63 views

Original Title: Mechanical Design of Heat Exchangers

Uploaded by grenouille2

- 701
- Bellow Design
- Ppt Week 1 Ppt Lecture_Ch14 Phy097 [Compatibility Mode]
- Heat Exchanger Checklist as Per TEMA
- response spectrum
- IJCIET_08_01_071.pdf
- Artigo Do Leme Agostinho Enviado_13julho
- Vessel Design Calculation
- Stress Report- Lp Line
- free_damped_and_forced_oscillations.doc
- Tutorial of WRC 107 for Lifting Lugs
- cadfem_workaround_damp.pdf
- Rectangular Tubesheet Design Guideline by HEI
- Sujith
- MIT18_03SCF11 MAS
- Finite Element
- Calculus
- Understanding complexities in underplatform damper dynamics
- Oscillatory Motion
- Principle Modelling and Testing of an Annular Radial Duct MR Damper

You are on page 1of 3

The next chapter focusses upon tube sheet sandwiched beComponents. K. P. Singh and A. I. Soler, Arcturus Publishers tween two flanges. The combination fo large temperature and

Inc., Cherry Hill, N.J. 1984.

pressure differences dictate careful study of the joints. A

This is a "whopper" of a book. Starting from the basics, it precise stress analyses is required including the leakage area.

progresses along until it reaches the more complex aspects of Prudent mathematical analysis and study of these equations

heat exchanger design. Along the way it encounters and covers require a complete stress analysis. This is admirably done by

a great deal of material. Until the present, there has not been a the authors. The computer program TRIEL is based upon the

book which covers this vast ground. As stated by the author, three-element joint as presented in this chapter. Flanges with

"Profound changes have occurred in recent years in heat ex- full face gaskets and ring gaskets are the subject of Chapter 5.

changer design practice . . . . Seismic analysis was an alien Included is nonlinear gasket behavior, simulation of bolt efterm to the heat exchanger trade. Words like 'response spec- fects, calculation of flange. The computer code

trum,' 'flow induced vibration,' 'nozzle load induced GENFLANGE is used in the analysis of nonlinear gaskets plus

stresses,' had little kinship to heat exchanger design the analysis of 2 and 3 element bolted flange joints.

technology . . . . A thorough grasp of the underlying concepts

Chapter 6 speaks about joints for high pressure closures.

in flow induced vibration and seismic analysis along with Bolted joints cannot be used due to the large number of repressure vessel mechanical design and stress analyses tech- quired bolts and exceedingly large pre-loads. This large inniques, is essential for developing cost effectiveness and crease necessitates the use of boltless flanges. They are either

reliable design . . . . Our objective is to present that necessary of the axially loaded design or pressure actuated. For the

for heat exchanger design and operating-problems-resolution former, the pressure load is resisted by suitable means which

in a logical and systematic manner." The authors accomplish do not oppose the axial header load. The few devices which

their task and goal by bridging the gap between analytical have had a measure of success are: (a) threaded joint,

methods and practical considerations.

(Jb) casale joint, (c) Breitschneider closure, (d) shear stud

The book contains 22 chapters and 27 computer codes. Five closure, (e) shear pin design, (/) yoke ring, (g) shear bond

of the latter contain no listings but the remainder do. An ap- design. The pressure-actuated closure is the forcing of an

pendix analyzes and presents the classical plate and shell endless elastic ring in a circumferential groove. Another type

of joint based upon the Bridgeman principle is the wedge seal

theory and its applications to pressure vessels.

Chapter 1 presents an elaborate introduction to tubular heat ring closure. The book goes into great detail plus the

exchangers. It includes the various styles (fixed tube sheet, U- mathematical derivation of the equations relating to the sealtube, floating tube sheet, etc.), heat exchanger nomenclature, ing action and sizing of the retainer shoe.

tube layout, pitch and heat"Exchanger intervals. The

Chapter 7 discusses the variety of methods used in making

next topics are methods of impingement protection: circular the joints between the tube sheet and tubes. The most common

and square plates and four methods of designing for thermal attachment techniques are: (a) roller expansion,

transients. The chapter concludes with a brief resume of the (b) hydraulic expansion, (c) impact welding, (d) edge

codes and standards used in heat exchanger design and welding, (e) butt welding. The book continues with the

manufacture (TEMA, Heat Exchanger Institute and ASME discussion and derivation of mathematical expressions for

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes). Chapter 2 reports on the tube-to-tube sheet interface pressure. The chapter concludes

various stress categories. This covers beam strip analogy, with a lengthy discussion and derivation of estimating the ligaprimary and secondary stresses and classifications (primary ment temperature distribution. The computer program

and local membrane stress, primary and secondary bending LIGTEM is employed in determining the temperature

stress, etc.). The authors provide an example of gross struc- distribution. Chapter 8 focusses upon the design of tube sheets

tural discontinuity. This considers welded cylinders having for U-tube heat exchanger. The importance of tube sheet

unequal thickness. The chapter concludes with an interesting design should not be underestimated. Analysis methods indiscussion of discontinuity stresses at head, shell and skirt clude the perforated region, two-sided integral construction,

junction. Chapter 3 takes us to the area of bolted flange one-sided integral and one-sided gasket construction, twodesign. This embraces the various constituents, which sided gasketed construction and tube sheet stress analysis. The

are: (a) bolted flange type, (b) four types of flange facings, computer code "UTUBE" is fully explained and detailed in

(c) four types of flange facing finishes, (rf) five types of gaskets this chapter.

which are used in flange design. The important Waters,

The most widespread application of heat exchanger conRossheim and Williams methods are detailed in depth. They struction in the power and process industries are the fixed and

are used in the design of the flange ring, tapered hub, shell floating head heat exchangers. The determination of the effecelements, longitudinal stresses in hub and shell, radial and tive pressure on tube sheet due to tube bundle, analyses of pertangential stresses in a ring. The chapter concludes with a forated circular tube sheet and analysis of unperforated tube

detailed listing of computer program FLANGE and the stress sheet runs are important aspects used in heat exchanger

analysis of a welding neck flange.

design. The book forges ahead with ways of modifying

372/Vol. 108, AUGUST 1986

Downloaded From: http://pressurevesseltech.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 12/29/2015 Terms of Use: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/terms-of-use

floating head exchangers, simplifying the analysis of stationary tube sheet in an integral or floating head heat exchanger. This includes the development of expressions for ring

rotation. The program FIXFLOAT expresses the parametric

analysis of a fixed tube sheet heat exchanger. The computer

program shows some of the inaccuracies of the TEMA design

formulas. The computer program FIXSHEET performs a

complete stress analysis of integral tube sheet exchangers

(integral both shell and tubeside). Another excellent and wellwritten chapter!

Chapter 10 treats the subject of double tube sheet construction which is important in the prevention of fluid leakage between shell and tube side. A good example is the design and

construction of large power plant condensors. The authors

demonstrate the theoretical analysis by employing the plate

theory equations. This includes the correction for shear deformation. The tube acts as a beam and both tube sheet and tube

are assumed to have equal displacement. In addition, the relations for staggered tube layout are considered. The set of

equations with properly assigned boundary conditions can be

efficiently solved by altering the problem into a series of initial

value problems and utilizing numerical integration along the

radial c o o r d i n a t e s . The authors use a program

DOUBLESHEET to solve and analyze this problem.

Chapter 11 continues with rectangular tube sheets. They

have a direct bearing to power plant condensors. They are particularly useful in low-pressure, large-volume flow rate conditions. For the design the beam strip method is employed in an

approximate analysis for both the condensor tube sheets and

the waterbox parameters which reflect the character of its edge

restraints. Caution is necessary if the preliminary design is

marginal. Chapter 12 discusses the analysis of a flat cover

which utilizes the main closure for the tube-side chamber in

tubular heat exchangers. The book discusses the thickness of

the cover. It considers the corroded thickness, latent pressure

and a symmetrically distributed edge moment using ASME

Code, TEMA Standards and Heat Exchanger Institute Code.

The next chapter is the flange-cover interaction, i.e., flat

circular cover bolted to a lap joint flange. The flange ring can

be designed via ASME Code. The latter specifies lever arms

for the gasket load and header load due to pressure. The

chapter concludes with interactive relationships, cover and

flange ring stresses, loss in heat due to flow bypass and thermal performance of two tube pass heat exchangers. The computer program LAPCOV is based on the lap joint-flat cover

interaction analysis plus the previously mentioned TRIEL program to analyze and solve the problem of flat cover bolted to a

welding neck flange. Chapter 13 covers the subject of formed

heads in closures for pressure vessels and heat exchangers.

Since the formed head can be considered a shell of revolution,

the equations for the membrane theory under internal pressure

can be utilized. This applies to conical, ellipsoidal, cylindrical

and toridal shells. The authors show the derivation of the

ASME Code formula for the large end of a reducer. The

chapter concludes with a reference of "discontinuity stress

resultants" which are additional reactions at the junction

developed to keep the two portions of the shell together. The

other topic is an evaluation of the discontinuity effects caused

by abrupt changes in the meridional curvature which produces

a mismatch in the shell displacement in the two sides of the

discontinuity.

Chapter 14 introduces thermal stresses in the heads due to

thermal expansion-related problems. The equations are derived and a particular design example is furnished employing

the previously designed formula. The computer program

UBAX computes the bending and direct stress in the tube

overhand and U-bend regions due to the specified outer leg

thermal differentials. The next chapter covers the important

subject of expansion joints. This is important in both piping

and heat exchangers. It can be broadly classified either

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology

of the stiffness of a "formed head" expansion joint is analyzed by computing the internal stress resultants and the stress

distribution in the inner shell, annular plate and outer shell.

The computer program EXJOINT automates the analysis and

computation of the flanged and fluid expansion joint design.

The bellows expansion joints for cylindrical and rectangular

vessels are next considered. The concluding section presents a

short section on bellows fatigue life. Although a number of

empirical formulas based upon test data are mentioned, the

authors prefer the equation stated by Anderson in determination of stresses versus life cycles. The computer program FAN

FLUE is a pre and past processor for expansion joint analysis

using AXISTRESS and EJMAREC for the stress analysis of a

rectangular joint.

Chapter 16, the lengthiest, focusses upon flow-induced

vibration. This dynamic subject was ignored by designers until

a rash of tube failures caused designers to have a concerted

look at this phenomena. The types of vibration damage patterns in tube failures are: (a) collision damage, (b) baffle

damage, (c) tube sheet clamping effect, (d) material defect

propagations, (e) metallurigcal failure. The different types

of vibration mechanisms are: (a) vortex shedding,

(b) fluid-elastic excitation, (c) jet switching, (d) acoustic

resonance. For fluid-elastic instability as expressed in Conners' experiments, this is explained in terms of the inertia of

the flow stream. The natural frequency of the heat exchanger

tube which is essential in flow-induced vibration failure

depends upon the end conditions. The standard natural frequency formulas are derived and discussed. The U-bend

natural frequency is derived and the computer program UVIB

solves for the in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations of the Ubend. A number of different empirical fluid elastic and turbulent buffeting correlations are presented based on experiments and analysis of a number of investigators. The

acoustic resonance correlation depends upon the acoustic and

existing frequencies plus damping. This, again, is stated as an

empirical criteria and is proposed to assess the possibility of

acoustic resonance. The effective tube mass affects its natural

frequency and should be calculated with care. The next important phenomena is damping and the important damping coefficient. This can be classified as (a) structural damping,

(b) natural damping, (c) fluid damping. The flow of shell

side fluid in a baffled heat exchanger is highly complex. Required are the effective velocity and determinations of the

discrete flow paths of the shellside fluid from one baffle space

to the next plus the flow distributions in the U-bend region.

The chapter concludes with some ideas for preventing flowinduced vibration procedure. An excellent chapter!

Until recently, sizing of supports was generally left to the

personal judgments of the designer. The advent of commercial

nuclear power radically altered the thinking. The design must

now be checked for seismic loading, mechanical loads from attached piping, etc. The types of supports are: (a) saddle,

(b) lug, (c) annular ring, (d) skirt, (e) trapeze. The

authors mention the number of external loadings and show

how they are applied in design. The following topics are delved into: (a) stresses in an annular ring support due to

vetical loads, (b) lug design, (c) stresses in the shell at the

saddle supports, (d) bolt load distribution in three-leg support system, (e) foundation response of ring-type supports

mounted on rigid foundation. The computer program

RINGSUP calculates the total membrane and bending stress

at the junction of the annular ring support and shell.

Chapter 18 reports on four-leg supports for pressure vessels.

The seismic loading, wind loads, mechanical loads from interconnecting piping requires a proper determination of the "optimal plane" of loading. The optimal plane of loading is

defined as the plane which maximizes the maximum stress in

at least one of the support legs. The book entails 7 tests reAUGUST1986, Vol. 108/373

are modeled as end loaded beam-type members mounted on

rotational springs. The latter simulate the effect of anchor

bolts and foundation characteristics. The most vulnerable

directions of external loading are then determined. A computer program FORLEG determines the optimal angle which

maximizes the total fiber stress in leg no. 1, its corresponding

stress, the bending moment at the top of the support beam,

lateral reaction at the top of the support beam and the axial

compressive load on the beam. Chapter 19 presents design

data for preliminary sizing of saddles for heat exchangers and

pressure vessels. Saddle mounting (usually 2) is preferred for

heat exchangers due to ease of tube replacement. The main

focus of this chapter is to determine the stresses in the foundation bolts and determine the peak concrete bearing pressure

due to an arbitrary set of loadings applied to the pressure

vessel. The code HORSUP computerizes the analysis. The

stress limits for the concrete pedestal and anchor bolts are

referred to the Manual of Steel Construction.

Chapter 20 covers the vertical mounting of heat exchangers

and pressure vessels. This economizes in plant floor space.

The external loads arise from wind loads, from seismic motion

and from reactions due to attached piping. The vertical equipment is modeled as a uniform beam having their respective

ends restrained by simulated linear springs. The support reaction due to all nozzle loads are then examined. The computer

code VERSUP calculates these support reactions. The chapter

concludes with the derivation of a set of equations that determine the peak concrete pressure and the distance of the neutral

plane from the horizontal axis plus the maximum bolt tensile

stress. This is due to the partial comparison on the ring base

plate. Chapter 21 details the subject of response spectrum as

applied to pressure vessels. Time-history analysis is prohibitively expensive for industrial hardware. Static inertia load

replacing dynamic load is "touchy," and unless

wisely selected can be unduly conservative and thus create high

fictitious values of computed vessel stresses and foundation

reaction. Modal analysis methods employing the "Earthquake

Response Spectrum" are a feasible compromise between fictitious static loads and exhausting time-history analysis. It has

been extensively applied to piping design in nuclear power

plants and the design of buildings, factories, bridges, etc.

They all must be built to be earthquake resistant. Response

spectrum may be considered to be the footprint of the earthquake. It evaluates the maximum response of a simple

oscillator when subjected to the earthquake. The response

spectrum is a composite plot of absolute acceleration, pseudovelocity and displacements versus frequency. The authors

aptly derive the equations for maximum relative displacement,

maximum absolute acceleration and maximum relative velocity. When the spectra is available, the task of seismic analysis

of multi-degree-of-freedom systems becomes straightforward.

The combining of peak values for each mode using an absolute sum presupposes that the modal combinations are in

phase with each other. If the modal contributions are not in

phase, the square root of the sum of the squares (SSRS) combination is employed. A number of general-purpose finite element programs that are available can perform a response spectrum analysis of a given structure under a general seismic excitation. This is a good chapter that one should read carefully!

The last chapter furnishes a number of practical considerations of heat exchanger design and use. The heat exchanger

should be designed to facilitate its maintenance and upkeep.

Plant layout and workspace, facilities for handing, degree of

dismemberment of the heat exchanger, working environment,

process hazards and ease of in-service inspection are important points to consider in the design of heat exchangers.

Handling, installation of component parts, connection and

operation are additional important phases that the designer

must consider. There is always the problem of proper

374/Vol. 108, AUGUST 1986

live up to its rated performance. Last but not least is the unwanted metallurgical problems (stress corrosion, galvanic corrosion and erosion) which must be carefully thought out and

factored into the design.

In summary, this is an excellent book and may be considered as a "bible" on heat exchanger and pressure vessel

component design. The book contains an excellent table of

nomenclature and adequate references at the end of each

chapter. This large tome should be located within arm's reach

of the designer and operating engineer. The computer programs stated in the book are readily available for sale from the

book publishers. The reviewer heartily recommends this book

to those interested in heat exchanger and pressure vessel component design.

H. Saunders

Scotia, N. Y. 12302

New Concepts for Verification of Seismic Adequacy of Equipment in Operating Plants, Special Publication PVP-101, eds.,

P.-Y. Chen and G. Sliter, ASME, New York, 1985.

The need for seismic qualification of safety-related electrical and mechanical equipment to ensure structural integrity

and functional capability during and after a seismic event has

been an important requirement in designing and constructing

a nuclear power plant for the past 15 yr. The criteria and

methods of qualification followed an evolutionary process

such that many older plants were designed and built to different, sometimes less stringent, requirements than current

criteria applied to plants seeking near term operating licenses.

Because of these evolutionary changes the equipment installed

in the operating nuclear power plants may not meet current

seismic qualification criteria. Therefore, it has been deemed

prudent to reassess the seismic adequacy of equipment required for safe shutdown in operating nuclear power plants to

ensure safety function performance during and after a seismic

event. The need for this reassessment formed a basis for an

Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) which was initiated as USIA-46

by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in Dec. 1980.

Current requirements and recommendations of criteria and

methods of compliance for equipment seismic qualification

call for analysis and/or laboratory testing as delineated in

various national standards (IEEE, ANSI, ASME, Code, etc.)

and NRC regulatory guides (including Standard Review Plan).

However, it was recognized that it may not be practical to

qualify all equipment required for safe shutdown using current seismic qualification methods and criteria because of

cost-benefit considerations and the difficulties in acquiring

and testing the same vintage equipment as those installed in

the operating plants.

Many studies were conducted and several alternatives were

considered for the resolution of the USI A-46 issue. The

details of these studies and considerations together with the

regulatory analysis for a proposed resolution of the Unresolved Safety Issue A-46 were described in NUREG-1030

report and its attachment. It was found that: 1) within limitations specified in the report, the use of earthquake experience

data is an acceptable generic alternative to verify the seismic

ruggedness of equipment in operating nuclear power plants;

Transactions of the ASME

- 701Uploaded bySohan George
- Bellow DesignUploaded bySARATH KRISHNAKUMAR
- Ppt Week 1 Ppt Lecture_Ch14 Phy097 [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byAnonymous nZo3uhY8uR
- Heat Exchanger Checklist as Per TEMAUploaded byMONA
- response spectrumUploaded byM.Waqas Liaqat
- IJCIET_08_01_071.pdfUploaded byIAEME Publication
- Artigo Do Leme Agostinho Enviado_13julhoUploaded byMartim Leme
- Vessel Design CalculationUploaded byMuthu
- Stress Report- Lp LineUploaded byIshu Vohra
- free_damped_and_forced_oscillations.docUploaded byMuhclasAdePutra
- Tutorial of WRC 107 for Lifting LugsUploaded byAlvin Smith
- cadfem_workaround_damp.pdfUploaded bySuhas Vilas Dolse
- Rectangular Tubesheet Design Guideline by HEIUploaded bym5416
- SujithUploaded byebrahem khalid
- MIT18_03SCF11 MASUploaded byAlvaro Alvites Ramos
- Finite ElementUploaded byChangZianLi
- CalculusUploaded byRicardo Villalonga
- Understanding complexities in underplatform damper dynamicsUploaded byChiara Gastaldi
- Oscillatory MotionUploaded bysoricutya
- Principle Modelling and Testing of an Annular Radial Duct MR DamperUploaded byajd.nanthakumar
- Lecture 2Uploaded bymiltonsampaio
- Rayleigh Criterion and Acoustic Energy Balance in Unconfined Self-sustained Oscillating Flames - DuroxUploaded byavargas14
- 10 Forced Damped OscillationsUploaded bySiddharth Kashyap
- NX3_Lad_NUploaded byPonraj Vijayan
- Harmonic Excitation 1Uploaded byChristopher Ysit
- EM2007Uploaded byPippo Caruso
- Effects of Analysis Method, Bolt Pre-Stress, And Cover Plate Thickness on the Behavior of Bolted Flanges of Different SizesUploaded byOğuzhan Koca
- Damping Subsynchronous Resonance Oscillations Using a Dynamic Switched FilterUploaded bySai Pawan Nandigama
- 1-6-4RulesUploaded byVlavianos Nikolas
- PHYS16 - Lecture 35Uploaded byAnna

- Melita Denning, Osborne Phillips - Practical Guide to Astral ProjectionUploaded byAnatolie Cuaresma Amper
- license anaconda 5Uploaded byDanilo Oliveira
- integrationUploaded byanupam10311
- ReadmeUploaded bymunna_bhai826
- LicenseUploaded bygrenouille2
- LicenseUploaded bygrenouille2
- Variational Methods Numerical Analysis- LangtevanUploaded byatankasala
- Two VectorsUploaded bygrenouille2
- rudin ch 4Uploaded byLeslie Aguilar
- 2 MethodsUploaded bygrenouille2
- Guide to Design Criteria for Bolts and Riveted JointsUploaded byHomero Silva
- fortranv3Uploaded bygrenouille2
- BaerwolffUploaded bygrenouille2
- grondin anjanUploaded bygrenouille2
- 2015.5818.Theoretical Soil MechanicsUploaded bygrenouille2
- Jpho5.Introduction.to.Tensor.calculus.and.Continuum.mechanicsUploaded bygrenouille2
- Solution Quiz 3Uploaded bygrenouille2
- truss-3d.pdfUploaded bySaul Auqui Gomez
- 06 RecapitulationUploaded bygrenouille2
- Un Install v10Uploaded bygrenouille2
- aylıkanaliz_MayisUploaded bygrenouille2
- 9783540771463-c1Uploaded bygrenouille2
- 03_AerohydrostaticsUploaded bygrenouille2
- AsuUploaded bygrenouille2
- UnInstallUploaded bygrenouille2
- Bruce MoenUploaded byGeorge Stefanakos
- Computer Science_Editing TestUploaded bygrenouille2
- Fluidos Con ProcessingUploaded byAlex Rosado
- V 6.13 Un InstallUploaded bygrenouille2

- Web Design RulesUploaded byBharath Vijai
- IRJET-PLC Applications for speed control of induction motor through VFDUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Learning Scikit-learn, Machine Learning in PythonUploaded byRafael Santos Pérez
- How to Build a Boot Loader Tutorial - Society of RobotsUploaded byDatri
- ruggedcom2100_installationguideUploaded byvinoddeswal057
- PI Buffering User GuideUploaded byPaul Ramos Carcausto
- 275HPUploaded byDana Guerrero
- RoboticsUploaded byIuliana Lungu
- Canon i960, i965 SM - Printer1.Blogspot.comUploaded byxlongboy
- hl855_report_201312180332Uploaded bySundaraPandiyan
- PSR-9000 Service Manual.pdfUploaded byAnonymous HGOomkn69
- sqlloaderUploaded byFabrizzio Peñafiel C
- Triconex TCM Module InfoUploaded bySTAB
- Owner's Manual - AVR 255, AVR 355 (English EU)Uploaded byAlexandru Andreea
- Isweek Alphasense OPC-N2Uploaded byindustrial
- Komatsu US6851485Uploaded byTomislav Sabljak
- ZIV Breaker Failure ManualUploaded byVasudev Agrawal
- ELITE 5 DSI Manual UtilizatorUploaded bykynley20049112
- Bosch Dealers - Cordless CampaignUploaded byNGAGE SoMe
- SefamUploaded byZunairaYaseen
- UHF Module M900 - AbleIDUploaded byAbleIDLtd
- Gsp 2101 ManualUploaded byMoontrane
- Chapter 6 - Assembly DrawingsUploaded byArun Prasath
- Me 51429 r 01 a 110220150816Uploaded byMonika Małys
- Design Jett 5200 mfpUploaded byMoisi Ionut
- Zara CaseUploaded byIIMnotes
- utf-8__viba ip ceragon-fibeair-enUploaded byDinh Vu Mai
- Ds Brief ProBee-ZS10Uploaded byfirosekhan
- CatalogueUploaded byrocket-vt
- 77 Linux commandsUploaded byAntriksh Tawra