observed.
Analyses
We can analyse fuel for customers at our laboratory. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.

Lubricity

Page 4 - 16

0409-0000AA2.fm

The lubricity of diesel fuel is normally sufficient. The


desulphurisation of diesel fuels can reduce their lubricity. If the sulphur content is extremely low
(< 500 ppm or 0.05 %), the lubricity may no longer
be sufficient. Before using diesel fuels with low sulphur content, you should therefore ensure that

E-BB

p~===
4.6 Specification for biofuel

4.6

Specification for biofuel

Biofuel

Other designations
Biodiesel, FAME, vegetable oil, rapeseed oil, palm
oil, frying fat

Origin
Biofuel is derived from oil plants or old cooking oil.
Provision
Transesterified and non-transesterified vegetable
oils can be used.
Transesterified biofuels (biodiesel, FAME) must
comply with the standard EN 14214.

Non-transesterificated biofuels must comply with


the specifications listed in "Table 4-11: Non-transesterified biofuel Specifications".
These specifications are based on experience to
date. As this experience is limited, these must be
regarded as recommended specifications that can
be adapted if necessary. If future experience
shows that these specifications are too strict, or
not strict enough, they can be modified accordingly to ensure safe and reliable operation.
When operating with biofuels, a lubricating oil that
would also be suitable for operation with diesel oil
(see "Section: Specification of engine supplies

Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with


marine gas oil, diesel oil (MGO/MDO) and biofuels" ) must
be used.

Unit

Test method

900 930 kg/m3

DIN EN ISO 3675, EN ISO 12185

> 60 C

DIN EN 22719

Properties/Characteristics
Density at 15 C
Flash point
Lower calorific value

> 35 MJ/kg (typical: 37 MJ/kg)

DIN 51900-3

Viscosity/50 C

< 40 cSt (corresponds to


viscosity)/40 C < 60 cSt

DIN EN ISO 3104

Cetane number

> 40

FIA

< 0.4 %

DIN EN ISO 10370

< 200 ppm

DIN EN 12662

>5h

ISO 6886

Phosphorous content

< 15 ppm

ASTM D 3231

Na and K content

< 15 ppm

DIN 51797-3

Ash content

< 0.01 %

DIN EN ISO 6245

Water content

< 0.5 %

EN ISO 12537

Iodine number

< 125 g/100 g

DIN EN 14111

TAN (total acid number)

< 5 mg KOH/g

DIN EN ISO 660

< 10 C below the lowest temperature in the fuel system

EN 116

Coke residue
Sediment content
Oxidation stability (110 C)

Filtrability

Non-transesterified biofuel Specifications

0414-0000AA2.fm

Table 4-11

D-BD

Page 4 - 17

p~===
4.6 Specification for biofuel

Improper handling of fuels


If fuels are improperly handled, this can pose a
danger to health, safety and the environment. The
relevant safety information by the fuel supplier
must be observed.
Analyses

0414-0000AA2.fm

We can analyse fuel for customers at our laboratory. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.

Page 4 - 18

D-BD

p~===
4.7 Specification for diesel oil (MDO)

4.7

Specification for diesel oil (MDO)

Marine diesel oil

Specification

Other designations

The suitability of fuel depends on the design of the


engine and the available cleaning options, as well
as compliance with the properties in the following
table that refer to the as-delivered condition of the
fuel.

Marine diesel oil, marine diesel fuel

Origin
Marine diesel oil (MDO) is supplied as heavy distillate (designation ISO-F-DMB) exclusively for marine applications. MDO is manufactured from
crude oil and must be free of organic acids and
non-mineral oil products.
Properties
ISO-F specification
Density at 15 C
Kinematic viscosity at 40 C

The properties are essentially defined using the


ISO 8217-2010 standard as the basis. The properties have been specified using the stated test
procedures.
Unit

Test method

Designation

DMB

ISO 3675

900

ISO 3104

> 2.0

kg/m
mm2/s

= cSt

< 11
Pour point (winter quality)

ISO 3016

Pour point (summer quality)

<0
<6

Flash point (Pensky Martens)

ISO 2719

> 60

Total sediment content

% by weight

ISO CD 10307

0.10

Water content

% by volume

ISO 3733

< 0.3

Sulphur content

% by weight

ISO 8754

< 2.0

ISO 6245

< 0.01

ISO CD 10370

< 0.30

ISO 5165

> 35

mg/kg

IP 570

<2

mg KOH/g

ASTM D664

< 0.5

g/m3

ISO 12205

< 25

ISO 12156-1

< 520

ISO 2160

<1

British Standard BS MA 100-1987

Class M2

ASTM D 975

2D

ASTM D 396

No. 2

Ash content
Carbon residue (MCR)
Cetane number or cetane index
Hydrogen sulphide
Acid value
Oxidation resistance
Lubricity
(wear scar diameter)
Copper strip test

0407-0000AA2.fm

Other specifications:

Table 4-12

J-BA

Marine diesel oil (MDO) Characteristic values to be adhered to

Page 4 - 19

p~===
4.7 Specification for diesel oil (MDO)

Additional information
During transshipment and transfer, MDO is handled in the same manner as residual oil. This
means that it is possible for the oil to be mixed with
high-viscosity fuel or heavy fuel oil with the remnants of these types of fuels in the bunker ship, for
example that could significantly impair the properties of the oil.

Lubricity
Normally, the lubricating ability of diesel fuel oil is
sufficient to operate the fuel injection pump. Desulphurisation of diesel fuels can reduce their lubricity. If the sulphur content is extremely low
(< 500 ppm or 0.05 %), the lubricity may no longer
be sufficient. Before using diesel fuels with low sulphur content, you should therefore ensure that
their lubricity is sufficient. This is the case if the lubricity as specified in ISO 12156-1 does not exceed 520 m.
The fuel must be free of lubricating oil (ULO (used
lubricating oil, old oil)). Fuel is considered as contaminated with lubricating oil when the following
concentrations occur:
Ca > 30 ppm and Zn > 15 ppm or Ca > 30 ppm
and P > 15 ppm.

Seawater causes the fuel system to corrode and


also leads to hot corrosion of the exhaust valves
and turbocharger. Seawater also causes insufficient atomisation and therefore poor mixture formation accompanied by a high proportion of
combustion residues.
Solid foreign matter increase mechanical wear and
formation of ash in the cylinder space.
We recommend the installation of a separator upstream of the fuel filter. Separation temperature
40 50 C. Most solid particles (sand, rust and
catalyst particles) and water can be removed, and
the cleaning intervals of the filter elements can be
extended considerably.
Improper handling of fuels
If operating fluids are improperly handled, this can
pose a danger to health, safety and the environment. The relevant safety information by the supplier of operating fluids must be observed.
Analyses
We can analyse fuel for customers at our laboratory. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.

0407-0000AA2.fm

The pour point specifies the temperature at which


the oil no longer flows. The lowest temperature of
the fuel in the system should be roughly 10 C
above the pour point to ensure that the required
pumping characteristics are maintained.

A minimum viscosity must be observed to ensure


sufficient lubrication in the fuel injection pumps.
The temperature of the fuel must therefore not exceed 45 C.

Page 4 - 20

J-BA

p~===
4.8 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

4.8

Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Prerequisites
MAN four-stroke diesel engines can be operated
with any heavy fuel oil obtained from crude oil that
also satisfies the requirements in "Table 4-13: The

fuel specifications and corresponding characteristics for


heavy fuel oil" providing the engine and fuel

processing system have been designed accordingly. To ensure that the relationship between the
fuel, spare parts and repair/maintenance costs remains favourable at all times, the following points
should be observed.
Heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Origin/Refinery process
The quality of the heavy fuel oil largely depends on
the quality of crude oil and on the refining process
used. This is why the properties of heavy fuel oils
with the same viscosity may vary considerably depending on the bunker positions. Heavy fuel oil is
normally a mixture of residual oil and distillates.
The components of the mixture are normally obtained from modern refinery processes, such as
Catcracker or Visbreaker. These processes can
adversely affect the stability of the fuel as well as
its ignition and combustion properties. The
processing of the heavy fuel oil and the operating
result of the engine also depend heavily on these
factors.
Bunker positions with standardised heavy fuel oil
qualities should preferably be used. If oils need to
be purchased from independent dealers, also ensure that these also comply with the international
specifications. The engine operator is responsible
for ensuring that suitable heavy fuel oils are chosen.

Specifications

0406-0000AA2.fm

Fuels intended for use in an engine must satisfy


the specifications to ensure sufficient quality. The
limit values for heavy fuel oils are specified in "Table

4-13: The fuel specifications and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil".

D-BC

The entries in the last column of "Table 4-13: The fuel


specifications and corresponding characteristics for heavy
fuel oil" provide important background information
and must therefore be observed.

Different international specifications exist for heavy


fuel oils. The most important specifications are ISO
8217-2010 and CIMAC-2003, which are more or
less identical. The ISO 8217 specification is shown
in "Figure 4-1: ISO 8217-2010 specification for heavy fuel
oil" and "Figure 4-2: ISO 8217-2010 specification for
heavy fuel oil (continued)". All qualities in these specifications up to K700 can be used, providing the
fuel preparation system has been designed accordingly. To use any fuels, which do not comply
with these specifications (e.g. crude oil), consultation with Technical Service of MAN Diesel &
Turbo SE in Augsburg is required. Heavy fuel oils
with a maximum density of 1,010 kg/m3 may only
be used if up-to-date separators are installed.

Important
Even though the fuel properties specified in "Table
4-13: The fuel specifications and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil" satisfy the above require-

ments, they probably do not adequately define the


ignition and combustion properties and the stability of the fuel. This means that the operating behaviour of the engine can depend on properties
that are not defined in the specification. This particularly applies to the oil property that causes formation of deposits in the combustion chamber,
injection system, gas ducts and exhaust gas system. A number of fuels have a tendency towards
incompatibility with lubricating oil which leads to
deposits being formed in the fuel delivery pump
that can block the pumps. It may therefore be necessary to exclude specific fuels that could cause
problems.

Blends
The addition of engine oils (old lubricating oil,
ULO used lubricating oil) and additives that are
not manufactured from mineral oils, (coal-tar oil,
for example), and residual products of chemical or
other processes such as solvents (polymers or

Page 4 - 21

p~===
4.8 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

chemical waste) is not permitted. Some of the reasons for this are as follows: abrasive and corrosive
effects, unfavourable combustion characteristics,
poor compatibility with mineral oils and, last but
not least, adverse effects on the environment. The
order for the fuel must expressly state what is not
permitted as the fuel specifications that generally
apply do not include this limitation.
If engine oils (old lubricating oil, ULO used lubricating oil) are added to fuel, this poses a particular
danger as the additives in the lubricating oil act as
emulsifiers that cause dirt, water and catfines to
be transported as fine suspension. They therefore
prevent the necessary cleaning of the fuel. In our
mm2/s
(cSt)

Viscosity
(at 50 C)

experience (and this has also been the experience


of other manufacturers), this can severely damage
the engine and turbocharger components.
The addition of chemical waste products (solvents, for example) to the fuel is prohibited for environmental protection reasons according to the
resolution of the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee passed on 1st January 1992.

Leaked oil collector


Leak oil collectors that act as receptacles for leak
oil, and also return and overflow pipes in the lube
oil system, must not be connected to the fuel tank.
Leak oil lines should be emptied into sludge tanks.

700

See "Paragraph: Viscosity/injection viscosity, page 4-26"

55

See "Paragraph: Viscosity/injection viscosity, page 4-26"

1.010

See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-26"

min.

60

See "Paragraph: Flash point (ASTM D 93), page 4-28"

max.

30

See "Paragraph: Low temperature behaviour


(ASTM D 97), page 4-28", "Paragraph: Pump characteristics, page 4-28"

30

See "Paragraph: Low temperature behaviour


(ASTM D 97), page 4-28", "Paragraph: Pump characteristics, page 4-28"

20

See "Paragraph: Combustion properties, page 4-29"

5 or

See "Paragraph: Sulphuric acid corrosion, page 4-31"

max.

Viscosity
(at 100 C)
Density
(at 15 C)

g/ml

Flash point

Pour point
(summer)
Pour point (winter)

Carbon residues
(Conradson)

Weight
%

Sulphur content

max.

legal requirements
Ash
content

0.15

See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-26"

Vanadium content

mg/kg

450

See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-26"

Water
content

Volume%

0.5

See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-26"

Sediment (potential)

Weight
%

0.1

The fuel specifications and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil (1 of 2)
0406-0000AA2.fm

Table 4-13

Page 4 - 22

D-BC

p~===
4.8 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

60

See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-26"

mg
KOH/g

2.5

Hydrogen sulphide

mg/kg

Used lubricating oil


(ULO)

mg/kg

The fuel must be free of lubricating oil (ULO (used


lubricating oil, old oil)). Fuel is considered as contaminated with lubricating oil when the following
concentrations occur: Ca > 30 ppm and Zn >
15 ppm or Ca > 30 ppm and P > 15 ppm.

Asphalt content

Weight
%

2/3 of carbon residue (according to


Conradson)

See "Paragraph: Combustion properties, page 4-29"

Sodium content

mg/kg

Sodium< 1/3
vanadium,
sodium< 100

See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-26"

Aluminium and silicium content (total)

mg/kg

Total acid number

max.

The fuel must be free of admixtures that cannot be obtained from mineral oils, such as vegetable or coal-tar oils.
It must also be free of tar oil and lubricating oil (old oil), and also chemical waste products such as solvents or
polymers.
The fuel specifications and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil (2 of 2)

0406-0000AA2.fm

Table 4-13

D-BC

Page 4 - 23

p~===

Figure 4-1

Page 4 - 24

0406-0000AA2.fm

4.8 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

ISO 8217-2010 specification for heavy fuel oil

D-BC

p~===

0406-0000AA2.fm

4.8 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Figure 4-2

D-BC

ISO 8217-2010 specification for heavy fuel oil (continued)

Page 4 - 25

p~===
4.8 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Additional information

Heavy fuel oil processing

The purpose of the following information is to


show the relationship between the quality of heavy
fuel oil, heavy fuel oil processing, engine operation
and operating results more clearly.

Whether or not problems occur when the engine


is in operation depends on how carefully the heavy
fuel oil has been processed. Particular care should
be taken to ensure that highly-abrasive inorganic
foreign matter (catalyst particles, rust, sand) are effectively removed. Experience in practice has
shown that wear as a result of abrasion in the engine increases considerably if the aluminium and
silicium content is higher than 15 mg/kg.

Selection of heavy fuel oil


Economic operation with heavy fuel oil within the
limit values (see "Table 4-13: The fuel specifications
and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil") is
possible under normal operating conditions, provided the system is working properly and regular
maintenance is carried out. If these requirements
are not satisfied, shorter maintenance intervals,
higher wear and a greater need for spare parts is
to be expected. The required maintenance intervals and operating results determine which quality
of heavy fuel oil should be used.
It is an established fact that the price advantage
decreases as viscosity increases. It is therefore not
always economical to use the fuel with the highest
viscosity as in many cases the quality of this fuel
will not be the best.

Viscosity/injection viscosity
Heavy fuel oils with a high viscosity may be of an
inferior quality. The maximum permissible viscosity
depends on the preheating system installed and
the capacity (flow rate) of the separator.

Settling tank
The heavy fuel oil is pre-cleaned in the settling
tank. The longer the fuel remains in the tank and
the lower the viscosity of the heavy fuel oil is, the
more effective the pre-cleaning process will be
(maximum preheating temperature of 75 C to
prevent asphalt forming in the heavy fuel oil). A settling tank is sufficient for heavy fuel oils with a viscosity of less than 380 mm2/s at 50 C. If the
heavy fuel oil has a high concentration of foreign
matter or if fuels in accordance with
ISO-F-RMG 380/500/700 or RMK 380/500/700
are to be used, two settling tanks will be required
one of which must be sized for 24-hour operation.
Before the content is moved to the service tank,
water and sludge must be drained from the settling tank.

Separators
A separator is particularly suitable for separating
material with a higher specific density water, foreign matter and sludge, for example. The separators must be self-cleaning (i. e. the cleaning
intervals must be triggered automatically). Only
separators in the new generation may be used.
They are extremely effective throughout a wide
density range with no changeover required and
can separate water from heavy fuel oils with a density of up to 1.01 g/ml at 15 C.
0406-0000AA2.fm

The prescribed injection viscosity of


12 14 mm2/s (for GenSets, 23/30H and
28/32H: 12 18 cSt) and corresponding fuel temperature upstream of the engine must be observed. This is the only way to ensure efficient
atomisation and mixture formation and therefore
low-residue combustion. This also prevents mechanical overloading of the injection system. For
the prescribed injection viscosity and/or required
fuel oil temperature upstream of the engine, refer
to the viscosity temperature diagram.

Viscosity and density influence the cleaning effect.


This must be taken into account when designing
and making adjustments to the cleaning system.

Page 4 - 26

D-BC

p~===
4.8 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

For the prerequisites that must be met by the separator see "Table 4-14: Obtainable contents of foreign
matter and water (after separation)". These limit values
are used by manufacturers as the basis for dimensioning the separator and ensure compliance.
The manufacturer's specifications must be complied with to maximise the cleaning effect.

Application in ships and stationary use: parallel installation


1 Separator for 100 % flow rate
1 Separator (reserve) for 100 %
flow rate

Figure 4-3

Heavy fuel oil cleaning/separator arrangement

The separators must be arranged according to the


manufacturers' current recommendations (AlphaLaval and Westfalia). The density and viscosity of
the heavy fuel oil in particular must be taken into
account. If separators by other manufacturers are
used, MAN Diesel & Turbo should be consulted.

Results obtained during operation in practie


show that the wear occurs as a result of abrasion
in the injection system and the engine will remain
within acceptable limits if these values are complied with. In addition, an optimum lubricating oil
treatment process must be ensured.

If processing is carried out in accordance with the


MAN Diesel & Turbo specifications and the correct
separators are chosen, it may be assumed that
the results (see "Table 4-14: Obtainable contents of foreign matter and water (after separation)") for inorganic
foreign matter and water in the heavy fuel oil will be
achieved at the engine inlet.
Definition

Particle size

Quantity

< 5 m

< 20 mg/kg

Al+Si content

< 15 mg/kg

Water content

< 0.2 % by volume %

0406-0000AA2.fm

Inorganic foreign matter


including catalyst particles

Table 4-14

D-BC

Obtainable contents of foreign matter and water (after separation)

Page 4 - 27

p~===
4.8 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Water

Ash

It is particularly important to ensure that the water


separation process is as thorough as possible as
the water is present in the form of large droplets,
and not as a finely distributed emulsion. In this
form, water also promotes corrosion and sludge
formation in the fuel system and therefore impairs
the supply, atomisation and combustion of the
heavy fuel oil. If the water absorbed in the fuel is
seawater, harmful sodium chloride and other salts
dissolved in this water will enter the engine.

Fuel ash consists for the greater part of vanadium


oxide and nickel sulphate (see "Paragraph: Vanadium/sodium, page 4-28"). Heavy fuel oils that produce
a high quantity of ash in the form of foreign matter,
e. g. sand, corrosion compounds and catalyst
particles, accelerate mechanical wear in the engine. Catalyst particles produced as a result of the
catalytic cracking process may be present in
heavy fuel oils. In most cases, these are aluminium
silicate particles that cause a high degree of wear
in the injection system and the engine. The aluminium content determined, multiplied by a factor of
between 5 and 8 (depending on the catalytic
bond), is roughly the same as the proportion of
catalyst remnants in the heavy fuel oil.

Vanadium/sodium
If the vanadium/sodium ratio is unfavourable, the
melting point of the heavy fuel oil ash may fall in the
operating range of the exhaust-gas valve which
can lead to high-temperature corrosion. Most of
the water and water-soluble sodium compounds it
contains can be removed by pre-cleaning the
heavy fuel oil in the settling tank and in the separators.
The risk of high-temperature corrosion is low if the
sodium content is one third of the vanadium content or less. It must also be ensured that sodium
does not enter the engine in the form of seawater
in the intake air.
If the sodium content is higher than 100 mg/kg,
this is likely to result in a higher quantity of salt deposits in the combustion chamber and exhaust
gas system. This will impair the function of the engine (including the suction function of the turbocharger).
Under certain conditions, high-temperature corrosion can be prevented by using a fuel additive that
increases the melting point of the heavy fuel oil ash
(see "Paragraph: Additives to heavy fuel oils, page
4-31").

Homogeniser
If a homogeniser is used, it must never be installed
between the settling tank and separator as otherwise it will not be possible to ensure satisfactory
separation of harmful contaminants, particularly
seawater.

Flash point (ASTM D 93)


National and international transportation and storage regulations governing the use of fuels must be
complied with in relation to the flash point. In general, a flash point of above 60 C is prescribed for
diesel engine fuels.

Low temperature behaviour (ASTM D 97)


The pour point is the temperature at which the fuel
is no longer flowable (pumpable). As the pour
point of many low-viscosity heavy fuel oils is higher
than 0 C, the bunker facility must be preheated,
unless fuel in accordance with RMA or RMB is
used. The entire bunker facility must be designed
in such a way that the heavy fuel oil can be preheated to around 10 C above the pour point.

Pump characteristics
If the viscosity of the fuel is higher than
1,000 mm2/s (cST), or the temperature is not at
least 10 C above the pour point, pumping problems will occur. For further information see "Para-

graph: Low temperature behaviour (ASTM D 97), page


4-28".

Page 4 - 28

D-BC

0406-0000AA2.fm

The sludge containing water must be removed


from the settling tank before the separation process starts, and must also be removed from the
service tank at regular intervals. The tank's ventilation system must be designed in such a way that
condensate cannot flow back into the tank.

p~===
4.8 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Combustion properties
If the proportion of asphalt is more than two thirds
of the coke residue (Conradson), combustion may
be delayed which in turn may increase the formation of combustion residues, leading to such as
deposits on and in the injection nozzles, large
amounts of smoke, low output, increased fuel
consumption and a rapid rise in ignition pressure
as well as combustion close to the cylinder wall
(thermal overloading of lubricating oil film). If the ratio of asphalt to coke residues reaches the limit
0.66, and if the asphalt content exceeds 8 %, the
risk of deposits forming in the combustion chamber and injection system is higher. These problems
can also occur when using unstable heavy fuel
oils, or if incompatible heavy fuel oils are mixed.
This would lead to an increased deposition of asphalt (see "Paragraph: Compatibility, page 4-31").

Ignition quality
Nowadays, to achieve the prescribed reference
viscosity, cracking-process products are used as
the low viscosity ingredients of heavy fuel oils although the ignition characteristics of these oils
may also be poor. The cetane number of these
compounds should be > 35. If the proportion of
aromatic hydrocarbons is high (more than 35 %),
this also adversely affects the ignition quality.

0406-0000AA2.fm

The ignition delay in heavy fuel oils with poor ignition characteristics is longer and combustion is
also delayed which can lead to thermal overloading of the oil film at the cylinder liner and also high
cylinder pressures. The ignition delay and accompanying increase in pressure in the cylinder are
also influenced by the end temperature and compression pressure, i. e. by the compression ratio,
the charge-air pressure and charge-air temperature.

The ignition quality is one of the most decisive


properties of the fuel. This value does not appear
in the international specifications because a
standardised testing method has only recently become available and not enough experience has
been gathered at this point to determine limit values. The parameters, such as the calculated carbon aromaticity index (CCAI), are therefore aids
derived from quantifiable fuel properties. We have
established that this method is suitable for determining the approximate ignition quality of the
heavy fuel oil used.
A testing instrument has been developed based
on the constant volume combustion method (fuel
combustion analyser FCA) and is currently being
tested by a series of testing laboratories. The instrument measures the ignition delay to determine
the ignition quality of a fuel and the measurement
obtained is converted into an instrument specific
cetane number (FIA-CN or EC). It has been established that in some cases heavy fuel oils with a low
FIA cetane number or ECN number can cause operating problems.
As the liquid components of the heavy fuel oil decisively influence its ignition quality, flow properties
and combustion quality, the bunker operator is responsible for ensuring that the quality of heavy fuel
oil delivered is suitable for the diesel engine (see

"Figure 4-4: Nomogram for the determination of CCAI


Assignment of CCAI ranges to engine types").

The disadvantages of using fuels with poor ignition


characteristics can be limited by preheating the
charge air in partial load operation and reducing
the output for a limited period. However, a more
effective solution is a high compression ratio and
operational adjustment of the injection system to
the ignition characteristics of the fuel used, as is
the case with MAN Diesel & Turbo piston engines.

D-BC

Page 4 - 29

p~===
4.8 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Figure 4-4

Nomogram for the determination of CCAI Assignment of CCAI ranges to engine types

Legend
Viscosity mm/s (cSt) at 50 C

Density [kg/m] at 15 C

CCAI

Calculated carbon aromaticity index

Normal operating conditions

Ignition properties may be poor that adjustment of engine or engine or engine operating conditions are required

Problems that have been identified may lead to engine damage, even after a short period of operation.

Engine type

The CCAI is obtained from the straight line through the density and viscosity of the heavy fuel oils.
0406-0000AA2.fm

The CCAI can be calculated using the following formula:


CCAI = D 141 log log (V + 0.85) 81

Page 4 - 30

D-BC

p~===
4.8 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Sulphuric acid corrosion


The engine should be operated at the cooling water temperatures prescribed in the operating
handbook for the relevant load. If the temperature
of the components that are exposed to acidic
combustion products is below the acid dew point,
acid corrosion can no longer be effectively prevented, even if alkaline lubricating oil is used.
The BN values specified in "Section: Specification for

lubricating oil (SAE 40) Specification for heavy fuel oil


(HFO)" are sufficient, providing the quality of lubricating oil and engine's cooling system satisfy the
requirements.

Compatibility
The supplier must guarantee that the heavy fuel oil
is homogeneous and remains stable, even once
the standard storage period has elapsed. If different bunker oils are mixed, this can lead to separation and associated sludge formation in the fuel
system during which large quantities of sludge accumulate in the separator that block filters, prevent
atomisation and a large amount of residue as a result of combustion.
This is due to incompatibility or instability of the
oils. As much of the heavy fuel oil in the storage
tank as possible should therefore be removed before bunkering again to prevent incompatibility.

Blending heavy fuel oil


If heavy fuel oil for the main engine is blended with
gas oil (MGO) to obtain the required quality or viscosity of heavy fuel oil, it is extremely important
that the components of these oils are compatible
(see "Paragraph: Compatibility, page 4-31").

Additives to heavy fuel oils

Additives that are currently used for diesel engines, as well as their probable effects on the engine's operation, are summarised in the "Table 415: Additives to heavy fuel oils Classification/ effects",
together with their supposed effect on engine operation.
Precombustion
additives

Dispersing agents/stabilisers
Emulsion breakers
Biocides

Combustion additives

Combustion catalysts (fuel savings,


emissions)

Post-combustion
additives

Ash modifier (hot corrosion)

Table 4-15

Soot removers (exhaust-gas system)

Additives to heavy fuel oils Classification/


effects

Heavy fuel oils with low sulphur content


From the point of view of an engine manufacturer,
a lower limit for the sulphur content of heavy fuel
oils does not exist. We have not identified any
problems attributable to sulphur content in the
low-sulphur heavy fuel oils currently available on
the market. This situation may change in future if
new methods are used for the production of lowsulphur heavy fuel oil (desulphurisation, new
blending components). MAN Diesel & Turbo will
monitor developments and inform its customers if
required.
If the engine is not always operated with low-sulphur heavy fuel oil, a corresponding lubricating oil
for the fuel with the highest sulphur content must
be selected.

Improper handling of fuels


If fuels are improperly handled, this can pose a
danger to health, safety and the environment. The
relevant safety information by the fuel supplier
must be observed.

0406-0000AA2.fm

MAN Diesel & Turbo engines can be operated


economically without additives. It is up to the customer to decide whether or not the use of additives is beneficial. The supplier of the additive must
guarantee that the engine operation will not be impaired by using the product.

The use of heavy fuel oil additives during the warranty period must be avoided as a basic principle.

D-BC

Page 4 - 31

p~===
4.8 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Tests

Sampling
To check whether the specification provided
and/or the necessary delivery conditions are complied with, we recommend you retain at least one
sample of every bunker oil (at least for the duration
of the engine's warranty period). To ensure that
representative samples are taken of the bunker oil,
a sample should be taken from the transfer line
when starting up, halfway through the operating
period and at the end of the bunker period. Sample Tec" by MarTec in Hamburg is a suitable testing instrument which can be used to take samples
on a regular basis during bunkering.

Analysis of samples
Our department for fuels and lubricating oils
(Augsburg factory, EQC department) will be
pleased to provide further information on request.

0406-0000AA2.fm

We can analyse fuel for customers at our laboratory. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.

Page 4 - 32

D-BC

p~===
4.9 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram)

4.9

Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram)

Explanations of viscosity-temperature diagram

Figure 4-5

Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram)

0413-0000AA2.fm

In the diagram, the fuel temperatures are shown


on the horizontal axis and the viscosity is shown
on the vertical axis.
The diagonal lines correspond to viscosity-temperature curves of fuels with different reference
viscosities. The vertical viscosity axis in
mm2/s (cSt) applies for 40 and 50 C.

E-BB

Page 4 - 33

p~===
4.9 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram)

Determining the viscosity-temperature curve and the


required preheating temperature

Example: Heavy fuel oil of 180 mm2/s at 50 C.


Prescribed injection viscosity in mm2/s

Table 4-16

Required temperature
of heavy fuel oil at
engine inlet1) in C

12

126 (line c)

14

119 (line d)

Determination of the viscosity-temperature


curve and the preheating temperature

1) The

drop in temperature between the last preheating appliance and the fuel injection pump is not taken into account
in these figures.

A heavy fuel oil with a viscosity of 180 mm2/s at


50 C can reach a viscosity of 1,000 mm2/s at
24 C (line e) this is the maximum permissible
viscosity at which the pump can still deliver the fuel.
When the last preheating appliance is a state-ofthe-art appliance with 8 bar saturated steam, this
achieves a heavy fuel oil temperature of 152 C. At
high temperatures there is a danger of deposits
forming in the preheating system that could reduce the heating output and lead to thermal overloading of the heavy fuel oil. In this case asphalt
forms, i. e. quality is adversely affected.

The delivery pump must be designed to handle a


heavy fuel oil with a viscosity of up to
1,000 mm2/s. The pour point of the heavy fuel oil
determines whether or not it can be pumped. The
engineering design of the bunker system must allow for the heavy fuel oil to be heated up to a temperature which is roughly 10 C higher than the
pour point.
Note!
The viscosity of gas oil or diesel fuel (marine
diesel oil) upstream of the engine must be at
least 1.9 mm2/s. If the viscosity is too low, this
may cause seizing of the pump plunger or nozzle needle valves as a result of insufficient lubrication.
This can be avoided by monitoring the temperature of the fuel. Although the maximum permissible temperature depends on the viscosity of the
fuel, it must never exceed the following values:

45 C at the most with DMA and DMB


60 C at the most with RMA
A fuel cooler must therefore be installed.
For operation with special fuels (not according to
ISO8217-2010) like "Arctic Diesel" or "DMX" consult the technical service of MAN Diesel & Turbo in
Augsburg. In this case, please provide exact fuel
specification.

0413-0000AA2.fm

The heavy fuel oil lines between the outlet of the


last preheating system and the injection valve
must be suitably insulated to limit the maximum
drop in temperature to 4 C. This is the only way
to achieve the necessary injection viscosity of
14 mm2/s for heavy fuel oils with a reference viscosity of 700 mm2/s at 50 C (the maximum viscosity as defined in the international specifications
such as ISO CIMAC or British Standard). If the
heavy fuel oil being used has a lower reference viscosity, the injection viscosity should ideally be
12 mm2/s to improve the atomisation of heavy fuel
oil and in turn reduce combustion residues.

Page 4 - 34

E-BB

Specification for engine supplies


4.10 Quality of raw-water in cooling tower operation (additive and circulating water)

4.10

Quality of raw-water in cooling tower operation


(additive and circulating water)

This guideline specifies the basic demands made


on cooling water for cooling tower operation.
Should the cooling tower manufacturer make further demands on the water quality, these requirements must, by all means, be observed.

with the limit values specified for the circulating


water (see "Table 4-17: Quality guidelines for circulating
and additive water").

Moreover, it must be taken into consideration that


additional demands will be made on the water
quality depending on the material of the coolers,
which are applied with water. Additional requirements for the cooling water made by the cooler
manufacturer must also be observed.

The system water losses caused by blowing


down, evaporation or leakages must be replaced
by continuous additive water topping during operation. The required amount of additive water depends on the quality of the additive water and the
climatic site conditions.

General
The raw water system with cooling tower re-cooling concerns an open circulation system, which
dissipates the heat absorbed from the water by
evaporation into the cooling tower. This results at
the same time in a continuous water loss due to
evaporation. In order to restrict the incurring salt
concentration, a certain water amount must permanently be topped as additive water.
Water losses due to evaporation and blowing
down (depending on the additive water quality)
may amount up to 3 % of the circulating water
quantity.
Blowing down

0405-0000PA2.fm

An increasing evaporation loss results in a higher


concentration of the salts and the suspended substances in the water and, therefore, in an increasing tendency to corrosion and the formation of
deposits in the system. In addition, the raw water
absorbs impurities from the ambient air. Deposits
have a negative effect on the heat dissipation in
the coolers and the control system function.
In order to avoid excessive concentration, a part of
the thickened circulating water must be removed
from the circuit and be replaced by less concentrated additive water. Blowing down has a regulating effect on the concentration constituents of the
circulating water. The amount of the water to be
exchanged depends on the water quality and has
to be chosen as to ensure constant compliance

iJ_`

Additive water

Certain demands have to be made on the additive


water quality, which is based on the requirements
for circulating water taking the concentration degree into consideration. If the required water quality cannot be achieved, the water has to be treated
chemically (e.g. softening or hardness stabilisation) or mechanically, if necessary. Otherwise

deposits due to precipitation of hardly soluble


salts,

sediments of disperse solid substances,


corrosion,
growth of micro organisms
are to be expected.
The cooling tower should, at least, be run with a
concentration by factor 2. Higher concentrations
are, in general, more economic. In order to permit
this, the content of substances must not exceed
half of the amount of the contents permitted for
circulating water. For the absolute minimum requirements, see "Table 4-17: Quality guidelines for circulating and additive water".
Water treatment
Depending on the water quality, various treatment
processes come into consideration:

Decarbonisation, acid injection


Desalinisation
Cooling water conditioning (chemical treatment)

32/40, 32/40DF, 32/40G, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

Page 4 - 35

Specification for engine supplies


4.10 Quality of raw-water in cooling tower operation (additive and circulating water)

By using special chemicals, so-called stabilisers


and conditioners, deposits and corrosion in the
cooling water circuit can largely be controlled.
These means permit operation at increased concentration and, therefore, a reduction of the required additive water.
When using chemical additives for cooling water
conditioning, the cooling tower manufacturer is to
be contacted.
Quality guidelines for circulating and additive water
-

Circulating
water

Additive
water1)

Colourless,
clear, no sediments

Colourless,
clear, no sediments

7.5 8.5

<2,500 ppm

<1,250 ppm

<3,000 S/cm

Calcium

>20 ppm

>10 ppm

Carbonate hardness without


hardness stabilisation

<4 dH
<71 ppm
CaCO3

<2dH
<35 ppm
CaCO3

Carbonate hardness with hardness stabilisation

<20 dH
<356 ppm
CaCO3

< 10 dH
< 178 ppm
CaCO3

Chloride

<200 ppm

< 100 ppm

Sulphate

<300 ppm

< 150 ppm

KMnO4 consumption

< 100 g/m

Germ number

< 10,000/ml

Appearance

pH value2)
Total salt content
Conductivity

Table 4-17

Monitoring of the water quality


pH Value, water hardness and conductivity of the
circulating water should, at least, be measured
every 2 weeks. Based on the conductivity, it can
be checked whether the prescribed concentration
factor is kept. Regular checks must include the
values stated in "Table 4-17: Quality guidelines for circulating and additive water".
Utilisation of biocides
Intensive venting of the water in the cooling tower
and insulation will, above all, during the warm season, cause algeas and microorganisms, which
clog the cooling system, support corrosion and
clearly reduce the cooling efficiency.
Growth by algeas, shells and bacteria colonies
must, therefore, be eliminated by vaccination with
chlorine or effective biocides.
The selection and application of biocides depends
on the occurring microorganisms. Close cooperation with the manufacturer, resp. supplier, would
be recommendable as they dispose of suitable
test processes for micro organism detection as
well as the necessary experience.
Environmental protection, safety
The locally applicable environmental requirements
are, in cooling tower operation, to be taken into
consideration for the discharge of blow-down water and disposal of the substances (hardness stabilisers, biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dispersants)
used for cooling water treatment.
When using chemical additives, the safety regulations of the manufactures must, by all means, be
observed.

Quality guidelines for circulating and additive


water

1) Minimum

0405-0000PA2.fm

requirements in the case of concentration factor


2. At a higher concentration the values are accordingly
lower.
2) When using chemical additives, the pH values may be
located outside the specified range.

Page 4 - 36

32/40, 32/40DF, 32/40G, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

iJ_`

p~===
4.11 Specification for engine cooling water

4.11

Specification for engine cooling water

Preliminary remarks
As well as fuel and lubricating oil the engine cooling water has to be selected, handled and
checked really careful. Lack of caution may cause
corrosion, erosion and cavitation to the pumps
and piping of cooling water circuits. Deposits obstruct the transfer of heat and can cause thermal
overloading of the cooled parts. The system must
be treated with an anticorrosive agent before
bringing it into operation for the first time. The concentrations prescribed by the engine manufacturer must always be observed during subsequent
operation. The above especially applies if a chemical additive is added.
Requirements

Limit values
The properties of untreated cooling water must
correspond to the following limit values:
Properties/ characteristic

Properties

Unit

Distillate or freshwater,
free of foreign matter

Total hardness

max. 10

dH1)

pH value

6.5

Chloride ion content

max. 50

Water type

Table 4-18

mg/l2)

Cooling water Properties to be observed

1) 1

dH (German hardness)
10 mg CaO in 1 litre of water
17.9 mg CaCO3/l
0.357 mval/l
0.179 mmol/l
2) 1 mg/l 1 ppm

0402-0000AA2.fm

Testing equipment
The MAN Diesel & Turbo water testing equipment
incorporates devices that determine the water
properties referred to above in a straightforward
manner. The manufacturers of anticorrosive
agents also supply user-friendly testing equip-

D-BC

ment. For information on monitoring cooling water,


see "4.12: Cooling water inspecting".
Additional information

Distillate
If distilled water (from a freshwater generator, for
example) or fully desalinated water (from ion exchange or reverse osmosis) is available, this
should ideally be used as the engine cooling water.
These waters are free of lime and salts which
means that deposits that could interfere with the
transfer of heat to the cooling water, and therefore
also reduce the cooling effect, cannot form. However, these waters are more corrosive than normal
hard water as the thin film of lime scale that would
otherwise provide temporary corrosion protection
does not form on the walls. This is why distilled
water must be handled particularly carefully and
the concentration of the additive must be regularly
checked.

Hardness
The total hardness of the water is the combined
effect of the temporary and permanent hardness.
The proportion of calcium and magnesium salts is
of overriding importance. The temporary hardness
is determined by the carbonate content of the calcium and magnesium salts. The permanent hardness is determined by the amount of remaining
calcium and magnesium salts (sulphates). The
temporary (carbonate) hardness is the critical factor that determines the extent of limescale deposit
in the cooling system.
Water with a total hardness of > 10dGH must be
mixed with distilled water or softened. Subsequent
hardening of extremely soft water is only necessary to prevent foaming if emulsifiable slushing oils
are used.
Damage to the cooling water system

Corrosion
Corrosion is an electrochemical process that can
widely be avoided by selecting the correct water

Page 4 - 37

p~===
4.11 Specification for engine cooling water

Flow cavitation
Flow cavitation can occur in areas in which high
flow velocities and high turbulence is present. If
the steam pressure is reached, steam bubbles
form and subsequently collapse in high pressure
zones which causes the destruction of materials in
constricted areas.

Treatment prior to initial commissioning of engine


Treatment with an anticorrosive agent should be
carried out before the engine is brought into operation for the first time to prevent irreparable initial
damage.
Note!
The engine must not be brought into operation
without treating the cooling water first.

Erosion

Additives for cooling water

Erosion is a mechanical process accompanied by


material abrasion and the destruction of protective
films by solids that have been drawn in, particularly
in areas with high flow velocities or strong turbulence.

Only the additives approved by MAN Diesel &


Turbo and listed in "Table 4-19: Nitrite-containing
chemical additives" up to "Table 4-22: Anti-freeze solutions with slushing properties" may be used.

Stress corrosion cracking

A cooling water additive may only be permitted for


use if tested and approved as per the latest directives of the ICE Research Association (FVV) "Suitability test of internal combustion engine cooling
fluid additives. The test report must be obtainable
on request. The relevant tests can be carried out
on request in Germany at the staatliche Materialprfanstalt (Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing), Abteilung Oberflchentechnik
(Surface Technology Division), Grafenstrae 2 in
D-64283 Darmstadt.

Stress corrosion cracking is a failure mechanism


that occurs as a result of simultaneous dynamic
and corrosive stress. This may lead to cracking
and rapid crack propagation in water-cooled, mechanically-loaded components if the cooling water
has not been treated correctly.
Processing of engine cooling water

Formation of a protective film


The purpose of treating the engine cooling water
using anticorrosive agents is to produce a continuous protective film on the walls of cooling surfaces and therefore prevent the damage referred to
above. In order for an anticorrosive agent to be
100 % effective, it is extremely important that untreated water satisfies the requirements in "Paragraph: Requirements, page 4-37".
Protective films can be formed by treating the
cooling water with an anticorrosive chemical or an
emulsifiable slushing oil.
Emulsifiable slushing oils are used less and less
frequently as their use has been considerably restricted by environmental protection regulations,
and because they are rarely available from suppliers for this and other reasons.

Page 4 - 38

Required approval

Once the cooling water additive has been tested


by the FVV, the engine must be tested in the second step before the final approval is granted.

Only in closed circuits


Additives may only be used in closed circuits
where no significant consumption occurs, apart
from leaks or evaporation losses.
Chemical additives
Sodium nitrite and sodium borate based additives
etc. have a proven track record. Galvanised iron
pipes or zinc sacrificial anodes must not be used
in cooling systems. This corrosion protection is not
required due to the prescribed cooling water treatment and electrochemical potential reversal can
occur due to the cooling water temperatures
which are normally present in engines nowadays.
If necessary, the pipes must be deplated.

D-BC

0402-0000AA2.fm

quality and by carefully handling the water in the


engine cooling system.

p~===
4.11 Specification for engine cooling water

Slushing oil
This additive is an emulsifiable mineral oil with added slushing ingredients. A thin film of oil forms on
the walls of the cooling system. This prevents corrosion without interfering with the transfer of heat
and also prevents limescale deposits on the walls
of the cooling system.
The significance of emulsifiable corrosion-slushing
oils is fading. Oil-based emulsions are rarely used
nowadays for environmental protection reasons
and also because stability problems are known to
occur in emulsions.
Anti-freeze agents
If temperatures below the freezing point of water in
the engine cannot be excluded, an anti-freeze solution that also prevents corrosion must be added
to the cooling system or corresponding parts.
Otherwise, the entire system must be heated. (Military specification: Sy-7025).

0402-0000AA2.fm

Sufficient corrosion protection can be provided by


adding the products listed in "Table 4-22: Anti-freeze
solutions with slushing properties" while observing the
prescribed concentration. This concentration prevents freezing at temperatures down to 22 C.
However, the quantity of anti-freeze solution actually required always depends on the lowest temperatures that are to be expected at the place of
use.
Anti-freezes are generally based on ethylene glycol. A suitable chemical anticorrosive agent must
be added if the concentration of the anti-freeze solution prescribed by the user for a specific application does not provide an appropriate level of
corrosion protection, or if the concentration of
anti-freeze solution used is lower due to less stringent frost protection requirements and does not
provide an appropriate level of corrosion protection. For information on the compatibility of the
anti-freeze solution with the anticorrosive agent
and the required concentrations, contact the manufacturer. As regards the chemical additives indicated in "Table 4-19: Nitrite-containing chemical
additives" their compatibility with ethylene glycolbased antifreezes has been proved. Anti-freeze
solutions may only be mixed with one another with

D-BC

the consent of the manufacturer, even if these solutions have the same composition.
Before an anti-freeze solution is used, the cooling
system must be thoroughly cleaned.
If the cooling water contains an emulsifiable slushing oil, anti-freeze solution must not be added as
otherwise the emulsion would break up and oil
sludge would form in the cooling system.
Observe the applicable environmental protection
regulations when disposing of cooling water containing additives. For more information, consult the
additive supplier.
Biocides
If you cannot avoid using a biocide because the
cooling water has been contaminated by bacteria,
observe the following steps:

You must ensure that the biocide to be used is


suitable for the specific application.

The biocide must be compatible with the seal-

ing materials used in the cooling water system


and must not react with these.

The biocide and its decomposition products

must not contain corrosion-promoting components. Biocides whose decomposition products contain chloride or sulphate ions are not
permitted.

Biocides that cause foaming of the cooling water are not permitted.

Page 4 - 39

p~===
4.11 Specification for engine cooling water

Prerequisite for effective use of an anticorrosive agent

Note!

Clean cooling system

The chemical additive concentrations shall not


be less than the minimum concentrations indicated in "Table 4-19: Nitrite-containing chemical additives".

Loose solid matter in particular must be removed


by flushing the system thoroughly as otherwise
erosion may occur in locations where the flow velocity is high.
The cleaning agents must not corrode the seals
and materials of the cooling system. In most cases, the supplier of the cooling water additive will be
able to carry out this work and, if this is not possible, will at least be able to provide suitable products to do this. If this work is carried out by the
engine operator, he should use the services of a
specialist supplier of cleaning agents. The cooling
system must be flushed thoroughly following
cleaning. Once this has been done, the engine
cooling water must be treated immediately with
anticorrosive agent. Once the engine has been
brought back into operation, the cleaned system
must be checked for leaks.

Regular checks of the cooling water condition and cooling


water system
Treated cooling water may become contaminated
when the engine is in operation, which causes the
additive to loose some of its effectiveness. It is
therefore advisable to regularly check the cooling
system and the cooling water condition. To determine leakages in the lube oil system, it is advisable
to carry out regular checks of water in the compensating tank. Indications of oil content in water
are, e.g. discolouration or a visible oil film on the
surface of the water sample.
The additive concentration must be checked at
least once a week using the test kits specified by
the manufacturer. The results must be documented.

Page 4 - 40

Excessively low concentrations can promote corrosion and must be avoided. If the concentration
is slightly above the recommended concentration
this will not result in damage. Concentrations that
are more than twice the recommended concentration should be avoided.
Every 2 to 6 months send a cooling water sample
to an independent laboratory or to the engine
manufacturer for integrated analysis.
Emulsifiable anticorrosive agents must generally
be replaced after abt. 12 months according to the
supplier's instructions. When carrying this out, the
entire cooling system must be flushed and, if necessary, cleaned. Once filled into the system, freshwater must be treated immediately.
If chemical additives or anti-freeze solutions are
used, cooling water should be replaced after 3
years at the latest.
If there is a high concentration of solids (rust) in the
system, the water must be completely replaced
and entire system carefully cleaned.
Deposits in the cooling system may be caused by
fluids that enter the cooling water, or the break up
of emulsion, corrosion in the system and limescale
deposits if the water is very hard. If the concentration of chloride ions has increased, this generally
indicates that seawater has entered the system.
The maximum specified concentration of 50 mg
chloride ions per kg must not be exceeded as otherwise the risk of corrosion is too high. If exhaust
gas enters the cooling water, this may lead to a
sudden drop in the pH value or to an increase in
the sulphate content.
Water losses must be compensated for by filling
with untreated water that meets the quality requirements specified in this section in "Paragraph:
Requirements, page 4-37". The concentration of the
anticorrosive agent must subsequently be
checked and adjusted if necessary.

D-BC

0402-0000AA2.fm

As contamination significantly reduces the effectiveness of the additive, the tanks, pipes, coolers
and other parts outside the engine must be free of
rust and other deposits before the engine is started up for the first time and after repairs are carried
out on the pipe system. The entire system must
therefore be cleaned with the engine switched off
using a suitable cleaning agent (see "Section 4.13:
Cooling water system cleaning, page 4-47").

p~===
4.11 Specification for engine cooling water

Subsequent checks of cooling water are especially required if the cooling water had to be drained
off in order to carry out repairs or maintenance.
Protective measures
Anticorrosive agents contain chemical compounds that can pose a risk to health or the environment if incorrectly used. Comply with the
directions in the manufacturer's material safety
data sheets.
Avoid prolonged direct contact with the skin.
Wash hands thoroughly after use. If larger quantities spray and/or soak into clothing, remove and
wash clothing before wearing it again.
If chemicals come into contact with your eyes,
rinse them immediately with plenty of water and
seek medical advice.
Anticorrosive agents are generally harmful to the
water cycle. Observe the relevant statutory requirements for disposal.
Auxiliary engines
If the same cooling water system used in a MAN
Diesel & Turbo two-stroke main engine is used in
a marine engine of type 16/24, 21/31, 23/30H,
27/38 or 28/32H, the cooling water recommendations for the main engine must be observed.
Analysis

0402-0000AA2.fm

We analyse cooling water for our customers in our


chemical laboratory. A 0.5 l sample is required for
the test.

D-BC

Page 4 - 41

p~===
4.11 Specification for engine cooling water

Permissible cooling water additives

Nitrite-containing chemical additives


Manufacturer

Product designation

Initial
dosing
per
1,000 l

Minimum concentration ppm


Product

Nitrite
(NO2)

Na-Nitrite
(NaNO2)

15 l
40 l

15,000
40,000

700
1,330

1,050
2,000

21.5 l
4.8 kg

21,500
4,800

2,400
2,400

3,600
3,600

Drew Marine
One Drew Plaza
Boonton
New Jersey 07005
USA

Liquidewt
Maxigard

Wilhelmsen (Unitor)
KJEMI-Service A.S.
P.O.Box 49/Norway
3140 Borgheim

Rocor NB Liquid
Dieselguard

Nalfleet Marine
Chemicals
P.O.Box 11
Northwich
Cheshire CW8DX, U.K.

Nalfleet EWT Liq


(9-108)
Nalfleet EWT 9-111
Nalcool 2000

3l

3,000

1,000

1,500

10 l
30 l

10,000
30,000

1,000
1,000

1,500
1,500

Nalco

Nalcool 2000
TRAC 102
TRAC 118

30 l
30 l
3l

30,000
30,000
3,000

1,000
1,000
1,000

1,500
1,500
1,500

Maritech AB
P.O.Box 143
S-29122 Kristianstad

Marisol CW

12 l

12,000

2,000

3,000

Uniservice
Via al Santuario di N.S.
della Guardia 58/A
16162 Genova, Italy

N.C.L.T.
Colorcooling

12 l
24 l

12,000
24,000

2,000
2,000

3,000
3,000

Marichem Marigases
64 Sfaktirias Street
18545 Piraeus, Greece

D.C.W.T
Non-Chromate

48 l

48,000

2,400

Marine Care
3144 NA Maasluis
The Netherlands

Caretreat 2

16 l

16,000

4,000

6,000

Vecom
Schlenzigstrae 7
21107 Hamburg
Germany

Cool Treat NCLT

16 l

16,000

4,000

6,000

Nitrite-containing chemical additives

0402-0000AA2.fm

Table 4-19

Page 4 - 42

D-BC

p~===
4.11 Specification for engine cooling water

Nitrite-free additives (chemical additives)


Manufacturer
Arteco
Technologiepark
Zwijnaarde 2
B-9052 Gent, Belgium
Total Lubricants
Paris, France
Q8 Oils
Table 4-20

Product designation

Initial dosing
per 1,000 l

Minimum concentration

Havoline XLI

75 l

7.5 %

WT Supra

75 l

7.5 %

Q8 Corrosion Inhibitor
Long-Life

75 l

7.5 %

Chemical additives Nitrite free

Emulsifiable slushing oils


Manufacturer

Product
(Designation)

BP Marine, Breakspear Way,


Hemel Hempstead,
Herts HP2 4UL
Castrol Int.
Pipers Way
Swindon SN3 1RE, UK
Deutsche Shell AG
berseering 35
22284 Hamburg, Germany

Solvex WT 3

Oil 9156

Emulsifiable slushing oils

0402-0000AA2.fm

Table 4-21

Diatsol M
Fedaro M

D-BC

Page 4 - 43

p~===
4.11 Specification for engine cooling water

Anti-freeze solutions with slushing properties


Manufacturer
BASF
Carl-Bosch-Str.
67063 Ludwigshafen, Rhein
Germany

Product
(Designation)
Glysantin G 48
Glysantin 9313
Glysantin G 05

Castrol Int.
Pipers Way
Swindon SN3 1RE, UK

Antifreeze NF, SF

BP, Britannic Tower


Moor Lane
London EC2Y 9B, UK

Anti-frost X2270A

Deutsche Shell AG
berseering 35
22284 Hamburg
Germany
Mobil Oil AG
Steinstrae 5
20095 Hamburg
Germany
Arteco/Technologiepark
Zwijnaarde 2
B-9052 Gent
Belgium
Total Lubricants
Paris, France

35 %

Glycoshell

Frostschutz 500

Havoline XLC

Glacelf Auto Supra


Total Organifreeze

Anti-freeze solutions with slushing properties

0402-0000AA2.fm

Table 4-22

Minimum
concentration

Page 4 - 44

D-BC

Specification for engine supplies


4.12 Cooling water inspecting

4.12

Cooling water inspecting

Summary

Testing the typical values of water

Acquire and check typical values of the operating


media to prevent or limit damage.

Short specification

The freshwater used to fill the cooling water circuits must satisfy the specifications. The cooling
water in the system must be checked regularly in
accordance with the maintenance schedule.

Typical
value/property

The following work/steps is/are necessary:

Water type

Acquisition of typical values for the operating fluid,


evaluation of the operating fluid and checking the
concentration of the anticorrosive agent.

pH value

Tools/equipment required

Chloride ion
content

Equipment for checking the freshwater quality


The following equipment can be used:
The MAN Diesel & Turbo water testing kit, or similar testing kit, with all necessary instruments and
chemicals that determine the water hardness, pH
value and chloride content (obtainable from MAN
Diesel & Turbo or Mar-Tec Marine, Hamburg).

Equipment for testing the concentration of additives


When using chemical additives:
Testing equipment in accordance with the supplier's recommendations. Testing kits from the supplier also include equipment that can be used to
determine the freshwater quality.

Total hardness

Table 4-23

Water for filling


and refilling
(without additive)

Circulating
water

Freshwater, free
of foreign matter

Treated cooling water

10 dGH1)

10 dGH1)

6.5

8 at 20 C
50 mg/l

(with additive)

7.5 at 20 C
50 mg/l2)

Quality specifications for cooling water


(abbreviated version)

1) dH

= German hardness
1 dH = 10 mg/l CaO
= 17.9 mg/l CaCO
=0.179 mmol/l
2) 1 mg/l = 1 ppm

Testing the concentration of anticorrosive agents

Short specification
Anticorrosive agent
Chemical
additives
Anti-freeze
agents

According to the quality specification, see

"Section 4.11: Specification for engine cooling


water, page 4-37".

According to the quality specification, see

"Section 4.11: Specification for engine cooling


water, page 4-37".

Concentration of the cooling water additive

0403-0000AA2.fm

Table 4-24

Concentration

gJ__

Page 4 - 45

Specification for engine supplies


4.12 Cooling water inspecting

Testing the concentration of chemical additives


The concentration should be tested every week,
and/or according to the maintenance schedule,
using the testing instruments, reagents and instructions of the relevant supplier.
Chemical slushing oils can only provide effective
protection if the right concentration is precisely
maintained. This is why the concentrations recommended by MAN Diesel & Turbo (quality specifications in "Section 4.11: Specification for engine cooling
water, page 4-37") must be complied with in all cases. These recommended concentrations may be
other than those specified by the manufacturer.

Testing the concentration of anti-freeze agents


The concentration must be checked in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions or the
test can be outsourced to a suitable laboratory. If
in doubt, consult MAN Diesel & Turbo.

Regular water samplings


Small quantities of lubricating oil in cooling water
can be found by visual check during regular water
sampling from the expansion tank.

Testing

0403-0000AA2.fm

We test cooling water for customers in our laboratory. To carry out the test, we will need a representative sample of abt. 0.5 l.

Page 4 - 46

JJ__

Specification for engine supplies


4.13 Cooling water system cleaning

4.13

Cooling water system cleaning

Summary
Remove contamination/residue from operating fluid systems, ensure/reestablish operating reliability.
Cooling water systems containing deposits or
contamination prevent effective cooling of parts.
Contamination and deposits must be regularly
eliminated.
This comprises the following:
Cleaning the system and, if required, removal of
limescale deposits, flushing the system.
Cleaning
The cooling water system must be checked for
contamination at regular intervals. Cleaning is required if the degree of contamination is high. This
work should ideally be carried out by a specialist

who can provide the right cleaning agents for the


type of deposits and materials in the cooling circuit. The cleaning should only be carried out by
the engine operator if this cannot be done by a
specialist.

Oil sludge
Oil sludge from lubricating oil that has entered the
cooling system or a high concentration of anticorrosive agents can be removed by flushing the system with freshwater to which some cleaning agent
has been added. Suitable cleaning agents are listed alphabetically in "Table 4-25: Cleaning agents for
removing oil sludge". Products by other manufacturers can be used providing they have similar properties. The manufacturer's instructions for use
must be strictly observed.

Manufacturer

Product

Concentration

Duration of cleaning procedure/temperature

Drew

HDE-777

4 5%

4 h at 50 60 C

Nalfleet

MaxiClean 2

25%

4 h at 60 C

Unitor

Aquabreak

0.05 0.5 %

4 h at ambient temperature

Vecom

Ultrasonic

4%

12 h at 50 60 C

Multi Cleaner
Table 4-25

Cleaning agents for removing oil sludge

Lime and rust deposits

0404-0000AA2.fm

Lime and rust deposits can form if the water is especially hard or if the concentration of the anticorrosive agent is too low. A thin lime scale layer can
be left on the surface as experience has shown
that this protects against corrosion. However,
limescale deposits with a thickness of more than
0.5 mm obstruct the transfer of heat and cause
thermal overloading of the components being
cooled.
Rust that has been flushed out may have an abrasive effect on other parts of the system, such as
the sealing elements of the water pumps. Together
with the elements that are responsible for water

gJ__

hardness, this forms what is known as ferrous


sludge which tends to gather in areas where the
flow velocity is low.
Products that remove limescale deposits are generally suitable for removing rust. Suitable cleaning
agents are listed alphabetically in "Table 4-26: Cleaning agents for removing limescale and rust deposits".
Products by other manufacturers can be used
providing they have similar properties. The manufacturer's instructions for use must be strictly observed. Prior to cleaning, check whether the
cleaning agent is suitable for the materials to be
cleaned.

Page 4 - 47

Specification for engine supplies


4.13 Cooling water system cleaning

The products listed in "Table 4-26: Cleaning agents for


removing limescale and rust deposits" are also suitable
for stainless steel.
Manufacturer
Drew

Product

Concentration

Duration of cleaning procedure/temperature

SAF-Acid

5 10 %

4 h at 60 70 C

Descale-IT

5 10 %

4 h at 60 70 C

Ferroclean

10 %

4 24 h at 60 70 C

Nalfleet 9 068

5%

4 h at 60 75 C

Unitor

Descalex

5 10 %

4 6 h at approx. 60 C

Vecom

Descalant F

3 10 %

Approx. 4 h at 50 60 C

Nalfleet

Cleaning agents for removing limescale and rust deposits

In emergencies only
Hydrochloric acid diluted in water or aminosulphonic acid may only be used in exceptional cases
if a special cleaning agent that removes limescale
deposits without causing problems is not available. Observe the following during application:

Stainless steel heat exchangers must never be


treated using diluted hydrochloric acid.

Cooling systems containing non-ferrous metals

(aluminium, red bronze, brass, etc.) must be


treated with deactivated aminosulphonic acid.
This acid should be added to water in a concentration of 3 5 %. The temperature of the
solution should be 40 50 C.

Diluted hydrochloric acid may only be used to


clean steel pipes. If hydrochloric acid is used as
the cleaning agent, there is always a danger
that acid will remain in the system, even when
the system has been neutralised and flushed.
This residual acid promotes pitting. We therefore recommend you have the cleaning carried
out by a specialist.

The carbon dioxide bubbles that form when limescale deposits are dissolved can prevent the cleaning agent from reaching boiler scale. It is therefore
absolutely necessary to circulate the water with
the cleaning agent to flush away the gas bubbles
and allow them to escape.

Page 4 - 48

The length of the cleaning process depends on the


thickness and composition of the deposits. Values
are provided for orientation in "Table 4-25: Cleaning
agents for removing oil sludge".

Following cleaning
The cooling system must be flushed several times
once it has been cleaned using cleaning agents.
Replace the water during this process. If acids are
used to carry out the cleaning, neutralise the cooling system afterwards with suitable chemicals
then flush. The system can then be refilled with
water that has been prepared accordingly.
Note!
Start the cleaning operation only when the engine has cooled down. Hot engine components must not come into contact with cold
water. Open the venting pipes before refilling
the cooling water system. Blocked venting
pipes prevent air from escaping which can
lead to thermal overloading of the engine.

Safety/environmental protection
The products to be used can endanger health and
may be harmful to the environment.
Follow the manufacturer's handling instructions
without fail.
The applicable regulations governing the disposal
of cleaning agents or acids must be observed.

gJ__

0404-0000AA2.fm

Table 4-26

Specification for engine supplies


4.14 Quality of water used in exhaust gas boiler plants

4.14

Quality of water used in exhaust gas boiler plants

Conditions

pH value at 25 C

Like fuel, lube oil and engine cooling water, water


for exhaust gas boiler plants is a consumable,
which has carefully to be chosen, treated and supervised. In the case of improper water maintenance, corrosion and deposits may form up in the
water. Deposits will on their part again result in
corrosion and have an adverse effect on heat
transfer.
Any additional requirements for water quality
specified in the boiler manufacturer's manual have
to be taken into consideration.
Applications
Two different systems are used:

Exhaust gas boiler plants generate steam,

which is used as heat transfer agent in other


systems.

With regard to steam turbines, steam generated by means of the exhaust gas temperature is
used for energy production.

Separate demands made on feed and circulating


water are valid for both application cases.
Exhaust gas boiler without steam turbine

0412-0000PA.fm

The quality requirements for feed and circulating


water comply with EN 12953-10. Low-salt and
salt-laden feed water can be used if the specifications in "Table 4-27: Requirements for feed water in exhaust gas boiler plants" are kept. The utilisation of the
salt-free feed water is possible, but not necessary.
When using saltless feed water, corresponding
limit values are valid for circulating water.

Hardness

< 0.06 dH resp.


< 0.01 mmol/l

Conductivity at 25 C

Oxygen content

< 0.05 mg/l

Fe

< 0.3 mg/l

Cu

< 0.05 mg/l

Oil + grease
Table 4-27

< 1 mg/l
Requirements for feed water in exhaust gas
boiler plants

pH value at 25 C
Conductivity at 25 C

10.5 12
< 6,000 S/cm

Acid capacity up to pH 8.2

1 15 mmol/l

Phosphate

10 30 mg/l

Silicate [SiO2]
Table 4-28

see EN 12953-10
Requirements for circulating water in exhaust
gas boiler plants

Exhaust gas boiler with steam turbine


Only saltless feed water, that complies with the requirements according to "Table 4-29: Requirements
for feed water in steam turbines", may be used for
steam turbines.
Saltfree feed water
pH value at 25 C
Conductivity at 25 C

> 9.2
< 0.2 S/cm1)

Oxygen content

< 0.1 mg/l

Iron, total Fe

< 0.02 mg/l

Copper, total Cu

< 0.003 mg/l

Silicicate, SiO2

< 0.02 mg/l

Na + K

< 0.01 mg/l

Table 4-29
1)

_J_a

> 9.2

Requirements for feed water in steam turbines

After strongly acid sample drawing cation exchanger.

32/40, 32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

Page 4 - 49

Specification for engine supplies


4.14 Quality of water used in exhaust gas boiler plants

The additional requirements defined by the EN


12952-12 and by the manufacturer of this steam
turbine have to be fulfilled.
The quality of the boiler water and steam are depending on the treatment used. The requirements
are defined in the EN 12952-12 and the manual of
the steam turbine.

Iron content
Acid capacity of up to pH 8.2 (p value)
Copper content
Silicates (SiO2)
The following values of the boiler water are to be
checked and documented regularly:

Treatment (only for exhaust boiler without steam turbine)

pH Value, daily

The feed water has to be treated with suitable


chemicals. If an exhaust gas boiler without turbine
is used, the conditioning agent must contain the
following products:

Hardness, daily

Residue softener

Additive concentration (according to manufac-

Oxygen binder

Conductivity, daily
Iron and copper content
Acid capacity of up to pH 8.2 (p value)
turer specifications)

Alkalising medium

Phosphate content

Steam-volatile alkalising medium for corrosion

SiO2 content

Possible dispersing agent (in particular, if de-

For steam turbines additional measurements (e.g.


steam and condensate quality) are required.
Please consult the manual of the turbine manufacturer and the EN 12952-12.

protection in the condensate system (not compulsorily required in the case of saltless feed
water)
posits already exist in the boiler system)

MAN Diesel & Turbo recommends using combination products. This simplifies the treatment and
ensures that all vital points concerning water treatment are taken into consideration.
The recommendations of the turbine manufacturer
are to be taken into consideration for the treatment
of water used in steam turbines. General recommendations can, in this case, not be given.

Safety/environmental protection
Wrong handling of operating media may cause
harm to health, safety and environment. Respective instruction of the manufacturer have to be followed.

Water maintenance
The following values of the feed water are to be
checked and documented regularly:

pH Value, daily
Conductivity, daily
Hardness, daily
Oxygen content, resp. surplus at oxygen bind0412-0000PA.fm

er, daily

Concentration of additives (according to manufacturer specifications)

Page 4 - 50

32/40, 32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

_J_a

Specification for engine supplies


4.15 Specification for intake air (combustion air)

4.15

Specication for intake air (combustion air)

General

Requirements

The quality and condition of intake air (combustion


air) have a signicant effect on the engine output,
wear and emissions of the engine. In this regard,
not only are the atmospheric conditions extremely
important, but also contamination by solid and
gaseous foreign matter.

Liquid fuel engines: As minimum, inlet air (combustion air) must be cleaned by a G3 class lter as per
EN779, if the combustion air is drawn in from inside (e.g. from the machine room/engine room). If
the combustion air is drawn in from outside, in the
environment with a risk of higher inlet air contamination (e.g. due to sand storms, due to loading
and unloading grain cargo vessels or in the surroundings of cement plants), additional measures
must be taken. This includes the use of pre-separators, pulse lter systems and a higher grade of
lter efciency class at least up to M5 according to
EN779.

Mineral dust in the intake air increases wear.


Chemicals and gases promote corrosion.
This is why effective cleaning of intake air (combustion air) and regular maintenance/ cleaning of
the air lter are required.
When designing the intake air system, the maximum permissible overall pressure drop (lter, silencer, pipe line) of 20 mbar must be taken into
consideration.
Exhaust turbochargers for marine engines are
equipped with silencers enclosed by a lter mat as
a standard. The quality class (lter class) of the lter mat corresponds to the G3 quality in accordance with EN779.

Gas engines and dual-fuel engines: As minimum, inlet air (combustion air) must be cleaned by a G3
class lter as per EN779, if the combustion air is
drawn in from inside (e.g. from machine room/engine room). Gas engines or dual-fuel engines must
be equipped with a dry lter. Oil bath lters are not
permitted because they enrich the inlet air with oil
mist. This is not permissible for gas operated engines because this may result in engine knocking.
If the combustion air is drawn in from outside, in
the environment with a risk of higher inlet air contamination (e.g. due to sand storms, due to loading and unloading grain cargo vessels or in the
surroundings of cement plants) additional measures must be taken. This includes the use of preseparators, pulse lter systems and a higher grade
of lter efciency class at least up to M5 according
to EN779.
In general, the following applies:
The inlet air path from air lter to engine shall be
designed and implemented airtight so that no false
air may be drawn in from the outdoor.

0411-0000AA2.fm

The concentration downstream of the air lter


and/or upstream of the turbocharger inlet must
not exceed the following limit values.

bJ_a

Page 4 - 51

Specification for engine supplies


4.15 Specification for intake air (combustion air)

Properties

Typical value

Unit1)

max. 5

mg/Nm3

Particle size < 5 m: minimum 90 % of the particle number


Particle size < 10 m: minimum 98 % of the particle number
Dust (sand, cement, CaO, Al2O3 etc.)
Chlorine

max. 1.5

Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

max. 1.25

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

max. 5

Salt (NaCl)

max. 1

Table 4-30
1)

One

Nm3

Intake air (combustion air) Typical values to be observed


corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at 0 C and 101.32 kPa.

Note!

0411-0000AA2.fm

Intake air shall not contain any flammable gases. Make sure that the combustion air is not
explosive and is not drawn in from the ATEX
Zone.

Page 4 - 52

E-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.

======

Engine supply systems

Kapiteltitel 5 M2.fm

Page 5 - 1

Kapiteltitel 5 M2.fm

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.

Page 5 - 2

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.1.1 Engine pipe connections and dimensions

5.1

Basic principles for pipe selection

5.1.1

Engine pipe connections and dimensions

The external piping systems are to be installed and


connected to the engine by the shipyard or by the
plant engineering company for a power plant.
The design of the piping has to take into account
the maximum allowed pressure losses, the recommended flow rates, the requirements of the installations (e.g. pumps, valves), the limitations of the
piping material (e.g. erosion and corrosion resistance) and secondary effects (e.g. noise).
Therefore, depending on specific conditions of
piping systems, it may be necessary to adopt even
lower flow rates as stated in the table below.
Generally it is not recommended to adopt higher
flow rates.
-

Recommended flow rates (m/s)


Suction side

Delivery side

Fresh water (cooling water)

1.0

2.0

2.0

3.5

Lube oil

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.5

Sea water

1.0

1.5

1.5

2.5

Diesel fuel

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Heavy fuel oil

0.3

0.8

1.0

1.8

Natural gas (<5 bar)

5 10

Natural gas (>5 bar)

20 30

Pressurized air for control air system

2 10

Pressurized air for starting air system

25 30

Intake air

20 25

Exhaust gas
Recommended flow rates

0501-0000MA2.fm

Table 5-1

40

K-BC

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 3

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.1.1 Engine pipe connections and dimensions

Specication of materials for piping


General

The properties of the piping shall conform to international standards, e.g. DIN EN 10208, DIN
EN 10216, DIN EN 10217 or DIN EN 10305,
DIN EN 13480-3.

For piping, black steel pipe should be used;


stainless steel shall be used where necessary.

Outer surface of pipes need to be primed and


painted according to the specication for stationary power plants consider Q10.090285013.

The pipes are to be sound, clean and free from

all imperfections. The internal surfaces must be


thoroughly cleaned and all scale, grit, dirt and
sand used in casting or bending removed. No
sand is to be used as packing during bending
operations. For further instructions regarding
stationary power plants please also consider
Q10.09028-2104.

In the case of pipes with forged bends care is

to be taken that internal surfaces are smooth


and no stray weld metal left after joining.

Fuel oil pipes, Lube oil pipes


Galvanised steel pipe must not be used for the
piping of the system as acid components of the
fuel may attack zinc.

Proposed material (EN)


E235, P235GH, X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2
Starting air/control air pipes
Galvanised steel pipe must not be used for the
piping of the system.

Proposed material (EN)


E235, P235GH, X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2
Urea pipes (for SCR only)
Galvanised steel pipe, brass and copper components must not be used for the piping of the system.

Proposed material (EN)


X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2

Please see the instructions in our Work card

6682000.16-01E for cleaning of steel pipes before tting together with the Q10.09028-2104
for stationary power plants.

LT-, HT- and nozzle cooling water pipes


Galvanised steel pipe must not be used for the
piping of the system as all additives contained in
the engine cooling water attack zinc.
Moreover, there is the risk of the formation of local
electrolytic element couples where the zinc layer
has been worn off, and the risk of aeration corrosion where the zinc layer is not properly bonded to
the substrate.

Proposed material (EN)

0501-0000MA2.fm

P235GH, E235, X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2

Page 5 - 4

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

K-BC

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels

5.1.2

Figure 5-1

Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels

Diagram condensate amount

The amount of condensate precipitated from the


air can be quite large, particularly in the tropics. It
depends on the condition of the intake air (temperature, relative air humidity) in comparison to the
charge air after charge air cooler (pressure, temperature).
In addition the condensed water quantity in the
engine needs to be minimized. This is achieved by
controlling the charge air temperature.
Determining the amount of condensate:

0501-0300AA2.fm

First determine the point I of intersection in the left


side of the diagram (intake air) between the corresponding relative air humidity curve and the ambient air temperature.
Secondly determine the point II of intersection in
the right side of the diagram (charge air) between

aJ_a

the corresponding charge air pressure curve and


the charge air temperature.
Note that charge air pressure as mentioned in
"Section: Engine and operation Planning data" is
shown in absolute pressure.
At both points of intersection read out the values
[g water/kg air] on the vertically axis.
The intake air water content I minus the charge air
water content II is the condensate amount A which
will precipitate. If the calculations result is negative
no condensate will occur.
For an example see "Figure 5-1: Diagram condensate
amount": Intake air water content 30 g/kg minus
26 g/kg = 4 g of water/kg of air will precipitate.
To calculate the condensate amount during filling
of the starting air vessel just use the 30 bar curve
in a similar procedure.

Page 5 - 5

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels

Example to determine the amount of water accumulating in the charge-air pipe


Parameter

Unit

Value

Engine output (P)

kW

9,000

kg/kWh

6.9

Ambient air condition (I):Ambient air temperature

35

Relative air humidity

80

Charge air condition (II):Charge air temperature after cooler

56

Charge air pressure (overpressure)

bar

3.0

Solution acc. to above diagram:

Unit

Value

Water content of air according to point of intersection (I)

kg of water/kg of air

0.030

Maximum water content of air according to point of intersection (II)

kg of water/kg of air

0.026

Specific air flow (le)

The difference between (I) and (II) is the condensed water amount (A)
A= I II = 0.030 0.026 = 0.004 kg of water/kg of air
Total amount of condensate QA:
QA= A x le x P
QA= 0.004 x 6.9 x 9,000 = 248 kg/h
Determining the condensate amount in the charge air pipe

0501-0300AA2.fm

Table 5-2

Page 5 - 6

aJ_a

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels

Example to determine the condensate amount in the compressed air vessel


Parameter

Unit

Value

Volumetric capacity of tank (V)

litre
m3

3,500
3.5

Temperature of air in starting air vessel (T)

C
K

40
313

Air pressure in starting air vessel (p above atmosphere)

bar

30

Air pressure in starting air vessel (p absolute)

bar
N-----2
m

31
31 x 105

Nm ------------kgxK

287

Ambient air temperature

35

Relative air humidity

80

Water content of air according to point of intersection (I)

kg of water/kg of air

0.030

Maximum water content of air according to point of intersection (III)

kg of water/kg of air

0.002

Gas constant for air (R)

Weight of air in the starting air vessel is calculated as follows:


5

pV
31 10 3 5
m = ------------- = ------------------------------------ = 121 kg
RT
287 313
Solution acc. to above diagram:

The difference between (I) and (III) is the condensed water amount (B)
B = I III
B= 0.030 0.002 = 0.028 kg of water/kg of air
Total amount of condensate in the vessel QB:
QB = m x B
QB = 121 * 0.028 = 3.39 kg
Determining the condensate amount in the compressed air vessel

0501-0300AA2.fm

Table 5-3

aJ_a

Page 5 - 7

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0501-0300AA2.fm

5.1.2 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels

Page 5 - 8

aJ_a

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram

5.2

Lube oil system

5.2.1

Lube oil system diagram

0502-000bMB2.fm

Please see overleaf!

G-BA

32/40

Page 5 - 9

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

Figure 5-2

Page 5 - 10

0502-000bMB2.fm

5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram

Lube oil system diagram 32/40 Service pump attached

32/40

G-BA

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram

Legend
CF-001

Separator

2171

Engine inlet

CF-003

MDO separator

2173

Oil pump inlet

FIL-001

Automatic filter

2175

Oil pump outlet

FIL-002

Indicator filter

2197

Drain from oil pan

1,2FIL-004

Suction filter

2199

Drain from oil pan

H-002

Preheater

2598

Vent

HE-002

Cooler

2599

Oil return from turbocharger

NRF-001

Non return flap

2898

Oil mist pipe from engine

P-001

Service pump engine driven

9187

Drain from the crankcase


foot

P-012

Transfer pump

9197

Drain from the crankcase


foot

P-074

Stand by pump electrically


driven

9199

Dirt oil drain

P-075

Cylinder lube oil pump


Pressure relief valve

PSV-004

Safety valve

T-001

Service tank

T-006

Leakage oil collecting tank

T-021

Sludge tank

TCV-001

Temperature control valve

1,2,3TR-001

Condensate trap

V-001

By-pass valve

Discontinuous flushing: oil discharge above the oil sur face

0502-000bMB2.fm

PCV-007

Depending on automatic filter:


Continuous flushing: oil discharge below the oil surface

G-BA

32/40

Page 5 - 11

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

Figure 5-3

Page 5 - 12

0502-000bMB2.fm

5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram

Lube oil system diagram 32/40 Service pump electrically driven

32/40

G-BA

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram

Legend
CF-001

Separator

2171

Engine inlet

CF-003

MDO separator

2197

Drain from oil pan

FIL-001

Automatic filter

2199

Drain from oil pan

FIL-002

Indicator filter

2598

Vent

1,2FIL-004

Suction filter

2599

Oil return from turbocharger

H-002

Preheater

2898

Oil mist pipe from engine

HE-002

Cooler

9187

Drain from the crankcase


foot

LOV-001

Quick filling valve

9197

Drain from the crankcase


foot

NRV-002

Non return flap

9199

Dirt oil drain

P-012

Transfer pump

1,2P-074

Service pump electrically


driven

Depending on automatic filter:

P-075

Cylinder lube oil pump

Discontinuous flushing: oil discharge above the oil sur face

PCV-007

Pressure relief valve

T-050

Run down tank for engine


lubrication

T-001

Service tank

T-006

Leakage oil collecting tank

T-021

Sludge tank

T-073

Run down tank for TC lubrication

TCV-001

Temperature control valve

1,2,3TR-001

Condensate trap

V-001

By-pass valve

0502-000bMB2.fm

Continuous flushing: oil discharge below the oil surface

G-BA

32/40

Page 5 - 13

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0502-000bMB2.fm

5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram

Page 5 - 14

32/40

G-BA

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

5.2.2

Lube oil system description

The diagrams represent the standard design of external lube oil service systems, with a combination
of engine mounted and detached, freestanding,
lube oil pump(s).
The internal lubrication of the engine and the turbocharger is provided with a force-feed lubrication
system.
The lubrication of the cylinder liners is designed as
a separate system attached to the engine but
served by the inner lubrication system.
In multi-engine plants, for each engine a separate
lube oil system is required.
For dual-fuel engines (gas-diesel engines) a supplement will explain additional specific requirements.
T-001/Service tank
The main purpose for the service tank is to separate air and particles from the lube oil, before being
pumped back to the engine. For the design of the
service tank the class requirements have to be
taken in consideration. For design requirements of
MAN Diesel & Turbo see "Section 5.2.5: Lube oil service tank, page 5-29".

installed close to the lube oil tank in order to prevent the lube oil backflow when the engine has
been shut off. For engine mounted pumps this
non-return flap must be by-passed by a relief valve
(PSV-004, DN50) to protect the pump seals
against high pressure because of counter rotation
(during shut down).
FIL-004/Suction strainer
The suction strainer protect the lube oil pumps
against larger dirt particles that may have accumulated in the tank. It is recommended to use a cone
type strainer with a mesh size of 1.5 mm. Two manometer installed before and after the strainer indicate when manual cleaning of filter becomes
necessary, which should preferably be done in
port.
P-001/P-074/Lube oil pumps
For ships with a single main engine drive it is preferable to design the lube oil system with a combination of an engine driven lube oil pump
(P-001) and an electrically driven stand-by pump
(P-074) (100 % capacity).

H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine

For ships with more than one main engine the


electrically driven pump can be dimensioned
smaller, to be used as a priming pump only.

The lube oil in the service tank and the system


shall be heated up to 40 C prior to the engine
start. A constant circulation of the lube oil with the
stand-by pump is not recommended.

As long as the installed stand-by pump is providing 100 % capacity of the operating pump, the
class requirement to have an operating pump in
spare on board, is fulfilled.

H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant

The main advantages for an engine-driven lube oil


pump are:

The lube oil in the tank and the system shall be


heated up to 40 C during stand-by mode of
one engine. A constant circulation through the
separate heater is recommended with a small
priming pump.

Reduced power demand for GenSet/PTO for


normal operation.

Continuous lube oil supply during blackout and


emergency stop for engine run-out.

0502-000aMA2.fm

Suction pipes
Suction pipes must be installed with a steady
slope and dimensioned for the total resistance (incl. pressure drop for suction filter) not exceeding
the pump suction head. A non-return flap must be

C-BD

32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 15

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

In general additional installations are to be considered for different pump arrangements:

To comply with the rules of classification societies.

To ensure continuous lube oil supply during

blackout and emergency stop for engine runout.

For required pump capacities see "Section: Planning


data for emission standard IMO Tier II".
In case of unintended engine stop (e.g. blackout)
the post lubrication must be started as soon as
possible (latest within 20 min) after the engine has
stopped and must persist for minimum 15 min.
This is required to cool down the bearings of T.C.
and hot inner engine components.
HE-002/Lube oil cooler

Dimensioning
Heat data, flow rates and tolerances are indicated
in "Section: Planning data for emission standard
IMO Tier II".
On the lube oil side the pressure drop shall not exceed 1.1 bar.
TCV-001/Temperature control valve

Lube oil treatment


The treatment of the circulating lube oil can be divided into two major functions:

Removal of contaminations to keep up the lube


oil performance.

Retention of dirt to protect the engine.


The removal of combustion residues, water and
other mechanical contaminations is the major task
of separators/centrifuges (CF-001) installed in bypass to the main lube oil service system of the engine. The installation of a separator per engine is
recommended to ensure a continuous separation
during engine operation.
The system integrated filters protect the diesel engine in the main circuit retaining all residues which
may cause a harm to the engine. Depending on
the filter design, the collected residues are to be
removed from the filter mesh by automatic back
flushing, manual cleaning or changing the filter
cartridge. The retention capacity of the installed filter should be as high as possible.
For selection of an applicable filter arrangement,
the customer request for operation and maintenance, as well as the class requirements, have to
be taken in consideration.

The valve is to regulate the inlet oil temperature of


the engine. The control valve can be executed with
wax-type thermostats.
Type of Engine

32/40

Set point
lube oil inlet
temperature

Type of temperature control


valve1)

65 C

Thermostatic control valve (wax/copper elements) or


electrically actuated
control valve (interface to engine control)

32/44CR
48/60B,
48/60CR
51/60DF
Table 5-4

55 C

Temperature control valve

1) Full

Page 5 - 16

32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

0502-000aMA2.fm

open temperature of wax/copper elements must be =


set point.

C-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

Arrangement principles for lube oil filters


FIL-001/FIL-002
Depending on engine type, the number of installed
main engines in one plant and on the safety standEngine type

FIL 001
automatic filter
continuous flushing

32/44CR

incl. 2. filter stage

ard wanted by the customer, different arrangement principles for the filters FIL-001/FIL-002 are
possible:

FIL 001
automatic filter
intermittent flushing

FIL 002
duplex filter
as indicator filter

not required

not required

engine mounted
32/40
48/60B
48/60CR
51/60DF

incl. 2. filter stage


installed close to the engine
-

possible with or w/o bypass

required

mounted close to the engine

mounted downstream FIL 001

It is allways recommended to install one separator in partial flow of each engine.


Filter design has to be approved by MAN Diesel & Turbo.
Table 5-5

Arrangement principles for lube oil filters

FIL-001/Automatic filter
The automatic back washing filter is to be installed
as a main filter. The back washing/flushing of the
filter elements has to be arranged in a way that
lube oil flow and pressure will not be affected. The
Engine type

Application

flushing discharge (oil/sludge mixture) is led to the


service tank. Via suction line into a separator the
oil will be permanently bypass cleaned. This provides an efficient final removal of deposits. (See
"Section 5.2.5: Lube oil service tank, page 5-29").

Location of
FIL001

Type of lube oil automatic filter FIL001


Continuous flushing
type

32/44CR

Single-main-engine-plant Engine mounted


Multi-main-engine-plant

32/40, 48/60B,
Single-main-engine-plant Engine room
48/60CR, 51/60DF Multi-main-engine-plant Close to engine

0502-000aMA2.fm

Table 5-6

30 m 1st filter stage


50 m 2nd filter stage

34 m 1st filter stage


80 m 2nd filter stage

34 m
(Without 2nd filter stage,
double filter 60 m required)

Automatic filter

As state-of-the-art, automatic filter types are recommended to be equipped with an integrated


second filtration stage. This second stage protects
the engine from particles which may pass the first
stage filter elements in case of any malfunction. If
the lube oil system is equipped with a two-stage
automatic filter, additional indicator filter FIL-002
can be avoided. In case of an automatic filter
mounted on engine, an indicator filter cannot be
installed, so the second filter stage inside auto-

C-BD

Intermittent flushing
type

matic filter is essential. As far as the automatic filter


is installed without any additional filters downstream, before the engine inlet, the filter has to be
installed as close as possible to the engine (see
"Table 5-5: Arrangement principles for lube oil filters"). In
that case the pipe section between filter and engine inlet must be closely inspected before installation. This pipe section must be divided and
flanges have to be fitted so that all bends and

32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 17

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

welding seams can be inspected and cleaned prior to final installation.


Differential pressure gauges have to be installed,
to protect the filter cartridges and to indicate clogging condition of the filter. A high differential pressure has to be indicated as an alarm.
For filter mesh sizes see "Table 5-6: Automatic filter".
V-001/Shut-off valve
This shut-off valve is only to be provided for singleengine plants. The valve is closed during normal
operation. In case the lube oil automatic filter
FIL-001 has to be taken out of operation, the valve
can be opened and the automatic filter shut off.
Consequently, the automatic filter is by-passed.
The lube oil indicator filter FIL-002 temporarily
takes over the task of the automatic filter. In case
of a two-stage automatic filter without a following
indicator filter, there is no by-pass required. Engine
can run for max. 72 hours with the second filter
stage, but has to be stopped after. This measure
Type of Engine

FIL-002/Indicator filter
The indicator filter is a duplex filter, which must be
cleaned manually. It must be installed downstream of the automatic filter, as close as possible
to the engine. The pipe section between filter and
engine inlet must be closely inspected before installation. This pipe section must be divided and
flanges have to be fitted so that all bends and
welding seams can be inspected and cleaned prior to final installation.
In case of a two-stage automatic filter, the installation of an indicator filter can be avoided. Customers who want to fulfil a higher safety level, are free
to mount an additional duplex filter close to the engine.

Lube oil indicator filter FIL-002


32/44CR

Application

ensures that disturbances in backwashing do not


result in a complete failure of filtering and that the
main stream filter can be cleaned without interrupting filtering.

32/40,
48/60B, 48/60CR
51/60DF

32/40,
48/60B, 48/60CR,
51/60DF

Single-main-engine-plant

Single-main-engine-plant

Single-main-engine-plant

Multi- main-engine-plant

Multi- main-engine-plant

Multi-main-engine-plant

Requirement for indicator filter

Indicator filter not required

Indicator filter not required

To be installed in the
external piping system close
to the engine

Explanation of requirement

Because the engine


mounted automatic filter
FIL 001 is of continuous
flushing type incl. 2nd filter
stage

If the installed automatic filter FIL 001 is of continuous


flushing type incl. 2nd filter
stage

If the installed automatic filter FIL 001 is of intermittent


flushing type if the 2nd filter
stage is missed

Max. mesh width (absolute)


Indicator filter

The indicator filter protects the engine also in case


of malfunctions of the automatic filter. The monitoring system of the automatic filter generates an
alarm signal to alert the operating personnel. A
maintenance of the automatic filter becomes necessary. For this purpose the lube oil flow thought
the automatic filter has to be stopped. Single-

Page 5 - 18

60 m

main-engine-plants can continue to stay in operation by by-passing the automatic filter. Lube oil can
still be filtrated sufficiently in this situation by only
using the indicator filter.
In multi-engine-plants, where it is not possible to
by-pass the automatic filter without loss of lube oil

32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

C-BD

0502-000aMA2.fm

Table 5-7

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

filtration, the affected engine has to be stopped in


this situation.
The design of the indicator filter must ensure that
no parts of the filter can become loose and enter
the engine.
The drain connections equipped with shut-off fittings in the two chambers of the indicator filter returns into the leak oil tank (T-006). Draining will
remove the dirt accumulated in the casing and
prevents contamination of the clean oil side of the
filter. For filter mesh sizes and surface loads see
"Table 5-7: Indicator filter".

Indication and alarm of filters


The automatic filter FIL-001, the indicator duplex
filter FIL-002 and the suction strainer
FIL-004 are equipped with local visual differential
pressure indicators. The filter FIL-001 and the filter
FIL-002 are additionally equipped with differential
pressure switches. The switches are used for prealarm and main alarm. The alarms of the automatic
filter and indicator/duplex filter are processed in
the engine control and safety system and are available for the ship alarm system.

Differential pressure between filter inlet and outlet (dp)

Automatic fil- Intermittent flushter FIL-001


ing type

dp switch with lower set point is active

dp switch with higher


set point is active

This dp switch has to be installed twice if an intermittent


flushing filter is used. The first switch is used for the filter
control; it will start the automatic flushing procedure.

The dp main alarm "filter failure" is generated immediately. If the main alarm is still
active after 30 min, the
engine output power will be
reduced automatically.

The second switch is adjusted at the identical set point


as the first. Once the second switch is activated, and
after a time delay of approx. 3 min, the dp pre-alarm "filter is polluted" is generated. The time delay becomes
necessary to effect the automatic flushing procedure
before and to evaluate its effect.
Continuous flushing type

The dp pre-alarm: "Filter is polluted" is generated immediately

Duplex/Indicator filter
FIL-002
Table 5-8

Indication and alarm of filters

CF-001/Separator
The lube oil is intensively cleaned by separation in
the by-pass thus relieving the filters and allowing
an economical design.
The separator should be of the self- cleaning type.
The design is to be based on a lube oil quantity of
1.0 l/kW. This lube oil quantity should be cleaned
within 24 hours at:

0502-000aMA2.fm

HFO-operation 6 7 times
MDO-operation 4 5 times
Dual-fuel

engines
operating
on
gas
(+MDO/MGO for ignition only) 4 5 times

C-BD

The formula for determining the separator flow


rate (Q) is:

1,0 P n
24

Separator flow rate

l/h

Total engine output

kW

HFO= 7, MDO= 5, MGO= 5, Gas(+MDO/MGO for


ignition only) = 5

With the evaluated flow rate the size of separator


has to be selected according to the evaluation ta-

32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 19

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

Separator equipment
The preheater H-002 must be able to heat the oil
to 95 C and the size is to be selected accordingly.
In addition to a PI-temperature control, which
avoids a thermal overloading of the oil, silting of
the preheater must be prevented by high turbulence of the oil in the preheater.
Control accuracy 1 C.
Cruise ships in arctic waters require larger preheaters. In this case the size of the preheater must
be calculated with a t of 60 K.
The freshwater supplied must be treated as specified by the separator supplier.
The supply pumps shall be of the free-standing
type, i.e. not mounted on the separator and are to
be installed in the immediate vicinity of the lube oil
service tank.
This arrangement has three advantages:

Suction of lube oil without causing cavitation.


The lube oil separator need not be installed in

the vicinity of the service tank but can be


mounted in the separator room together with
the fuel oil separators.

Better matching of the capacity to the required


separator throughput.

As a reserve for the lube oil separator, the use of


the MDO separator is admissible. For reserve operation the MDO separator must be converted accordingly. This includes the pipe connection to the
lube oil system which must not be implemented
with valves or spectacle flanges. The connection is
to be executed by removable change-over joints
that will definitely prevent MDO from getting into
the lube oil circuit. See also rules and regulations
of classification societies.

PCV-007/Pressure control valve


By use of the pressure control valve, a constant
lube oil pressure before the engine is adjusted.
The pressure control valve is installed upstream of
the lube oil cooler. The installation position is to be
observed. By spilling off exceeding lube oil quantities upstream of the major components these
components can be sized smaller. The return pipe
(spilling pipe) from the pressure control valve returns into the lube oil service tank.
The measurement point of the pressure control
pipe is connected directly to the engine in order to
measure the lube oil pressure at the engine. In this
way the pressure losses of filters, pipes and cooler
are compensated automatically (see "Section 5.2.6:

Pressure control valve, page 5-33").

TR-001/Condensate trap
The condensate traps required for the vent pipes
of the turbocharger, the engine crankcase and the
service tank must be installed as close as possible
to the vent connections. This will prevent condensate water, which has formed on the cold venting
pipes, to enter the engine or service tank.
See "Section: Lube oil system Crankcase vent and tank
vent".
T-006/Leakage oil tank
Leaked fuel and the dirty oil drained from the lube
oil filter casings is collected in this tank. It is to be
emptied into the sludge tank. The content must
not be added to the fuel. It is not permitted to add
lube oil to the fuel.
Alternatively, separate leakage oil tanks for fuel
and lube oil can be installed.
P-012 Transfer pump
The transfer pump supplies fresh oil from the lube
oil storage tank to the operating tank. Starting and
stopping of the pump should preferably be done
automatically by float switches fitted in the tank.
P-075/Cylinder lube oil pump
The pump fitted to the engine is driven by an electric motor (asynchronous motor

Page 5 - 20

32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

C-BD

0502-000aMA2.fm

ble of the manufacturer. MAN Diesel & Turbo


strictly recommend to use evaluation tables according to a "certified flow rate" (CFR). The separator rating stated by the manufacturer should be
higher than the flow rate (Q) calculated according
to the above formula.

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

380 420 V/50 Hz or 380 460 V/60 Hz threephase AC with pole changing).
For the cylinder lubrication MAN Diesel & Turbo
will supply a Control Unit inclusive a pump contactor, with a power consumption of about 0.5 kW for
pump, control and heating.
This value must be doubled for V-engines, as two
Control Units (one for each row) are supplied in
one cabinet.
Withdrawal points for samples
Points for drawing lube oil samples are to be provided upstream and downstream of the filters and
the separator, to verify the effectiveness of these
system components.
Piping system

0502-000aMA2.fm

It is recommended to use pipes according to the


pressure class PN 10.

C-BD

32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 21

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0502-000aMA2.fm

5.2.2 Lube oil system description

Page 5 - 22

32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

C-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.3 Prelubrication/postlubrication

5.2.3

Prelubrication/postlubrication

Prelubrication
The prelubrication oil pump must be switched on
at least 5 minutes before engine start. The prelubrication oil pump serves to assist the engine attached main lube oil pump, until this can provide a
sufficient flow rate.
Pressure before engine . . . . . . . 0.3 0.6 barg
Oil temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . min. 40 C
Note!
Above mentioned pressure must be ensured
also up to the highest possible lube oil temperature before the engine.
Engine
type

Prelubrication/postlubrication pumps Minimum needed delivery rates (m3/h)


Note!
Oil pressure > 0.3 bar must be ensured also for lube oil temperatures up to 80 C. Consider additional external automatic lube oil filter by adding to minimum delivery rates 1/2 of its nominal flushing amount.
No. of cylinders
6L

7L

8L

9L

10L

12V

14V

16V

18V

20V

32/40

24

26

29

31

36

40

44

49

32/44CR

26

29

31

34

36

37

41

46

50

54

32/44K

26

29

31

34

36

35/44DF

18

20

23

25

28

30

35

40

45

50

48/60B,
48/60CR
48/60TS

35

41

47

53

70

82

93

105

51/60DF

35

41

47

53

70

82

93

105

Table 5-9

Delivery rates of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps

Postlubrication
The prelubrication oil pumps are also to be used
for postlubrication when the engine is stopped.

0502-0300MA2.fm

Postlubrication is effected for a period of 15 min.

A-BD

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 23

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0502-0300MA2.fm

5.2.3 Prelubrication/postlubrication

Page 5 - 24

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

A-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.4 Lube oil outlets

5.2.4

Lube oil outlets

Lube oil drain


Two connections for oil drain pipes are located on
both ends of the engine oil sump, except for
L48/60 with flexible engine mounting with one
drain arranged in the middle of each side.
For an engine installed in the horizontal position,
two oil drain pipes are required, one at the coupling end and one at the free end.
If the engine is installed in an inclined position,
three oil drain pipes are required, two at the lower
end and one at the higher end of the engine oil
sump.
The drain pipes must be kept short. The slanted
pipe ends must be immersed in the oil, so as to
create a liquid seal between crankcase and tank.
Expansion joints
At the connection of the oil drain pipes to the service tank, expansion joints are required.
Shut-off butterfly valves
If for lack of space, no cofferdam can be provided
underneath the service tank, it is necessary to install shut-off butterfly valves in the drain pipes. If
the ship should touch ground, these butterfly
valves can be shut via linkages to prevent the ingress of seawater through the engine.

0502-0500MA2.fm

Drain pipes, shut-off butterfly valves with linkages,


expansion joints, etc. are not supplied by the engine builder.

D-AF

32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 25

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0502-0500MA2.fm

5.2.4 Lube oil outlets

Page 5 - 26

32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

D-AF

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.4 Lube oil outlets

Lube oil outlets Drawings

0502-0501MB2.fm

Rigidly mounted engines

Figure 5-4

D-AF

Lube oil outlets L32/40

32/40

Page 5 - 27

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

Figure 5-5

Page 5 - 28

0502-0501MB2.fm

5.2.4 Lube oil outlets

Lube oil outlets V32/40

32/40

D-AF

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.5 Lube oil service tank

5.2.5

Lube oil service tank

The lube oil service tank is to be arranged over the


entire area below the engine, in order to ensure
uniform vertical thermal expansion of the whole
engine foundation.
To provide for adequate degassing, a minimum
distance is required between tank top and the
highest operating level. The low oil level should still
permit the lube oil to be drawn in free of air if the
ship is pitching severely

Lube oil preheating


Preheating the lube oil to 40 C is effected by the
preheater of the separator via the free-standing
pump. The preheater must be enlarged in size if
necessary, so that it can heat the content of the
service tank to 40 C, within 4 hours.

5 longitudinal inclination for


ship's lengths 100 m

7.5 longitudinal inclination for


ship's lengths < 100 m

A well for the suction pipes of the lube oil pumps


is the preferred solution.
The minimum quantity of lube oil for the engine is
1.0 litre/kW. This is a theoretical factor for permanent lube-oil-quality control and the decisive factor
for the design of the by-pass cleaning. The lube oil
quantity, which is actually required during operation, depends on the tank geometry and the volume of the system (piping, system components),
and may exceed the theoretical minimum quantity
to be topped up. The low-level alarm in the service
tank is to be adjusted to a height, which ensures
that the pumps can draw in oil, free of air, at the
longitudinal inclinations given above. The position
of the oil drain pipes extending from the engine oil
sump and the oil flow in the tank are to be selected
so as to ensure that the oil will remain in the service
tank for the longest possible time for degassing.
Draining oil must not be sucked in at once.
The man holes in the floor plates inside the service
tank are to be arranged so as to ensure sufficient
flow to the suction pipe of the pump also at low
lube oil service level.

0502-0600MA2.fm

The tank has to be vented at both ends, according


to "Section: Engine supply systems Crankcase vent and
tank vent".

I-BB

32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 29

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

Figure 5-6

Page 5 - 30

0502-0600MA2.fm

5.2.5 Lube oil service tank

Lube oil service tank_1

32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

I-BB

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.5 Lube oil service tank

Lube oil service tank_2

0502-0600MA2.fm

Figure 5-7

I-BB

32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 31

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0502-0600MA2.fm

5.2.5 Lube oil service tank

Page 5 - 32

32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

I-BB

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.6 Pressure control valve

0502-1000MA2.fm

5.2.6

Figure 5-8

K-BA

Pressure control valve

Example: Pressure control valve installation

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 33

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0502-1000MA2.fm

5.2.6 Pressure control valve

Page 5 - 34

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

K-BA

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.7 Lube oil filter

5.2.7

Lube oil filter

Lube oil automatic filter

Example: Lube oil automatic filter

0502-0700MA2.fm

Figure 5-9

I-BC

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 35

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.7 Lube oil filter

Lube oil double filter

Example: Lube oil double filter

0502-0700MA2.fm

Figure 5-10

Page 5 - 36

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

I-BC

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.8 Crankcase vent and tank vent

5.2.8

Crankcase vent and tank vent

Vent pipes

Notes!

The vent pipes from engine crankcase, turbocharger and lube oil service tank are to be arranged according to the sketch. The required
nominal diameters ND are stated in the chart following the diagram.

In case of multi-engine plants the venting pipework has to be kept separately.

All venting openings as well as open pipe ends are


to be equipped with flame breakers.

Condensate trap overflows are to be connected via


siphone to drain pipe.

Specific requirements of the classification societies are to be strictly observed.

Figure 5-11

Crankcase vent and tank vent

0502-0800MB2.fm

Legend
1

Condensate trap, continuously open

Connection crankcase vent

Turbocharger venting

Lubricating oil service tank

D-BB

32/40

Page 5 - 37

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.2.8 Crankcase vent and tank vent

Legend
Engine
A

100

125

40

125

0502-0800MB2.fm

32/40

Nominal diameter ND (mm)

Page 5 - 38

32/40

D-BB

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

5.3

Water systems

5.3.1

Cooling water system diagram

Cooling water system diagram Single engine plant

0503-0000MA2.fm

Figure 5-12

C-BD

32/40, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 39

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

Legend
Components
1,2FIL-019

Sea water filter

Heat exchanger fo heat recovery

1,3FIL-021

Strainer of commissioning

MOD-004

Preheating module

H-020

Preheater main engine

MOD-005

Nozzle cooling module

1HE-002

Lube oil cooler

1MOV-002

HT cooling water temperature control


valve

1,2HE-003

Cooler HT/sea water

1MOV-003

CATCO

HE-005

Nozzle cooling water cooler

MOV-016

LT cooling water temperature control


valve

HE-007

Diesel oil coolers (quantity according to plant)

1P-002

Pump for HT cooling water (engine


driven)

1HE-008

Charge air cooler (stage 2)

2P-002

Pump for for HT cooling water (free


standing)

1HE-010

Charge air cooler (stage 1)

1,2P-062

Sea water pump

HE-022

Governor oil cooler (depending on


plant)

1P-076

Pump for LT cooling water (engine


driven)

1,2HE-024

Cooler LT/sea water

2P-076

Pump for LT cooling water (free standing)

HE-025

Diesel oil coolers (quantity according to plant)

T-002

Cooling water expansion tank HT

HE-029

Generator cooler (depending on


plant)

T-075

Cooling water expansion tank LT

HE-032/HE-026

Fresh water generator

TC

Temperature control by SaCoSone

Major cooling water engine connections


3172

Reserve (for external HT pump)

4148

Compressor wheel cooling outlet

3171/3199

Inlet/outlet HT cooling water

4173/4190

Inlet/outlet LT pump

3471/3499

Inlet/outlet nozzle cooling

4171/4199

Inlet/outlet charge air cooler (stage 2)

3572/3587

Inlet/outlet governor cooler


(depending on plant)

Drains and ventings are not shown

Connections to the nozzle cooling water module


Return/feeding of engine nozzle
cooling water

N3, N4

Inlet/outlet LT cooling water

0503-0000MA2.fm

N1, N2

Page 5 - 40

32/40, 51/60DF

C-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0503-0000MA2.fm

5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

Figure 5-13

C-BD

Cooling water system diagram Twin engine plant

32/40, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 41

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

Legend
Components
1,2FIL-019

Sea water filter

1,2MOD-004

Preheating module

1,2,3FIL-021

Strainer of commissioning

MOD-005

Nozzle cooling module

1,2H-020

Preheater main engine

1,2MOV-002

HT cooling water temperature control


valve

1,2HE-002

Lube oil cooler

1,2MOV-003

CATCO

1,2HE-003

Cooler HT/sea water

MOV-016

LT cooling water temperature control


valve

HE-005

Nozzle cooling water cooler

1,3P-002

Pump for HT cooling water (engine


driven)

HE-007

Diesel oil coolers (quantity according to plant)

2,4P-002

Pump for for HT cooling water (free


standing)

1,2HE-008

Charge air cooler (stage 2)

1,2P-062

Sea water pump

1,2HE-010

Charge air cooler (stage 1)

1,3P-076

Pump for LT cooling water (engine


driven)

1,2HE-024

Cooler LT/sea water

2,4P-076

Pump for LT cooling water (free standing)

HE-025

Diesel oil coolers (quantity according to plant)

T-002

Cooling water expansion tank HT

HE-029

Generator cooler (depending on


plant)

T-075

Cooling water expansion tank LT

1,2HE-032/HE-026

Frech water generator

TC

Temperature control by SaCoSone

Heat exchanger fo heat recovery


Major cooling water engine connections
3172

Reserve (for external HT pump)

4173/4190

Inlet/outlet LT pump

3171/3199

Inlet/outlet HT cooling water

4171/4199

Inlet/outlet charge air cooler (stage 2)

3471/3499

Inlet/outlet nozzle cooling

Drains and ventings are not shown

4148

Compressor wheel cooling outlet

Connections to the nozzle cooling water module


Return/feeding of engine nozzle
cooling water

N3, N4

Inlet/outlet LT cooling water

0503-0000MA2.fm

N1, N2

Page 5 - 42

32/40, 51/60DF

C-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

The diagrams showing cooling water systems for


main engines comprising the possibility of heat utilisation in a freshwater generator and equipment
for preheating of the charge air in a two-stage
charge air cooler during part load operation.
Note!
The arrangement of the cooling water system
shown here is only one of many possible solutions. It is recommended to inform MAN
Diesel & Turbo in advance in case other arrangements should be desired.
For special applications, e. g. GenSets or dual-fuel
engines, supplements will explain specific necessities and deviations.

LT cooling water system


In general the LT cooling water passes through the
following components:

Stage 2 of the two-stage charge-air cooler


(HE-008)

Lube oil cooler (HE-002)


Nozzle cooling water cooler (HE-005)
Fuel oil cooler (HE-007)
Gear lube oil cooler (HE-023) (or e. g. alternator
cooling in case of a diesel-electric plant)

LT cooling water cooler (HE-024)


Cooler for circulation fuel oil feeding part
(HE-025)

For the design data of the system components


shown in the diagram see "Section: Planning data for
emission standard IMO Tier II".

Other components such as, e. g., auxiliary en-

The cooling water is to be conditioned using a corrosion inhibitor, see "Section 4.11: Specification for engine cooling water, page 4-37".

LT cooling water pumps can be either of enginedriven or electrically-driven type.

LT = Low temperature
HT = High temperature

Cooler dimensioning, general


For coolers operated by seawater (not treated water), lube oil or MDO/MGO on the primary side and
treated freshwater on the secondary side, an additional safety margin of 10 % related to the heat
transfer coefficient is to be considered. If treated
water is applied on both sides, MAN Diesel &
Turbo does not insist on this margin.
In case antifreeze is added to the cooling water,
the corresponding lower heat transfer is to be taken into consideration.

The system components of the LT cooling water


circuit are designed for a max. LT cooling water
temperature of 38 C with a corresponding seawater temperature of 32 C (tropical conditions).
However, the capacity of the LT cooler (HE-024) is
determined by the temperature difference between seawater and LT cooling water. Due to this
correlation an LT freshwater temperature of 32 C
can be ensured at a seawater temperature of
25 C.
To meet the IMO Tier I/IMO Tier II regulations the
set point of the temperature regulator valve
(MOV-016) is to be adjusted to 32 C. However
this temperature will fluctuate and reach at most
38 C with a seawater temperature of 32 C (tropical conditions).
The charge air cooler stage 2 (HE-008) and the
lube oil cooler (HE-002) are installed in series to
obtain a low delivery rate of the LT cooling water
pump (P-076).

0503-0000MA2.fm

The cooler arrangement has to ensure venting and


draining facilities for the cooler.

gines (GenSets)

C-BD

32/40, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 43

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

P-076/LT cooling water pump

MOV-016/LT cooling water temperature regulator

The delivery rates of the service and standby


pump are mainly determined by the cooling

This is a motor-actuated three-way regulating


valve with a linear characteristic. It is to be installed
as a mixing valve. It maintains the LT cooling water
at set-point temperature, which is 32 C.

For operating auxiliary engines (GenSets) in port,


the installation of an additional smaller pump is
recommendable.

MOV-003/Temperature control valve for charge air cooler


This three-way valve is to be installed as a mixing
valve.
It serves two purposes:
1. In engine part load operation the charge air
cooler stage 2 (HE-008) is partially or completely by-passed, so that a higher charge air
temperature is maintained.
2. The valve reduces the accumulation of condensed water during engine operation under
tropical conditions by regulation of the charge
air temperature. Below a certain intake air temperature the charge air temperature is kept
constant. When the intake temperature rises,
the charge air temperature will be increased accordingly.
The three-way valve is to be designed for a pressure loss of 0.3 0.6 bar and is to be equipped
with an actuator with high positioning speed. The
actuator must permit manual emergency adjustment.

HE-002/Lube oil cooler


For the description see "Section 5.2.2: Lube oil system
description, page 5-15". For heat data, flow rates and
tolerances see "Section: Planning data for emission
standard IMO Tier II". For the description of the principal design criteria see "Paragraph: Cooler dimensioning, general, page 5-43".

HE-024/LT cooling water cooler


For heat data, flow rates and tolerances of the
heat sources see "Section: Planning data for emission
standard IMO Tier II". For the description of the principal design criteria for coolers see "Paragraph:
Cooler dimensioning, general, page 5-43".

Page 5 - 44

The three-way valve is to be designed for a pressure loss of 0.3 0.6 bar. It is to be equipped with
an actuator with normal positioning speed (high
speed not required). The actuator must permit
manual emergency adjustment.
Caution!
For engine operation with reduced NOx emission, according to IMO Tier I/IMO Tier II requirement, at 100 % engine load and a
seawater
temperature
of
25 C
(IMO Tier I/IMO Tier II reference temperature),
an LT cooling water temperature of 32 C before charge air cooler stage 2 (HE-008) is to be
maintained.

Fil-021/Strainer
In order to protect the engine and system components, several strainers are to be provided at the
places marked in the diagram before taking the
engine into operation for the first time. The mesh
size is 1 mm.

HE-005/Nozzle cooling water cooler


The nozzle cooling water system is a separate and
closed cooling circuit. It is cooled down by LT
cooling water via the nozzle cooling watercooler
(HE-005). For heat data, flow rates and tolerances
see "Section: Planning data for emission standard
IMO Tier II". For the description of the principal design criteria for coolers see "Paragraph: Cooler dimensioning, general, page 5-43". For plants with two main
engines only one nozzle cooling water cooler
(HE-005) is needed. As an option a compact nozzle-cooling module (MOD-005) can be delivered,
see "Section 5.3.7: Nozzle cooling water module, page
5-61". For plants with two main engines only one
nozzle-cooling module is required.

32/40, 51/60DF

0503-0000MA2.fm

water required for the charge-air cooler stage 2


and the other coolers.

C-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

HE-007/MDO/Pilot fuel, MDO/MGO cooler


This cooler is required to dissipate the heat of the
fuel injection pumps during MDO/MGO operation.
For the description of the principal design criteria
for coolers see "Paragraph: Cooler dimensioning, general, page 5-43". For plants with more than one engine, connected to the same fuel oil system, only
one MDO/MGO cooler is required.

HE-025/Cooler for circulation fuel oil feeding part


See "Section 5.4.4: Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system,
page 5-79".

T-075/LT cooling water expansion tank


The effective tank capacity should be high enough
to keep approx. 2/3 of the tank content of T-002.
In case of twin-engine plants with a common cooling water system, the tank capacity should be by
approx. 50 % higher. The tanks T-075 and T-002
should be arranged side by side to facilitate installation. In any case the tank bottom must be installed above the highest point of the LT system at
any ship inclination. For the recommended installation height and the diameter of the connecting
pipe, see "Table: Service tanks capacity in "Section:

be provided with an individual engine driven HT


cooling water pump. Alternatively common electrically-driven HT cooling water pumps may be used
for all engines. However, an individual HT temperature control valve is required for each engine. The
total cooler and pump capacities are to be adapted accordingly.
The shipyard is responsible for the correct cooling
water distribution, ensuring that each engine will
be supplied with cooling water at the flow rates required by the individual engines, under all operating conditions. To meet this requirement, e. g.,
orifices, flow regulation valves, by-pass systems
etc. are to be installed where necessary.

H-001/Preheater
Before starting a cold engine, it is necessary to
preheat the waterjacket up to 60 C.
For the total heating power required for preheating
the HT cooling water from 10 C to 60 C within 4
hours see "Table 5-10: Heating power".
Engine type

32/40
32/44CR

Planning data for emission standard IMO Tier II Filling


volumes and flow resistances".

Min. heating power


(kW/cylinder)

HT Cooling water circuit

General
The HT cooling water system consists of the following coolers and heat exchangers:

Charge air cooler stage 1 (HE-010)


Cylinder cooling
HT cooler (HE-003)
Heat utilisation, e. g. freshwater generator
(HE-026)

0503-0000MA2.fm

HT cooling water preheater (H-020)


The HT cooling water pumps can be either of engine-driven or electrically-driven type. The outlet
temperature of the cylinder cooling water at the
engine is to be adjusted to 90 C.
For HT cooling water systems, where more than
one main engine is integrated, each engine should

C-BD

Table 5-10

48/60B
48/60CR
51/60DF

L+V

L+V

14

Heating power

These values include the radiation heat losses


from the outer surface of the engine. Also a margin
of 20 % for heat losses of the cooling system has
been considered.
A secondary function of the preheater is to provide
heat capacity in the HT cooling water system during engine part load operation. This is required for
marine plants with a high freshwater requirement,
e. g. on passenger vessels, where frequent load
changes are common. It is also required for arrangements with an additional charge air preheating by deviation of HT cooling water to the charge
air cooler stage 2 (HE-008). In this case the heat
output of the preheater is to be increased by approx. 50 %.

32/40, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 45

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

An electrically driven pump becomes necessary to


circulate the HT cooling water during preheating.
For the required minimum flow rate see "Table 5-11:
Minimum flow rate during preheating and post-cooling".
Minimum flow rate required during preheating and post-cooling

The freshwater generator must be switched off automatically when the cooling water temperature at
the engine outlet drops below 88 C.
This will prevent operation of the engine at too low
temperatures.

HE-003/HT cooling water cooler

m3/h
32/40
32/44CR

48/60B
48/60CR
51/60DF

6L

7.2

14

For heat data, flow rates and tolerances of the


heat sources see "Section: Planning data for emission
standard IMO Tier II". For the description of the principal design criteria for coolers see "Paragraph:
Cooler dimensioning, general, page 5-43".

7L

8.4

16

HT temperature control

8L

9.6

18

9L

10.8

20

The HT temperature control system consists of the


following components:

10L

12.0

The temperature controllers are available as

12V

14.4

28

14V

16.8

30

16V

19.2

30

software functions inside the Gateway Module


of SaCoSone. The temperature controllers are
operated by the displays at the operating panels as far as it is necessary. From the Interface
Cabinet the relays actuate the control valves.

18V

21.6

30

1 electrically activated three-way mixing valve

20V

24.0

Table 5-11

with linear characteristic curve (MOV- 002)

Minimum flow rate during preheating and


post-cooling

The preheating of the main engine with cooling


water from auxiliary engines is also possible, provided that the cooling water is treated in the same
way. In that case, the expansion tanks of the two
cooling systems have to be installed at the same
level. Furthermore, it must be checked whether
the available heat is sufficient for preheating the
main engine. This depends on the number of auxiliary engines in operation and their load. It is recommended to install a separate preheater for the
main engine, as the available heat from the auxiliary engines may be insufficient during operation in
the port.
As an option MAN Diesel & Turbo can supply a
compact preheating module (MOD-004). One
module for each main engine is required.

1 temperature sensor TE, directly downstream

of the three-way mixing valve in the supply pipe


to charge-air cooler stage 1 (for EDS visualisation and control of preheater valve)

1 temperature sensor TE, directly downstream


of the engine outlet

It serves to maintain the cylinder cooling water


temperature constantly at 90 C at the engine
outlet even in the case of frequent load
changes and to protect the engine from excessive thermal load. For adjusting the outlet
water temperature (constantly to 90 C) to engine load and speed, the cooling water inlet
temperature is controlled. The electronic water
temperature controller recognizes deviations
by means of the sensor at the engine outlet and
afterwards corrects the reference value accordingly.

The electronic temperature controller is in-

stalled in the switch cabinet of the engine room.

Page 5 - 46

32/40, 51/60DF

C-BD

0503-0000MA2.fm

Numbers of cylinders

HE-026/Freshwater generator

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

For a stable control mode, the following boundary


conditions must be observed when designing the
HT freshwater system:

The temperature sensor is to be installed in the

supply pipe to stage 1 of the charge-air cooler.


To ensure instantaneous measurement of the
mixing temperature of the three-way mixing
valve, the distance to the valve should be 5 to
10 times the pipe diameter.

The three-way valve (MOV-002) is to be installed as a mixing valve. It is to be designed for


a pressure loss of 0.3 0.6 bar. It is to be
equipped with an actuator of high positioning
speed. The actuator must permit manual emergency adjustment.

The pipes within the system are to be kept as

short as possible in order to reduce the dead


times of the system, especially the pipes between the three-way mixing valve and the inlet
of the charge-air cooler stage 1 which, are critical for the control.

The same system is required for each engine, also


for multi-engine installations with a common HT
freshwater system.
In case of a deviating system layout, MAN Diesel &
Turbo is to be consulted.

P-002/HT cooling water pumps


As an option the engine is available with an attached (engine driven) HT cooling water pump. Alternatively also electrically driven HT cooling water
pumps can be used.

0503-0000MA2.fm

The standby pump has to be of the electrically


driven type.
It is required to cool down the engine for a period
of 15 minutes after shut down. For this purpose
the standby pump can be used. In the case that
neither an electrically driven HT cooling water
pump nor an electrically driven standby pump is
installed (e. g. multi-engine plants with engine driven HT cooling water pump without electrically driven HT standby pump, if applicable by the
classification rules), it is possible to cool down the
engine by the separate small preheating pump,
see "Table 5-11: Minimum flow rate during preheating
and post-cooling", or if the optional preheating unit

C-BD

(MOD-004) with integrated circulation pump is installed, it is also possible to cool down the engine
with this small pump. However, the pump used to
cool down the engine, has to be electrically driven
and started automatically after engine shut down.
None of the cooling water pumps is a self-priming
centrifugal pump.
Design flow rates should not be exceeded by
more than 15 % to avoid cavitation in the engine
and its systems. A throttling orifice is to be fitted
for adjusting the specified operating point.

FSH-002/Condensate monitoring tank


(not indicated in the diagram)
Only for acceptance by Bureau Veritas:
The condensate deposition in the charge air cooler is drained via the condensate monitoring tank.
A level switch releases an alarm when condensate
is flooding the tank.

T-002/HT cooling water expansion tank


The expansion tank compensates changes in system volume and losses due to leakages. It is to be
arranged in such a way, that the tank bottom is situated above the highest point of the system at any
ship inclination. The expansion pipe should empty
into the suction pipe as close to the pump as possible. For the required volume of the tank, the recommended installation height and the diameter of
the connecting pipe, see "Table: Service tanks capacity in "Section: Planning data for emission standard
IMO Tier II Filling volumes and flow resistances".
Tank equipment:

Sight glass for level monitoring


Low-level alarm switch
Overflow and filling connection
Inlet for corrosion inhibitor

32/40, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 47

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0503-0000MA2.fm

5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

Page 5 - 48

32/40, 51/60DF

C-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.2 Cooling water collecting and supply system

5.3.2

Cooling water collecting and supply system

T-074/Cooling water collecting tank (not indicated in


the diagram)
The tank is to be dimensioned and arranged in
such a way that the cooling water content of the
circuits of the cylinder, turbocharger and nozzle
cooling systems can be drained into it for maintenance purposes.
This is necessary to meet the requirements with
regard to environmental protection (water has
been treated with chemicals) and corrosion inhibition (re-use of conditioned cooling water).
P-031/Transfer pump (not indicated in the diagram)

0503-0200MA2.fm

The content of the collecting tank can be discharged into the expansion tanks by a freshwater
transfer pump.

G-AJ

32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 49

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0503-0200MA2.fm

5.3.2 Cooling water collecting and supply system

Page 5 - 50

32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

G-AJ

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.3 Miscellaneous items

5.3.3

Miscellaneous items

Piping
Coolant additives may attack a zinc layer. It is
therefore imperative to avoid to use galvanised
steel pipes. Treatment of cooling water as specified by MAN Diesel & Turbo will safely protect the
inner pipe walls against corrosion.

For further information see the turbocharger


project guide. You can also find the latest updates
on our website www.mandieselturbo.com
under:"Turbomachinery > Turbocharger > Axial
Flow > TCA Series" and "Turbomachinery >
Turbocharger > Radial Flow > TCR Series".

Moreover, there is the risk of the formation of local


electrolytic element couples where the zinc layer
has been worn off, and the risk of aeration corrosion where the zinc layer is not properly bonded to
the substrate.
Please see the instructions in our Work card 6682
000.16-01E for cleaning of steel pipes before fitting.
Pipe branches must be fitted to discharge in the
direction of flow in a flow-conducive manner. Venting is to be provided at the highest points of the
pipe system and drain openings at the lowest
points.
Cooling water pipes are to be designed according
to in tables (e.g. "Table: Operating pressures" in "Sec-

tion: Engine and operation Planning data


Operating/services temperatures and pressures") stated
pressure values and flow rates. The engine cooling
water connections are mostly designed according
to PN10/PN16.
Turbocharger washing equipment
The turbocharger of engines operating on heavy
fuel oil must be washed at regular intervals. This
requires the installation of a freshwater supply line
from the sanitary system to the turbine washing
equipment and two dirty-water drain pipes via a
funnel (for visual inspection) to the sludge tank.

0503-0300MA2.fm

The lance must be removed after every washing


process. This is a precautionary measure, which
serves to prevent an inadvertent admission of water to the turbocharger.
The compressor washing equipment is completely
mounted on the turbocharger and is supplied with
freshwater from a small tank.

E-BC

32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 51

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0503-0300MA2.fm

5.3.3 Miscellaneous items

Page 5 - 52

32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

E-BC

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.4 Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by a ultrasonic device

5.3.4

Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by a ultrasonic device

The cooler bundle can be cleaned without being


removed. Prior to filling with cleaning solvent, the
charge air cooler and its adjacent housings must
be isolated from the turbocharger and charge air
pipe using blind flanges.

The casing must be filled and drained with a big


firehose with shut-off valve (see P & I).
All piping dimensions execute in DN 80.

Designation

Manufacturer

Aquabreak PX

Unitor Ship Service AS


Mastemyr
N-1410 Kolbotn/Norway

Environclean

Mastemyr

If the cooler bundle is contaminated with oil, fill


the charge air cooler casing with freshwater
and a liquid washing-up additive.

Input the sono pusher after addition of the


cleaning agent in default dosing portion.

N-1410 Kolbotn/Norway
Enviromate 2000

to fill in and to drain).

The contaminated water must be cleaned after


every sequence and must be drained into the dirty
water collecting tank.

Drew Chemical Corp.


Boonton
New Jersey/USA

Eskaphor N6773

Haug Chemie GmbH


Breite Seite 14 16

Flushing with freshwater (Quantity: approx. 2x

Increase in differential pressure1)

Unitor Ship Service AS

74889 Sinsheim/Germany
Table 5-12

Recommended cleaning medium

Degree of fouling

Cleaning period (guide value)

< 100 mm WC

Hardly fouled

Cleaning not required

100 200 mm WC

Slightly fouled

approx. 1 hour

200 300 mm WC

Severely fouled

approx. 1.5 hour

> 300 mm WC

Extremely fouled

approx. 2 hour

Table 5-13

Degree of fouling of the charge-air cooler

1) Increase

in differential pressure = actual condition new condition


(mm WC = mm water column).

Note!
When using the cleaning agents:
The instructions of the manufacturers must be
observed.

0503-1100AA2.fm

Particular the data sheets with safety relevance must be followed.

The waste disposal instructions of the manufacturers must be observed.


Follow all terms and conditions of the Classification Societies.

The temperature of these products has, (due to


the fact that some of them are inflammable), to
be at 10 C lower than the respective flash
point.

iJ__

Page 5 - 53

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.4 Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by a ultrasonic device

Figure 5-14

Principle layout

Legend
1

Installation ultrasonic cleaning

Firehose with sprag nozzle

Firehose

Dirty water collecting tank1)

Ventilation

Isolation with blind flanges

1) Required

0503-1100AA2.fm

size of dirty water collecting tank:


Volume at the least 4-multiple charge air cooler volume.

Page 5 - 54

LJ__

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.5 Turbine washing device, HFO-operation

0503-1200MA2.fm

5.3.5

Figure 5-15

L-AJ

Turbine washing device, HFO-operation

Cleaning turbine

32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 55

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0503-1200MA2.fm

5.3.5 Turbine washing device, HFO-operation

Page 5 - 56

32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

L-AJ

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.6 Nozzle cooling system

5.3.6

Nozzle cooling system

0503-040aMA2.fm

Nozzle cooling system diagram

Figure 5-16

L-BA

Nozzle cooling system

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 57

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.6 Nozzle cooling system

Legend
D-001

Diesel engine

T-076

Nozzle cooling water expansion tank

FIL-021

Strainer, cooling water system, for commissioning

TCV-005

Temperature control valve for nozzle cooling water

HE-005

Nozzle cooling water cooler

FBV-020

Flow balancing valve

P-005

Nozzle cooling water pump

3471

Nozzle cooling water inlet

P-031

Filling pump

3495

Nozzle cooling water drain

T-039

Cooling water storage tank

3499

Nozzle cooling water outlet

Nozzle cooling system description

General

One system can be installed for two engines.

In HFO operation, the nozzles of the fuel injection


valves are cooled by freshwater circulation, therefore a nozzle cooling water system is required. It is
a separate and closed system re-cooled by the LT
cooling water system, but not directly in contact
with the LT cooling water. The nozzle cooling water
is to be treated with corrosion inhibitor according
to MAN Diesel & Turbo specification see "Section
4.11: Specification for engine cooling water, page 4-37".

T-076/Expansion tank

In diesel engines designed to operate prevalently on HFO the injection valves are to be
cooled during operation on HFO. In the case of
MGO or MDO operation exceeding 72 h, the
nozzle cooling is to be switched off and the
supply line is to be closed. The return pipe,
however, has to remain open.
In diesel engines designed to operate exclusively on MGO or MDO (no HFO operation possible), nozzle cooling is not required. The
nozzle cooling system is omitted.
In dual-fuel engines (liquid fuel and gas) the
nozzles are to be cooled according to the engine design.

P-005/Cooling water pump


The centrifugal (non self-priming) pump discharges the cooling water via cooler HE-005 and the
strainer FIL-021 to the header pipe on the engine
and then to the individual injection valves. From
here, it is pumped through a manifold into the expansion tank from where it returns to the pump.

Page 5 - 58

If there is not enough room to install the tank at the


prescribed height, an alternative pressure system
of modular design is available, permitting installation at the engine room floor level next to the engine (see system drawing overleaf).
The system is to be closed with an over-/underpressure valve on tank top to prevent flashing to
steam.

HE-005/Cooler
The cooler is to be connected in the LT cooling
water circuit according to schematic diagram.
Cooling of the nozzle cooling water is effected by
the LT cooling water.
If an antifreeze is added to the cooling water, the
resulting lower heat transfer rate must be taken
into consideration. The cooler is to be provided
with venting and draining facilities.

TCV-005/Temperature control valve


The temperature control valve with thermal-expansion elements regulates the flow through the
cooler to reach the required inlet temperature of
the nozzle cooling water. It has a regulating range
from approx. 50 C (valve begins to open the pipe
from the cooler) to 60 C (pipe from the cooler
completely open).

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

L-BA

0503-040aMA2.fm

Note!

For the installation height above the crankshaft


centreline see "Section: Engine and operation
Planning data".

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.6 Nozzle cooling system

FIL-021/Strainer
To protect the nozzles for the first commissioning
of the engine a strainer has to be provided. The
mesh size is 0.25 mm.

TE/Temperature sensor

0503-040aMA2.fm

The sensor is mounted upstream of the engine


and is delivered loose by MAN Diesel & Turbo.
Wiring to the common engine terminal box is
present.

L-BA

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 59

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0503-040aMA2.fm

5.3.6 Nozzle cooling system

Page 5 - 60

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

L-BA

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.7 Nozzle cooling water module

5.3.7

Nozzle cooling water module

Nozzle cooling system description

General
In HFO operation, the nozzles of the fuel injection
valves are cooled by freshwater circulation, therefore a nozzle cooling water system is required. It is
a separate and closed system re-cooled by the LT
cooling water system, but not directly in contact
with the LT cooling water. The nozzle cooling water
is to be treated with corrosion inhibitor according
to MAN Diesel & Turbo specification see, "Section
4.11: Specification for engine cooling water, page 4-37".
Note!
In diesel engines designed to operate prevalently on HFO the injection valves are to be
cooled during operation on HFO. In the case of
MGO or MDO operation exceeding 72 h, the
nozzle cooling is to be switched off and the
supply line is to be closed. The return pipe,
however, has to remain open.

cooling water system. By means of a temperature


control valve, the nozzle cooling water temperature upstream of the nozzles is kept constant. The
performance of the service pump is monitored
within the module by means of a flow switch. If required, the optional standby pump integrated in
the module, is started.
Throughput 0.8 10.0 m/h nozzle cooling water,
suitable for cooling of all number of cylinders of the
current engine types and for single or double engine plants.
Required flow rates for the respective engine types
and number of cylinders see "Section: Planning data".

In diesel engines designed to operate exclusively on MGO or MDO (no HFO operation possible), nozzle cooling is not required. The
nozzle cooling system is omitted. In dual-fuel
engines (liquid fuel and gas) the nozzles are to
be cooled according to the engine design.

Purpose
The nozzle cooling water module serves for cooling the fuel injection nozzles on the engine in a
closed nozzle cooling water circuit.

Design
The nozzle cooling water module consists of a
storage tank, on which all components required
for nozzle cooling are mounted.

0503-0500MA2.fm

Description
By means of a circulating pump, the nozzle cooling water is pumped from the service tank through
a heat exchanger and to the fuel injection nozzles.
The return pipe is routed back to the service tank,
via a sight glass. Through the sight glass, the nozzle cooling water can be checked for contamination. The heat exchanger is integrated in the LT

D-BD

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 61

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.7 Nozzle cooling water module

Example: Compact nozzle cooling water module

0503-0500MA2.fm

Figure 5-17

Page 5 - 62

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

D-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0503-0500MA2.fm

5.3.7 Nozzle cooling water module

Figure 5-18

D-BD

Nozzle cooling water module

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 63

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.7 Nozzle cooling water module

Legend
Diesel engine

T-076

Nozzle cooling water expansion tank

FIL-021

Strainer for commissioning

TCV-005

Temperature control valve for nozzle


cooling water

HE-005

Nozzle cooling water cooler

3471

Nozzle cooling water inlet

MOD-005

Nozzle cooling water module

3495

Nozzle cooling water drain

P-005

Nozzle cooling water pump

3499

Nozzle cooling water outlet

T-039

Cooling water storage tank

0503-0500MA2.fm

D-001

Page 5 - 64

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

D-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.3.8 Preheating module

5.3.8

Figure 5-19

Preheating module

Example: Compact preheating cooling water module

Legend
Main components
Electric flow heater

Switch cabinet

Circulation pump

Non-return valve

Savety valve

Manometer (filled with glycerin)

Cooling water inlet

Cooling water outlet

0503-0800MA2.fm

C-BD

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 65

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0503-0800MA2.fm

5.3.8 Preheating module

Page 5 - 66

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

C-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system

5.4

Fuel system

5.4.1

Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system

A prerequisite for safe and reliable engine operation with a minimum of servicing is a properly designed and well-functioning fuel oil treatment
system.
The schematic diagram shows the system components required for fuel treatment for Marine Diesel Oil (MDO).
T-015/MDO storage tank
The minimum effective capacity of the tank should
be sufficient for the operation of the propulsion
plant, as well as for the operation of the auxiliary
Diesels for the maximum duration of voyage including the resulting sediments and water.
Regarding the tank design, the requirements of
the respective classification society are to be observed.

Tank heating
The tank heater must be designed so that the
MDO in it is at a temperature of at least 10 C minimum above the pour point.
The supply of the heating medium must be automatically controlled as a function of the MDO temperature.
T-021/Sludge tank

0504-0000MA2.fm

If disposal by an incinerator plant is not planned,


the tank has to be dimensioned so that it is capable to absorb all residues which accumulate during the operation in the course of a maximum
duration of voyage. In order to render emptying of
the tank possible, it has to be heated. The heating
is to be dimensioned so that the content of the
tank can be heated to approx. 40 C

H-019/MDO preheater
In order to achieve the separating temperature, a
separator adapted to suit the fuel viscosity should
be fitted.
CF-003/MDO separator
A self-cleaning separator must be provided. The
separator is dimensioned in accordance with the
separator manufacturers' guidelines.
The required flow rate Q can be roughly determined by the following equation:

m
n = ---------------
Q Separator flow rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l/h
P Total engine output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kW
of Diesel GenSets (without stand-by sets)
be Fuel consumption (see below) . . . . . . g/kWh
Density at separating temp. approx. 0.87 kg/l
With the evaluated flow rate the size of separator
has to be selected acc. to the evaluation table of
the manufacturer. MAN Diesel & Turbo strictly recommend to use evaluation tables according to a
"Certified flow rate" (CFR). The separator rating
stated by the manufacturer should be higher than
the flow rate Q calculated according to the above
formula.
For determining the maximum fuel consumption
(be), increase the specific table value by 15 %.
This increase takes into consideration:

Tropical conditions
The engine-mounted pumps

P-073/MDO supply pump

Fluctuations of the calorific value

The supply pumps should always be electrically


driven, i.e. not mounted on the separator, as the
delivery volume can be matched better to the required throughput.

The consumption tolerance

C-BD

The freshwater supplied has to be treated as


specified by the separator supplier.

32/40, 32/44K, 48/60B, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 67

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system

Withdrawal points for samples


Points for drawing fuel oil samples are to be provided upstream and downstream of each separator, to verify the effectiveness of these system
components.
T-003/MDO service tank
See description in "Section: Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply

0504-0000MA2.fm

system".

Page 5 - 68

32/40, 32/44K, 48/60B, 48/60TS

C-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0504-0000MA2.fm

5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system

Figure 5-20

C-BD

MDO treatment system

32/40, 32/44K, 48/60B, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 69

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system

Legend
CF-003

MDO separator

P-073

MDO supply pump

H-019

MDO preheater

T-015

MDO storage tank

MDO-008

Fuel module

T-021

Sludge tank

P-008

Diesel oil supply pump

1, 2 T-003

MDO service tank

P-057

Diesel oil filling pump

0504-0000MA2.fm

Page 5 - 70

32/40, 32/44K, 48/60B, 48/60TS

C-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines

0504-0200MA2.fm

5.4.2

Figure 5-21

B-BA

Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines

Fuel supply (MDO) Single engine plant

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 71

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines

Legend
D-001

Diesel engine

1,2 T-003

MDO service tank

FIL-003

Automatic filter

T-006

Leakage oil collecting tank

FIL-011

Stand-by filter

T-015

Diesel oil storage tank

FSH-001

Leakage fuel oil monitoring tank

T-021

Sludge tank

HE-007

MDO cooler

5271

MDO inlet

PCV-008

Pressure retaining valve

5293

Leakage fuel pipe from supervising

1,2 P-008

Supply pumps

5294

Leakage fuel drain

1,2 STR-010

Strainer

5299

MDO outlet

Note!

0504-0200MA2.fm

Engines 32/44CR and L48/60B: FSH-001 attached on the engine, 5293 downstream of FSH-001.

Page 5 - 72

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

B-BA

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0504-0200MA2.fm

5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines

Figure 5-22

B-BA

Fuel supply (MDO) Twin engine plant

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 73

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines

Legend
CF-003

MDO separator

1,2 STR-010

Strainer

1,2 D-001

Diesel engine

1,2 T-003

MDO service tank

1,2 FBV-010

Flow balancing valve

T-006

Leakage oil collecting tank

FIL-003

Automatic filter

T-015

MDO storage tank

FIL-013

Fuel duplex filter

T-021

Sludge tank

1,2 FSH-001

Leakage fuel oil monitoring tank

5271

MDO inlet

HE-007

MDO cooler

5293

Leakage fuel pipe from supervising

PCV-008

Pressure retaining valve

5294

Leakage fuel drain

1,2 PCV-011

Spill valve

5299

MDO outlet

1,2 P-008

Supply pumps

Note!
Engines 32/44CR and L48/60B: FSH-001 attached on the engine, 5293 downstream of FSH-0001.

0504-0200MA2.fm

Engine 32/44CR: FIL-013 attached on the engine, 5271 upstream of FIL-013.

Page 5 - 74

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

B-BA

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system

5.4.3

Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system

A prerequisite for safe and reliable engine operation with a minimum of servicing is a properly designed and well-functioning fuel oil treatment
system.
The schematic diagram shows the system components required for fuel treatment for HFO.

Fuel compatibility problems are avoidable if mixing


of newly bunkered fuel with remaining fuel can be
prevented by a suitable number of bunkers.
Heating coils in bunkers to be designed so that the
HFO in it is at a temperature of at least 10 C minimum above the pour point.
P-038/Transfer pump
The transfer pump discharges fuel from the bunkers into the settling tanks. Being a screw pump,
it handles the fuel gently, thus prevent water being
emulsified in the fuel. Its capacity must be sized so
that complete settling tank can be filled in
2 hours.
T-016/Settling tank for HFO
Two settling tanks should be installed, in order to
obtain thorough pre-cleaning and to allow fuels of
different origin to be kept separate. When using
RM-fuels we recommend two settling tanks for
each fuel type (High sulphur HFO, low sulphur
HFO).

Size
Pre-cleaning by settling is the more effective the
longer the solid material is given time to settle. The
storage capacity of the settling tank should be designed to hold at least a 24-hour supply of fuel at
full load operation, including sediments and water
the fuel contains.

0504-0300MA2.fm

The minimum volume (V) to be provided is:

5.7 P
1000

V Minimum volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m

C-BD

Tank heating
The heating surfaces should be so dimensioned
that the tank content can be evenly heated to
75 C within 6 to 8 hours.
The supply of heat should be automatically controlled, depending upon the fuel oil temperature.

Bunker

P Engine rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kW

In order to avoid:

Agitation of the sludge due to heating, the heat-

ing coils should be arranged at a sufficient distance from the tank bottom.

The formation of asphaltene, the fuel oil temperature should not be allowed to exceed
75 C.

The formation of carbon deposits on the heating surfaces, the heat transferred per unit surface must not exceed 1.1 W/cm.

Design
The tank is to be fitted with baffle plates in longitudinal and transverse direction in order to reduce
agitation of the fuel in the tank in rough seas as far
as possible. The suction pipe of the separator
must not reach into the sludge space. One or
more sludge drain valves, depending on the slant
of the tank bottom (preferably 10), are to be provided at the lowest point. Tanks reaching to the
ship hull must be heat loss protected by a cofferdam. The settling tank is to be insulated against
thermal losses.
Sludge must be removed from the settling tank
before the separators draw fuel from it.
T-021/Sludge tank
If disposal by an incinerator plant is not planned,
the tank has to be dimensioned so that it is capable to absorb all residues which accumulate during the operation in the course of a maximum
duration of voyage. In order to render emptying of
the tank possible, it has to be heated. The heating
is to be dimensioned so that the content of the
tank can be heated to approx. 60 C

32/40, 32/44K, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 75

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system

P-015/Heavy fuel supply pump

Size

The supply pumps should preferably be of the


free-standing type, i. e. not mounted on the separator, as the delivery volume can be matched better to the required throughput.

The separators are dimensioned in accordance


with the separator manufacturers' guidelines.
The required flow rate (Q) can be roughly determined by the following equation:

H-008/Preheater for HFO

CF-002/Separator
As a rule, poor quality, high viscosity fuel is used.
Two new generation separators must therefore be
installed.
From Alfa Laval: Alcap, type SU

P be

Separator flow rate

l/h

Engine rating

kW

be

Fuel consumption

g/kWh

Density at separating temp.

approx.
0.93 kg/l

From Westfalia: Unitrol, type OSE


Separators must always be provided in sets of 2 of
the same type

1 service separator
1 stand-by separator
of self-cleaning type.
As a matter of principle, all separators are to be
equipped with an automatic programme control
for continuous desludging and monitoring.

Mode of operation
The stand-by separator is always to be put into
service, to achieve the best possible fuel cleaning
effect with the separator plant as installed.
The piping of both separators is to be arranged in
accordance with the makers advice, preferably for
both parallel and series operation.
The discharge flow of the free-standing dirty oil
pump is to be split up equally between the two
separators in parallel operation.
The freshwater supplied must be treated as specified by the separator supplier.

With the evaluated flow rate the size of separator


has to be selected according to the evaluation table of the manufacturer. MAN Diesel & Turbo
strictly recommend to use evaluation tables according to a "certified flow rate" (CFR). The separator rating stated by the manufacturer should be
higher than the flow rate (Q) calculated according
to the above formula.
By means of the separator flow rate which was determined in this way, the separator type, depending on the fuel viscosity, is selected from the lists
of the separator manufacturers.
For determining the maximum fuel consumption
(be), increase the specific table value by 15 %.
This increase takes into consideration:

Tropical conditions
The engine-mounted pumps
The calorific value fluctuations
The consumption tolerance
Withdrawal points for samples
Points for drawing fuel oil samples are to be provided upstream and downstream of each separator, to verify the effectiveness of these system
components.

Page 5 - 76

32/40, 32/44K, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

C-BD

0504-0300MA2.fm

To reach the separating temperature a preheater


matched to the fuel viscosity has to be installed.

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0504-0300MA2.fm

5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system

Figure 5-23

C-BD

HFO treatment system

32/40, 32/44K, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 77

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system

Legend
Heavy fuel separator (1 service, 1 standby)

1,2P-038

Heavy fuel transfer pump

1,2H-008

Heavy fuel oil preheater

1,2T-016

Settling tank for heavy fuel oil

MDO-008

Fuel oil module

T-021

Sludge tank

1,2P-015

Heavy fuel supply pump

1,2T-022

Service tank for heavy fuel oil

0504-0300MA2.fm

1,2CF-002

Page 5 - 78

32/40, 32/44K, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

C-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

5.4.4

Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

To ensure that high-viscosity fuel oils achieve the


specified injection viscosity, a preheating temperature is necessary, which may cause degassing
problems in conventional, pressureless systems.
Injection
viscosity1)

Temperature after
final preheater

Evaporation
pressure

Required system
pressure

mm/s

bar

bar

180

12

126

1.4

2.4

320

12

138

2.4

3.4

380

12

142

2.7

3.7

420

12

144

2.9

3.9

500

14

141

2.7

3.7

700

14

147

3.2

4.2

Fuel
mm/50 C

Table 5-14
1)

Injection viscosity and temperature after final preheater

For fuel viscosity depending on fuel temperature, see "Section 4.9: Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram), page 4-33".

The indicated pressures are minimum requirements due to the fuel characteristic. Nevertheless,
to meet the required fuel pressure at the engine inlet (see "Section: Engine and operation Planning data"), the pressure in the mixing tank and booster
circuit becomes significant higher as indicated in
this table.
T-022/Heavy fuel oil service tank

0504-0400PA.fm

A remedial measure is adopting a pressurised system in which the required system pressure is 1 bar
above the evaporation pressure of water.

The heavy fuel oil cleaned in the separator is


passed to the service tank, and as the separators
are in continuous operation, the tank is always
kept filled. To fulfil this requirement it is necessary
to fit the heavy fuel oil service tank
T-022 with overflow pipes, which are connected
with the setting tanks T-016. The tank capacity is
to be designed for at least eight-hours' fuel supply
at full load so as to provide for a sufficient period
of time for separator maintenance. The tank
should have a sludge space with a tank bottom inclination of preferably 10, with sludge drain valves
at the lowest point, and is to be equipped with
heating coils.

The heating coils are to be designed for a tank


temperature of 75 C.
The rules and regulations for tanks issued by the
classification societies must be observed.
T-003/MDO/MGO service tank
The classification societies specify that at least
two service tanks are to be installed on board. The
minimum volume of each tank should, in addition
to the MDO/MGO consumption of the generating
sets, enable an eight-hour full load operation of the
main engine.
Cleaning of the MDO/MGO by an additional separator should, in the first place, be designed to
meet the requirements of the diesel alternator sets
on board. The tank should be provided, like the
heavy fuel oil service tank, with a sludge space
with sludge drain valve and with an overflow pipe
from the MDO/MGO service tank
T-003 to the MDO/MGO storage tank T-015.

The sludge must be drained from the service tank


at regular intervals.

H-BC

48/60TS

Page 5 - 79

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

CK-002/Three way valve

STR-010/Y-type strainer

This valve is used for changing over from


MDO/MGO operation to heavy fuel operation and
vice versa. Normally it is operated manually, and it
is equipped with two limit switches for remote indication and suppression of alarms from the viscosity measuring and control system during
MDO/MGO operation.

To protect the feed pumps, an approx. 0.5 mm


gauge (sphere-passing mesh) strainer is to be installed at the suction side of the pump.
P-018/Supply pump
The volumetric capacity must be at least 160 % of
max. fuel consumption.

QP1 = P1 x brISO x f4
Required supply pump delivery capacity with HFO at 90 C:
Engine output at 100 % MCR:
Specific engine fuel consumption (ISO)
at 100 % MCR
Factor for pump dimensioning

QP1

l/h

P1

kW

brISO

g/kWh

f4

l/g

For diesel engines operating on main


fuel HFO:
f4 = 2.00 x 103
For diesel engines installed in
dredges operating on main fuel HFO:
f4 = 2.02 x 103
Note!
The factor f4 includes the following parameters:
160 % fuel flow
Main fuel: HFO 380 mm2/50 C
Attached lube oil and cooling water pumps
Tropical conditions
Realistic lower heating value
Specific fuel weight at pumping temperature
Tolerance
In case more than one engine is connected to the
same fuel system, the pump capacity has to be
increased accordingly.
Table 5-15

Simplified supply pump dimensioning

0504-0400PA.fm

The delivery height of the supply pump shall be selected according to the required system pressure
(see "Table 5-14: Injection viscosity and temperature after final preheater") the required pressure in the mixing tank and the resistance of the automatic filter,
flow meter and piping system.

Page 5 - 80

48/60TS

H-BC

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

Conventional fuel injection


system
32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS
Positive pressure at the fuel module inlet due to tank level above fuel module
level

0.10

Pressure loss of the pipes between fuel module inlet and mixing tank inlet

0.20

Pressure loss of the automatic filter

0.80

Pressure loss of the fuel flow measuring device

0.10

Pressure in the mixing tank

5.70

Operating delivery height of the supply pump

6.70

Table 5-16

Example for the determination of the expected operating delivery height of the supply pump

It is recommended to install supply pumps designed for the following pressures:


Engines with conventional fuel injection system:
Design delivery height 7.0 bar, design output pressure 7.0 bar g.

Fil-003/Automatic filter
Only filters have to be used, which cause no pressure drop in the system during flushing.
Conventional fuel
injection system
32/40,
48/60B,
48/60TS

Engines common rail injection system: Design


delivery height 8.0 bar, design output pressure
8.0 bar g.
HE-025/Finned-tube cooler

Filter mesh width (mm)

0.034

If no fuel is consumed in the system while the


pump is in operation, the finned-tube cooler prevents excessive heating of the fuel.
Its cooling surface must be adequate to dissipate
the heat that is produced by the pump to the ambient air.

Design pressure

PN10

PCV-009/Pressure limiting valve

Table 5-17

Required filter mesh width (sphere passing


mesh)

Design criterion is the filter area load specified by


the filter manufacturer. The automatic filter has to
be installed in the plant (is not attached on the engine).

This valve is used for setting the required system


pressure and keeping it constant.
It returns in the case of

engine shutdown 100 %, and of


engine full load 37.5 %

0504-0400PA.fm

of the quantity delivered by the supply pump back


to the pump suction side.

H-BC

48/60TS

Page 5 - 81

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

T-011/Mixing tank
The mixing tank compensates pressure surges
which occur in the pressurised part of the fuel system. For this purpose, there has to be an air cushion in the tank. As this air cushion is exhausted
during operation, compressed air (max. 10 bar)
has to be refilled via the control air connection from
time to time.
Before prolonged shutdowns the system is
changed over to MDO/MGO operation. The tank
volume shall be designed to achieve gradual tem-

perature equalisation within 5 minutes in the case


of half-load consumption.
The tank shall be designed for the maximum possible service pressure, usually approx. 10 bar and
is to be accepted by the classification society in
question.
The expected operating pressure in the mixing
tank depends on the required fuel oil pressure at
the inlet (see "Section: Engine and operation Planning
data " and the pressure losses of the installed components and pipes).

Conventional fuel injection


system
32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS
bar
Required max. fuel pressure at engine inlet

8.00

Pressure difference between fuel inlet and outlet engine

2.00

Pressure loss of the fuel return pipe between engine outlet and mixing tank
inlet, e. g.

0.30

Pressure loss of the flow balancing valve (to be installed only in multi-engine
plants, pressure loss approx. 0,5 bar)

0.00

Operating pressure in the mixing tank

5.70

Table 5-18

Example for the determination of the expected operating pressure of the mixing tank

0504-0400PA.fm

This example demonstrates, that the calculated


operating pressure in the mixing tank is (for all HFO
viscosities) higher than the min. required fuel pressure (see "Table 5-14: Injection viscosity and temperature after final preheater").

Page 5 - 82

48/60TS

H-BC

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

P-003/Booster pumps
To cool the engine mounted high pressure injection pumps, the capacity of the booster pumps

has to be at least 300 % of maximum fuel oil consumption at injection viscosity.

QP2 = P1 x brISO x f5
Required booster pump delivery capacity with HFO at 145 C:
Engine output at 100 % MCR:
Specific engine fuel consumption (ISO) at 100 % MCR
Factor for pump dimensioning
For diesel engines operating on main fuel HFO: f5 = 3.90 x 103

QP2

l/h

P1

kWh

brISO

g/kWh

f5

l/g

For diesel engines installed in dredges operating on main fuel HFO: f5 = 3.94 x 103
Note!
The factor f5 includes the following parameters:
300 % fuel flow at 100 % MCR
Main fuel: HFO 380 mm2/50 C
Attached lube oil and cooling water pumps
Tropical conditions
Realistic lower heating value
Specific fuel weight at pumping temperature
Tolerance
In case more than one engine is connected to the same fuel system, the pump capacity has to be increased
accordingly.
Table 5-19

Simplified booster pump dimensioning

The delivery head of the booster pump is to be adjusted to the total resistance of the booster system.
Conventional fuel injection
system
32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

0504-0400PA.fm

bar
Pressure difference between fuel inlet and outlet engine

2.00

Pressure loss of the flow balancing valve (to be installed only in multi-engine
plants, pressure loss approx. 0.5 bar)

0.00

Pressure loss of the pipes, mixing tank engine mixing tank, e. g.

0.50

Pressure loss of the final preheater max.

0.80

Pressure loss of the indicator filter

0.80

Operating delivery height of the booster pump

4.10

Table 5-20

H-BC

Example for the determination of the expected operating delivery height of the booster pump

48/60TS

Page 5 - 83

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

It is recommended to install booster pumps designed for the following pressures:


Engines with conventional fuel injection system:
Design delivery height 7.0 bar, design output pressure 10.0 bar g.
Engines common rail injection system: Design delivery height 10.0 bar, design output pressure
14.0 bar g.
H-004/Final preheater
The capacity of the final-preheater shall be determined on the basis of the injection temperature at
the nozzle, to which 4 K must be added to compensate for heat losses in the piping.
The piping for both heaters shall be arranged for
separate and series operation.
Parallel operation with half the throughput must be
avoided due to the risk of sludge deposits.

VI-001/Viscosity measuring and control device


This device regulates automatically the heating of
the final-preheater depending on the viscosity of
the bunkered fuel oil, so that the fuel will reach the
nozzles with the viscosity required for injection.
Fil-013/Duplex filter
This filter is to be installed upstream of the engine
and as close as possible to the engine.
The emptying port of each filter chamber is to be
fitted with a valve and a pipe to the sludge tank. If
the filter elements are removed for cleaning, the filter chamber must be emptied. This prevents the
dirt particles remaining in the filter casing from migrating to the clean oil side of the filter.
Design criterion is the filter area load specified by
the filter manufacturer.

Conventional fuel injection system


32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS
Filter mesh width (mm)

0.034

Design pressure

PN16

Table 5-21

Required filter mesh width (sphere passing mesh)

Engine Type

Attached
on the
engine

To be installed in
the plant close to
the engine

L32/40

V32/40

L48/60B, 48/60TS

V48/60B, 48/60TS

Table 5-22

FSH-001/Leakage fuel monitoring tank


High pressure pump overflow and escaping fuel
from burst control pipes is carried to the monitoring tanks from which it is drained into the leakage
oil collecting tank. The float switch mounted in the
tanks must be connected to the alarm system.
The classification societies require the installation
of monitoring tanks for unmanned engine rooms.
Lloyd's Register specify monitoring tanks for
manned engine rooms as well.

Position of the duplex filter

FBV-010/Flow balancing valve (throttle valve)

Page 5 - 84

48/60TS

0504-0400PA.fm

The flow balancing valve at engine outlet is to be


installed only (one per engine) in multi-engine arrangements connected to the same fuel system. It
is used to balance the fuel flow through the engines. Each engine has to be feed with its correct,
individual fuel flow.

H-BC

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

Engine
Type

Leakage fuel
monitoring
tanks
attached on
the engine

Leakage fuel monitoring tanks to be


installed in the plant
close to the engine

L32/40

V32/40

L48/60B,
48/60TS

V48/60B,
48/60TS

Table 5-23

HE-007/CK-003 MDO/MGO cooler/three way cock


The propose of the MDO/MGO cooler is to ensure
that the viscosity of MDO/MGO will not become
too fluid in engine inlet.
With CK-003, the MDO/MGO cooler HE- 007 has
to be opened when the engine is switched over to
MDO/MGO operation.

Position of the leakage fuel monitoring tank

T-006/Leakage oil collecting tank for fuel and lube oil


Dirty leak fuel and leak oil are collected in the leakage oil collecting tank. It must be emptied into the
sludge tank.
Engine type

Leak rate for


HFO

Leak rate for


MGO

l/cyl. x h

l/cyl. x h

32/40

0.5 ... 1.0

0.6 1.1

48/60B,
48/60TS

0.8 ... 1.3

0.9 1.5

Table 5-24

PC = P1 x brISO x f1
QC = P1 x brISO x f2
Tout

Dissipated heat of the cooler

PC

kW

MDO flow for thermal dimensioning of


the cooler2)

Qc

l/h

Engine output at 100 % MCR

P1

kW

brISO

g/kWh

f1

kWh/g

f2

l/g

Tout = 45 C

Leak rate (fuel and lube oil together) for conventional injection

Leakage fuel flows pressure less (by gravity only)


from the engine into this tank (to be installed below
the engine connections). Pipe clogging must be
avoided by trace heating and by a sufficient downward slope.
The content of T-006 must not be added to the engine fuel! It can be burned for instance in a waste
oil boiler.
Withdrawal points for samples
0504-0400PA.fm

The design pressure of the MDO cooler is PN 16.

Cooler outlet temp. MDO/MGO1):

A high flow of dirty leakage oil will occur in case of


a pipe break, for short time only (< 1 min). Engine
will run down immediately after a pipe break alarm.

Points for drawing fuel oil samples are to be provided upstream and downstream of each filter, to
verify the effectiveness of these system components.

H-BC

That way, the MDO/MGO, which was heated while


circulating via the injection pumps, is re-cooled
before it is returned to the mixing tank
T-011. Switching on the MDO/MGO cooler may
be effected only after flushing the pipes with
MDO/MGO. The MDO/MGO cooler is cooled by
LT cooling water.

Specific engine fuel consumption (ISO)


at 100 % MCR:
Factor for dissipated heat
f1 = 2.01 x 105
Factor for MDO/MGO flow
f2 = 2.80 x

103

Note!
In case more than one engine, or different engines are
connected to the same fuel system, the cooler capacity has to be increased accordingly.
Table 5-25

Simplified MDO-cooler dimensioning for


engines without common rail (32/40, 48/60B)

1) This

temperature has to be normally max. 45 C. Only for


very light MGO fuel types this temperature has to be even
lower in order to preserve the min. admissible fuel viscosity
in engine inlet (see "Section 4.9: Viscosity-temperature diagram
(VT diagram), page 4-33").
2) The max. MDO/MGO throughput is identical to the de livery
quantity of the installed booster pump.

48/60TS

Page 5 - 85

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

The recommended pressure class of the MDO


cooler is PN16.
Note that the max. possible MDO flow through the
cooler is identical to the delivery quantity of the
supply pump P-008.
The cooler has to be dimensioned for a MDO outlet temperature of 45 C, for very light MGO
grades even lower outlet temperatures are required.
PCV-011/Pressure limiting valve
In case two engines are operated with one fuel
module, it has to be possible to separate one engine at a time from the fuel circuit for maintenance
purposes. In order to avoid a pressure increase in
the pressurised system, the fuel, which cannot circulate through the shut-off engine, has to be rerouted via this valve into the return pipe. This valve
is to be adjusted so that rerouting is effected only
when the pressure, in comparison to normal operation (multi-engine operation), is exceeded.
V-002/Shut-off cock
The stop cock is closed during normal operation
(multi-engine operation). When one engine is separated from the fuel circuit for maintenance purposes, this cock has to be opened manually.
T-008/Pressure peaks compensation tank
The injection nozzles cause pressure peaks in the
pressurised part of the fuel system. In order to protect the viscosity measuring and Control Unit,
these pressure peaks have to be equalised by a
compensation tank. The volume of the pressure
peaks compensation tank is 20 I.
Piping
We recommend to use pipes according to PN16
for the fuel system (see "Section 5.1.1: Engine pipe
connections and dimensions, page 5-3").
Material

Page 5 - 86

48/60TS

0504-0400PA.fm

The casing material of pumps and filters should be


EN-GJS (nodular cast iron), in accordance to the
requirements of the classification societies.

H-BC

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0504-0400PA.fm

5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

Figure 5-24

H-BC

HFO supply system Single engine plant

48/60TS

Page 5 - 87

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

Legend
CF-002

Heavy fuel oil separator

1,2P-003

Booster pump

CF-003

Diesel fuel oil separator

1,2P-018

HFO supply pump

CK-002

Switching between MDO and HFO

PCV-009

Pressure limiting valve

CK-003

Switching to MDO cooler

1,2STR-010

Strainer

D-001

Diesel engine

1,2T-003

Diesel oil service tank

FIL-003

Fuel oil automatic filter

T-006

Leak oil tank

FIL-013

Fuel duplex filter

T-008

Fuel oil dumper tank

FQ-003

Flowmeter fuel oil

T-011

Fuel oil mixing tank

FSH-001

Leakage fuel oil monitoring tank

T-015

Diesel oil storage tank

1,2H-004

Final heater HFO

T-016

HFO settling tank

HE-007

Diesel oil/gas oil cooler

T-021

Sludge tank

HE-025

Cooler for circulation fuel oil feeding part

1,2T-022

HFO service tank

MOD-008

Fuel oil module

VI-001

Viscosimeter

Note!

0504-0400PA.fm

Engine L48/60B: FSH-001 attached on the engine, 5693 downstream of FSH-001.

Page 5 - 88

48/60TS

H-BC

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0504-0400PA.fm

5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

Figure 5-25

H-BC

HFO supply system Twin engine plant

48/60TS

Page 5 - 89

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

Legend
CF-002

Heavy fuel oil separator

1,2 P-018

HFO supply pump

CF-003

Diesel fuel oil separator

PCV-009

Pressure limiting valve

CK-002

Switching between MDO and HFO

PCV-011

Spill in single engine operation

CK-003

Switching to MDO cooler

1,2 STR-010

Strainer

1,2 FBV-010

Flow balancing valve

1,2 T-003

Diesel oil service tank

FIL-003

Fuel oil automatic filter

T-006

Leak oil tank

1,2 FIL-013

Fuel duplex filter

T-008

Fuel oil dumper tank

FQ-003

Flowmeter fuel oil

T-011

Fuel oil mixing tank

1,2 FSH-001

Leakage fuel oil monitoring tank

T-015

Diesel oil storage tank

1,2 H-004

Final heater HFO

T-016

HFO settling tank

HE-007

Diesel oil/gas oil cooler

T-021

Sludge tank for HFO separator

HE-025

Cooler for circulation fuel oil feeding part

1,2 T-022

HFO service tank

MOD-008

Fuel oil module

V-002

Shut-off cock

1,2 P-003

Booster pump

VI-001

Viscosimeter

Note!

0504-0400PA.fm

Engine L48/60B: FSH-001 attached on the engine, 5693 downstream of FSH-001.

Page 5 - 90

48/60TS

H-BC

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.5.1 Starting air system

5.5

Compressed air system

5.5.1

Starting air system

Marine main engines

1 T-007, 2 T-007/Starting air vessels

The compressed air supply to the engine plant requires air vessels and air compressors of a capacity and air delivery rating which will meet the
requirements of the relevant classification society
(see "Section: Compressed air system Starting air vessels, compressors").

The installation situation of the air vessels must ensure a good drainage of condensed water. Air vessels must be installed with a downward slope
sufficiently to ensure a good drainage of accumulated condensate water.

1 C-001, 2 C-001, 3 C-001/Air compressor


1 service compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 C-001
1 auxiliary compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 C-001
1 Jet Assist compressor . . . . . . . . . . . 3 C-001
These are multi-stage compressor sets with safety
valves, cooler for compressed air and condensate
traps.
The operational compressor is switched on by the
pressure control at low pressure, respectively
switched off at max. service pressure.
A max. service pressure of 30 bar is required. The
standard design pressure of the starting air vessels is 30 bar and the design temperature is
50 C.
The service compressor is electrically driven, the
auxiliary compressor may also be driven by a diesel engine. The capacity of both compressors (1
C-001 and 2 C-001) is identical.
The total capacity of the compressors has to be
increased if the engine is equipped with Jet Assist.
This can be met either by providing a larger service
compressor, or by an additional compressor
(3 C-001).
For special operating conditions such as, e. g.,
dredging service, the capacity of the compressors
has to be adjusted to the respective requirements
of operation.

The installation situation also has to ensure that


during emergency discharging of the safety valve
no persons can be compromised.
It is not allowed to weld supports (or other) on the
air vessels. The original design must not be altered. Air vessels are to be bedded and fixed by
use of external supporting structures.
T-018/Air vessel for Jet Assist
Technical notes identical to 1 T-007, 2 T-007/
starting air vessels.
As an alternative it is possible to omit the separate
air vessel for Jet Assist (T-018). In this case, the
volume of the starting air vessels (1 T-007,
2 T-007) must be increased accordingly.
Piping
The main starting pipe (engine connection 7171),
connected to both air vessels, leads to the main
starting valve (MSV- 001) of the engine.
A second 30 bar pressure line (engine connection
7172) with separate connections to both air vessels supplies the engine with control air. This does
not require larger air vessels.
A line branches off the aforementioned control air
pipe to supply other air-consuming engine accessories (e. g. lube oil automatic filter, fuel oil filter)
with compressed air through a separate 30/8 bar
pressure reducing station.

0505-0000MA2.fm

A third 30 bar pipe is required for engines with Jet


Assist (engine connection 7177). Depending on
the air vessel arrangement, this pipe can be
branched off from the starting air pipe near engine

E-BB

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 91

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.5.1 Starting air system

or must be connected separately to the air vessel


for Jet Assist.
Additional connections on the air vessels are provided for air requirements of the ship and for the
horn. The pipes to be connected by the shipyard
have to be supported immediately behind their
connection to the engine. Further supports are required at sufficiently short distance.
Other air consumers for low pressure, auxiliary application (e.g. filter cleaning, TC cleaning, pneumatic drives) can be connected to the start air
system after a pressure reduction unit.
Galvanised steel pipe must not be used for the
piping of the system.
General requirements of classification societies
The equipment provided for starting the engines
must enable the engines to be started from the
operating condition 'zero' with shipboard facilities,
i. e. without outside assistance.

Compressors
Two or more starting air compressors must be
provided. At least one of the air compressors must
be driven independently of the main engine and
must supply at least 50 % of the required total capacity.
The total capacity of the starting air compressors
is to be calculated so that the air volume necessary for the required number of starts is topped up
from atmospheric pressure within one hour.
The compressor capacities are calculated as follows:

Starting air vessels


The starting air supply is to be split up into not less
than two starting air vessels of about the same
size, which can be used independently of each another.
For the sizes of the starting air vessels for the respective engines see "Section: Compressed air
system Starting air vessels, compressors".
Diesel-mechanical main engine:
For each non-reversible main engine driving a
C.P.-propeller, or where starting without counter
torque is possible, the stored starting air must be
sufficient for a certain number of starting manoeuvres, normally 6 per engine. The exact number of
required starting manoeuvres depends on the arrangement of the system and on the special requirements of the classification society.
Diesel-electric auxiliary engine:
For auxiliary marine engines, separate air tanks
shall only be installed in case of turbine-driven vessels, or if the auxiliary sets in engine-driven vessels
are installed far away from the main plant.
Diesel-electric main engine:
For each diesel-electric main engine the stored
starting air must be sufficient for a certain number
of starting manoeuvres, normally 6 per engine.
The exact number of required starting manoeuvres
depends on the number of engines and on the
special requirements of the classification society.

V 30
1000

Total volumetric capacity of the


compressors

Total volume of the starting air ves- litres


sels at 30 bar or 40 bar service
pressure

Page 5 - 92

m/h

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

0505-0000MA2.fm

As a rule, compressors of identical ratings should


be provided. An emergency compressor, if provided, is to be disregarded in this respect.

E-BB

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.5.1 Starting air system

Calculation formula for starting air vessels see below

V
V Vst fDrive z st z Safe Jet z Jet tJet Vsl z sl fDrive
5sec

Required vessel capacity

litre

Vst

Air consumption per nominal start1)

litre

fDrive

Factor for drive type

pmax pmin

(1.0 = Diesel-mechanic,
1.5 = alternator drive)

zst

Number of starts required by the


classification society

zSafe

Number of starts as safety margi

VJet

Assist air consumption per


Jet Assist1)

zJet

Number of Jet Assist procedures1)

tJet

Duration of Jet Assist procedures

sec.

Vsl

Air consumption per slow turnlitre

zsl

Number of slow turn manoeuvres

pmax

Maximum starting air pressure

bar

pmin

Minimum starting air pressure

bar

1)

litre

Tabulated values see "Section: Compressed air system


Starting air vessels, compressors".

0505-0000MA2.fm

If other consumers (i. e. auxiliary engines, ship air


etc.) which are not listed in the formula are connected to the starting air vessel, the capacity of
starting air vessel must be increased accordingly,
or an additional separate air vessel has to be installed.

E-BB

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 93

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

Figure 5-26

Page 5 - 94

0505-0000MA2.fm

5.5.1 Starting air system

Starting air system

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

E-BB

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.5.1 Starting air system

Legend
Starting air compressor (service)

T-018

Vessel for Jet Assist only

2 C-001

Starting air compressor (stand-by)

TR-005

Water trap

3 C-001

Compressor for Jet Assist

1, 2, 3 TR-006

Automatic condensate trap

FIL-001

Lube-oil automatic filter

7171

Engine inlet (main starting valve)

FIL-003

Fuel automatic filter

7172

Control air and emergency stop

M-019

Valve for interlocking device

7177

Jet Assist (optional)

MSV-001

Main starting valve

7451

Control air from turning gear

2 T-007

Starting air vessel

7461

Control air to turning gear

TY-001

Typhon

9771

Turbocharger dry cleaning (optional)

0505-0000MA2.fm

1 C-001

E-BB

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 95

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0505-0000MA2.fm

5.5.1 Starting air system

Page 5 - 96

32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

E-BB

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.5.2 Starting air vessels, compressors

5.5.2

Starting air vessels, compressors

General

0505-0200PDts.fm

The engine requires compressed air for starting,


start-turning, for the Jet Assist function as well as
several pneumatic controls. The design of the
pressure air vessel directly depends on the air
consumption and the requirements of the classification societies.

H-BC

48/60TS

Page 5 - 97

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0505-0200PDts.fm

5.5.2 Starting air vessels, compressors

Page 5 - 98

48/60TS

H-BC

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.5.3 Jet Assist

5.5.3

Jet Assist

General
Jet Assist is a system for acceleration of the turbocharger. By means of nozzles in the turbocharger,
compressed air is directed to accelerate the compressor wheel. This causes the turbocharger to
adapt more rapidly to a new load condition and
improves the response of the engine.
Air consumption
The air consumption for Jet Assist is, to a great extent, dependent on the load profile of the ship. In
case of frequently and quickly changing load
steps, Jet Assist will be actuated more often than
this will be the case during long routes at largely
constant load.
For air consumption (litre) see "Section: Compressed
air system Starting air vessels, compressors".
General data
Jet Assist air pressure (overpressure) ........ 4 bar
At the engine connection the pressure is max.
30 bar. The air pressure will reduced on the engine
by an orifice to max. 4 bar (overpressure).
Jet Assist activating time:

0505-0300MA2.fm

3 sec to 10 sec (5 sec in average)

D-BD

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR

Page 5 - 99

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.5.3 Jet Assist

Consider temporal distribution of events


For the design of the Jet Assist air supply the temporal distribution of events needs to be considered, if there might be an accumulation of events.
Following figure shows exemplary for an application with 10 manoeuvres per hour five Jet Assist
manoeuvers in rapid succession and five remaining Jet Assist manoeuvres in standard activation.

Figure 5-27

Example: Application diesel-electric marine drive

In this case for the design of the starting air vessels


and compressors it has to be considered that after
finishing of the five Jet Assist manoeuvres within
short time the next Jet Assist manoeuvre (marked)
must be executable.
Dynamic positioning for drilling vessels, cable-laying
vessels, off-shore applications
When applying dynamic positioning, pulsating
load application of > 25 % may occur frequently,
up to 30 times per hour. In these cases, the possibility of a specially adapted, separate compressed
air system has always to be checked.
Air supply
Generally, larger air bottles are to be provided for
the air supply of the Jet Assist.
If the planned load profile is expecting a high requirement of Jet Assist, it should be checked
whether an air supply from the working air circuit,
a separate air bottle or a specially adapted, separate compressed air system is necessary or reasonable.

0505-0300MA2.fm

In each case the delivery capacity of the compressors is to be adapted to the expected Jet Assist
requirement per unit of time.

Page 5 - 100

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR

D-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.6 Engine room ventilation and combustion air

5.6

Engine room ventilation and combustion air

General information

Engine room ventilation system


Its purpose is:

Supplying the engines and auxiliary boilers with


combustion air.

Carrying off the radiant heat from all installed


engines and auxiliaries.

Combustion air
The combustion air must be free from spray water,
snow, dust and oil mist.
This is achieved by:

Louvres, protected against the head wind, with

baffles in the back and optimally dimensioned


suction space so as to reduce the air flow velocity to 1 1.5 m/s.

Self-cleaning air filter in the suction space (re-

quired for dust-laden air, e. g. cement, ore or


grain carrier), with a medium degree of separation, at least G4 according to DIN EN 779.

Sufficient space between the intake point and

the openings of exhaust air ducts from the engine and separator room as well as vent pipes
from lube oil and fuel oil tanks and the air intake
louvres. (The influence of winds must be taken
into consideration).

Positioning of engine room doors on the ship's

deck so that no oil-laden air and warm engine


room air will be drawn in when the doors are
open.

Arranging the separator station at a sufficiently


large distance from the turbochargers.

The MAN Diesel & Turbo turbochargers are fitted


with an air intake silencer and can additionally be
equipped with an air filter to meet with special circumstances, in which case the cleaning intervals
for the compressor impeller of the turbocharger
and for the charge air cooler can be extended.
This additional air intake filter will retain 95 % of the
particles larger than 10 m.
In tropical service a sufficient volume of air must be
supplied to the turbocharger(s) at outside air temperature. For this purpose there must be an air
duct installed for each turbocharger, with the outlet of the duct facing the respective intake air silencer, separated from the latter by a space of
1.5 m. No water of condensation from the air duct
must be allowed to be drawn in by the turbocharger. The air stream must not be directed onto the
exhaust manifold.
In intermittently or permanently arctic service (defined as: air intake temperature of the engine below +5 C) special measures are necessary
depending on the possible minimum air intake
temperature. For further information see "Section
2.8: Engine operation under arctic conditions, page 2-37".
If necessary, steam heated air preheaters must be
provided.
For the required combustion air quantity, see "Section: Engine and operation Planning data". Cross-sec-

tions of air supply ducts are to be designed to


obtain the following air flow velocities:

Main ducts 8 12 m/s


Secondary ducts max. 8 m/s
Air fans are to be designed so as to maintain a
positive air pressure of 50 Pa (5 mm WC) in the
engine room.

0506-0000MA2.fm

The combustion air is normally drawn in from the


engine room.

A-BD

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

Page 5 - 101

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.6 Engine room ventilation and combustion air

Radiant heat
The heat radiated from the main and auxiliary engines, from the exhaust manifolds, waste heat
boilers, silencers, alternators, compressors, electrical equipment, steam and condensate pipes,
heated tanks and other auxiliaries is absorbed by
the engine room air.
The amount of air V required to carry off this radiant heat can be calculated as follows:

Q
t cp t

Air required

m/h

Heat to be dissipated

kJ/h

Air temperature rise in engine room


(10 12.5)

cp

Specific heat capacity of air (1.01)

kJ/kg*k

Air density at 35 C (1.15)

kg/m

Ventilator capacity
The capacity of the air ventilators (without separator room) must be large enough to cover at least
the sum of the following tasks:

The combustion air requirements of all consumers.

The air required for carrying off the radiant heat.

0506-0000MA2.fm

A rule-of-thumb applicable to plants operating on


heavy fuel oil is 20 24 m3/kWh.

Page 5 - 102

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF

A-BD

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.7.1 General information

5.7

Exhaust gas system

5.7.1

General information

Layout

The exhaust piping should be elastically hung

As the flow resistance in the exhaust system has a


very large influence on the fuel consumption and
the thermal load of the engine, the total resistance
of the exhaust gas system must not exceed
30 mbar.
For permissible values for special cases please
contact MAN Diesel & Turbo.
The pipe diameter selection depends on the engine output, the exhaust gas volume, and the system backpressure, including silencer and SCR (if
fitted). The backpressure also being dependent on
the length and arrangement of the piping as well
as the number of bends. Sharp bends result in
very high flow resistance and should therefore be
avoided. If necessary, pipe bends must be provided with guide vanes.
We recommend, as guideline, that the maximum
exhaust gas velocity in the pipe is approx. 40 m/s.

Installation

or supported by means of dampers in order to


prevent the transmission of sound to other
parts of the vessel.

The exhaust piping is to be provided with water

drains, which are to be regularly checked to


drain any condensation water or possible leak
water from exhaust gas boilers if fitted.

During commissioning and maintenance work,

checking of the exhaust gas system back pressure by means of a temporarily connected
measuring device may become necessary. For
this purpose, a measuring socket is to be provided approximately 1 to 2 metres after the exhaust gas outlet of the turbocharger, in a
straight length of pipe at an easily accessed
position. Standard pressure measuring devices
usually require a measuring socket size of 1/2".
This measuring socket is to be provided to ensure back pressure can be measured without
any damage to the exhaust gas pipe insulation.

When installing the exhaust system, the following


points must be observed:

The exhaust pipes of two or more engines must


not be joined.

0507-0000MA2.fm

Because of the high temperatures involved, the

exhaust pipes must be able to expand. The expansion joints to be provided for this purpose
are to be mounted between fixed-point pipe
supports installed in suitable positions. One
sturdy fixed-point support must be provided for
the expansion joint directly after the turbocharger. It should be positioned, if possible, immediately above the expansion joint in order to
prevent the transmission of forces to the turbocharger itself. These forces include those resulting from the weight, thermal expansion or
lateral displacement of the exhaust piping.

K-BC

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 103

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0507-0000MA2.fm

5.7.1 General information

Page 5 - 104

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

K-BC

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems
5.7.2 Components and assemblies

5.7.2

Components and assemblies

Exhaust gas silencer

Mode of operation
The silencer operates on the absorption principle
so it is effective in a wide frequency band. The flow
path, which runs through the silencer in a straight
line, ensures optimum noise reduction with minimum flow resistance. The silencer must be
equipped with a spark arrestor.

Installation
If possible, the silencer should be installed towards the end of the exhaust line. A vertical installation situation is to be preferred in order to avoid
formations of gas fuel pockets in the silencer. The
cleaning ports of the spark arrestor are to be easily
accessible.

Exhaust gas boiler


To utilize the thermal energy from the exhaust, an
exhaust gas boiler producing steam or hot water
can be installed.

Insulation
The exhaust gas system (from outlet of turbocharger, boiler, silencer to the outlet stack) is to be
insulated to reduce the external surface temperature to the required level. The relevant provisions
concerning accident prevention and those of the
classification societies must be observed.
The insulation is also required to avoid temperatures below the dew point on the interior side. In
case of insufficient insulation intensified corrosion
and soot deposits on the interior surface are the
consequence. During fast load changes, such deposits might flake off and be entrained by exhaust
in the form of soot flakes.

0507-0200MA2.fm

Insulation and covering of the compensator must


not restrict its free movement.

K-BC

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

Page 5 - 105

The figures shown are reference values only


and are to be seen as preliminary.
Engine supply systems

0507-0200MA2.fm

5.7.2 Components and assemblies

Page 5 - 106

32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS

K-BC

======

Engine room planning

Kapiteltitel 6 M2.fm

Page 6 - 1

Page 6 - 2

Kapiteltitel 6 M2.fm

Engine supply systems


6.0.1 Major spare parts

6.0.1

Major spare parts

0601-0500MB2.fm

Major spare parts 1

E-BB

32/40

Page 6 - 3

Engine supply systems


6.0.1 Major spare parts

0601-0500MB2.fm

Major spare parts 2

Page 6 - 4

32/40

E-BB

Engine supply systems


6.0.1 Major spare parts

0601-0500MB2.fm

Major spare parts 3

E-BB

32/40

Page 6 - 5

Engine supply systems


6.0.1 Major spare parts

0601-0500MB2.fm

Major spare parts 4

Page 6 - 6

32/40

E-BB

======

Annex

Kapiteltitel 8 AA.fm

Page 7 - 1

Page 7 - 2

Kapiteltitel 8 AA.fm

Annex
7.1.1 General

7.1

Safety instructions and necessary safety measures

The following list of basic safety instructions, in


connection with further engine documentation like
user manual and working instructions, should ensure a safe handling of the engine. Due to variations between specific plants, this list does not
claim to be exhaustive and may vary with regard to
the real existing requirements.

7.1.1

General

There are risks at the interfaces of the engine,


which have to be eliminated or minimized in the
context of integration the engine into the plant system. Responsible for this is the legal person which
is responsible for the integration of the engine.
Following prerequisites need to be fulfilled:

Layout, calculation, design and execution of

the plant according to the latest state of the art.

All relevant classification rules, rules, regulations and laws are considered, evaluated and
are included in the system planning.

The project-specific requirements of MAN


Diesel & Turbo regarding the engine and its
connection to the plant will be implemented.

In principle, always apply the more stringent re-

0800-0000AA2.fm

quirements of a specific document if its relevance is given for the plant.

D-BB

Page 7 - 3

Annex
7.1.2 Safety equipment/measures provided by plant-side

7.1.2

Safety equipment/measures provided by plant-side

Following safety equipment respectively safety measures must be provided by plant-side


The turning gear has to be equipped with an
optical and acoustic warning device. When the
turning gear is first activated, there has to be a
certain delay between the emission of the
warning device's signals and the start of the
turning gear. The turning gears gear wheel has
to be covered. The turning gear should be
equipped with a remote control, allowing optimal positioning of the operator, overlooking the
entire hazard area (a cable of approx. 20 m
length is recommended).
It has to be prescribed in the form of a working
instruction that:
- the turning gear has to be operated by at
least two persons.
- the work area must be secured against unauthorized entry.
- only trained personnel is allowed to operate
the turning gear.

Securing of the starting air pipe


To secure against unintentional restarting of the
engine during maintenance work, a disconnection and depressurization of the engines starting air system must be possible. A lockable
starting air stop valve must be provided in the
starting air pipe to the engine.

Securing of the turbocharger rotor


To secure against unintentional turning of the
turbocharger rotor while maintenance work, it
must be possible to prevent draught in the exhaust gas duct and, if necessary, to secure the
rotor against rotation.

Safeguarding of the surrounding area of the flywheel

The entire area of the flywheel has to be safeguarded by plant-side.

Special care must be taken, inter alia, to prevent from: ejection of parts, contact with moving machine parts and falling into the flywheel
area.

Consideration of the blow-off zone of the


crankcase covers relief valves

During crankcase explosions, the resulting hot


gases will be blown out of the crankcase
through the relief valves. This must be considered in the overall planning.

Setting up storage areas


Throughout the plant, suitable storage areas
have to be determined for stabling of components and tools. Thereby it is important to ensure
stability,
carrying
capacity
and
accessibility. The quality structure of the ground
has to be considered (slip resistance, resistance against residual liquids of the stored components, consideration of the transport and
traffic routes).

Proper execution of the work


Generally, it is necessary to ensure that all work
is properly done according to the task trained
and qualified personnel. Special attention must
be paid to the execution of the electrical equipment. By selection of suitable specialized companies and personnel, it has to be ensured that
a faulty feeding of media, electric voltage and
electric currents will be avoided.

Connection of exhaust port of the turbocharger


at the engine to the exhaust gas system of the
plant

The connection between the exhaust port turbocharger and exhaust gas system of the plant
has to be executed gas tight and must be
equipped with a fire proof insulation. The surface temperature of the fire insulation must not
exceed 220 C.
In workspaces and traffic areas, a suitable contact protection has to be provided whose surface temperature must not exceed 60 C.

Page 7 - 4

D-BB

0800-0000AA2.fm

Securing of the engines turning gear

Annex
7.1.2 Safety equipment/measures provided by plant-side

The connection has to be equipped with compensators for longitudinal expansion and axis
displacement in consideration of the occurring
vibrations. (The flange of the turbocharger
reaches temperatures of up to 450 C).

Optical and acoustic warning device

Generally any ignition sources, smoking and

Due to noise-impared voice communication in


the engine room/power house, it is necessary
to check where at the plant additionally to
acoustic warning signals optical warning signals (e.g. flash lamp) should be provided.

Smoke detection systems and fire alarm sys-

In any case, optical and acoustic warning devices are necessary while using the turning
gear and while starting/stopping the engine.

open fire in the maintenance and protection


area of the engine is prohibited.
tems have to be provided.

Signs
a) Following figure exemplarily shows the declared risks in the area of a combustion engine.
This may vary slightly for the specific engine:

Engine room ventilation


An effective ventilation system has to be provided in the engine room to avoid endangering
by contact or by inhalation of fluids, gases, vapours and dusts which could have harmful,
toxic, corrosive and/or acid effects.

Venting of crankcase and turbocharger


The gases/vapours originating from crankcase
and turbocharger are ignitable. It must be ensured that the gases/vapours will not be ignited
by external sources. For multi-engine plants,
each engine has to be ventilated separately.
The engine ventilation of different engines must
not be connected.
In case of an installed suction system, it has to
be ensured that it will not be stopped until at
least 20 minutes after engine shutdown.

Drainable supplies and excipients


Figure 7-1

Warning sign E11.48991-1108

This warning sign has to be mounted clearly


visibly at the engine as well as at all entrances
to the engine room or to the power house.
b) Prohibited area signs

0800-0000AA2.fm

Dependending on the application, it is possible


that specific operating ranges of the engine
must be prohibited.
In these cases the signs will be delivered together with the engine, which have to be
mounted clearly visibly on places at the engine
which allow intervention to the engine operation.

D-BB

Supply system and excipient system must be


drainable and must be secured against unintentional recommissioning (EN 1037).
Sufficient ventilation at the filling, emptying and
ventilation points must be ensured.
The residual quantities which must be emptied
have to be collected and disposed of properly.

Spray guard has to be ensured for liquids pos-

sibly leaking from the flanges of the plants piping system. The emerging media must be
drained off and collected safely.

Page 7 - 5

Annex
7.1.2 Safety equipment/measures provided by plant-side

Composition of the ground


The ground, workspace, transport/traffic
routes and storage areas have to be designed
according to the physical and chemical characteristics of the excipients and supplies used in
the plant.
Safe work for maintenance and operational
staff must always be possible.

Emergency stop system


The emergency stop system requires special
care during planning, realization, commissioning and testing at site to avoid dangerous operating conditions. The assessment of the effects
on other system components caused by an
emergency stop of the engine must be carried
out by plant-side.

Adequate lighting
Light sources for an adequate and sufficient
lighting must be provided by plant-side. The
current guidelines should be followed (100 Lux
is recommended, see also DIN EN 1679-1).

Working platforms/scaffolds
For work on the engine, working platforms/
scaffolds must be provided and further safety
precautions must be taken into consideration.
Among other things, it must be possible to
work secured by safety belts. Corresponding
lifting points/devices have to be provided.

Fail-safe 24 V power supply


Because engine control, alarm system and
safety system are connected to a 24 V power
supply, this part of the plant has to be designed
fail-safe to ensure a regular engine operation.

Intake air filtering


In case of air intake is realized through piping
and not by means of the turbochargers intake
silencer, appropriate measures for air filtering
must be provided. It must be ensured that particles exceeding 5 m will be restrained by an
air filtration system.

Quality of the intake air


It has to be ensured that combustible media will
not be sucked in by the engine.

0800-0000AA2.fm

Intake air quality according to the relevant section of the project guide has to be guaranteed.

Page 7 - 6

D-BB

Annex
7.2 Programme for works test

7.2

Programme for works test

Cons. No.

Engine rating

Operating time

LT cooling water temperature

% site rating

min

C (ISO)

100

60

25

100

30

According to site conditions

85

30

According to site conditions

Table 7-1

Operating points to be considered during the acceptance test run

Acceptance test record

Service records for above load points in accordance with ISO Standard 3046-1.

Service records for load points 25 %, 50 % and


75 % of previous test run measurement.

Records of governor testing and safety system


testing of previous test run measurements.

Note!
Further load points can only be demonstrated
during the acceptance test run (30 min each),
if this is part of the contract.

1001-0000PA.fm

After the acceptance test run, the components


will be inspected, as far as this is possible
without dismantling them. Components will
only be removed on customers order.

_J_a

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

Page 7 - 7

Annex

1001-0000PA.fm

7.2 Programme for works test

Page 7 - 8

32/40, 48/60B, 48/60TS

_J_a

Annex
7.3 Engine running-in

7.3

Engine running-in

Prerequisites

Operating media

Engines require a run-in period:

The run-in period may be carried out preferably


using diesel fuel or gas oil. The fuel used must
meet the quality standards see "Section 4: Specification for engine supplies, page 4-1" and the design of
the fuel system.

When put into operation on-site, if after test run

the pistons or bearings were dismantled for inspection or if the engine was partially or fully
dismantled for transport.

After fitting new drive train components, such

as cylinder liners, pistons, piston rings, crankshaft bearings, big-end bearings and piston pin
bearings.

After the fitting of used bearing shells.


After long-term low load operation (> 500 operating hours).

Supplementary information

Operating Instructions
During the run-in procedure the unevenness of the
piston-ring surfaces and cylinder contact surfaces
is removed. The run-in period is completed once
the first piston ring perfectly seals the combustion
chamber. I.e. the first piston ring should show an
evenly worn contact surface. If the engine is subjected to higher loads, prior to having been run-in,
then the hot exhaust gases will pass between the
piston rings and the contact surfaces of the cylinder. The oil film will be destroyed in such locations.
The result is material damage (e.g. burn marks) on
the contact surface of the piston rings and the cylinder liner. Later, this may result in increased engine wear and high oil consumption.

Diesel-gas engines are run in using diesel operation with the fuel intended as the ignition oil.

Lube oil
The run-in lube oil must match the quality standards, with regard to the fuel quality.
Engine run-in

Cylinder lubrication (optional)


The cylinder lubrication must be switched to "Running In" mode during completion of the run-in procedure. This is done at the control cabinet or at the
control panel (under "Manual Operation"). This ensures that the cylinder lubrication is already activated over the whole load range when the engine
starts. The run-in process of the piston rings and
pistons benefits from the increased supply of oil.
Cylinder lubrication must be returned to "Normal
Mode" once the run-in period has been completed.

Checks
Inspections of the bearing temperature and crankcase must be conducted during the run-in period:

The first inspection must take place after 10


minutes of operation at minimum speed.

An inspection must take place after operation

at full load respectively after operational output


level has been reached.

0802-0000AA2.fm

The time until the run-in procedure is completed is


determined by the properties and quality of the
surfaces of the cylinder liner, the quality of the fuel
and lube oil, as well as by the load of the engine
and speed. The run-in periods indicated in following figures may therefore only be regarded as approximate values.

For the run-in of gas four-stroke engines it is best


to use the gas which is to be used later in operation.

_J_a

Page 7 - 9

Annex
7.3 Engine running-in

The bearing temperatures (camshaft bearings,


big-end and main bearings) must be determined in
comparison with adjoining bearing. For this purpose an electrical sensor thermometer may be
used as a measuring device.
At 85 % load and on reaching operational output
level, the operating data (ignition pressures, exhaust gas temperatures, charge pressure, etc.)
must be tested and compared with the acceptance report.

Standard running-in programme


Dependent on the application the run-in programme can be derived from the figures in "Paragraph: Diagrams of standard running-in, page 7-11".
During the entire run-in period, the engine output
has to be within the marked output range. Critical
speed ranges are thus avoided.

Running-in during commissioning on site


Barring exceptions, four-stroke engines are always subjected to a test run in the manufacturers
premises. As such, the engine has usually been
run in. Nonetheless, after installation in the final location, another run-in period is required if the pistons or bearings were disassembled for inspection
after the test run, or if the engine was partially or
fully disassembled for transport.

Running-in after fitting new drive train components


If during revision work the cylinder liners, pistons,
or piston rings are replaced, then a new run-in period is required. A run-in period is also required if
the piston rings are replaced in only one piston.
The run-in period must be conducted according to
following figures or according to the associated
explanations.

When used bearing shells are reused, or when


new bearing shells are installed, these bearings
have to be run in. The run-in period should be 3 to
5 hours under progressive loads, applied in stages. The instructions in the preceding text segments, particularly the ones regarding the
"Inspections", and following figures must be observed.
Idling at higher speeds for long periods of operation should be avoided if at all possible.

Running-in after low load operation


Continuous operation in the low load range may
result in substantial internal pollution of the engine.
Residue from fuel and lube oil combustion may
cause deposits on the top-land ring of the piston
exposed to combustion, in the piston ring channels as well as in the inlet channels. Moreover, it is
possible that the charge air and exhaust pipe, the
charge air cooler, the turbocharger and the exhaust gas tank may be polluted with oil.
Since the piston rings have adapted themselves to
the cylinder liner according to the running load, increased wear resulting from quick acceleration
and possibly with other engine trouble (leaking piston rings, piston wear) should be expected.
Therefore, after a longer period of low load operation ( 500 hours of operation) a run-in period
should be performed again, depending on the
power, according to following figures.
Also for instruction see "Section 2.5: Low load operation, page 2-31".
Note!
For further information, you may contact the
MAN Diesel & Turbo customer service or the
customer service of the licensee.

0802-0000AA2.fm

The cylinder liner may be re-honed according to


Work Card 050.05, if it is not replaced. A transportable honing machine may be requested from
one of our service and support locations.

Running-in after refitting used or new bearing liners


(crankshaft, connecting rod and piston pin bearings)

Page 7 - 10

B-BD

Annex
7.3 Engine running-in

Diagrams of standard running-in

Speed [%]

Output [%]
100
90
Engine speed

80
70
60
50

Engine output
(specified range)

40
30
20
10
0

0
Figure 7-2

0,5

1,5

2
2,5
3
3,5
Running in period [h]

4,5

5,5

Standard running-in programme for engines operated with constant speed of the types: 32/40, 32/40DF,
32/40G, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 35/44G

Speed [%]

Output [%]
100
90
Engine speed

80
70
60
50

Engine output
(specified range)

40
30
20
10

0802-0000AA2.fm

0
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8
Running in period [h]
Figure 7-3

_J_a

Standard running-in programme for engines operated with constant speed of the types: 48/60B, 48/60TS,
48/60CR, 51/60DF, 51/60G

Page 7 - 11

Annex
7.3 Engine running-in

Speed [%]

Output [%]
100
A

90
80
70
60
50
40
30

Engine output
(specified range)

0
Figure 7-4

0,5

1,5

Engine speed range


A Controllable-pitch propeller
B Fixed-pitch propeller

2
2,5
3
3,5
Running in period [h]

4,5

20
10
0

5,5

Standard running-in programme for marine engines (variable speed) of the types: 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40,
32/44CR

Speed [%]

Output [%]
100
A

90
80
70
60
50
40
30

Engine speed range


A Controllable-pitch propeller
B Fixed-pitch propeller

20
10
0

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8


Running in period [h]
Figure 7-5

Page 7 - 12

Standard running-in programme for marine engines (variable speed) of the types: 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF

B-BD

0802-0000AA2.fm

Engine output
(specified range)

Annex
7.4 Definitions

7.4

Definitions

Combined Heat and Power (CHP), cogeneration


In cogeneration or combined heat and power
(CHP) plants, heat recovered from the engines exhaust gases, coolant, lubricant and charge-air
coolers can be used to heat water, in stages or for
separate purposes and generate steam.
In this way, the energy extracted from the engines
fuel can be more than doubled where there are
uses for steam and/or hot water at a range of temperatures.
Combined cycle (CC) applications
The exhaust heat of one or more diesel or gas engines powering alternator sets is used to generate
steam for an additional steam turbine alternator. In
this way additional electrical power of some 10 to
15 % of the engines' electrical ratings can be produced.
Designation

Designation of engine sides


- Coupling side, CS (KS)
The coupling side is the main engine output
side and is the side to which the propeller,
the alternator or other working machine is
coupled.
- Free engine end/counter coupling side,
CCS (KGS)

Figure 7-6

Designation of cylinders

The free engine end is the front face of the


engine opposite the coupling side.

Designation of cylinders

1001-1006PA.fm

The cylinders are numbered in sequence, from


the coupling side, 1, 2, 3 etc. In V-engines,
looking from the coupling side, the left hand
row of cylinders is designated A, and the right
hand row is designated B. Accordingly, the cylinders are referred to as A1-A2-A3 or B1-B2B3, etc.

^J_a

32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

Page 7 - 13

Annex
7.4 Definitions

Direction of rotation

Island operation
An engine driven alternator feeds its electrical energy in a small electrical grid, which consists of
only few energy alternators. There is no connection to a large grid system. To prevent of collapsing
of the island network (blackout), high reliability of
the engine has to be ensured. It is not possible to
disconnect the engine from the electrical grid at
any time. In order to have a reserve for power regulation processes the engines rated output is reduced up to 85 % and its available output is
blocked at 110 %.

Figure 7-7

Designation of cylinders

GenSet application (also applies to auxiliary engines


on board ships)
Engine and electrical alternator mounted together
form a single piece of equipment to supply electrical power in places where electrical power (central
power) is not available, or where power is needed
only temporarily. Standby GenSets are kept ready
to supply power during temporary interruptions of
the main supply.
The mean output range of the engine is between
40 to 80 %.

A project-specific prior agreement is necessary, if


the island network should feed individual large energy consumers. In this case, due to the small
number of energy producers an increase of frequency and voltage deviations while large load applications should be expected. The load
application behaviour of the engine must comply
with the project specific requirements.
Gross calorific value (GCV)
This value suppose that the water of combustion
is entirely condensed and that the heat contained
in the water vapor is recovered.
Net calorific value (NCV)
This value suppose that the products of combustion contains the water vapor and that the heat in
the water vapor is not recovered.

Loads beyond 100 % up to 110 % of the rated


output are permissible only for a short time to provide additional power for governing purpose only.
Grid parallel operation
An engine driven alternator feeds its electrical energy in a grid system, thereby the voltage and frequency is fixed by the grid. The grid system
consists of a composite of a multitude of small energy consumers and several energy producers.

Page 7 - 14

32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

1001-1006PA.fm

A failure of one engine and consequently the loss


of energy, delivered by this engine alternator unit,
has little impact on network stability.

A-BD

Annex
7.4 Definitions

MCR

Output

ISO-standard-output

(as specified in DIN ISO 3046-1)


Maximum continuous rating of the engine at
nominal speed under ISO-conditions, provided
that maintenance is carried out as specified.

Operating-standard-output

(as specified in DIN ISO 3046-1)


Maximum continuous rating of the engine at
nominal speed taking in account the kind of application and the local ambient conditions, provided that maintenance is carried out as
specified. For marine applications this is stated
on the type plate of the engine.

Maximum continuous rating.

ECR
Economic continuous rating = output of the engine with the lowest fuel consumption.
Peak load application
Peak load applications are defined as stationary
plants only used a few hours per day to compensate peak demands of electrical power.
Stationary application

(as specified in DIN ISO 3046-1)

Engine and electrical alternator mounted together


to supply continuously electrical power. Thereby
the mean output of the engine is 100 %, thus the
fuel consumption is optimised at 100 % load.

Fuel stop power defines the maximum rating of


the engine theoretical possible, if the maximum
possible fuel amount is used (blocking limit).

Loads beyond 100 % up to 110 % of the rated


output are permissible only for a short time to provide additional power for governing purpose only.

Fuel stop power

Rated power (in accordance to rules of Germanischer Lloyd)

Maximum possible continuous power at rated


speed and at defined ambient conditions, provided that maintenances carried out as specified.

Overload power (in accordance to rules of Germanischer Lloyd)

110 % of rated power, that can be demonstrated for marine engines for an uninterrupted period of one hour.

Output explanation
Power of the engine at distinct speed and distinct torque.

100 % Output

1001-1006PA.fm

100 % Output is equal to the rated power only


at rated speed. 100 % Output of the engine can
be reached at lower speed also if the torque is
increased.

Nominal Output
= rated power.

^J_a

32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

Page 7 - 15

Annex

1001-1006PA.fm

7.4 Definitions

Page 7 - 16

32/40G, 32/40DF, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G

A-BD

Annex
7.5 Symbols

7.5

Symbols

Note!
The symbols shown should only be seen as examples and can differ from the symbols in the
diagrams.

Symbols used in functional and pipeline diagrams 1

0805-0000AA2 .fm

Figure 7-8

hJ^g

Page 7 - 17

Annex
7.5 Symbols

Symbols used in functional and pipeline diagrams 2


0805-0000AA2 .fm

Figure 7-9

Page 7 - 18

hJ^g

Annex
7.5 Symbols

Symbols used in functional and pipeline diagrams 3

0805-0000AA2 .fm

Figure 7-10

hJ^g

Page 7 - 19

Annex
7.5 Symbols

Symbols used in functional and pipeline diagrams 4

0805-0000AA2 .fm

Figure 7-11

Page 7 - 20

hJ^g

Annex
7.6.1 General information

7.6

Preservation, packaging, storage

7.6.1

General information

Introduction
Engines are internally and externally treated with
preservation agent before delivery.
The type of preservation and packaging must be
adjusted to the means of transport and to the type
and period of storage.
Improper storage may cause severe damage to
the product.
Packaging and preservation of engine
The type of packaging depends on the requirements imposed by means of transport and storage period, climatic and environmental effects
during transport and storage conditions as well as
on the preservative agent used.
As standard, engines are preserved for a storage
period of 12 months and for sea transport.
Note!
The packaging must be protected against
damage. It must only be removed when a follow-up preservation is required or when the
packaged material is to be used.
Preservation and packaging of assemblies and engine
parts
Unless stated otherwise in the order text, the preservation and packaging of assemblies and engine
parts must be performed in such a way that the
parts will not be damaged during transport and
that the corrosion protection remains fully intact for
a period of at least 12 months when stored in a
roofed dry room.
Transport

0806-0000AA2.fm

Transport and packaging of the engine, assemblies and engine parts must be coordinated.
After transportation, any damage to the corrosion
protection and packaging must be rectified,
and/or MAN Diesel & Turbo must be notified immediately.

bJ_^

Page 7 - 21

Annex
7.6.2 Storage location and duration

7.6.2

Storage location and duration

Storage location

Storage conditions

Storage location of engine

In general the following requirements must be met:

As standard, the engine is packaged and preserved for outdoor storage.

Minimum ambient temperature. . . . . .10 C

The storage location must meet the following requirements:

Maximum ambient temperature . . . . +60 C


Relative humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . < 60 %

Engine is stored on firm and dry ground.

Storage period

Packaging material does not absorb any mois-

The permissible storage period of 12 months must


not be exceeded.

Engine is accessible for visual checks.

Before the
reached:

ture from the ground.

Storage location of assemblies and engine parts


Assemblies and engine parts must always be
stored in a roofed dry room.
The storage location must meet the following requirements:

maximum

storage

period

is

Check the condition of the stored engine, assemblies and parts.

Renew the preservation or install the engine or


components at their intended location.

Parts are protected against environmental effects and the elements.

The room must be well ventilated.


Parts are stored on firm and dry ground.
Packaging material does not absorb any moisture from the ground.

Parts are accessible.


Parts cannot be damaged.
Parts are accessible for visual inspection.
An allocation of assemblies and engine parts to

the order or requisition must be possible at all


times.

Note!

0806-0000AA2.fm

Packaging made of or including VCI paper or


VCI film must not be opened or must be closed
immediately after opening.

Page 7 - 22

bJ_^

Annex
7.6.3 Follow-up preservation when preservation period is exceeded

7.6.3

Follow-up preservation when preservation period is exceeded

A follow-up preservation must be performed before the maximum storage period has elapsed, i.e.
generally after 12 months.

0806-0000AA2.fm

Request assistance by authorised personnel of


MAN Diesel & Turbo.

bJ_^

Page 7 - 23

Annex
7.6.4 Removal of corrosion protection

7.6.4

Removal of corrosion protection

Packaging and corrosion protection must only be


removed from the engine immediately before commissioning the engine in its installation location.
Remove outer protective layers, any foreign body
from engine or component (VCI packs, blanking
covers, etc.), check engine and components for
damage and corrosion, perform corrective measures, if required.
The preservation agents sprayed inside the engine
do not require any special attention. They will be
washed off by engine oil during subsequent engine operation.

0806-0000AA2.fm

Contact MAN Diesel & Turbo if you have any questions.

Page 7 - 24

bJ_^

Annex
7.7 Engine colour

7.7

Engine colour

Engine standard colour according RAL colour table is RAL 9006.

RAL 9006

0807-0000AA2.fm

Other colours on request.

fJ_`

Page 7 - 25

Annex

0807-0000AA2.fm

TKT=b==

Page 7 - 26

IJ_`

Index
A
Aging (Increase of S.F.O.C.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-61
Air
Consumption (Jet Assist) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flow rates, temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting air consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting air vessels, compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-99
2-65
2-58
5-97

Air vessel
Condensate amount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Alternator
Reverse power protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-49
Ambient conditions causes de-rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Approved applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Arctic conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37
Arrangement
Attached pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-111
Attached pumps
Arrangement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-111
Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-68I 2-73I 2-79
Available outputs
Permissible frequency deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-47
Related reference conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18

C
Capacities
Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-68I 2-73I 2-79
Charge air cooler
Condensate amount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Flow rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-68I 2-73I 2-79
Heat to be dissipated . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-68I 2-73I 2-79
Combustion air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-101
Flow rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65I 2-70I 2-75I 2-81
Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-51
Common rail injection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-81
Composition of exhaust gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-97

PG_Power_32-40SIX.fm

Compressed air system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-91


Condensate amount
Air vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Charge air cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5

Consumption
Fuel oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jet Assist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lube oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-53
5-99
2-57
2-58

Cooler
Flow rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-68I 2-73I 2-79
Heat to be dissipated . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-68I 2-73I 2-79
Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65I 2-70I 2-75I 2-81
Cooler specification
Nominal values . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-68I 2-73I 2-79
Cooling water
Inspecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specification for cleaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-45
4-37
4-47
5-39

Crankcase vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-37

D
De-rating, due to ambient conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Diesel fuel see Fuel oil
Diesel-electric propulsion (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14

E
Earthing
Bearing insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-51
Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-51
Use of welding equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-52
ECR (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Emissions
Static torque fluctuation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-109
Engine
Definition of engine rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Equipment for various applicatons. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-101
Room ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-101
Running-in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Engine atutomation
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9

32/40

Index - I

Engine automation
Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Installation requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Supply and distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
System overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Engine operation
Arctic conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37
Exhaust gas
Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-97
Flow rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65I 2-70I 2-75I 2-81
Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105
System description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-103
Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65I 2-70I 2-75I 2-81
Explanatory notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3

G
Gas oil
Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
GenSet operation
Operating range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45
Grid parallel operation (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
Gross calorific value (GCV)
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14

H
Heat radiation . . . .2-63I 2-65I 2-68I 2-70I 2-73I 2-75I 2-79I
2-81
Heat to be dissipated . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-68I 2-73I 2-79
Heavy fuel oil see Fuel oil

HFO see Fuel oil

Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7


Filling volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-85
Flow rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65
Exhaust gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65I 2-70I 2-75I 2-81
L.O. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-73
Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-73

HT switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31

I
Intake noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-103
Island operation (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
ISO
Reference Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Standard output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15

Flow resistances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-85


Fuel oil
Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagram of HFO supply system . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagram of HFO treatment system . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagram of MDO supply system . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagram of MDO treatment system. . . . . . . . . . . .
HFO system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HFO treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MDO treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recalculation of consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specification (biofuel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specification (HFO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specification (MDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specification of gas oil (MGO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viscosity-diagram (VT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-53
5-87
5-77
5-71
5-69
5-79
5-75
5-69
2-59
4-17
4-21
4-19
4-15
4-33

Fuel stop power (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15

J
Jet Assist
Air consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-99

L
Layout of pipes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Load
Low load operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-41
Load application
Cold engine (only emergency case) . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-36
Preheated engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
Low load operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31

PG_Power_32-40SIX.fm

LT switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31

Index - II

32/40

Lube oil
Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57
Specification (HFO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Specification (MGO/MDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
System description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
System diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Lube oil filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-35

Output (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15


Overload power (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15

Part load operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31

Marine diesel oil see Fuel oil

Peak load application (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15

Marine gas oil see Fuel oil


MARPOL Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-53

Permissible frequency deviations


Available outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-47

MCR (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15

Pipe dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3

MDO
Diagram of treatment system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-69
see Fuel oil
MGO see Fuel oil

Planning data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-73


Flow rates of cooler . . . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-68I 2-73I 2-79
Heat to be dissipated . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-68I 2-73I 2-79
Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65I 2-70I 2-75I 2-81

MGO/MDO see Lube oil

Postlubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Preheated engine
Load application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33

N
Net calorific value (NCV)
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
Noise
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-101
Exhaust gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105
Intake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-103
Nominal Output (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
NOx Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-99
Nozzle cooling system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-57

O
Operating
Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-86I 2-87
Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-86
Operating range
GenSet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45

PG_Power_32-40SIX.fm

Output
Available outputs, related reference condition . . . . 2-18
Permissible frequency deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-47
Table of ratings, speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17

Preheating
Lube oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
Prelubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Pumps
Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63I 2-68I 2-73I 2-79

Q
Quality requirements
Raw-water, cooling tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-35
Water, exhaust gas boiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49

R
Rated power (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Raw-water, cooling tower
Quality requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-35
Reduction of load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-41

Operating-standard-output (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15

Reference Conditions (ISO). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17

Operation
Load reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-41
Low load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Running-in of engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9

Reverse power protection


Alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-49
Running-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9

32/40

Index - III

SaCoSone
Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
System overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

Temperature
Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65
Cooling water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65I 2-70I 2-75I 2-81
Exhaust gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65I 2-70I 2-75I 2-81
Lube oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65I 2-70I 2-75I 2-81

Safety
Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3

Time limits for low load operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32

Spare parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3

Torsional vibrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-107

Specification
Biofuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Cleaning agents for cooling water . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-47
Combustion air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-51
Cooling water inspecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-45
Cooling water system cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-47
Diesel oil (MDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Engine cooling water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-37
Fuel oil (HFO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
Fuel oil (MDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Fuel oil (MGO). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Gas oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Heavy fuel oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
Lube oil (HFO). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Lube oil (MGO/MDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Viscosity-diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-33
Speed
Adjusting range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Droop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Starting air
Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jet Assist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-97
2-58
5-99
5-91
5-94
5-97

U
Unloading the engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-41

V
Venting
Crankcase, turbocharger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-93
Vibrations, torsional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-107
Viscosity-temperature-diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-33

W
Water
Specification for engine cooling water . . . . . . . . . . 4-37
Water systems
Cooling water collecting and supply system . . . . .
Engine cooling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nozzle cooling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turbine washing device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-49
5-39
5-57
5-55

Water, exhaust gas boiler


Quality requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49
Works test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7

Starting conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29


Static torque fluctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-109
Stationary application (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Stopping the engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-41
Sudden load shedding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-41
Supply system
MDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-71
Supply system (HFO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-79
Switching LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31

Index - IV

32/40

PG_Power_32-40SIX.fm

Switching HT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31

32/40
Project Guide Stationary

MAN Diesel & Turbo


86224 Augsburg, Germany
Phone +49 821 322-0
Fax +49 821 322-3382
powerplant-aug@mandieselturbo.com
www.mandieselturbo.com

Four-stroke diesel engines compliant with emission limits World Bank

All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational
purposes only and is especially not guaranteed in any way. Depending on the
subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to
changes and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This
will depend on the particular characteristics of each individual project, especially
specific site and operational conditions. CopyrightMAN Diesel & Turbo.
D2366511EN Printed in Germany GKM-AUG-05130.5

32/40
Project Guide Stationary
Four-stroke diesel engines
compliant with emission limits World Bank
MAN Diesel & Turbo

MAN Diesel & Turbo a member of the MAN Group