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Infrastructure Preservation Corporation

August 7, 2015

Robert G. Little, CBI, PE

Bridge Inspection Services Manager
1907 US Hwy 301 North, Suite 160-C
Tampa, Florida 33619
RE: Tendon inspection to locate voids, water, and bleeding grout within external tendons of a
sample area within the north area of the main box girder of the Skyway Bridge.

The sample test area was under the red

rectangle above of the north end section of
the main box girder.

16 pound sensor that can be quickly

mounted and dismounted with wireless
communication to control station.

Scope of Work: Detect and quantify voids, water, and bleeding grout within approximately
200 feet of external tendons using the Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT)
nondestructive testing method.
Inspection Procedure: One NDT Team Leader, one NDT technician and two assistants
were mobilized and arrive at the Skyway Bridge at approximately 8:30am August 3, 2015.
The equipment was calibrated and work began at 9:00am. Several sections were tested on
four different tendons. There were no obstacles that prevented the testing of the 200 feet of
Baseline Data used for inspection: The baseline data used for inspecting these tendons
was composed of two components. 1) A calibration of known dietetic properties of
concrete, steel, air, and water, 2) a normalization process performed on a Skyway tendon
was used to fine tune the calibration to the configuration of the tendons within the bridge.
The follow capacitance generated images were used as the baseline data for testing:


13131 56 CT Suite 301, Clearwater Florida 33760 Office: 813-841-4935 Page 1 of 3

Infrastructure Preservation Corporation


The green cylindrical
area represents the
interior of the tendon.
A good tendon is all

The yellow area

indicates air within the

The red with a little

yellow area indicates
bleeding grout.

The more red areas

indicate water.

Note: This section of the image is a 3D (X, Y and Z) view of the discontinuities that allows
the ability to quantify and identify locations within the tendon.
Data Analysis: The test results from each tendon are interrupted and analyzed in realtime. There is no post processing of test data. Discontinuities within the tendons are marked
on the tendon with reflective tape with where to drill markings and are recorded for inclusion
in the inspection report.
Results of Testing: During testing there were slight indications of possible bleeding grout
more information
within three locations. TheFor
very slight with a possibility of being false
positives. We returned to the
office and
the data collections and determined that
they were false positives. Adjustments
to the calibration files were made and we returned to
or resulted in no bleeding grout. There were no
retest these areas. The second test
discontinuities in the 200 feet of tendons that were tested.


13131 56 CT Suite 301, Clearwater Florida 33760 Office: 813-841-4935 Page 2 of 3