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ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

ADJECTIVES:
Sfatlar isimleri nitelerler. (Renk, boy,bykl, durumu, ya, vb.)
KULLANIM:
Adjective + To Vo (istisnalar dnda)
It is not difficult to learn English.
Adjective + That Clause (Duygu, fikir ya da inan belirten sfatlar that clause alabilirler.)
She is worried that she cannot answer all the questions in two hours.
Adjective + Wh Questions/How Whether /If --- (Duygu, fikir ya da inan bildiren sfatlar kendilerinden
sonra kararsz durum balalar (wh soru kelimeleri, how, whether,if))
She wasnt sure which direction she would choose.
Adjective + Noun ( niteledikleri ismin nnde bulunurlar)
A dangerous attempt, an unexpected recovery
A serious assault was avoided owing to his help.
Sfatlar LinkingVerbs dediimiz eylem bildirmeyen fiillerden sonra kullanlrlar.
Subject + Linking Verb+ Adjective (Complement)
LINKING VERBS ( Bu fiiller sfatlarla kullanlrlar, zarflarla kullanlmazlar)
Be
Become
Prove
Get
Seem
Appear
Look
Feel
Taste
Smell
Sound
Go
Grow
turn
Keep
Stay
Remain

The wages are rather low.


They became unpleased hearing the bad news.
The method proved helpful.
He got ill after eating the soup.
He seems quite energetic for a man of seventy.
He appears confident.
She looks pale.
I feel a bit exhausted.
This soup tastes awful.
This room smells terrible.
The music sounds a little bit slow.
The milk went sour.
He grew interested in the course as time went by.
His hair turned grey.
Try to keep(stay,remain) calm.
Eat right to stay healthy.
The boy remained silent

Look, Feel, Taste, Smell, Sound + LIKE + NOUN


My pillow feels like a stone.
This article looks like the one I read last week.
The fruit smells like lemon.

Ving , V3 as Adjective
Etkileyen --- Ving
Etkilenen --- V3
The movie was fascinating. We were fascinated.
Tamamlanm SreV3---- Developed countries.
Devam eden Sre--- Ving --- Boiling water, developing countries.
ADVERBS:
KULLANIM:
Zarflar Fiiller le Kullanlrlar ( Fiili niteler)
Please speak slowly ( Ltfen yava bir ekilde konuun. )
He passed the exam because he had studied hard. ( O snav geti. nk sk bir ekilde almt )

2. ) Zarflar Sfatlar le Kullanlrlar (Sfat niteler)


an expensive dress

a rather expensive dress

It was a badly planned holiday.


3. ) Zarflar Zarflar le Kullanlrlar (Zarf niteler)
She behaved unexpectedly cowardly and didnt want to face with him.
She speaks English fairly fluently. ( O ngilizce'yi olduka akc bir ekilde konuur )
Fair:
adil, doru
Fairly: olduka, adil bir ekilde

Zarflar genellikle sfatlara ly- taks getirilerek elde edilir.

Extreme:
True:
Whole:
Undue:
Reluctant:
Adequate:
Accurate:
***Adamant:
***Vehement:

ar
doru, gerek
tm, btn
gereksiz
isteksiz
uygun, elverili
doru
sert
sert

Extremely:
Truly:
Wholly:
Unduely:
Reluctantly:
Adequately:
Accurately:
Adamantly:
Vehemently:

ar bir ekilde, son derece


doru bir ekide
bsbtn, tamamen
gereksiz yere, gereksiz bir ekilde
isteksizce, isteksiz bir ekilde
elverili bir ekilde
doru bir ekilde
sert bir ekilde
sert bir ekilde, fkeli

yi Szckleri
Bunlarn sfat ve zarflar birbirleri ile ilikili deildir. Bunlarn sfat ve zarflar iin ayr kelimeler
oluturulmutur.
Good:iyi ( sfat )

Well: iyi ( zarf )

Sfat ve Zarf Ayn Olan Szckler

Bunlar iin sfat ve zarf olarak ayr kelimeler tretilmemitir. "ly" de almazlar. Cmlede kullanmlarna
gre zarf veya sfat olurlar. Zarf olarak kullanldklarnda sfat anlamlarna "bir ekilde, bir biimde" eklenerek
evirisi yaplr.
Hard:
sk
Fast:
hzl
Near:
yakn
High:
yksek
Enough: yeter, yeterli
Much:
ok ( saylamayanlar iin )
Little:
az, kk
Late:
ge
Early:
erken
He has enough money. ( Onun yeterli paras var. ) enough = sfat
She doesn't study enough. ( O yeterli bir ekilde almaz. ) enough = zarf
A late decision. ( Ge bir karar ) late = sfat
He gets up late. ( O ge bir ekilde kalkar. ) late = zarf
Aadaki zarflar kken aldklar sfatlardan farkl anlama gelirler.
Sfat
Hard:
Scarce:
Bare:

Zarf
sk
kt
yaln

Hardly:
Scarcely:
Barely:

Near:
Late:
Fair:
Eventual:

yakn
ge
adil, doru
olas, muhtemel

Nearly:
yaklak olarak
Lately:
son zamanlarda
Fairly:
olduka
Eventually: sonu olarak, sonunda

Consistent: uygun, tutarl


Steady:
istikrarl
Constant:
sabit

pek........mez
pek........mez
pek........mez

Consistantly:
Steadily:
Constantly:

srekli olarak
srekli olarak
srekli olarak

Ly taks bir isme getirildiinde zarf deil sfat elde ederiz.


Friend friendly
Kullanm)
Cost costly
Dead - deadly
Lovelovely

She is very friendly.

Not she behaves very friendly. ( Yanl

ADVERBS OF DEGREE (Derecelendirme zarflar)


Badly, awfully, terribly
Kendi asl anlamlar olan kt ekilde anlamna ek olarak ok fazla, olduka anlamnda da kullanlabilir.
We are terribly/ badly/ awfully dissappointed with the result he got in the Olympics.
(Ald sonu bizi ok fazla hayal krklna uratt. )

Too
ok fazla, gereinden ok anlamnda. Negatif anlamdadr. Sfat ya da zarf niteler.
Too zarfn nitelemek iin rather, far, a little, a bit, much gibi zarflar kullanlr.
He is rather too thrilled.
I have far too much exam anxiety.
This boy is a little too shy.
The cafe on the third floor is a bit too crowded.
The questions in the practice exam were much too hard.
Barely, hardly, scarcely, little
***Olumsuz anlam ierirler. Bu yzden olumlu cmlede kullanlrlar ve anlam olumsuz yaparlar.
Barely, hardly, scarcely zarflar neredeyse hi ve zar zor/ g bela anlam tarlar.
Ancak little zarf sadece neredeyse hi anlam tar.
They hardly know about me.
We could hardly/barely/scarcely answer the questions asked by the boss.
The professor little knew about his new assistant.

Almost, nearly, practically, virtually


Bu zarflar neredeyse anlam tarlar. Virtually ise gerekten anlamnda da kullanlmaktadr.
The questions on the test were really difficult.
I almost/nearly/practically/virtually did nothing. (But I did something.)
(Neredeyse/hemen hemen hibir ey yapmadm.)
The van almost/ nearly / practically ran over the poor old lady.
***The defeat of our team was virtually a disaster. ( Gerekten bir felaketti.)
Barely/scarcely/hardly ile Almost, nearly, practically, virtually anlam fark
"I barely/hardly/scarcely passed the exam." cmlesi "Snav glkle/gbela geebildim.
"I almost/nearly/practically passed the exam." cmlesi ise "Snav neredeyse geiyordum.
Gememe ramak kalmt." anlamn verir.
Fairly, quite, rather
Olduka anlam tarlar. Rather daha ok olumsuz bir zellii vurgulamak iin kullanlr.
She behaved rather foolishly yesterday.
It is rather cold today.
Quite olduka anlamnn yan sra tamamen- kesinlikle anlamna da gelir.
Bu anlamda rather ve fairly kullanlmaz.
I havent quite completed the whole design yet.
Henz btn tasarm tamamen bitirmedim.
Fairly sadece zarflar ve sfatlar niteler.
Quite ve rather ise bunlara ek olarak fiil de nitelerler.
I quite like his manners.
I rather disapprove of her attitude towards the children in the orphanage.

It was a fairly long lasting movie.


He played fairly well and scored two goals.
It is quite difficult to say that he is innocent.
He answered the question quite carefully.
She behaved rather foolishly yesterday.
He felt rather tired after working all day.

Rather da like, enjoy, dislike, object gibi fiilleri nitelemek iin "olduka" anlamnda kullanlr.
I rather object to elementary school students being given too much homework.
She rather likes doing housework.
Sfat tamlamalarnda a/an, "fairly" den nce kullanlr.
She is a fairly tall girl.
It is a fairly interesting story. A/an, "rather" dan nce ya da sonra gelebilir.
This is a rather difficult question/rather a difficult question.
This is a rather noisy place/rather a noisy place.
A/an, "quite" dan sonra gelir.
It was quite a nice holiday.
She was quite an understanding person.
Our house is quite a long way from here.
SENTENCE ADVERBS
Btn bir cmleyi niteleyerek konumacnn olaya bakn ve tutumunu anlatan zarflardr.
Wrongly
unluckily
indeed
evidently
rightly
luckily
obviously
seriously
unfortunately
In fact
Of course
Fortunately
Actually
Surely
Perhaps
Surprisingly
Frankly
certainly
possibly
naturally
maybe
annoyingly
definitely
presumably
personally
admittedly
clearly
honestly
undoubtedly
understandably
Bu zarflar ortada kullanld zaman "be" fiilinden sonra gelir.
He is obviously innocent./They are probably at home.
Yardmc fiil yoksa, zne ile asl fiil arasnda; yardmc fiil varsa yardmc fiille asl fiil arasnda
yer alrlar.
He obviously avoids being seen with his new girlfriend.
They probably delayed going on holiday.
He will probably come late tonight.
He had obviously taken the money.
At the beginning or at the end of a sentence:
Certainly, he has been working very hard.
He has been working very hard, certainly.
Obviously, they will raise the prices again.
They will raise the prices again, obviously

Definitely'nin cmlenin banda kullanlmas ok enderdir. Daha ok cmlenin ortasnda


kullanlr. Cmle sonunda da yer alabilir.
He was definitely at home at that hour.
He is trying to do his best, definitely. '
Perhaps, of course ve maybe, cmlenin sonunda da kullanlabilmelerine ramen daha ok
cmlenin banda kullanlr. Ancak, vurguyu artrmak iin ortada kullanlmalar da
mmkndr. Bu durumda iki virgl arasnda kullanlrlar.
Perhaps, he can lend us his car.
He can lend us his car, perhaps.
He can, perhaps, lend us his car.
Of course, he is capable of doing that.
He is capable of doing that, of course.
He is, of course, capable of doing that.
Surely, daha ok cmlenin banda ya da sonunda kullanlr.
Surely he was at the demonstration! (/ feel almost sure that he was.)
You're not taking what I say seriously, surely
admittedly luckily surprisingly annoyingly unluckily understandably
frankly
honestly seriously fortunately personally rightly unfortunately naturally
wrongly
Bu zarflar genellikle cmlenin banda kullanlrlar. Bir virglle cmlenin devamndan ayrlrlar.
Understandably, he doesn't want to join us.
(Anlald gibi/Anlald zere/Anlalan o ki, bize katlmak istemiyor.)
Seriously, why don't your parents move to the country? The air is cleaner there.
(Cidden/Gerekten, ailen neden taraya tanmyor?)
Rightly or wrongly, he decided to quit school and start work.
(Doru ya da yanl, okulu brakp almaya karar verdi.)
Naturally, everybody wants to live in better conditions,
FOCUSING ADVERBS:
Bu zarflar, cmlenin bir esini vurgulamak iin kullanlr. Cmle iindeki yerleri genelde
vurguladklar szckten hemen ncedir. Bu zarflar yle sralayabiliriz:
only purely exactly too
just
exclusively mostly
either
merely
primarily especially
as well
simply
chiefly
particularly
also
solely
mainly
even
I merely/purely/simply wanted to warn you. I had no other intention.
Only the director was against the idea.
This is exactly what I have been trying to illustrate.
The director wants to attend the seminar , too.
I also added your name to the list.
She cannot do such a thing, either.
Some countries, especially Germany and France, will not attend the summit.
COMPARATIVE FORM OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

___ADJ_____er THAN
More _______ADJ__THAN

MORE + ADVERB(ending with LY)


OR TWO SYLLABLE ADVERBS
***EARLY (ADVERB)
FAST HARD LATE

Bigger than /taller than /cheaper than


More comfortable than/more beautiful
than
Frankly more frankly often- more often
Carefully- more carefully
Earlier
Faster harder - later

She works harder than I do.


me.
do I .
IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES AND AND ADVERBS
GOOD
BETTER
BAD
WORSE
MUCH
MORE
MANY/ A LOT OF
MORE
LITTLE
LESS
FAR
FARTHER (Daha uzak) Your hotel is farther form the sea than ours.
FAR
FURTHER(Daha uzak) (daha fazla) We need further(more) explanation
for it.
LATE
LATER ---- (daha sonra) He arrived later than us.
LATE
LATTER--- (iki eyden ikincisi) I saw two films yesterday. The latter
was perfect.
FORMER/LATTER
Eer iki eyden bahsediyorsak 1.si the former 2. si the latter (nceki
sonraki)
OLD
OLDER-- The theatre building is older than my father.
OLD
ELDER(Aile bireylerinden byk olan) My elder brother works for
IBM.

***Much /far /rather/ a little/ a lot/ a bit / no kelimeleri comparative yaplar vurgularlar.
He is a much better dentist than you are.
She is far more intelligent than I thought.
Some species of dinosaurs were no bigger than a chicken.
Shes only a little taller than her sister.
This answer sounds rather better than the previous one.
The more . the more
Birbirine bal olarak deien iki durumu karlatrma kullanarak bildireceksek bu yapy
kullanrz.
The longer you work, the more you earn.
The more money you have, the better you live.
The taller someone is, the better s/he can play basketball.
2006 KASIM kpds

AS /SO +ADJ/ADV +AS:


Olumsuz cmlede so.. as tercih edilir.
You should drive as carefully as you can in order not to have an accident.
A man must be as determined as possible to be able to get what he wants
Living in the country doesnt cost as/ so much as living in big cities.
As /so much/many/few/little +adj +as
Ralf wasnt as /so much interested in the news as his brother.
As /so + adj+ a/an countable noun+ as
I havent seen as /so studious a boy as him so far.
SUCH ..AS :
Such +adj+noun+as
I havent seen such awful weather as this so far here. (saylamayan isim)
They didnt expect me to make such a good presentation as the other candidate, but I managed
it.(saylabilen isim)

AS /SO+ ADJ/ADV+ AS+ to Vo (YAPACAK KADAR


SUCH +ADJ+ NOUN+ AS+ to Vo (YAPACAK KADAR)
He isnt so qualified as to get the post without having some additional training.
She isnt such a qualified candidate as to deal with all these diplomatic troubles.

Twice
Three times
Half as

AS (positive degree) AS

The same + Noun+ as


The same

She earns twice as much as me.


Shes only half as well-qualified as her sister.
The final exam was twice as difficult as the mid
term exam.
Eitlik bildirir. ki eyde ayndr.
Tony is the same weight as me / I am / am
I
Her grades are the same as mine. (Her grades
are as good as mine)
Our grades are the same.

SO + ADJ/ADV + THAT:

Sonu bildiren bir yapdr.


Saylabilen tekil bir isim ile adj+ a/an+ noun eklinde kullanmak mmkndr.
The exam was so difficult that few people were able to pass.
She was so efficient a secretary that the boss promoted her before long.
Many , much, few , little ile kullanm mmkndr.
She has so little experience that she cannot do this on her own.
So that yaps devrik kullanlabilir.
The exam was so difficult that few people were able to pass.
So difficult was the exam that few people were able to pass.
2004 Kasm kpds

SUCH+ ADJ+ NOUN+ THAT :


Sonu bildiren bir dier yap da such that yapsdr.Arada bir sfat +isim alabilir. Sadece isim ile
de kullanlabilir.
He is such an influential person that he can do what he wants.
They have such severe problems that money itself cannot be enough.
A lot of / a few / a little

gibi miktar ifadeleriyle de kullanlabilir.

We have such a lot of resources that you wont need anything else.
Devrik yap da mmkndr.
It was such a difficult exam that few people were able to pass.
Such a difficult exam was it that few people were able to pass. (devrik)

2007 MART DS FEN

TOO + ADJ/ADV+ TO Vo
Olumsuz anlam tar.
Many/few/little/much+ noun eklinde de kullanlabilir

The coffee is too hot to drink.


There is too much noise to hear you.
It was too complicated a question to answer in two minutes.
ENOUGH
ADJ/ADV+ ENOUGH+ TO Vo
She is not old enough to enter the disco.
She doesnt speak slowly enough to understand.
2006 Ekim ds salk

SUPERLATIVE FORM OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS


___ADJ_____est
The most ADJ

The most+ ADVERB(ending with LY)


OR TWO SYLLABLE ADVERBS
***EARLY (ADVERB)
FAST HARD LATE

The biggest /the cheapest


The most comfortable / the most
beautiful
Frankly- the most frankly often- the most
often
Carefully- the most carefully
Earliest
Fastest- hardest- latest

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Sfatlar nlerine my , his ,their, Jasons gibi aitlik bildiren yaplar aldklarnda the almazlar.
My best friend, his most successful student, their least appreciated offer.
IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES AND AND ADVERBS
GOOD
BETTER --- THE BEST
BAD
WORSE---- THE WORST
MUCH
MORETHE MOST
MANY/ A LOT OF
MORE--- THE MOST
LITTLE
LESS---- THE LEAST
FAR
FARTHEST (en uzak) The farthest landmark visible is aobut 30
kilometres away.
FAR
FURTHEST (en uzak/ en fazla) The novel explores the furthest
extremes of human experience.
LATE
LATEST ---- (up-to-date) The machine is of the latest technology.
LATE
LAST-- () The last man to leave the building was Mark.
OLD
OLD

OLDEST-- The oldest tapes were used in such a modern party.


ELDEST-- My eldest uncle is now abroad.

By far, quite , much, almost, nearly , together gibi derecelendirme zarflar ile de kullanlabilirler.
She is by far the most hardworking student in the class.
NEML
BY FAR / OF (ALL), AMONG, IN gibi grup ifade eden edatlar varsa superlative yapy tercih
etmeliyiz.
Of all the applicants, she seems to be the most effective.
She is by far the best singer in the contest.
I am pretty much the best in the class.
It is for sure that I am quite the worst member of the team.
2003 mart ds sosyal

More , most, least, better ve best yaplar nlerine thealmadan filleri nitelerken
kullanlabilir.
I like this red best among all my dresses.
The famous actress most fear that they may lose their fans one day.
Of these two selective courses, I want to take the course of History of Music better.
MOST +ADJECTIVE /ADVERB
MOST yaps the almadan kullanldnda very anlamna gelir.

11

He argued his case most persuasively. (very persuasively)


It was a most beautiful morning. (very beautiful)
Superlative yaplar zaman ya da bir grup ifade eden szcklerle OF kullanlr. Cmlenin
banda OF kullanm yaygndr. Grup ifade eden yaplarda among kullanm da
mmkndr.
Ayrca ever yaps da superlativede yaygndr.
Of all declarations made so far, this has the most sensible reasons for increase in taxes.
Mohammed Ali is the best boxer of all times.
Sarah is the most studious student among all the students in the school.
This is the largest bacterium ever identified, as large as the full stop at the end of this
sentence.
LIKE /AS / SUCH AS:
Like yaps gibi , as ise d gibi anlamnda kullanlr. Ancak like kendinden sonra isim,
zamir ya da gerund yap alabilir.
She is very beautiful indeed, like an angel, (melek gibi]
Work hard like your father. (Baban gibi)
This bed is too tough. Sleeping in it is like sleeping on the floor.
(Bu yatakta yatmak yerde yatmak gibi.)
Do you have any other books like this? (Bunun gibi baka kitaplarn var m?)
My son wants to be a teacher like me. (Benim gibi)
Ancak as yaps kendisinden sonra cmlecik alr.
Work hard like your father, (baban gibi...)
Work hard as your father does, (babann yapt gibi...)
My son wants to be a teacher like me/as I am.
Try to do it like this/as I show you.
As'den sonra bir isim kullanlabilir: as an accountant, as a study, as a hospital, etc.
Bu kullanmyla as "..... olarak' anlamna gelir ve bir benzetme yapmaz, gerek
durumu yanstr.
He works as an accountant in a big firm. (Byk bir irkette muhasebeci olarak alyor.)
She has been working as a teacher for nearly ten years.
The news that she had passed the exam came as a great surprise to me. (It really was a surprise.)
I've always regarded you as my closest friend. (Seni her zaman en yakn arkadam olarak grmmdr.)
rneklendirme yaparken like ve such as ayn anlamda kullanlr.
I like summer fruits, such as peaches, melons and watermelons.
, like peaches, melons and watermelons.
(Ben, eftali, kavun, karpuz gibi yaz meyvelerini severim.)
Such ... as, birbirinden ayrlabilir ve araya genellediimiz isim girebilir.
Some countries, such as Turkey, are still dependent on agriculture economically.
Countries such as Turkey are still dependent on agriculture economically.
Such countries as Turkey are still dependent on agriculture economically.
I like to give presents such as books and records.

12

I like to give such presents as books and records.


I find some sports, such as car racing and climbing, really dangerous.
I find sports such as car racing and climbing really dangerous.
I find such sports as car racing and climbing really dangerous.
2003 Mart ds fen

Kayann dokusu onun, kuyruklu yldz . gevek ve kurumlu bir buz ktlesinden deil, bir asteroidden
geldiini gsterdi.

2009 Mays KPDS

2005 Aralik Salk


Eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, are particularly common in adolescents.
A- allowing for
B- in case of
C- despite
D- such as
E- regarding
NEML -----AS YAPILARI----1- She works as a consultant. ( Danman olarak alyor)
2- As + SVO ( d gibi ) As you see in the picture ( Resimde grdn gibi)
3- iken (When /while) zaman balac olarak
I saw her as I was getting out.
4- As + SVO d iin/nk since/ because : neden sonu balac olarak
As I was very tired, I stayed in last night.

13

5- As + SVO dka,dike : As you grow older, you do less mistakes.


**** Boluktan sonra V3 ya da preposition varsa AS dnlmeli.
As (it is) seen in the picture: Resimde grld gibi.
As in the picture:
Resimde olduu gibi.

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