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English B2.

FCE
1. GERUND
ADMIT, APPRECIATE, AVOID, APOLOGIZE, ACUSE, BUSY, BLAME, CATCH, CONSIDER, DELAY, DENY, DISCUSS,
DISLIKE, ENJOY, EXCUSE,
FANCY, FINISH, FIND, FORGIVE, GO, IMAGINE, INVOLVE, INSIST, KEEP, LEAVE,
MENTION, MIND, MISS, PARDON, POSTPONE, PRACTISE, PREFFER, PREVENT, QUIT, RECALL, RECOMMEND,
RESENT, RESIST, REGRET, RISK, SUGGEST, SPEND, TOLERATE, UNDERSTAND, WASTE.
ACCUSTOMED TO, BE / GET USED TO, IN ADDITION TO, LOOK FORDWARD TO, OBJECT TO, TAKE TO, CANT
STAND, CANT HELP, AS WELL AS, BE IN FAVOUR OF, FEEL LIKE, HAVE DIFFICULTY IN, HAVE A HARD TIME, HAVE
TROUBLE, HOW ABOUT, ITS NO GOOD, ITS WORTH, THERE IS NO CHANCE, POINT, WHAT IS THE USE OF....
Despus de PREPOSICIONES: of, after, before, without, by, AT, for / PASIVA de: need, want, requiere
Cuando el verbo es el SUJETO: Listening to music
Aadir enfasis (Having studied)
There is no point in / There is no use / It's no worth / It's no good
INFINITIVO + TO:
AGREE, ADMIT, ALLOW, ASK, APPEAR, BE ABLE TO, BEGGE, CANT AFFORD, CANT WAIT, DISEASE, EXPECT,
ENCOURAGE, FORBID, FORCE, HAPPEND, HAVE GOT, HELP, HOPE, INTEND, INVITE, LEAVE, LEARN, MANAGE,
OFFER, ORDER, PLAN, PRETEND, PROMISE, PERMIT, PROFUSE, PERSUADE, PREFER, RECOMMEND, REMIND,
SEEM, SUPPOSE, TEACH, TELL, TEND, THREATEN, WANT, WARN, WONT WOULD LIKE.
Despus de ADJETIVOS: Its difficult to concentrate. / Despus de AUXILIARES: have, need, be, ought, used
Cuando damos razones, expresamos propsitos, despus del VERBO PRINCIPAL, despus del Objeto del Verbo.
Despues TOO MUCH
INFINITIVO SIN TO:
Despus de CAN, MAY, MIGHT, MUST, SHOULD, HAD BETTER, WOULD RATHER, WHY NOT, MAKE AND LET.
My boss made me work late last night (work)
REMEMBER: I remember hearing this song (past) / Remember to buy bread! (future)
FORGET: I forgot to do it (past) / Ill never forget seeing this star (futuro)
NEED: You need to clean your car (activa) / Your car need cleaning (pasiva)
TRY: I tried to pass the exam (pasado, lo intent, tuve dificultades) / Try turning off (estoy probando)
2. PLANES DE FUTURO
I'm going to... He tomado la decisin de hacer algo (YO)
Im meeting Jose tomorow... Hemos tomado la decisin entre los DOS
I will be going to the supermarket: Lo voy a hacer si o si, es ms cortes y se usa en Preguntas.
The train leaves in 5 minutes: Saldr en 5 minutos, forma parte de un horario fijo.
My sister is due to / is about to... : esta a punto de... My sister is on the point of / is to visit..: ms formal,
planes oficiales, obligaciones
3. ARTICLES
INSTITUCIONES: prision, church, hospital, university
A / THE para hablar del tipo de edificio: Im going to build a church
No ARTICLE para hablar de la institucin: Im in hospital
GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES:
THE: mountains, ranges, river, sea, canals, deserts, islands: The Danubio is a beautiful river.
No ARTICLE: Countries: North America (Excepto: The UK, the USA, the Netherlands, The Czech Rep) and
Individual monuntains and lakes: Lake Victorian.
PLACES:
THE: theatres, cinemas, hotels, galleries, museums: Im going to visit The British museum.
No ARTICLE: roads, streets, parks, shops, restaurants: Oxford street (Excepto the M6, the A25)
ANIMALS and MACHINES: The cat / Cats or The computer / Computers
OTHERS: The poor, the young
NATIONALITY: The spanish, the japanese, the swiss / French, Italians
LANGUAJE: The English / English is very difficult to learn or English people... / The English man...
4. UNCONTABLE AND PLURAL NOUNS
(a few / a little: con contables / Few/ little: incontables)
UNCONTABLE: some, any, little, a piece of, a bar of...
Food (meat, cheese), liquids (water, milk) material (glass, wood), fenomenos naturales (weather, heat) language
(english, German), diseases (chickenpox, cancer), ciencias (physics), asignaturas (Maths), games (football,
cards), nombres abstractos (freedom, dignity, knowledge), algunos nombres concretos
SINGULAR: FURNITURE, INFORMATION, ADVICE, HOMEWORK, RESEARCH, NEWS, LUCK, BREAD, TOAST,
LUGGAGE, EQUIPAMENT. You are going to give me some advice (Some / a piece of).
+ SINGULAR VERB: despus de BEHAVIOUR, TRAFFIC, WEATHER, ACOMMODATION, HEALTH, WORK, PROGRESS,
SCENARY, RUBBISH, POLITICS, ATHLETICS, ECONOMICS (Nunca se una a / a). Economics is...
AMBIGUOS: (Nunca se una a / a) IRON, GLASS, BUSSINES, PAPER, LIGHT, TIME, SPACE.

PLURAL AND COLECTIVES: (a pair of / some) arms, belogings, clothes, manners, outskirts, siccisors, troussers,
sharts. Crew, police, staff
5. QUANTIFIERS
ALL / ALL of THE + NOUN: Con, nombres plurales e incontables: All animals need food
EVERYTHING / EVERYBODY: Todo como pronombre: Everything is expensive
MOST / MOST OF: Particular: Most of people in my class... / General: Most people usually sleep.
NONE / NONE of us: Nada o ninguno como pronombre: None is bad
ANY + NOUN + NEGATIVE VERB: algo / algn: I havent got any onions.
ANYTHING / ANYBODY + POSITIVE VERB: Come any weekend!
NO + NOUN + POSITIVE VERB: There is no milk.
BOTH (A Y B): Both Pedro and Ana are persons / She and her husband both won the play
NEITHER / NEITHER OF THEM (no A y no B): Neither Pedro and Ana are persons
EITHER (A o B): We can go either to Grece or to Italy.
OTHER + PLURAL NOUN: other cars / OTHER PRONOMBRE PLURAL: Im going to buy others
ANOTHER + SING. NOUN: another car / ANOTHER PRONOMBRE SINGULAR: Im going to buy another
6. CONTRAST AND PURPOSE
BUT, YET: pero.
BECAUSE (OF), AS, DUE TO, OWING TO: porque, debido a
ALTHOUGH (aunque, 1 la idea contradictoria): Althoug the weather was horrible, we went out.
EVEN THOUGH (a pesar de que, 2 la idea contradictoria): We went out even though we were ill.
(Tambin se puede poner al principio: Even though we were ill, we went out.
THOUGH (aunque): Though she is very bad with me I love her / I love her though she is very bad with me
HOWEVER, NEVERTHLESS: al comienzo
IN SPITE OF / DESPITE (a pesar de)
NOUN: Despite the rain, we went out.
ING: In spite of being raining, we went out.
THE FACT THAT: Despite the fact that it was raining...
TO + INF / IN ORDER TO / SO AS TO / SO AS NOT TO (para / para no): Im here to learn english
FOR (para citas): I went to the shop for a meeting with the boss.
SO THAT (para que): Im here so that the company can survive
IN CASE: I will buy a bottle of wine in case Tom comes to supper

7. GET
Get + NOUN or PRONOUN (to say recieve, bring (llevar), fetch (traer), obtain, buy or catch): I can get a
newspaper
Get to (to say arrive in or arrive at(: The plane will get to Paris at 5 oclock
Get + ADJETIVE (to say Become): The traffic gets higher in the city at the night
Get + SOMEBODY + INF (hacer a alguien hacer algo): I get Julia to finish her homework
Get + SOMETHING + DONE (sustituir Have something done): I get my hair cut
Get para sustituir la pasiva comun (informal): I got caught stealing.
8. SPECULATION AND DEDUCTION

MODAL VERBS
Must + INF (estoy seguro de que algo es V o est pasando en el presente): She must be very angry with you
Negative: CANT)
Must Have + PARTICIPIO (seguro de algo que fue V en el pasado): She must have been very angry with you
Negative: COULDNT)
May, might could (es posible que algo sea V o est pasando en presente): He may be sacked
May, might, could Have + PARTICIPIO (en el pasado): He may have been sacked
Should + INF (algo que espero que pase en presente): The letter should arrive on Friday
Should Have + PARTICIPIO (esperaba que pasase en pasado): The letter should have arrived last Friday

SEEM / APPEAR
It + seems / appears (that) + INF (no seguros de que sea V): It seems that there is a new major. The new
major seems to be bad
It would seem / appear (that) (menos seguros todavia): It would seem that he had stolen the money (+
ormal)
It seems like / It seems as if / It seems as thought

PASIVE
It + passive + that (agree, anuounce, believe, expect, hope, report, say, suggest, think, understand): It is said
hat eating vegetables..."
Subjetc + passive + to INF (believe, expect, report, say, think, understand): The teacher is said to recieve a
etter.
There is/are + pasive + to INF: There are said to be five million of people living in poverty

ADJETIVES AND ADVERBS


Bound to and Sure to (estar cierto en algo): She is bound to know him for the school
Likely / Unlikely + to or that (probable, + formal): Its unlikely to start raining now. Its unlikely that the
goverment do this.
Definitely and Probably (En +: antes del verbo principal y despues del auxiliar / En : antes del auxiliar / Con
be: detrs en + y delante en ):

"She will definitly pass the exam. She definitely wont pass the exam.
She is probably better. She probably isnt
9. ADDING EMPHASIS (1): INVERSION
Negative Adverbial (Not only, Not until, Never, No sooner... than): Adverbio + Aux + Sujeto + verbo : Not
only is my brother lazy hes also... / Not until years later did I realize my mistake / Never had I heard such
ridiculously argument / No sooner had I eaten than she came home
Present and Past Simple + DO, DOES, DID + Sujeto + verbo: Not only did you forget the keys, you also forgot
the mobile / Not until you pass the exam do you understand my preocupation.
Expresins: Only then, Only when, Hardly...when, Scarcely...when, Rarely: My son passed the exam,
Only them was I relax / Only when you leave home do you understand the life / Hardly had we started when
he came / Rarely have I met somebody similar.
WHAT or ALL: What I need / All I need
WHAT HAPPENS IS: Lo que pasa es que...
The person WHO, the reason WHY, the place WHERE,
The LAST / FIRST time I saw....
IT WAS: fue... It was the wine (fue el vino), It was my brother who won the prize. [ORAL]

10. UNREAL USES OF PAST


WISH + Past Simple: Deseos, + Past Perfect: Regret, + Would: Annoy
IF ONLY + ps/pp (para uno mismo, enfasis): If only I had a big house
WOULD RATHER + INF sin To (preferiria): Id rather dont talk about it (mismo sujeto) / Id rather you didnt
alk about it (no =)
ITS TIME: I think its time you found a job. + TO si no hay sujeto: Its time to go, + HIGH para aadir
enfasis: Its high time...
I HAD BETTER: sera mejor...
11. DISCOURSE MARKERS: ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL EXPRESIONS. ALTERNATIVE CONDITIONALS
Talking of, By the way (por cierto), Actuallly, In Fact, As a matter of fact (de hecho, en realidad), In any
case, Anyway (en cualquier caso), At least (al menos), As I was saying, On the Whole, All in all
(definitivamente), After all, Besides, Basically, Obviously, I mean, In other words, Otherwise (o sino),
As far as Im concerned, As regards, Regarding (en lo que a mi respecta), That is to say (como se suele
decir). As/So long as (siempre y cuando), on condition, whether or not (tanto si, como si no), Even if,
Supposing, Had I known (si hubiera sabido), First and most important, what is more, on balance, and
so on (etcetera), a matter of (es cuestion de)
12. ELLIPSIS
1. Despues de AND, BUT, OR: She came and [SHE] sitted down. She was tired but [SHE] didn't say anything.
She is tired or [SHE] is sad.
2. Despus de THEN: puede usarse o no. She came and then [SHE] switched on the TV.
3. Nunca despus de: BEFORE, AFTER, BECAUSE, WHEN, WHILE. She didn't say anything because she was
tired.
4. Despus de BUT: She was not tired but her sister was. She drank a caffe, but her sister didn't.
5. Cambio de verbo: She thought that she would not be tired, but did.
6. Reduce infinitive: despus de verbos INF + TO: She has never been in Murcia, but she love to.
7. SO/NOT: despus de verbos ASSUME, BELIEVE, EXPECT, GUESS, HOPE, IMAGINE, PRESUME, SUPPOSE, THINK,
BE AFRAID, APPEAR, SEEM, SAY. I hope so (eso espero) I suppose so (supongo), I believe so (eso creo...), I
imagine not (imagino que no), it appear not (parece que no)
SO SOLO SE USA CON NOT juntos con estos verbos: BELIEVE, EXPECT, IMAGINE, THINK. She doesn't imagine
so (no se imagina eso).
13. SO, SUCH, MUCH, MANY
SO: detras de ADJETIVO o ADVERBIO: It was SO cold... Si ponemos SO al principio se aade ENFASIS
SO MUCH: incontables. There was so much noise
SO MANY: plural nouns. There was so many people
Estos dos se sustituyen por: SUCH A LOT OF...
SUCH A / AN: dentras ADJETIVO + NOMBRE CONTABLE. I was such a good boy...
SUCH: ADJETIVO + NOMBRE INCONTABLE / PLURAL. It was such unbearable weather
SUCH AS: tales como
14. COMPARATIVOS

1. AS X AS: Almost (al menos) Just (exactamente tan), Nearly (Aproximadamente tan), Half (la mitad), Twice (el
doble) Three times...
2. MUCHO MAS: far more, much better, a lot more, much more, many more
3. UN POCO MS: a little more, slighly, a bit more, a few more (unos pocos ms)
4. CADA VEZ MS: faster and faster, more and more difficult.
11. EXPRESIONES COMUNES
She is not driving slowly enough: ella no est conduciendo suficientemente despacio
Hardly ever does she go to the cinema: ella casi nunca va al cine
She would rather watching TV than to read
Much as I like Smith, I am not always agree with him: Por mucho que...
Sandra took an umbrella since It was raining: Because
I have not gone to England for 5 years: No he ido desde hace...
After having had a shower...: Despus de haber tomado una ducha
I did my best to explain: Hice lo mejor que pude
As they were sleeping I was eating: mientras
My mother would read us a book: Mi madre sola leernos un libro (pasado con nostalgia)
VOCABULARIO
1. MUSIC
INSTRUMENTOS y MUSICOS: bass guitar (bassist), cello (cellist), drum (drumer), keyboard (keyboardist), organ
(organist), piano (pianist), saxophone (saxophonist), trumpet (trumpeter), violin (violinist).
VOCALS: tenor, bass, soprano, orchestra, choir, singer song writer, rapper, fead-singer (en banda), soloist,
conductor, composer, DJ.
ADJETIVES: imcomprensible lyrics, catchy song, moving (triste), song whit a strong beat (con ritmo),
monotonous, recognize the tune, good hear for music, blowing his own trumpet, music to my hears, out of tune,
face the music (afrontar las consecuencias).
2. SUEO
Alarm, blankets (mantas), jeg-lagged, duvet (edredon), sleepwalked (sonambulo), nap, oversleep (dormir
mucho), sleepy, dreams, fall (caerse), sleeping tablets, stayed up (estar despierto en la noche), sleep like a log
(dormir como un bebe), nightmares (pesadillas), set, yown (bostezo), keep you awake (mantenerse despierto),
insomnia, snore (roncar), pillow, sheets (sabanas),lie down with (acostarse con)
3. MEDIOS DE COMUNICACION
News (periodico), The news (telediario), a piece of news (una noticia), headline (titular), review, crossword
(pasatiempos), cartoon, advertisment (anuncios), small ads (anuncios clasificados), horoscope, weather
forecast, front page. Paparazzi, critic, commentator, reporter, editor, presenter, freelance journalist, news
reader, press photographer. Celebrity gossip, politics, sport, health, bussines, science, sensational, accurate
(exacto), baised, censored, objetive, subjetive.
4. WORD PAIRS and COMPOUNDS
Ice and lemon, bread and butter, fork and knife (tenedor y cuchillo), thunder and lighning, black and white, bed
and breackfast, forwars and backwards (alante y atras), peace and quiet, safe and sound, sick and tired, bits
and pieces (brtulos), ups and downs (problemas), now and again, give and take (compromiso), down and out
(sin casa ni dinero), law and order.
5. TOWN AND CITIES
Cable car (tranva), chaptel (capilla), concert hall (auditorio), law courts (juzgados), pedestrian street (calle
peatonal), temple, cycle line (carril bici), football stadium, harbour (puerto), mosque (mezquita), taxi rank,
tower, hill (columna), statue, synagogue, skyscraper (rascacielos), square (plaza).
Town centre (capital), neighbourhood (vecindario), suburbs (afueras de la ciudad), outskirts (afueras), district
(zona de tiendas), old town (casco viejo).
Beggars, overcrowding (superpoblacin), traffic jams (atascos), run down (edificios en mal estado), homeless
(sin techo), pollution, vandalism, poverty, slums (suburbios), cosmopolitan, industrial, historic, provincial,
vibrant (ciudad con movimiento).
6. BUSSINES AND ADVERTISING
Set up a company (abrir una empresa), manufacture (fabricar), market a product (publicitar), import, export,
become the market leader (ser el lider del mercado), take over another company (abrir otra compaia), launch a
new product (lanzar un nuevo producto), do bussiness, do a job, do market research, make a deal (llegar a un
acuerdo), make a decision, make money, make a profit (hacer beneficios), fire someone (despedir a alguien),
get somebody the sack (despedir a alguien).
A branch (sucursal), a multinational, bussiness, company, firm, a chain (cadena de tiendas), head office (oficina
central).
A clien (cliente al que le sirvo), employee, employer, colleague (ayudante, compaero), customer (cliente de
tienda), the mayoring director (MD), head of departament (jefe de departamento).

Advertisment (publicidad), comercial (spot), logo, slogan, junk mail (mailing), cold calling (comercial telefonico).
7. WORK
1. Challenging (dificil), monotonous/repetitive, rewarding (gratificante), motivating, demanding (exigente),
tedious, stimulating.
2. Career (carrera profesional), post (puesto trabajo), profession, wages (sueldo), salary (dinero del sueldo),
bonus, perks (bficios), staff (personal), employer, employee, skills (habilidad), training (formacin),
qualifications, hours, timetable (horario), team, retired, work-life balanced (equilibrio), working enviroment
(ambiente), line manager (jefe), competitive salary, civil servant/PSE (funcionario).
3, In charge of (a cargo de), deal with (tratar con), responsable for, off work (de baja), on maternity leave, have
the opportunity, have good prospects (tener buenas expectativas), get promoted to (ser propuesto para), get a
rise (aumento), temporary job, on a short-term contract, have security, be sack/fired from (despedido por mal
trabajo), self-employed (auntonomo), run (abrir), work part-time (tiempo parcial), make redundant (despedido
por falta de trabajo), be out of work (sin trabajo), voluntary work, unpaid, getting experience, staff turnover
(turnos), drawbacks (inconvenientes), downsides (desventajas).
8. FAMILY
1. Nuclear family (tradicional), step-parents (padrastros), half-brothers (medio hermanos), step-brother
(hermanastro), members, extended family (grande), spread (repartidos), relatives (familiares), single parent
(madre soltera), grow up (crecer), bring up (criarse), grown (crecido), father figure, great-grandparents
(bisabuelos), great-great-grandparents (tatarabuelos), antecesors, bride (novia)
2. Take after (parecerse en personalidad), distant (lejanos), an only child (hijo nico), alike (parecido fsico),
close (unida), siblings (hermanos genrico), the black sheep (oveja negra), see eye to eye (no se habla sobre
ello), not on speaking terms (no se hablan), get-together (pasar juntos), wears the trousers, runs in the family
(impera), have a skeleton in the cupboard (secreto familiar), own flesh and blood (de tu sangre), family tree,
genealogy.
9. TIME
1. Waste a lot of time (gastar tiempo), save time (ahorrar tiempo), kill time (matar tiempo), take your time
(tomarte tu tiempo), make up for lost time (recuperar el tiempo perdido), take me a long time (dame ms
tiempo), give me a hard time (echarme la bronca), spare the time (tiempo libre), take up all my time (me ocupa
todo el tiempo), have the time of your life (tener un buen momento), run out of time (quedarse sin tiempo), with
time to spare (con tiempo de sobra), the whole time (todo el tiempo), Times up (tiempo!), short of time/pushed
for time (poco tiempo), have got the time on my hands (tiempo en mis manos), for the time being (por el
momento), a question of time (cuestion de tiempo), a long time ago (hace mucho tiempo), there isnt much time
left (no hay tiempo que perder), this time nex week (la semana que viene en estos momentos...)
2. On time (puntual), before my time (antes de mi epoca), by the time (por el momento), in 4 days time (en 4
dias), at the time (en este momento), time of (vacaciones), in time for (a tiempo para), from time to time (de
vez en cuando), at times (algunas veces).
3. For old times sakes (por los viejos tiempos), for the time being (por el momento), for donkeys years (hace
mucho tiempo), in the nick of time (en el ultimo momento), crack of dawn (al romper el alba), on the spur of the
moment (impulsivamente), on the dot (puntual), high time (momento perfecto), just in time (justo a tiempo),
just on time (con tiempo de soba)
10. GET
1. Get the impression (tener la impresion), get a shock, get the chance (tener la oportunidad), get the joke
(coger la broma), get to know (estar conociendo), get hold of (no alcanzar), get rid of (deshacerse de), get your
own back on (vengarse), get into troubles (problemas), get out of the way (salirse con la suya).
2. Get real (se realista), get a life (haz tu vida), get anywhere (no llegar a ninguna parte), gets on my nerves
(pone de los nervios), get her act together (espabilar), get on like a house on fire (les gusta lo mismo), get the
wrong end of the stick (estar equivocado), getting on (envejecer), gets the message (coger el mensaje), gets
her own way (salirse con la suya).
3. Get together (quedar), gets over (superar), get on with (continuar), get through to (entrar en razon), get into
(entrar en), get around (mover de un sitio a otro), gets away with (escapar), get by (apaarse con lo que hay),
get behind (avanzar), get down (deprimido), get out of (evitar), get back to (responder).
11. MONEY
1. Budget (presupuesto), charge (cargo, costo), deposit (fianza), donation, fare (tarifa pasajero), fees
(honorarios), fine (multa), grant (subvencin, concesin), instalment (entrega, plazo, pago), loan (prestamo),
lump sum (pago a toca teja), overdraft (saldo deudor), savings (ahorros), will (testamento).
2. Consumer society (sociedad de consumo), standard of living (nivel de vida), income (ingresos), inflation, cost
of living (coste de la vida), cant afford (no poder afrontar), interests rates (tasa de inters), in debt (en deuda),
mortgages (hipotecas), shares on the stock market (acciones en el mercado de venta), currency (moneda),
exchange rates (tipos de cambio).

3. Rich (rico), affluent (rico), loaded (rico en, lleno de), wealthy (adinerado), well-off (acomodado, pudiente) /
Poor (pobre), broke (pelado), hard up (estar mal de dinero), penniless (sin un centavo)
4. Have got more money than sense (ms dinero que cabeza), tight-fisted (varo), in the red (en n rojos), cost a
fortune (costar una fortuna), good value for money (buena relacin calidad-precio), spend money like water
(gastar como si nada), living beyond their means (vivir por encima de sus posibilidades), cant make ends meet
(no llega a final de mes).
12. HISTORY AND WARFARE
1. Arrow (flecha), bow (arco), bullet (bala), cannon (caon), machine gun (metralleta), missile, shield (escudo),
spear (lanza), sword (espada), weapons (armas).
2. Refuges (refugiados), casualties (bajas), forces (ejercito), troop (grupo de soldados), sniper (francotirador),
civilian (civiles), the wounded (heridos de guerra), survivors (supervivientes), ally (aliados).
3. Revolution (para cambiar el gobierno), coup (golpe de estado), ceasefire (alto al fuego), civil war (guerra
civil), siege (cerco), treaty (tratado de paz).
4. Overthrow (derrotar), Break out (estallar la guerra), blow up (hacer volar), withdraw (retirarse), shell
(bombardear), retreat (retirarse), surrender (rendirse), defeat (vencer), capture, loot (saquear), declare.
Outnumbered (nos superan en n)
13. PHONE
Give a ring (hacer una llamada), make a call (hacer unas llamadas), hang up (colgar), turn off (apagar), cut off
(se corta), top up (recargar), run out of (estar sin saldo), get through (conseguir contactar), speak up (subir la
voz), charge (cargar la bateria), landline (fijo), engage (comunicar), missed call, directory desk (gua telefonica),
voicemail (sms de voz), pay-phone (cabina)
14. PREFIJOS
Anti-smoking, outlawed (fuera de la ley), overrated (sobrevalorado), outnumber, reawakening (revivir),
misrepresented (mal representado)
Understimated (infravalorado). Prosocially, prematurely, devalued, misjudge, rewrite, antivirus, prearrange
(predeterminar), outsold (ms vendido), progovernment, desmotivate, underprepared, overcharge, outdoor...
15. PREPOSICIONES Y ADVERBIOS DE LUGAR Y MOVIMIENTO
Above (sobre esttico), over (sobre dinmico), fall off (caer), walked away (alejarse), run off (huir), inside (dentro
de un lugar), into (poner con movimiento), on top of (encima de), onto (sobre con movimiento), on top (parte
superior), out of (fuera de), outside (fuera de un lugar), through (atravesando algo), across (cruzando), along (a
lo largo de), past (pasar por delante), round (alrededor), towards (hacia),
16. TRAVEL AND TURISM
City-break (ciudad de paso para descansar), package (pack), stop-over (parada de 1 noche), trip (ida y vuelta),
guided tour, site (lugar donde ocurre algo historico), low-cost, long-haul (viaje largo), sightseeing (lugares para
visitar en la ciudad), take out travel insurance (contratar seguro), set off / out (madrugar), cut short (acortar),
postpone (put off), cancel, dull (monotono), touristy (lugar de turistas abarrotado), spoilt (desgastado), unspoilt
(donde no ha llegado el hombre) lively, off the beaten track (fuera del recorrido marcado), picturesque,
breathtaking (sin aliento).
17. ANIMALS
Wings (alas), shell (concha), paw (huella), beak (pico), horn (cuerno), tail (cola), claws (garra), fur (pelo), fins
(aletas), bite (morder), sting (picar), scratch (araar), kick (coz), spit (escupir), bred in captivity (cautiverio),
battery hens (amontonados),donkey work (trabajo duro), like water off a ducks back (te da lo mismo), the lions
share (quedarse con la mejor parte), in the doghouse (cabrearse), make a pig (ponerse como un cerdo), the last
straw (la gota que colma), Smell a rat, kill two birds with one stone, her back is worse than her bite, let sleeping
dogs lie (no remover el pasado), puppy (perrito), kitten, faal (potro), calf (ternera), piglet (cerdito), cubs
(cachorros), nest (nido), hive (panal), stable (establo), kennel (casita), tank (acuario), cage (jaula), vivarium
(terrario), cattle (ganado)
18. PREPARING FOOD
heat (calentar en el microondas), beat (batir), stir (remover), mix (mezclar ingredientes), drain (secar), pour
(vertir), simmer (hervir), saucepan (cazo), frying pan (sarten), chopping board (tabla de cortar), baking tray
(bandeja) oven (vianda), bake (hornear), poach (pochar), melt (derretir), steamed (cocer al vapor), mash (pure),
roast (asado), stuff (relleno), scrambled (revueltos), grated (gratinado), chopped (lonchas), peeled (pelada),
whipped (montada), sliced (rebanada), toasted (tostada), minced (picada), ribs (costillas), breast (pechuga),
spices (especias), slice (rodajas).
19. CHISTES
Make fun of (reirse de otros), comedian, comedy series, witty (ingenioso), political cartoons, cartoonist,
amusing, laughing at themselves, tell a joke, get the joke, puns, wordplay, slapstick, hilarious, laugh out loud
(reir a carcajadas), burst out laughing (no poder parar de reir)

LEXIS IN CONTEXT
1. Know your own mind (saber lo que quieres), stick to your guns (mantenerte fiel a tus principios), in a sense
(en una forma), my confort zone (lugar donde te sientes comodo), gritting my teeth (echarle guevos), fill
somebody in on (decir que esta pasando), caught up (alcanzar a alguien en algo que es mejor que yo), speak
your mind (decir lo que piensas), not mind (no me importa), cross your mind (tener una idea), mind your own
business (meterte en tus cosas), be in two minds (pensar una cosa pero querer hacer otra), to give someone a
piece of your mind (me estan criticando).
2. Plan in advance (planear con tiempo), get suck on (entender), make sure (estar seguro), catch your eye
(entrar por el ojo), go with your gut feeling (seguir a tu corazon), face head on (hacer frente), tell a white lie
(mentira piadosa), hurt feelings (herir sentimientos), keep short (brevemente)
3. Remain (ser), poor (bad), conduct (hacer), adhere to (seguir), notion (idea), omit, requiered (necesitar), to
view (mirar), thus (so), transcribe (anotar).
4. An idiom (palabras por separado no significan lo =), collocation (combinacin de palabras frecuente), register
(estilo lnguistico que es apropiado para cada ocasin), phrasal verb, slang (lenguaje de quinceaeros),
colloquial, synonymun, metaphor, jargan (jerga especializada de un sector), simile.
5. Spectres (fantasmas), outlook on (actitud hacia...), misery (infelicidad), splendid, liable to (probable), no
wonder (no sorprendente), skinny (delgado), a rite (ceremonia), scold/tell off (reir), germs (bacterias).
6. Gadget (herramienta), frenzy (frenes), blizzard (tormenta), catch up with (ponerse al da), peak (cima), juggle
(malabares), engrossed (absorto), cope (tratar con algo dificil), clog (bloquear), overcome (superar)
7. Nicknamer (apodar), Day in day out (da tras da), Childcare (guarderia), applies to (aplicable, comparable),
came round (acercarse a un lugar en que ocurre algo), acknowledge (reconocer), small talk (conversacin
banal), overly (muy), commute (viajar a diario, venir regularmente al trabajo), nods (asentir).
8. Barely (dificilmente), profundly, arguably (argumentable). Vast (grande). Bland (soso), awkward (dificil de
afrontar), quirky (original), lowly (humilde), staccato (chan chan piano), neatly (ordenado), smooth (plano, liso),
faithful (preciso, fiel).
9. Rely on their husbands as the breadwinners (depender del marido como sostn familiar), put a strain on
space and finances (verse en un aprieto a causa del espacio y el dinero), bite my tongue (morderme la lengua),
go for a deputy head post (ir a por un puesto ms alto), reach their teens (comprender a los adolescentes), sick
with envy (muerto de envidia), wouldn't come close (nisiquiera se acercara a), moan about (quejarse de), make
up for some of his absences (compensa de sobra su ausencia), behind his back (a sus espaldas), there is a lot to
be said for having (hay mucho que decir a su favor).
10. female lead (la protagonista), premiere (estreno), final credits roll (crditos), plot (argumento), dialogue
sequences, screen movies (proyectar pelis), the big screen (la gran pantalla), period films (pelculas de poca),
released (lanzadas en), film review (resea).
11. As stubborn as a mule, as wihte as a sheet (blanco como el papel), drink like a fish, as blind as bat (ciego
como un murcilago), as good as gold,Formal
work like
a dream (funciona a la perfeccin), as quick as a flash, eat like
Letter
TOPICS
a horse.
My
Adress
1. JOB APPLICATION
WRITING
(Sin nombre)
TOPICS
Nombre y direccin
PART 1: answer to an email or formal
Delletter
Destinatario
Email
From:
To:
Subject:

Fecha

Dear Sir or Madam,

Dear (Sir or Madam),

Por qu escribo
Informacin
Concluir la carta: sum up y qu
espero.

Responder a cada punto tratado


En prrafos distintos.

Yours faithfully (Sir or Madame)


Yours sincerely (Nombre propio)
MI NOMBRE EN MAYUSCULAS

I was interested in the


advertisement
in
(newpaper), on (date),
and I would like to apply
for the (post/job) of (...)
Nombre,
cualificacion,

edad,

Experiencia pasada.
Actitudes especiales y
porqu quiero el trabajo.
My reason for applying
is that...
Por qu seria bueno para
el job

I look forward to hearing from you soon


With my kind regards,
Nombre, Firma y profesion si procede.

TOPICS
1. APOLOGIES
Por qu pido perdon. Im
writting
to
apologize
for... I would like to say
how sorry I am

TOPICS

TOPICS

1. COMPLAINTS

1. ENQUIRIES (consultas)

Por qu me comport as.


The reason... was

I am writing to complain
about...

Arreglar
los
daos
Please let me know how
much it cost and I will
replace it

Explain the situation

Por que escribo. I am


writing
to
enquire
about... I was interested
in your advertisement...

Decir que quiero

Sobre
qu
quiero
informacin y detalles I
would be grateful if you
could send me full details
of...

No volver a pasar. I
assure you that this will
never happen again.

I look forward to hearing


from
receiving
the
information.

TOPICS
1.OPINIONS
Introducir el topic y decir
donde se ha visto. I
totally agree with Mr.
Smith
letter,
which
appear...
Un prrafo
argumento.

para

cada

Un prrafo de conclusion:
sum up.
PART 2: ESSAY, DESCRIPTION, REPORT, STORY, LETTER
DESCRIPTION

ARTICLES

OPINIONS
ESSAY

Introduccin: porque he elegido esto


Introducir el topic y decir
Introduccin
(puede
Cual es mi relacion con ello.
donde se ha visto. I
llevar ?)
totally agree with Mr.
Apariencia
Smith
letter,
which
Argumentos a favor
appear...
Caracter
Argumentos en contra
Un prrafo para cada
Conclusin: sum my feelings
argumento.
Conclusin: qu gana si
Usar algo con humor
los
drawbacks
or
Un prrafo de conclusion:
advantages.
sum up.
REVIEW (CRITICA) (libros,
pelis.)
Titulo, autor, where and
when it is set.
The
plot
characters

and

main

Sum
up
recomendacin.

3 prrafos
REPORTcon ideas
Conclusin
que responda
Introduccin:
de qu va y
a laobjeto
pregunta
ppio.
del del
texto.
The
Contar
aimmi
ofopinion.
this report is to
assess
student
satisfaction...

Introduccin: topic y mi
opinion

Un prrafo para cada


cuestion: las aulas, los
profesores, la cafeteria...
con titulo de cada 1

3 parrafos para dar mis


razones

Conclusion:
resultados

tipico
contra

Que me gusta y que no

Introduccion: sobre qu
va y lanzar una pregunta:

argumento

conclusion:

sum

en
y

findings

Find out: averiguar


Invent: inventar
Mi direccion Discover: descubrir
(sin nombre) Detect: detectar
Attempt: Intento
Fecha Effort: esfuerzo
Trial: prueba
Dear Maria,
Experiment: EXperimento
How are you? Im fine.
Im sorry I havent
Audience: audiencia
written for a while...
Spectators: pblico
Viewers: espectadores
Sightseers: turistas
I hope you hear from you Onlookers: espectadores
Witnesses: testigos
soon
INFORMAL LETTER

With love

Late: tarde
Lately: ultimamente
Latest: ltimo
Latter: ltimo
Last: ultimo
Later: ms tarde
Lasting: perdurable
Rise: subir
Raise: elevar
Arise: surgir
Lift: levantar
Party: partido poltico
Crew: grupo
Team: equipo
Staff: personal
Crowd: multitud
Band: banda

Award: premio
Reward: recompensa
Belong: pertenecer
Hire: alquilar
Owe: deuda
Bill:Personal
ley
information
Fare: tarifa
Fee:The
cuota
family
Tax: impuesto
Prize: premio
Daily negociar
activities
Bargain:
Worth: valor
Tip: propina
budget: presupuesto
Town and country
like: como
alike: igual
Travel
and tourism
unlike:
distinto
likely: probable
Food and
drink
likewise:
igualmente
Feel like: tener ganas

Bring: llevar
Carry: llevar cargando
Fetch: recoger
Get: conseguir
Deliver: entregar
Take: tomar
Include: incluir
Enclose: adjuntar
Involve: implicar
Relate: relacionar
Accompany: acompaar
Assemble: montar
Notice: notar
Regard: considerar
Stare: mirar fijamente
Glance: vistazo
Observe: observar

Describing people
Travel: verbo viajar
Describing
things
Journey:
viaje largo
Voyage: largo y aventura
and
relationships
Trip:Friends
viaje en
general
Tour: guiado
Excursion
Health and fitness
Cruise: crucero
Leisure time

OTRAS DUDAS PERSONALES


DO/MAKE
Make: money, war, certain, sure, jorney, trip, complaint, inquiry, excuse, offer, bed, choice,
mistake, charge, discovery, use, fun, room for. Resultado de una accin.
Do: good, harm, damage, business, work, homework, housework, ones..., favour, test,
experiment, washing up. La accin en s misma.
ADJETIVOS: Edad, tamao, temperatura, textura / Forma / Color / Procedencia / Material
PALABRAS CONFUSAS
Ensure: asegurar
Insure: asegurar
Reassure: tranquilizar
make sure: cercionarse
Task: tarea
Course: curso
Duty: deber
Process: proceso
Control: controlar

Manage: gestionar
Run: ejecutar
Operate: funcionar
Train: entrenar
Undertake: emprender
Able: capaz
Capable: capaz
Efficient: eficiente
Effective: eficaz
Skilled: experto
Skilful: hbil
Qualified: cualificado
Skills: habilidades
Qualities: cualidades
Qualifications: cualificacion
Experience: experiencia
Assistant: ayudante
Clerk: dependiente
Officer: oficial
Attendant: encargado

Aim: objetivo
Goal: meta
Challenge: desafo
Achieve: lograr
Fulfil: cumplir
Cope: enfrentar
Deal: tratar
Manage: gestionar
Face: encarar
Succeed: triunfar

PHRASAL VERBS
PHRASAL VERB: PUTPHRASAL VERB: BREAK PHRASAL VERB: CUT PHRASAL VERB: SET
Cut across: atravesar Set down: apuntar
Put aside: dejar de ladoBreak down: romperse
Break
down:
romper
a
llorar
Cut down: talar
Set in: comenzar
Put
away: guardar
PHRASAL
VERB: GET
Break
in:
entrar
a
la
fuerza
Cut
down
on:
reducir
Set off/out: comenzar viaje
Put
off:
aplazar
Get
across:
comunicar
Break
off:
terminar
repente
Cut
in:
irrumpir
Set off: empezar
Put
on:
vestirse
Get
around:
ser conocido
Break
out:
escapar
Cut
off:
detener
Set off: explotar
Put
out:
Get
at: apagar
conseguir
Break
through:
abrirse
paso
Cut
up:
dividir
en
piezas
Set out: establecer
Put
through:
conectar
Get
away: escapar
Break
up:
cortar
con,
romper
Set up: establecer, abrir
Put
up:
alojar
Get
away
with: escapar
Put
up with: soportar
delito
Put
together:
armar
Get
back: recuperar
PHRASAL VERB: GO
Put
in:
instalar
Get by: salir adelante
Go down with: estar malo
Get down: deprimirse
Gor in for: participar
Get better: mejorar
Go off: explotar, estar mal
Get dark: atardecer
Go on: continuar, ocurrir
Get rid of: deshacerse de
Go over: examinar
PHRASAL VERB: MAKEPHRASAL VERB: BRING
Get ready: prepararse
Go through: examinar,
make an effort
Bring about: causar
Get the sack: despedido
PHRASAL
VERB:
buscar
make
of (hacer
de)COMEBring in: introducir
Get revenge: vengarse
Come out
across:
cruzar, toparse
Go with: compajinar
make
(diferenciar)
Bring off: conseguir algo
Get lost: pierdete!
Come
round:
venir
Go
without:
prescindir
de
make
over
(hacer
ms)
dificil
Get on my nerves: desquiciar
Come
to:
llegar
a
Go
pale:
empalidecer
Make
the
most
of:
aprovechar
Bring out: clarificar
Get off: bajar
Come
up
(subir)
Go
red:
enrojecer
make
up
(hacer)
Bring round: reanimar
Get on: subir
Come
up
against:
tropezarse
Go
to
rescue:
rescatar
Make
up
for
(compensar)
Bring up: criarse
Get on with: seguir adelante
Come
up
with
(proponer)
Go
over:
repasar
Make
off
with:
hacerse
con
Bring along: traer
Get even: vengarse
PHRASAL
LOOK
Come
to
terms
with:
acordar
Go
ahead:
seguir
adelante
Make
for:
dirigirse
hacia
Bring back:VERB:
traer de
vuelta
Get out: librarse
PHRASAL
VERB:
TAKE
Look
for:
buscar
Come up
into
power:
Go round: girar
Make
with:
hacer paces
Get over: superar
Take
after:marcharse
parecerse a
Look up: mirar arriba
apoderarse
Go along:
Make your mind up: decidirse
Take in: entender, engaar Come
Lookimp
up to: admirar
in
handy:
muy
util
PHRASAL VERB: LOOK
Make an impression: causar
Take off: quitar
Look after: cuidar
Come to a halt: detenerse
Look after: tener cuidado
Take on: aceptar, coger calle Come of age: mayor de edad
Look fordward: mirar futuro
Look for: querer encontrar
Take over: tomar el control Come into: heredar
Look into: examinar
Look
in: visitar
PHRASAL
VERB: KEEP
PHRASAL VERB: GIVE Look over: revisar
Come down with: enfermar
Look
investigar
Keep into:
a diary:
tener un diario Take to: iniciarse en
Take up: ocupar el tiempo Give away: regalar, revelar
Look out: mirar afuera
Look
ten cuidado!
Keep out:
a secret:
guardar un
PHRASAL
LET
back: VERB:
devolver
Take advance: tener ventaja Give
Look down on: despreciar
Look
through: examinar
secreto
Let down:
bajar rendirse
in: entregar,
about:VERB:
tardar CATCH
tiempo enGive
Look through: ojear
PHRASAL
Look
buscar hacer
informacin Take
Keep up:
company:
Let in:
entrar
Give
out:
repartir
Catch up with (ponerse al
Look
up to: admirar
compaa
Let off:
estallar,
Give
up:dejar
parar,
rendirse
da)
Keep a promise: manener
marchar
Catch fire: prenderse fuego
prom
Let out: relajarse
Catch a thief: coger al ladron
Keep an eye on: vigilar
Catch a plane: coger un
Keep in touch with:
avin
mantener cont
Catch a cold: coger frio
Keep in mind: tener en
Catch breath: recuperar alien
mente
Catch on: hacerse popular
Keep back: retener