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Mechanical Design of Heat Exchangers and Pressure Vessel

The next chapter focusses upon tube sheet sandwiched beComponents. K. P. Singh and A. I. Soler, Arcturus Publishers tween two flanges. The combination fo large temperature and
Inc., Cherry Hill, N.J. 1984.
pressure differences dictate careful study of the joints. A
This is a "whopper" of a book. Starting from the basics, it precise stress analyses is required including the leakage area.
progresses along until it reaches the more complex aspects of Prudent mathematical analysis and study of these equations
heat exchanger design. Along the way it encounters and covers require a complete stress analysis. This is admirably done by
a great deal of material. Until the present, there has not been a the authors. The computer program TRIEL is based upon the
book which covers this vast ground. As stated by the author, three-element joint as presented in this chapter. Flanges with
"Profound changes have occurred in recent years in heat ex- full face gaskets and ring gaskets are the subject of Chapter 5.
changer design practice . . . . Seismic analysis was an alien Included is nonlinear gasket behavior, simulation of bolt efterm to the heat exchanger trade. Words like 'response spec- fects, calculation of flange. The computer code
trum,' 'flow induced vibration,' 'nozzle load induced GENFLANGE is used in the analysis of nonlinear gaskets plus
stresses,' had little kinship to heat exchanger design the analysis of 2 and 3 element bolted flange joints.
technology . . . . A thorough grasp of the underlying concepts
Chapter 6 speaks about joints for high pressure closures.
in flow induced vibration and seismic analysis along with Bolted joints cannot be used due to the large number of repressure vessel mechanical design and stress analyses tech- quired bolts and exceedingly large pre-loads. This large inniques, is essential for developing cost effectiveness and crease necessitates the use of boltless flanges. They are either
reliable design . . . . Our objective is to present that necessary of the axially loaded design or pressure actuated. For the
for heat exchanger design and operating-problems-resolution former, the pressure load is resisted by suitable means which
in a logical and systematic manner." The authors accomplish do not oppose the axial header load. The few devices which
their task and goal by bridging the gap between analytical have had a measure of success are: (a) threaded joint,
methods and practical considerations.
(Jb) casale joint, (c) Breitschneider closure, (d) shear stud
The book contains 22 chapters and 27 computer codes. Five closure, (e) shear pin design, (/) yoke ring, (g) shear bond
of the latter contain no listings but the remainder do. An ap- design. The pressure-actuated closure is the forcing of an
pendix analyzes and presents the classical plate and shell endless elastic ring in a circumferential groove. Another type
of joint based upon the Bridgeman principle is the wedge seal
theory and its applications to pressure vessels.
Chapter 1 presents an elaborate introduction to tubular heat ring closure. The book goes into great detail plus the
exchangers. It includes the various styles (fixed tube sheet, U- mathematical derivation of the equations relating to the sealtube, floating tube sheet, etc.), heat exchanger nomenclature, ing action and sizing of the retainer shoe.
tube layout, pitch and heat"Exchanger intervals. The
Chapter 7 discusses the variety of methods used in making
next topics are methods of impingement protection: circular the joints between the tube sheet and tubes. The most common
and square plates and four methods of designing for thermal attachment techniques are: (a) roller expansion,
transients. The chapter concludes with a brief resume of the (b) hydraulic expansion, (c) impact welding, (d) edge
codes and standards used in heat exchanger design and welding, (e) butt welding. The book continues with the
manufacture (TEMA, Heat Exchanger Institute and ASME discussion and derivation of mathematical expressions for
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes). Chapter 2 reports on the tube-to-tube sheet interface pressure. The chapter concludes
various stress categories. This covers beam strip analogy, with a lengthy discussion and derivation of estimating the ligaprimary and secondary stresses and classifications (primary ment temperature distribution. The computer program
and local membrane stress, primary and secondary bending LIGTEM is employed in determining the temperature
stress, etc.). The authors provide an example of gross struc- distribution. Chapter 8 focusses upon the design of tube sheets
tural discontinuity. This considers welded cylinders having for U-tube heat exchanger. The importance of tube sheet
unequal thickness. The chapter concludes with an interesting design should not be underestimated. Analysis methods indiscussion of discontinuity stresses at head, shell and skirt clude the perforated region, two-sided integral construction,
junction. Chapter 3 takes us to the area of bolted flange one-sided integral and one-sided gasket construction, twodesign. This embraces the various constituents, which sided gasketed construction and tube sheet stress analysis. The
are: (a) bolted flange type, (b) four types of flange facings, computer code "UTUBE" is fully explained and detailed in
(c) four types of flange facing finishes, (rf) five types of gaskets this chapter.
which are used in flange design. The important Waters,
The most widespread application of heat exchanger conRossheim and Williams methods are detailed in depth. They struction in the power and process industries are the fixed and
are used in the design of the flange ring, tapered hub, shell floating head heat exchangers. The determination of the effecelements, longitudinal stresses in hub and shell, radial and tive pressure on tube sheet due to tube bundle, analyses of pertangential stresses in a ring. The chapter concludes with a forated circular tube sheet and analysis of unperforated tube
detailed listing of computer program FLANGE and the stress sheet runs are important aspects used in heat exchanger
analysis of a welding neck flange.
design. The book forges ahead with ways of modifying
372/Vol. 108, AUGUST 1986

Transactions of the ASME

Copyright 1986 by ASME


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floating head exchangers, simplifying the analysis of stationary tube sheet in an integral or floating head heat exchanger. This includes the development of expressions for ring
rotation. The program FIXFLOAT expresses the parametric
analysis of a fixed tube sheet heat exchanger. The computer
program shows some of the inaccuracies of the TEMA design
formulas. The computer program FIXSHEET performs a
complete stress analysis of integral tube sheet exchangers
(integral both shell and tubeside). Another excellent and wellwritten chapter!
Chapter 10 treats the subject of double tube sheet construction which is important in the prevention of fluid leakage between shell and tube side. A good example is the design and
construction of large power plant condensors. The authors
demonstrate the theoretical analysis by employing the plate
theory equations. This includes the correction for shear deformation. The tube acts as a beam and both tube sheet and tube
are assumed to have equal displacement. In addition, the relations for staggered tube layout are considered. The set of
equations with properly assigned boundary conditions can be
efficiently solved by altering the problem into a series of initial
value problems and utilizing numerical integration along the
radial c o o r d i n a t e s . The authors use a program
DOUBLESHEET to solve and analyze this problem.
Chapter 11 continues with rectangular tube sheets. They
have a direct bearing to power plant condensors. They are particularly useful in low-pressure, large-volume flow rate conditions. For the design the beam strip method is employed in an
approximate analysis for both the condensor tube sheets and
the waterbox parameters which reflect the character of its edge
restraints. Caution is necessary if the preliminary design is
marginal. Chapter 12 discusses the analysis of a flat cover
which utilizes the main closure for the tube-side chamber in
tubular heat exchangers. The book discusses the thickness of
the cover. It considers the corroded thickness, latent pressure
and a symmetrically distributed edge moment using ASME
Code, TEMA Standards and Heat Exchanger Institute Code.
The next chapter is the flange-cover interaction, i.e., flat
circular cover bolted to a lap joint flange. The flange ring can
be designed via ASME Code. The latter specifies lever arms
for the gasket load and header load due to pressure. The
chapter concludes with interactive relationships, cover and
flange ring stresses, loss in heat due to flow bypass and thermal performance of two tube pass heat exchangers. The computer program LAPCOV is based on the lap joint-flat cover
interaction analysis plus the previously mentioned TRIEL program to analyze and solve the problem of flat cover bolted to a
welding neck flange. Chapter 13 covers the subject of formed
heads in closures for pressure vessels and heat exchangers.
Since the formed head can be considered a shell of revolution,
the equations for the membrane theory under internal pressure
can be utilized. This applies to conical, ellipsoidal, cylindrical
and toridal shells. The authors show the derivation of the
ASME Code formula for the large end of a reducer. The
chapter concludes with a reference of "discontinuity stress
resultants" which are additional reactions at the junction
developed to keep the two portions of the shell together. The
other topic is an evaluation of the discontinuity effects caused
by abrupt changes in the meridional curvature which produces
a mismatch in the shell displacement in the two sides of the
discontinuity.
Chapter 14 introduces thermal stresses in the heads due to
thermal expansion-related problems. The equations are derived and a particular design example is furnished employing
the previously designed formula. The computer program
UBAX computes the bending and direct stress in the tube
overhand and U-bend regions due to the specified outer leg
thermal differentials. The next chapter covers the important
subject of expansion joints. This is important in both piping
and heat exchangers. It can be broadly classified either
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology

as (a) formed head, or (b) formed membrane. The topic


of the stiffness of a "formed head" expansion joint is analyzed by computing the internal stress resultants and the stress
distribution in the inner shell, annular plate and outer shell.
The computer program EXJOINT automates the analysis and
computation of the flanged and fluid expansion joint design.
The bellows expansion joints for cylindrical and rectangular
vessels are next considered. The concluding section presents a
short section on bellows fatigue life. Although a number of
empirical formulas based upon test data are mentioned, the
authors prefer the equation stated by Anderson in determination of stresses versus life cycles. The computer program FAN
FLUE is a pre and past processor for expansion joint analysis
using AXISTRESS and EJMAREC for the stress analysis of a
rectangular joint.
Chapter 16, the lengthiest, focusses upon flow-induced
vibration. This dynamic subject was ignored by designers until
a rash of tube failures caused designers to have a concerted
look at this phenomena. The types of vibration damage patterns in tube failures are: (a) collision damage, (b) baffle
damage, (c) tube sheet clamping effect, (d) material defect
propagations, (e) metallurigcal failure. The different types
of vibration mechanisms are: (a) vortex shedding,
(b) fluid-elastic excitation, (c) jet switching, (d) acoustic
resonance. For fluid-elastic instability as expressed in Conners' experiments, this is explained in terms of the inertia of
the flow stream. The natural frequency of the heat exchanger
tube which is essential in flow-induced vibration failure
depends upon the end conditions. The standard natural frequency formulas are derived and discussed. The U-bend
natural frequency is derived and the computer program UVIB
solves for the in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations of the Ubend. A number of different empirical fluid elastic and turbulent buffeting correlations are presented based on experiments and analysis of a number of investigators. The
acoustic resonance correlation depends upon the acoustic and
existing frequencies plus damping. This, again, is stated as an
empirical criteria and is proposed to assess the possibility of
acoustic resonance. The effective tube mass affects its natural
frequency and should be calculated with care. The next important phenomena is damping and the important damping coefficient. This can be classified as (a) structural damping,
(b) natural damping, (c) fluid damping. The flow of shell
side fluid in a baffled heat exchanger is highly complex. Required are the effective velocity and determinations of the
discrete flow paths of the shellside fluid from one baffle space
to the next plus the flow distributions in the U-bend region.
The chapter concludes with some ideas for preventing flowinduced vibration procedure. An excellent chapter!
Until recently, sizing of supports was generally left to the
personal judgments of the designer. The advent of commercial
nuclear power radically altered the thinking. The design must
now be checked for seismic loading, mechanical loads from attached piping, etc. The types of supports are: (a) saddle,
(b) lug, (c) annular ring, (d) skirt, (e) trapeze. The
authors mention the number of external loadings and show
how they are applied in design. The following topics are delved into: (a) stresses in an annular ring support due to
vetical loads, (b) lug design, (c) stresses in the shell at the
saddle supports, (d) bolt load distribution in three-leg support system, (e) foundation response of ring-type supports
mounted on rigid foundation. The computer program
RINGSUP calculates the total membrane and bending stress
at the junction of the annular ring support and shell.
Chapter 18 reports on four-leg supports for pressure vessels.
The seismic loading, wind loads, mechanical loads from interconnecting piping requires a proper determination of the "optimal plane" of loading. The optimal plane of loading is
defined as the plane which maximizes the maximum stress in
at least one of the support legs. The book entails 7 tests reAUGUST1986, Vol. 108/373

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quired in the design of the support system. The support legs


are modeled as end loaded beam-type members mounted on
rotational springs. The latter simulate the effect of anchor
bolts and foundation characteristics. The most vulnerable
directions of external loading are then determined. A computer program FORLEG determines the optimal angle which
maximizes the total fiber stress in leg no. 1, its corresponding
stress, the bending moment at the top of the support beam,
lateral reaction at the top of the support beam and the axial
compressive load on the beam. Chapter 19 presents design
data for preliminary sizing of saddles for heat exchangers and
pressure vessels. Saddle mounting (usually 2) is preferred for
heat exchangers due to ease of tube replacement. The main
focus of this chapter is to determine the stresses in the foundation bolts and determine the peak concrete bearing pressure
due to an arbitrary set of loadings applied to the pressure
vessel. The code HORSUP computerizes the analysis. The
stress limits for the concrete pedestal and anchor bolts are
referred to the Manual of Steel Construction.
Chapter 20 covers the vertical mounting of heat exchangers
and pressure vessels. This economizes in plant floor space.
The external loads arise from wind loads, from seismic motion
and from reactions due to attached piping. The vertical equipment is modeled as a uniform beam having their respective
ends restrained by simulated linear springs. The support reaction due to all nozzle loads are then examined. The computer
code VERSUP calculates these support reactions. The chapter
concludes with the derivation of a set of equations that determine the peak concrete pressure and the distance of the neutral
plane from the horizontal axis plus the maximum bolt tensile
stress. This is due to the partial comparison on the ring base
plate. Chapter 21 details the subject of response spectrum as
applied to pressure vessels. Time-history analysis is prohibitively expensive for industrial hardware. Static inertia load
replacing dynamic load is "touchy," and unless
wisely selected can be unduly conservative and thus create high
fictitious values of computed vessel stresses and foundation
reaction. Modal analysis methods employing the "Earthquake
Response Spectrum" are a feasible compromise between fictitious static loads and exhausting time-history analysis. It has
been extensively applied to piping design in nuclear power
plants and the design of buildings, factories, bridges, etc.
They all must be built to be earthquake resistant. Response
spectrum may be considered to be the footprint of the earthquake. It evaluates the maximum response of a simple
oscillator when subjected to the earthquake. The response
spectrum is a composite plot of absolute acceleration, pseudovelocity and displacements versus frequency. The authors
aptly derive the equations for maximum relative displacement,
maximum absolute acceleration and maximum relative velocity. When the spectra is available, the task of seismic analysis
of multi-degree-of-freedom systems becomes straightforward.
The combining of peak values for each mode using an absolute sum presupposes that the modal combinations are in
phase with each other. If the modal contributions are not in
phase, the square root of the sum of the squares (SSRS) combination is employed. A number of general-purpose finite element programs that are available can perform a response spectrum analysis of a given structure under a general seismic excitation. This is a good chapter that one should read carefully!
The last chapter furnishes a number of practical considerations of heat exchanger design and use. The heat exchanger
should be designed to facilitate its maintenance and upkeep.
Plant layout and workspace, facilities for handing, degree of
dismemberment of the heat exchanger, working environment,
process hazards and ease of in-service inspection are important points to consider in the design of heat exchangers.
Handling, installation of component parts, connection and
operation are additional important phases that the designer
must consider. There is always the problem of proper
374/Vol. 108, AUGUST 1986

maintenance and troubleshooting of the equipment in order to


live up to its rated performance. Last but not least is the unwanted metallurgical problems (stress corrosion, galvanic corrosion and erosion) which must be carefully thought out and
factored into the design.
In summary, this is an excellent book and may be considered as a "bible" on heat exchanger and pressure vessel
component design. The book contains an excellent table of
nomenclature and adequate references at the end of each
chapter. This large tome should be located within arm's reach
of the designer and operating engineer. The computer programs stated in the book are readily available for sale from the
book publishers. The reviewer heartily recommends this book
to those interested in heat exchanger and pressure vessel component design.
H. Saunders
Scotia, N. Y. 12302

New Concepts for Verification of Seismic Adequacy of Equipment in Operating Plants, Special Publication PVP-101, eds.,
P.-Y. Chen and G. Sliter, ASME, New York, 1985.
The need for seismic qualification of safety-related electrical and mechanical equipment to ensure structural integrity
and functional capability during and after a seismic event has
been an important requirement in designing and constructing
a nuclear power plant for the past 15 yr. The criteria and
methods of qualification followed an evolutionary process
such that many older plants were designed and built to different, sometimes less stringent, requirements than current
criteria applied to plants seeking near term operating licenses.
Because of these evolutionary changes the equipment installed
in the operating nuclear power plants may not meet current
seismic qualification criteria. Therefore, it has been deemed
prudent to reassess the seismic adequacy of equipment required for safe shutdown in operating nuclear power plants to
ensure safety function performance during and after a seismic
event. The need for this reassessment formed a basis for an
Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) which was initiated as USIA-46
by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in Dec. 1980.
Current requirements and recommendations of criteria and
methods of compliance for equipment seismic qualification
call for analysis and/or laboratory testing as delineated in
various national standards (IEEE, ANSI, ASME, Code, etc.)
and NRC regulatory guides (including Standard Review Plan).
However, it was recognized that it may not be practical to
qualify all equipment required for safe shutdown using current seismic qualification methods and criteria because of
cost-benefit considerations and the difficulties in acquiring
and testing the same vintage equipment as those installed in
the operating plants.
Many studies were conducted and several alternatives were
considered for the resolution of the USI A-46 issue. The
details of these studies and considerations together with the
regulatory analysis for a proposed resolution of the Unresolved Safety Issue A-46 were described in NUREG-1030
report and its attachment. It was found that: 1) within limitations specified in the report, the use of earthquake experience
data is an acceptable generic alternative to verify the seismic
ruggedness of equipment in operating nuclear power plants;
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